Military Review

Altitude-compensating suit VKK-47 instead of the Sokol spacesuit for the Soyuz spacecraft

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Astronautics is one of the young and promising branches of science. Both the USA and the USSR took the first steps, which were sometimes accompanied by erroneous decisions that made it possible to resolve momentary and short-term problems, but in the long term led to a dead end and to victims, as happened in the USA with the use of 100% oxygen environment, which provoked the Apollo fire. 1 ”and during an attempt to abandon the rescue suits during the take-off / landing stage on the Soyuz spacecraft. After the tragedy of the Soyuz-11 spacecraft, the question of the urgent need to develop a rescue suit for the Soyuz spacecraft arose.


Since the use of a rescue suit according to the OKB-1 documentation (at that time TsKBEM) was not envisaged on the Soyuz ships, the task was set to develop new equipment in the shortest possible time, combined with the individual lodgings of the shock-absorbing seats used on the ship, with minimal modifications to the descent vehicle.

Problems when choosing a spacesuit for the Soyuz spacecraft


The piquancy of the situation was that none of the previously created spacesuits (SK-1, "Berkut" and "Yastreb") were suitable for this purpose. they were either designed to protect the astronaut outside the spacecraft, or could not be combined with the Kazbek shock absorber seat.

As the maximum possible time for the crew to return to Earth in the event of an emergency depressurization of the descent vehicle at the most dangerous flight segments, the time was taken to be 105–125 minutes. Several options for protective equipment were considered: the use of various types of altitude-compensating suit with pneumomechanical compensation of excess pressure in a pressure helmet and a lightweight spacesuit based on the Sokol aviation spacesuit.

Were given the fitting of models of such equipment with seat cradles, an analysis of possible oxygen supply schemes and their masses. The optimal option was the use of a lightweight spacesuit with a soft non-removable helmet with a folding sight glass and an open-type life support system (coolant), designed for 2 hours of work, which was later named "Falcon". It is used to this day, having undergone a number of upgrades. But, despite this, with historical From the point of view, the VKK-47 high-altitude compensating suit developed for the Soyuz spacecraft deserves special attention.


VKK-47 and its design


As for VKK-47, which was considered as an alternative to the spacesuit, it was a "classic" high-altitude compensating suit.

So, the use of a high-altitude compensating suit in combination with a pressure helmet at that time became widespread in high-altitude aviation... And in production there were proven models.

VKK-47 was similar in design to VKK-6. But he had a cutting for the position in a position characteristic of the Kazbek chair, a system of tensioner chambers, and also his set included height-compensating socks and gloves.

The helmet, paired with the VKK, could provide work at altitudes up to 30 km (and slightly higher).

On the one hand, in contrast to the spacesuit, the VKK provided greater freedom of movement and ease of dressing. Since no sealing was required. And the individual adjustment was carried out only once before the start of operation.

On the other hand, in the event of depressurization, being in a "working" VKK could cause difficulties, since the external (compensating) pressure created by the suit on the human body is often accompanied by painful sensations, since the whole body is compressed, like one cuff of a tonometer to determine blood pressure.

Reasons for refusing VKK-47


If in high-altitude aviation the work of the VKK is determined by the time required for an emergency descent to a safe altitude, then in the event of an accident, cosmonauts had to spend up to two hours on a spacecraft. In addition, the "embryo" posture provided by the "Kazbek" chair was not the most successful for being in it in a working VKK, which significantly disrupted the blood supply to the lower extremities.

Of course, VKK-47 could become a temporary solution to the problem and save the lives of astronauts in the event of a depressurization.

This is the path that the Americans took. After the tragedy of the Challenger spacecraft, they used the Launch Entry Suit from September 1988 (flight STS -26) and until 1994 (flight STS -65) to protect the crew in emergencies during takeoff. and the landing of the reusable Shuttle.
Author:
Photos used:
https://zen.yandex.ru/media/id/5ec81fa81c6c0b05eff079c2/vysotnokompensiruiuscii-kostium-vkk47-dlia-kk-soiuz-vmesto-skafandra-sokol-5f32538215c56677155b9798
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  1. Ross xnumx
    Ross xnumx 24 May 2021 18: 34
    -7
    Of course, VKK-47 could become a temporary solution to the problem and save the lives of astronauts in the event of a depressurization.

    And let Rogozin check it on himself. Drive it into a pressure chamber and determine which is better: VKK-47 or a helium balloon. wassat
    1. Bshkaus
      24 May 2021 18: 43
      +7
      And let Rogozin check it on himself. Drive it into a pressure chamber and determine which is better: VKK-47 or a helium balloon

      With all due respect to Mr. Rogozin, it is difficult to impute anything on this topic to him. at that time he was a 12-year-old boy and someone asked his opinion on this issue. Frankly speaking, your indignation is not entirely clear.
      1. Ross xnumx
        Ross xnumx 25 May 2021 03: 24
        -3
        Quote: Bshkaus
        Frankly speaking, your indignation is not entirely clear.

        To be honest, I myself do not understand why and why, if:
        Astronautics is one of the young and promising branches of science.

        do we analyze the achievements of the "galosh" USSR all the time? Let's be puzzled by the coverage of the introduction of the new, and not the washing of the "old bones". Sometimes, on a soft and warm sofa, you want to find out how far the development of a particular industry has gone.
        But you consider that my comment was not. It’s just boring for me to “admire” or “be upset” by what was already a triumph, what has already shown (proved) itself.
        1. Bshkaus
          25 May 2021 08: 50
          +2
          do we analyze the achievements of the "galosh" USSR all the time? Let's be puzzled by the coverage of the introduction of the new, and not the washing of the "old bones".

          Come on, I think so too.
          Only the cosmonaut is really only 60 years old and this is not enough. I didn't say "innovative", etc.))
          On the one hand, the question of the VKK is historical, but on the other, you shouldn't throw it off the shields. For example, Americans are very interested in a possible replica of crimp suits instead of a spacesuit. The question is not unambiguous, I fully admit the appearance of materials with new physical properties. The design principle may change radically, but according to the mechanism of action it will be the same VKK. But to start thinking about a crimp suit without touching on the classic VKK is probably not right. I agree that a fine line should be observed in order not to slide into thoughtless admiration for the past, but nihilism in relation to the experience already accumulated did not occur.
          Our young people often complain that a breakthrough idea comes to mind, and the old guard with a grin says that this will not work and sends to read a report forty years ago, where this idea has already been tested)))
  2. Osipov9391
    Osipov9391 24 May 2021 18: 44
    +5
    I immediately remembered the equipment for the Tu-160 crew. It was designed on the basis of the fighter. There they created oxygen-breathing apparatus KDA-120 with an RPK-120 regulator and a "fighter" chair oxygen system. But the balloon in it was made bigger. KSKK-2MB there is such a seat ...
    A suit for the pilots created a VKK-15T high-altitude compensating suit. More precisely, they took the VKK-15K for fighter pilots as a basis, but removed the anti-g-belt. It turned out to be something ventilating and compensating - the Tu-20 had a ceiling up to 160 km, as the KKO-15T set was called.
    And the Baklan spacesuit was created on the basis of the Strizh spacesuit from "Buran". That still a miracle Yudo turned out ...
    The suit looked impressive, of course, but for long flights on a bomber it turned out to be absolutely useless! Inconvenient and heavy. That is why it was rejected right away - it was taken away and taken out of service.
    They use the VKK-160T suit on the 15s, which is very similar to the one used in tactical aviation. And also under the "Baklan" we have developed a set of underwear and a jumpsuit, which includes gloves with blowing fingers. It looked cool, but in practice it is absolutely stupid thing.
    VKK-15T performs all functions with dignity - it is flight clothing, and ventilation equipment, and a compensating vest and protective suit.
    And the Cormorant in the photo below ...
    1. Bshkaus
      24 May 2021 18: 52
      +3
      I will say more: it is currently impossible to restore the production of Cormorant due to the loss of technological chains and fabric production am
      1. Osipov9391
        Osipov9391 24 May 2021 18: 58
        +4
        I don't know what kind of fabric was in Cormorant. But in VKK-15 the fabric is SVM. Different colors. And these costumes are still being made. True, only 15K are made for fighters. For "long-distance vehicles" it is 15T with two hoses. Stocks of this kind have been in warehouses since the 90s and are in good condition. Do not sin using them. It looks like T have forgotten how to do it. There seemed to be some anatomical changes for a long flight. Didn't compare. I also have VKK-15K and VKK-15T. This thing is unambiguous.
        1. Bshkaus
          24 May 2021 19: 20
          +3
          ... There seemed to be some anatomical changes for a long flight. Didn't compare. I also have VKK-15K and VKK-15T. This thing is unambiguous.

          Only the absence of PPU in VKK15T. There is also VKK15M, it is like VKK15K, but it differs in the design of a bayonet connector that protects against water penetration. Used with VMSK-4-15
          1. Osipov9391
            Osipov9391 24 May 2021 23: 53
            +3
            Yes, and this is also - now on almost all new aircraft, instead of KSKK-2M with a cylinder, they put KSKK-130 without a cylinder with a chemical oxygen generator. It is combined with KDA-15. Only connector on
            it seems to be different, this is ORK-115A. And on KSKK-2M there is ORK-115, on KSKK-2MB there is ORK-115B with a profiled PPU fitting. He could connect there for other purposes in Cormorant.
            KSKK-2M - these are Su-27 late, Su-33, Su-30M2, Su-30SM;
            KSKK-2MB is the Tu-160 everything;
            KSKK-130 is Yak-130, Su-35, MiG-29K, Su-34.
  3. Osipov9391
    Osipov9391 24 May 2021 18: 53
    +3
    And why, for example, do we need VKK-15K and VKK-15T when using their option of a high-altitude compensating suit for a ceiling up to 20 km? Note that, unlike VKK-6, it does not have compensation on the hands.
    It is needed simply to compress the chest - so as not to damage the lungs when oxygen enters the mask under high pressure in the event of a cabin depressurization or ejection at high altitude. No more than 1-3 minutes, well, a maximum of 5 minutes and that's it. This is its actual function on all aircraft where KKO-15K and KKO-15T consumables are used. This is almost all modern Russian aviation.
    And that's all. It is no longer needed for anything when using its option as a compensating one.
    So, of course, the thing is very thought out - 5 in 1 combines VKK-15K for fighter pilots. This is a flight suit, an anti-G suit, a compensating suit as said, ventilation equipment and protective clothing - from fire or trees during ejection.
    1. Bshkaus
      24 May 2021 19: 09
      +2
      And let Rogozin check it on himself. Drive it into a pressure chamber and determine which is better: VKK-47 or a helium balloon

      Just damn it ...
      In general, the creation of external backpressure is the main function of the VKK. The anti-G device cameras are just a pleasant side effect.
      What is the difference between VKK15 and VKK6? Yes, to everyone, like a tram from an electric locomotive: firstly, instead of tubular-type tensioning devices, there are air chambers, secondly, hygiene is higher, and thirdly: the ratio of excess pressure supplied to the mask and chambers is 1: 3 versus 1: 1 for VKK6. The physiological effect is completely different
      1. Osipov9391
        Osipov9391 24 May 2021 19: 14
        +2
        Why without gloves? They are ordinary leather for VKK-15 as well as for VKK-6. White cotton underwear is also worn under VKK-15. KM-35M mask versus KM-34D mask at VKK-6. Oxygen devices and all equipment are completely different and the principles of their operation are also somewhat different. AD-15 for anti-overload chambers VKK-15K operates on oxygen, AD-5 for anti-overload chambers VKK-6 operates in air. On Tu-160, the last option, as I wrote, was removed - in VKK-15T this is not.
        1. Bshkaus
          24 May 2021 19: 22
          0
          Why without gloves
          not as harsh as in VKK1 or in the photo VKK47. Incorrectly expressed
          1. Osipov9391
            Osipov9391 24 May 2021 23: 48
            0
            Balloonless systems are KDA-129 (MiG-29K, Su-57, Su-35) and KDA-130 (Yak-130). They differ like oxygen devices KP-129 in the first case and KP-130 in the second case. Here KP-130 is deprived of the fitting of the VKK-15K tension chambers. That is, this suit is not applied at all on it on the ceiling. Not necessary. Only PPK-3R-120 pants. Mask KM-35M.
            And KDA-129 is compatible with the VKK-15K suit. But there are not so many aircraft in Russia where it costs.
            Even the Su-34 and Su-30SM have cylinders and KDA-15. Only the system was simplified there.
            On both machines, the IKZH-P1 indicators (with the Kl-1A valve) were removed, and on the Su-34 there is no RD-15 regulator, which can turn on the supply of high-pressure oxygen from the AD-15 to the mask cavity at high overloads. Apparently due to the maximum overload on the Su-34, this was removed.
            And the information about the oxygen supply from the DZK-210 sensor goes to the mnemonic frames of the displays.
          2. Vladimir_2U
            Vladimir_2U 25 May 2021 04: 30
            0
            The comments are even more interesting than the article! Bravo! And thanks for the article!
      2. Osipov9391
        Osipov9391 25 May 2021 00: 02
        +1
        And on VKK-15T, the ass is almost completely unfastened with zippers. Did you do this so that you could relieve yourself in flight?
  4. Osipov9391
    Osipov9391 24 May 2021 19: 05
    +2
    The VKK-6M suit, when using a GSh helmet or simply ZSh (then the KM-34D mask comes in), can ONLY work with the old KKO-5 oxygen system, which includes an AD-5 air pressure switch and a KP-52 oxygen device (70).
    The ceiling of application is up to 40 km calculated.
    But it is impossible to use this kit with modern KDA-15 systems, and even more so with the KDA-129 balloonless system! Complete incompatibility of all equipment.
    Therefore, in Russia there is no modern high-altitude equipment for flights above 20 km and for its combination with modern oxygen-breathing equipment. But for those cars that come this is not necessary.
    For MiG-31 only. But when creating a version of the MiG-31M, they tried to do something new. Maybe a fighter variant of the Cormorant. But here it would look perfect ...
    1. Bshkaus
      24 May 2021 19: 26
      +1
      MiG-31M tried to do something new. Maybe a fighter variant of the Cormorant

      In general, no new aviation spacesuits have been developed: (((from the new only VKK17, but it still seems to have not been adopted
      1. Osipov9391
        Osipov9391 24 May 2021 23: 39
        +1
        It was at the dawn of the 90s. They tried to adapt the Cormorant to the M-55 Geophysics and the MiG-31M. Did not make it. So they stayed with KKO-5. But there probably is no need for an anti-overload function. Although the IKZH-P5 indicator from KKO-1 was added to the KKO-15 system on these machines, and the system is monitored using it.
        On the Tu-160, the KDA-120 equipment has an RPK-120 regulator. It has a feed float and that's it. The rest of the data on the oxygen supply of the sensor goes to the indicators on the panel of the right pilot.
        1. Vladimir_2U
          Vladimir_2U 25 May 2021 04: 29
          0
          The comments are even more interesting than the article! Bravo!
          1. Bshkaus
            25 May 2021 07: 39
            +2
            The comments are even more interesting than the article! Bravo!

            Surprisingly)) it is always pleasant to talk to the point. In addition, only a few people understand this topic, for the rest it is some kind of abstraction and abusive words, but without all this, no one can fly anywhere ((
        2. Bshkaus
          25 May 2021 08: 01
          +1
          But the anti-overload function is probably not needed there.

          There is no overload there, and the plane is not designed for them, and an extra PPU camera is just an unnecessary constraint and inconvenience for the pilot, which must be avoided by all means. On my own I can say that about 6 hours at five kilometers with a fully pulled mask in a fitted VKK without getting out of the chair is quite normal, then the threshold of sensitivity breaks through. But it is at this moment that the plane can enter the air defense zone and begin to carry out a combat mission, and the person is already exhausted. After 7-9 hours, all the folds suddenly begin to strongly press and hurt. After 12 hours, the hunt is already howling and the neck hurts from the constant wearing of a helmet ((I haven't tried it longer, but it's already exhausted, this is not a civilian liner with stewardesses serving coffee
          1. Osipov9391
            Osipov9391 25 May 2021 18: 44
            +1
            On M-55 Geophysics flights also last for many hours. They flew all over the world. Even to Antarctica.
            GSh-6 and VKK-6 are used there. Supply regulator RPK-52 and oxygen device KP-70. KKO-5 equipment. KP-70 differs from KP-52 by the presence of a splice hose coupling on which you can put a flight gas mask filter, a device for protecting against harmful substances when breathing air from the cockpit at a low altitude. There was no such thing in KP-52.
            So they wanted to change something, a friend said that some improvements were being made. Like a balloonless KSKK-130 they wanted to deliver. And there is a regular UKB-3-36 seat of the chair.
          2. ycuce234-san
            ycuce234-san 29 May 2021 11: 22
            0
            After 7-9 hours, all the folds suddenly begin to strongly press and hurt. After 12 hours, the howling of the hunt and the neck hurts from the constant wearing of a helmet ((


            In the next generation of technology, it is possible to come up with a hydropneumatic massage of the body and its conditioning and a modern helmet with a minimum weight - the great bike pro have a carbon frame just for weight reduction. Seams and folds can probably be removed altogether in the modern manufacture of fabrics and suits - the interior will be solid-woven and look like an acrylic carpet, probably.
            1. Bshkaus
              30 May 2021 22: 15
              -1
              It is possible in the next generation of technology to come up with a hydropneumatic body massage

              there have been massagers for a long time, they have already invented. The problem with them is different: the air chambers, which fill and massage the body, in case of ejection, seriously damp and displace the body in the ejection seat, which creates a high risk of spinal injury. We need an instant studio system, and these are cameras, instantly - in fact, this is a camera gap that must occur.
              and a modern helmet with minimal weight

              There was always a hassle with this, each model is a little lighter than the previous one)))
              Seams and folds can probably be removed altogether in the modern manufacture of fabrics and suits - the interior will be solid-woven and look like an acrylic carpet, probably.
              Pilots wear silk leotards for this purpose. Silk is sliding and during compression of VKK it slides well
              1. ycuce234-san
                ycuce234-san 31 May 2021 10: 43
                0
                We need an instant studio system, and these are cameras, instantly - in fact, this is a camera gap that must occur.


                Pneumatic chambers can be located in the chair, and on top, on the chest - in front and not on the back - and transfer the massage moment to the back with nets and fabric tapes. Knotty nets and tapes with nozzles, moving in opposite directions, will massage the back just as well.
      2. The comment was deleted.
  5. Freedim
    Freedim 25 May 2021 11: 21
    +4
    (c) Do you remember how it all began? .. Everything was for the first time and again ..

    This is how cinema imagined the future conquerors of space in 1957 ("The Road to the Stars") .. Pay attention to the boots .. A very similar design is now worn by the star-striped "mushroom pickers" for flying on "Dragon"
  6. Osipov9391
    Osipov9391 26 August 2021 02: 18
    0
    These are the masks made for the Su-34 ...