Military Review

How German troops stormed Crete

133
How German troops stormed Crete
German paratroopers are landing on the island of Crete under enemy fire. May 20, 1941


80 years ago, German troops invaded Crete. Strategic Operation Mercury became one of the brightest amphibious operations of the Second World War. The Germans captured the island by airborne assault.

Despite heavy losses, the German Airborne Forces were able to fulfill the assigned tasks and ensured the landing of the main forces. As a result, the Third Reich established control over the communications of the Eastern Mediterranean. Crete was an important base for aviation и fleet... From here it was possible to control the airspace over the Balkans, control traffic in the eastern Mediterranean.

Operation Mercury


Operation "Marita" ended with the complete defeat and surrender of the Greek army. The Greek king George and the government fled to Crete, then to Egypt. On April 27, 1941, German troops entered Athens. On April 30, the Germans reached the southern coast of Greece. The country was occupied by German and Italian troops. The puppet Greek state of General G. Tsolakoglu, controlled by the Third Reich, was created.

The British managed to take out most of their expeditionary force. Part of the troops landed on Crete, and the Greeks were also evacuated there. It was closer to the ships that carried out the evacuation to unload them here than to take them to Palestine or Egypt. Besides, they were more needed here. The island was a strategic foothold that threatened the positions of the Reich in the Balkans. From here, the British Air Force could keep objects, communications in the Balkans, and threaten the Romanian oil fields. The British navy and air force controlled traffic in the eastern Mediterranean. Also, the British from Crete could strengthen the attacks of the communications, through which they supplied the German-Italian grouping from Libya.

Already during the Italian-Greek war in 1940, England occupied Crete and replaced the Greek garrison needed for the war on the mainland. The supply of the garrison on the island was carried out through a convenient port in the Gulf of Souda, which at the same time became a naval base. It was located in the north of the island and was connected with the airfields of Maleme, Rethymnon and Heraklion by the only normal road that ran along the northern coast. In the rest of the island there were mainly trails suitable for horse-drawn transport.

Hitler recognized the importance of Crete. In order to close the British entrance to the Aegean Sea, to ensure sea communications from Greece to Romania and Bulgaria, to seize airfields from which the enemy could attack the oil fields of the Romanian Ploiesti, the Fuhrer decided to seize Crete. The main blow was planned to be delivered through the air. It was an original operation, elements of which the Nazis experienced in Holland and Belgium. Airborne landing operations of such a scale in Europe have not yet been known. It could only be carried out if a number of favorable circumstances coincided. Suddenness and speed. It was impossible to let the enemy come to his senses and gain a foothold on the island. It was impossible to transport the landing force by sea, the British fleet dominated there.


A damaged German transport plane Junkers U-52 crashes to the ground during a landing in Crete. The second plane (in the background) successfully dropped paratroopers, whose parachutes are visible on the left.


Wrecked German transport aircraft Junkers Ju-52 at the Cretan airfield Maleme

Malta question


Among the German high command, not everyone supported the idea of ​​the Cretan operation. Many initially proposed to seize Malta, establishing control over the central Mediterranean. This operation was supposed to be carried out by Mussolini. But Duce did not dare to abandon the fleet and air force to storm Malta. The capture of Malta made it possible to strengthen the supply of troops in North Africa, the Axis countries gained control over the central Mediterranean, which significantly worsened the position of the British in Egypt and the Middle East.

Therefore, the commander of the German fleet, Admiral Raeder and other high-ranking commanders were against the operation in Crete. The capture of Malta was more important. The high command, led by Keitel and Jodl, suggested that Hitler immediately begin the Maltese operation. The British in Crete could be neutralized by the actions of the German Air Force from the territory of Greece. Luftwaffe aircraft could easily bomb targets in Crete.

But the Fuehrer had already made a fatal decision for the Reich. All his instructions at this time were subordinated to the main goal - to defeat the Russians. Therefore, the struggle with England faded into the background. Although the German Empire, together with Italy, had every opportunity to capture not only Crete and Malta, but also Cyprus, Egypt, Suez and Gibraltar. Hitler's order No. 28 of April 25.04.41, XNUMX put an end to this dispute:

"Successfully complete the Balkan campaign by occupying Crete and using it as a stronghold for an air war against England in the eastern Mediterranean (Operation Mercury)."


German transport aircraft Junkers Ju.52 (Ju.52) heading for the landing site in Crete


German transport aircraft Junkers Ju.52 (Ju.52) make a landing on Crete

Forces of the parties. Germany


For the operation, the Germans used a large number of aircraft: up to 500 transport aircraft, 80-100 gliders, 430 bombers and 180 cover fighters (8th Aviation Corps of General von Richthofen). The distance from the German air bases established on the mainland to Crete ranged from 120 to 240 km and did not exceed the range of the Luftwaffe. The distance to British air bases in Egypt and Malta was from 500 to 1000 km. As a result, the Germans gained complete air superiority, which became their main trump card. The British could only carry out raids at night and with small forces. British bombers could not fly during the day, since the range of the fighters did not allow them to accompany the bombers. It was too dangerous to let the bombers go without cover.

The British could not locate large air force forces in Crete, since they were not there, and they did not begin to expose other directions. The small forces of the British Air Force on the island (about 40 vehicles) could not withstand the enemy. When the constant German air raids on Crete began, in order to prepare the landing operation, the British lost almost all of their aviation. The last British planes, in order to avoid their death, were transferred to Egypt. The British also stopped supplying and transferring additional artillery by sea to Crete in order to avoid losses of transports from German aircraft. The German Air Force almost blocked the naval supply. The Luftwaffe also struck at possible positions of the enemy ground forces. But they were well camouflaged, so the losses of the allies on land were minimal.

The conception of the German operation provided for the capture of three airfields on the island by the forces of shock groups of the parachute troops for airlifting the main landing forces. By the end of the second day, it was planned to land an amphibious assault and bring heavy weapons. The operation involved: the German 7th Airborne, 5th Mountain Rifle Divisions, separate units and subunits. A total of about 25 thousand soldiers. The operation was commanded by the founder of the German Airborne Forces, the commander of the 11th Airborne Corps, Lieutenant General Kurt Student. About 4 thousand people, 70 ships took part in the amphibious assault. Plus the forces of the Italian amphibious assault - about 3 thousand people, 60 ships. Part of the Italian Navy and Air Force - 5 destroyers and 25 small ships, more than 40 aircraft.


Commander of the 11th Airborne Corps Kurt Arthur Benno Student with soldiers in Crete

Allies


At first, the British command did not want to defend Crete at all. The Germans had complete air superiority. Allied forces in Crete could have suffered heavy losses. But Churchill insisted on a tough defense of the island. And the garrison was strengthened.

The Allied forces on the island were commanded by Major General Bernard Freiberg. There were about 9-10 thousand Greeks on the island, evacuated from the mainland. Parts of the 12th and 20th divisions, battalions of the 5th Cretan division, the garrison of Heraklion, the gendarmerie battalion, training regiments, cadets of the military academy and other units. Many soldiers were demoralized by the catastrophe at home. Local, training units and militias were poorly armed and trained. They did not have heavy weapons, they were abandoned in Greece. The lack of ammunition was a big problem.

British troops consisted of a garrison of the island - about 14 thousand people, and units evacuated from Greece - about 15 thousand people. The core of the British group was the 2nd New Zealand Division, the 19th Australian Brigade and the 14th British Infantry Brigade. In total, the allied forces numbered about 40 thousand soldiers. Plus several thousand local militias.

The British fleeing Greece abandoned almost all their heavy weapons and equipment. Almost no new ones were brought to the island. As a result, the Allies were armed with about 25 tanks and 30 armored cars, about 100 field and anti-aircraft guns. From the sea, the troops could be supported by the Mediterranean squadron of Admiral E. Cunningham: 5 aircraft carriers, 1 battleship, 12 cruisers, more than 30 destroyers and other ships and vessels. The fleet was deployed north and west of the island.

Thus, the British command relied on the fleet. The powerful fleet had only by its presence to thwart all the enemy's plans for the landing. Obviously, this is connected with the absence of the Air Force in Crete, the refusal to strengthen the garrison with heavy weapons, especially artillery and air defense systems. The allies on the island did not have a strong air defense (only one light battery), which could disrupt the airborne assault or bleed it. There was little artillery. The existing tanks were technically worn out, most were used as pillboxes. The infantry did not have transport for a quick transfer to the enemy landing sites.


Ships of the British Navy, burning at the naval base in Souda Bay, after a raid by German aircraft


Evacuation of British soldiers from Crete

Intelligence failures


The head of the German military intelligence (Abwehr), Admiral Canaris, told the high command that there were only 5 thousand British soldiers in Crete and there were no Greek troops. The Germans believed that the British had evacuated all troops from Greece to Egypt. The head of the intelligence also noted that local residents would welcome the Germans as liberators, given their republican and anti-monarchist sentiments. At the same time, the Abwehr had a good network of agents on the island and could not but know about the true state of affairs. With this in mind, Canaris, in fact, worked for the British Empire, he simply substituted the Wehrmacht. The landing operation was to end in complete collapse. Hitler, disappointed by the actions in the Mediterranean, had only to go to the East.

The intelligence of the 12th German army, which occupied Greece, had more objective data. However, it also significantly understated the size of the British garrison (15 soldiers) and the Greek forces evacuated from the mainland. The commander of the 12th Army, General A. Lehr, was sure that two divisions would be enough for the Cretan operation, but left the 6th Mountain Division in reserve in the Athens area. Thus, the Germans did not know the real forces of the enemy, they downplayed their number and fighting spirit. And they almost fell into a trap.


Column of British prisoners under the escort of German paratroopers in Crete


German soldiers in a British armored personnel carrier Universal Carrier No. 11552 captured in Crete

The Germans were fortunate that the enemy also made a number of reconnaissance and planning failures. The British had an advantage in numbers and even armament over the German paratroopers. The amphibious weapons were just making their first steps. Only a quarter of the German paratroopers had compact machine guns. Others had carbines. They, along with light machine guns and ammunition, were dropped separately from people, in special containers. Light cannons, mortars and other equipment were also dropped. The containers were uncontrollable, blown away by the wind. As a result, the paratroopers (except for machine gunners) were armed only with pistols, hand grenades and knives. Paratroopers had to look for containers with weapons and ammunition, break through to them with battles, and suffer heavy losses.

The British, if they had prepared in advance precisely for the airborne assault, had a complete advantage over the weakly armed and small enemy. From radio intercepts and intelligence data on mainland Greece, the British knew that the Nazis were preparing an amphibious operation. Air reconnaissance noted the concentration of the German air force on airfields located on the mainland and on the islands, which indicated the preparation of a German operation. The British command received data from the decrypted German negotiations. Therefore, the commander of the Cretan group, Freiberg, took measures to strengthen the defense of the airfields and the northern coast of the island.

However, a strange confusion ensued. The British are accustomed to fighting at sea and thought in "naval" terms. We read the "landing" and decided that the sea! They began to strengthen the surveillance and defense of the coast. They removed troops from the interior regions, transferred them to the coast, and hastily erected field fortifications. General Freiberg formed four groups of troops: in Heraklion, Rethymnon, at the Gulf of Souda and in Maleme. Freiberg also proposed destroying the airfields to prevent the Germans from transferring reinforcements to them if they were captured. The high command rejected this offer, which turned out to be correct.


To be continued ...
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/, https://bigenc.ru/
133 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. ee2100
    ee2100 19 May 2021 05: 38
    +3
    Either "Heraklion", then "Heraklion" you might think that these are different cities!
    So it is not clear why the Germans won with only small arms.
    1. Finches
      Finches 19 May 2021 06: 22
      +11
      It was actually a Pyrrhic victory! Losses in human and military transport aviation canceled out all the successes ... And in principle, the world was lucky, and especially for us, that Hitler did not listen to anyone and relied on his genius. If he had listened even a little to his generals, the war would have lasted much longer!
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 19 May 2021 06: 48
        +5
        I agree with you. And with the fall of Malta and in North Africa, the layouts could turn out to be completely different.
        1. tihonmarine
          tihonmarine 19 May 2021 08: 02
          +4
          Quote: Leader of the Redskins
          And with the fall of Malta and in North Africa, the layouts could turn out to be completely different.

          Malta was the key to North Africa. Having taken Malta, Hitler could have focused on taking Gibraltar.
          1. Shurik70
            Shurik70 19 May 2021 14: 32
            +2
            All his instructions at this time were subordinated to the main goal - to defeat the Russians

            And here, I think, the author is mistaken
            The operation in Crete had nothing to do with the USSR. It was just that Hitler was annoyed by an enemy base with an airfield so close to his troops, and even in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea.
            1. tihonmarine
              tihonmarine 19 May 2021 14: 55
              0
              Quote: Shurik70
              The operation in Crete had nothing to do with the USSR.

              Was relevant, and great. Without finishing with the Mediterranean, Gith lay down could not start a war with the USSR. Therefore, he postponed the date of the attack 3 weeks later.
              Hitler's generals wrote about this, and in the "Chronicle of the Combat Actions of the German Air Force during WWII" there the operation to capture Crete is well described.
              1. Shurik70
                Shurik70 19 May 2021 16: 51
                +2
                Quote: tihonmarine
                Without finishing with the Mediterranean, Gith lay down could not start a war with the USSR.

                So what?
                He still started a war on two fronts, without ending with England.
                1. tihonmarine
                  tihonmarine 19 May 2021 19: 18
                  +1
                  Quote: Shurik70
                  He still started a war on two fronts, without ending with England.

                  But he secured himself in Mediterranean because on October 29.10.1940, 1941, Britain occupied Crete, a key position in Mediterranean and Britain threatened the southern flank. There was also the threat of the capture of Ploiesti by Britain, vital to Germany. Therefore, in March 25.04.1941, Germany occupied Yugoslavia and Greece, displacing the British troops, which were transferred to Crete. The Italians were not a very reliable ally, by / that 28/XNUMX/XNUMX under directive XNUMX, Operation "Mercury" Germany began to seize Cyprus. Therefore, until the end of Operation Mercury, the war against the USSR was postponed.
        2. antivirus
          antivirus 19 May 2021 08: 49
          0
          Itals were fighting to zero (in the opinion of the Germans) and the capture of Malta led them further to Africa from the USSR and Europe. across the sea, a heifer is half, but a ruble ferry - the troops cannot be returned either in 41 or 42. The USSR awaits further war. And Crete is Turkey and further Cyprus + Palestine. politics crushed the military ... and crushed.
          the target is either Suez (empty) or the Caucasus-oil (was there oil in Tunisia and Libya with Algeria?). What to choose?

          5 met. complexes: in the USA, WB, Ruhr-France and Donbass-Krivbass with Kuzbass and Magnitka. desert sand against manganese and aluminum.
        3. Blacksmith 55
          Blacksmith 55 19 May 2021 09: 37
          +8
          Take a closer look at the photo where the captured English soldiers are walking. They are happy, smiling as they go to the resort. That was the war)))))).
          Such are the warriors.
    2. Konnick
      Konnick 19 May 2021 06: 38
      +3
      So it is not clear why the Germans won with only small arms.

      Do not forget about complete air supremacy, without air supremacy any landing operation is doomed to failure. 430 bombers simply extinguished the British defenses.
      1. Alf
        Alf 19 May 2021 20: 01
        +2
        Quote: Konnick
        430 bombers simply extinguished the British defenses.

        Yes, and the British navy got "don't play around."
    3. Avior
      Avior 19 May 2021 07: 27
      +6
      Because this part of Samsonov's article does not correspond to the truth.
      The landing was in three stages, and the parachute landing is only the first stage.
      Forward-based forces amounted to 750 people. The goal of the forward detachment was Maleme airfield, which could receive the Junkers with the main landing.

      The parachute landing was supposed to ensure the capture of airfields, on which transport Junkers with mountain riflemen with heavy weapons were supposed to land.
      Already on May 21, units of the 5th German mountain rifle division and artillery began to land at the airfield.

      The Germans organized an air bridge.
      At the third stage, the amphibious assault was to land.
      Thus, the Germans actively used heavy weapons.
      To, the factor of German aviation was also important, which, in coordinated strikes with the landing forces, provided active support.
      1. Normal
        Normal 19 May 2021 08: 08
        +2
        Quote: Avior
        To, the factor of German aviation was also important, which, in coordinated strikes with the landing forces, provided active support.

        I’ll clarify.
        The German Airborne Forces was a structure of the Luftwaffe (although the Wehrmacht Ground Forces also created their own parachute infantry).
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 19 May 2021 18: 06
          +3
          Quote: Normal
          The German Airborne Forces was a structure of the Luftwaffe (although the Wehrmacht Ground Forces also created their own parachute infantry).

          In the Reich, all types of the Armed Forces created everything that was possible within themselves. smile
          And backlashes were in the lead here - just remember the Luftwaffe lake flotilla and the Hermann Goering parachute-tank division.
          1. Normal
            Normal 19 May 2021 19: 55
            +1
            Quote: Alexey RA
            In the Reich, all types of the Armed Forces created everything that was possible within themselves.

            That's right. There was plenty of mess in the Wehrmacht, despite the publicized "German order". Everyone who had the opportunity pulled the blanket over himself.
        2. Avior
          Avior 19 May 2021 22: 50
          +1
          In principle, the backlash had quite good interaction with the ground forces. They stumbled upon a defense center, retreated, called in aviation, bombed them, attacked again.
          It turns out quickly and efficiently
      2. Alf
        Alf 19 May 2021 20: 09
        +1
        Quote: Avior
        parachute landing is only the first stage.

    4. Catfish
      Catfish 19 May 2021 07: 34
      +4
      Hello Sasha. hi
      It's funny that the author deals with numbers
      Mediterranean squadron of Admiral E. Cunningham: 5 aircraft carriers, 1 battleship, 12 cruisers,

      I wonder where Cunningham would have taken as many as five aircraft carriers, when by the beginning of the war the British had only six of them and there were losses in them. And in general, as far as I remember, Force H never had more than one aircraft carrier in its composition. request
      1. Engineer
        Engineer 19 May 2021 08: 27
        +4
        Force H is Gibraltar. In Alexandria, Cunningham had one formdeble.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 19 May 2021 08: 44
          +2
          So, as far as I remember, he did not take part in the Cretan operation at all due to the absence of aircraft on board.
          1. Engineer
            Engineer 19 May 2021 09: 08
            +5
            Took exactly one day. In my article there is this episode and damage to the ship. True, without much detail on the tactical situation.
            Formidebl at that time had 27 aircraft, of which 12 Fulmar.
            Cunningham screwed up then. He sent the most valuable ship in the fleet to attack the Scarpanto airfield. Due to the weakness of the British and their unsuitability for such attacks, they destroyed only one aircraft and damaged another 1-2.
            All day Formideble fled south, fearing a retaliatory attack. But it didn't happen. But off North Africa, he was noticed by a group of pieces based there and not taking part in the Cretan operation. On that day, they were supposed to bomb ships near Tobruk, but did not find targets. They were returning to base when they saw the British present.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 19 May 2021 09: 10
              +2
              After that, he was sent to the States for repairs?
              1. Engineer
                Engineer 19 May 2021 09: 11
                +4
                Yes. Like his brother Illastries
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 19 May 2021 09: 28
                  +6
                  So they collided on the way back, and again for repairs, "enlightened sailors". laughing
      2. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 19 May 2021 08: 39
        +5
        Quote: Sea Cat
        I wonder where Cunningham would have taken as many as five aircraft carriers, when by the beginning of the war the British had only six of them and there were losses in them. And in general, as far as I remember, Force H never had more than one aircraft carrier in its composition.

        On May 26, 1941 II / StG 2 of Major Walter Enessurus damaged the aircraft carrier "Formidable", which barely "limped" to Casablanca, earlier 4 months the same Stuka Gruppe disabled the aircraft carrier "Illustrious", which was sent for repairs to the USA.
    5. Engineer
      Engineer 19 May 2021 08: 50
      +6
      So it is not clear why the Germans won with only small arms.

      It's all about the specifics of the British army and its fighting qualities in the 20th century. We fight hard, but almost never to the death.
      On May 20, after heavy fighting for Maleme airfield, the 22nd New Zealand battalion, having used up its ammunition, retreated in an organized manner. The Germans, who also used up the battleship, but did not retreat, seeing the enemy retreating, occupied Maleme. On the morning of the 21st, a real stream of German aircraft began to land at the airport. This was the key point.
  2. riwas
    riwas 19 May 2021 05: 56
    +10
    The island was defended by about 40 thousand soldiers and officers of the British crown. The victory was given to the Germans hard. Only more than 4 thousand paratroopers were killed. The British suffered even greater losses - they were able to evacuate only 16,5 thousand of their people and 2 thousand Greeks. Hitler considered such losses unacceptable and banned large-scale airborne operations.
    Subsequently, the German Airborne Forces were used as elite infantry and for the acquisition of sabotage and reconnaissance units. At the beginning of the war with the USSR, these paratroopers, often dressed in Soviet uniforms (often the NKVD) and with Soviet weapons, successfully conducted an aircraft landing, seized bridges, carried out reconnaissance, destroyed headquarters, destroyed communications, etc.
    The Germans carried out a similar tactic during the counteroffensive in the Ardennes in December 1944. Dressed in American uniforms, they spoke English with a good American accent, knew the organization, regulations and insignia of the American army, and rode American "Jeep".
    American General George C. Marshall assessed the results of the operation in Crete differently. He considered them positive. This served as the impetus to accelerate the creation of the American Airborne Forces.
    1. Uncle lee
      Uncle lee 19 May 2021 06: 26
      +5
      "Cannons of Navaron Island" (eng. The Guns of Navarone) - an action-packed adventure novel by Scottish writer Alistair Maclean, written in 1957, about the events of World War II (Dodecanese operation).
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 19 May 2021 06: 49
        +4
        And the Oscar-winning film is based on the book. True, it is already, more playable.
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 19 May 2021 07: 42
        +5
        There was a very good book by James Aldridge "Sea Eagle" about the resistance on Keith after its capture by the Germans, and in 1963 we made a good film "The End and the Beginning" on the same topic.
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 19 May 2021 07: 52
          +4
          Good writer. I'm going to download.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 19 May 2021 07: 59
            +4
            The film is not bad either, take a look if you find it. They knew how to shoot then.

            Good morning, Sergei. smile
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 19 May 2021 08: 18
              +3
              Good morning, Constantine!

              It's easier with books - you can read on the road.
        2. Mihaylov
          Mihaylov 19 May 2021 10: 46
          +4
          Quote: Sea Cat
          There was a very good book by James Aldridge "The Sea Eagle"

          Good afternoon Constantine,
          An excellent book, I reread it from time to time.
          By the way, if you are in Crete, in the town of Askifou, in the gorge where, sorry, the British army was heroically retreating, there is a private military "museum".
          Uncle all his life collected evidence of the war and began from this gorge, which was literally covered with weapons. Now, unfortunately, he has already died, the collection is supported and shown by his daughter:



          1. Catfish
            Catfish 19 May 2021 11: 20
            +4
            Thank you, Sergey.)) I think it will be interesting for all of us to visit it.
            1. Richard
              Richard 19 May 2021 15: 04
              +7
              equipment of German paratroopers
              a photo German parachutist with RZ-1 parachute.

              All parachutes of the German parachute troops were forced to open with an exhaust halyard, since this ensured the accuracy of the moment of opening the parachute, and made it possible to lower the jump height compared to parachutes with a manual pull rope used by the pilots.
              The vertical fastening of the halyard halyard indicates that this is an early version; in later models, the halyard was mounted horizontally at the top of the pack.
              link: Querry, Chappel "German paratroopers 1939-1945"
              1. Richard
                Richard 19 May 2021 15: 10
                +6
                a photo German parachutist. operation "Mercury"

                The parachutist is wearing a 1940 uniform. (shirt and tie), the overalls are intercepted by the parachute harness straps.
                Aiguillettes of the form are not visible - they are hidden by the jump jumpsuit.
                Jumping jumpsuit - early model.
                Trousers are normal.
                On the left leg you can see a pocket in which you are supposed to carry a knife, in which the blade is extended by gravity.
                On the soldier's feet are not ordinary army boots, which were put to the front forie, but jump boots.
                2- headdress - a gray-blue Fallschirmjager helmet, adopted in the Luftwaffe color, on one side of which the national tricolor is depicted - on the other an eagle.
                There are several ventilation holes in the leather comforter. The liner holds an aluminum ring with a rubber gasket in the helmet, which in turn is attached to the helmet with four bolts. The bolts are also used to attach the chin strap, which is designed to prevent the helmet from sliding off the eye when jumping from an airplane.
                3- the parachutist's emblem, which was issued after six successful jumps.
                The emblem was an image of a steeply gliding gilded eagle with a black swastika in its claws, framed by a silver oval wreath (sometimes blued) with laurel leaves on the left and oak leaves on the right.
                The newly minted paratrooper received his badge in a blue box along with the corresponding certificate, which crowned the training process.
                Worn on the left side of the uniform.
                4- Zeiss binoculars;
                5- MR-40 submachine gun;
                6- leather pouch for magazines for a submachine gun;
                7- leather tablet for topographic map and stationery;
                8- flask with a mug;
                9- knee pads.
                Structurally, the knee pads of the German parachutist have six horizontal tubes made of black or brown leather with rubber inside .;
                10- holster for Luger pistol;
                11-jump boots early model 1940.
                link: McNab "Fallschirmjager: Paratroopers of the Third Reich"
                1. Richard
                  Richard 19 May 2021 15: 15
                  +7
                  The landing helmet - Fallschirmhelme - was developed on the basis of the Wehrmacht steel helmet by simply removing the rims that slowed down the air flow in free fall.
                  In addition, a torn off helmet could get entangled in the lines or crush the canopy.


                  Thick fiber-rubber lining - the liner had good shock-absorbing characteristics, three parts of its frame simultaneously served as fans
                  1. Richard
                    Richard 19 May 2021 15: 18
                    +5
                    Land Forces parachutist badge.

                    Luftwaffe parachutist badge.

                    Sleeve tape "Crete"

                    The Crete sleeve band was established on October 16, 1942.
                    This ribbon was awarded to a participant in the landing operation to capture the island of Crete in May 1941.
                    The conditions for glazing are as follows:
                    • participation in the landing (by parachute, sea or with the help of gliders) in the period from 20 to 27 May 1942;
                    • participation in air battles during the battle for the island;
                    • participation in sea operations during this period;
                    • participation in patrolling coastal waters and in naval battles until June 19, 1941.
                    Leta was made of white cotton-based fabric with a yellow border around the edges. The inscription “KRETA” in the center of the ribbon was also embroidered with golden threads with elements of Greek ornament on both sides.
                    The ribbon was worn on the left sleeve.
                    1. Mihaylov
                      Mihaylov 19 May 2021 15: 55
                      +6
                      Quote: Richard
                      Sleeve tape "Crete"

                      Exactly, there is this:
                2. Mihaylov
                  Mihaylov 19 May 2021 15: 25
                  +4
                  Quote: Richard
                  The parachutist is wearing a 1940 uniform. (shirt and tie), the overalls are intercepted by the parachute harness straps.

                  Apparently something like this:

                  2- headdress - a gray-blue Fallschirmjager helmet, adopted in the Luftwaffe color, on one side of which the national tricolor is depicted - on the other an eagle.


                  11-jump boots early model 1940.

                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 19 May 2021 18: 22
                    +4
                    German parachutists in Crete.


                3. Trapp1st
                  Trapp1st 19 May 2021 17: 14
                  0
                  photo German parachutist. operation "Mercury"
                  Green devils ...
    2. Konnick
      Konnick 19 May 2021 06: 42
      +4
      The victory was given to the Germans hard. Only more than 4 thousand paratroopers were killed.

      Heavy?
      It's just that the Germans were not yet accustomed to such losses - 4 thousand out of 22 thousand. Then we got used to it. Yes,
      the Germans no longer carried out such large amphibious operations, but not because of losses. The Germans began to use the Airborne Forces more correctly, mainly for sabotage operations with a small number of paratroopers, this brought more benefit from the elite units. The assault attacks were left to the infantry.
      1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 May 2021 08: 40
        +3
        Quote: Konnick
        The assault attacks were left to the infantry.

        Yes? Paratroopers of the very 1st and 3rd traffic police, by the way, were transferred from Crete to Leningrad, where the 2nd assault The battalion of the 1st traffic police completely stormed the Petrushinsky bridgehead. And certainly the falshirmagers of the 7th Hell on the Nevsky Piglet and into the Sinyavino swamps were not thrown off by parachutes.
        Quote: Konnick
        The Germans began to use the Airborne Forces more correctly, mainly for sabotage operations with a small number of parachutists

        For example? I think that to believe the panicky reports about German landings of 200, 300, 500, 1000 people (and in Osipovichi - with six tanks!!!) from places in the first days of the war, not worth it. The alarmists, of course, were sometimes put up against the wall, but their reports are still kept. In Baghramyan's memoirs, in general, 300 parachutists jump out of ... several dozen "Stor'khov" near Ternovaya. I think the Reich Airborne Forces are better known for their routine work in the infantry, and not for some kind of "sabotage operations." The most real infantry.
        1. Konnick
          Konnick 19 May 2021 09: 45
          +2
          The paratroopers of the very 1st and 3rd traffic police, by the way, were transferred from Crete to Leningrad, where the 2nd assault battalion of the 1st traffic police completely stormed the Petrushinsky bridgehead.

          Do you think those same skydivers? Perhaps there were veterans of Crete. The use of these units there is simply force majeure and the ability to quickly transfer airmobile units to plug holes. But there they no longer jumped.
          1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
            Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 May 2021 09: 56
            +4
            Quote: Konnick
            and the ability to quickly move airmobile parts to plug holes.

            What does airmobility have to do with it ??? Delivery of paratroopers to the front took place in the same way as parts of the usual Wehrmacht. The 1st traffic police, say, was transported to the Eastern Front in 75 railway trains.
            Quote: Konnick
            Do you think those same skydivers?

            Yes, those same 1st and 3rd traffic rules.
            Quote: Konnick
            Perhaps there were veterans of Crete.

            Replenishment or veterans - what does it matter? It's about the numbers of units and their location.
    3. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 May 2021 07: 47
      +4
      Quote: riwas
      At the beginning of the war with the USSR, these paratroopers, often dressed in Soviet uniforms (more often the NKVD) and with Soviet weapons, successfully conducted air raids, seized bridges, carried out reconnaissance, destroyed headquarters, destroyed communications, etc.
      The Germans carried out a similar tactic during the counter-offensive in the Ardennes in December 1944. Dressed in American uniforms, they spoke English with a good American accent,

      Nonsense, all this "Brandenburg" sabotage romance has nothing to do with the Airborne Forces itself. The Green Devils fought as infantry - yes, on all fronts. With regard to Operation Grif, the 150 TB was a mixed vinaigrette, and the level of American English proficiency ranged from 'strong' to 'know sir'.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 19 May 2021 08: 04
        +5
        Regarding the "Vulture".
        As far as I know from the books, in the brigade of 150 they scraped up all the branches of the troops who could connect two words in English, everything was done under the auspices of the SS and Skorzeny commanded there. True, they did not achieve their goals and did not fulfill the assigned tasks, and then the good weather came ... wink
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 May 2021 08: 13
          +3
          Quote: Sea Cat
          scraped together for all branches of the army everyone who could connect two words in English

          I’m talking about this.
    4. Normal
      Normal 19 May 2021 08: 43
      +4
      Quote: riwas
      Subsequently, the German Airborne Forces were used as elite infantry and for the acquisition of sabotage and reconnaissance units. At the beginning of the war with the USSR, these paratroopers, often dressed in Soviet uniforms (often the NKVD) and with Soviet weapons, successfully conducted an aircraft landing, seized bridges, carried out reconnaissance, destroyed headquarters, destroyed communications, etc.


      This is a description of the tactics of the actions of sabotage units, in particular the Brandenburg 800 regiment, and although its personnel underwent parachute training for the regiment, strictly speaking, for paratroopers, i.e. He had nothing to do with the Airborne Forces, since he was a structure of the Abwehr, and not the Luftwaffe.
    5. Petrik66
      Petrik66 19 May 2021 10: 05
      +6
      Paratroopers were never used in Soviet uniforms. you are talking about the "Brandenburg 800" regiment belonging to the Abwehr. the stories about the German landings, with which everyone fought and saw up to the marshals, do not correspond to reality. Especially in the Ardennes. Read Skorzeny's memoirs, in them this showman, truthfully talks about the real numbers of English-speaking soldiers, about the number of American cars and how it all ended. The Yankes had to somehow make excuses for those losses, for that enchanting mess at the beginning of the Hans' offensive, so terrible saboteurs appeared in the number of the brigade. The boring truth is not interesting to anyone, but the supermen brigade somehow explains to the command, the public and the president the reason for such a profligation ...
  3. Ros 56
    Ros 56 19 May 2021 06: 25
    -1
    I remember reading about it as a child, the Germans had a hard time there, but they did not wait for the white flag.
    1. Konnick
      Konnick 19 May 2021 07: 36
      +1
      but they never got the white flag.

      They just did not have clean linen, and so "... joyful formation, with a funny song ..."
      photo from Varalbum "Column of British prisoners under the escort of German paratroopers in Crete" https://waralbum.ru/168077/
  4. Konnick
    Konnick 19 May 2021 06: 33
    +7
    Paratroopers had to look for containers with weapons and ammunition, break through to them with battles, and suffer heavy losses.

    Repetition of the wrong opinion of others.
    The height of the landing of the Germans was about 110-120 meters, the containers were sent simultaneously, the spread was minimal. The parachute system with forced opening of the parachute did not allow landing with a dimensional weapon and did not have a reserve parachute.
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 May 2021 10: 00
      +4
      Quote: Konnick
      Repetition of the wrong opinion of others.

      yes, here Samsonov copied some absurdity) "Breaking through with battles" to arms, having a knife and a luger with two clips in his hands - this is very cinematic, but has little resemblance to reality.
      In general, according to the standard, 80 seconds were given to search for a container.
  5. Konnick
    Konnick 19 May 2021 06: 47
    +4
    Ah Canaris, Canaris ... underestimated and underestimated, performing the task of the British. If he provided Hitler with objective data about the Red Army and the defense industry of the USSR, then Hitler would be afraid to attack us.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 19 May 2021 07: 46
      +10
      That's right, but in parallel with Canaris, Schellenberg also presented his report. In assessing the military-industrial and mobilization potential of the USSR, this report was the direct opposite of the Canaris report. But, they believed the venerable admiral, and not the "boy", the upstart from the SS.
      1. Konnick
        Konnick 19 May 2021 07: 49
        +2
        This moment is partly played out in the excellent film "Omega Option". Baron Schlosser presented a report before the war on the state of the Red Army, which Hitler did not like and fell into disgrace.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 19 May 2021 07: 54
          +2
          Yes, I remember this film, Dahl as our spy - it was "something like that". smile
          1. Konnick
            Konnick 19 May 2021 08: 10
            +1
            Yes, there the hero of Dahl Skorin tells Schlosser that his report was objective
          2. ee2100
            ee2100 19 May 2021 08: 14
            +1
            Hi Constantine!
            I like the scenery in "Variant ..." soldier
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 19 May 2021 08: 50
              +1
              What are the decorations? I honestly don't remember in which city this film was filmed.
              1. ee2100
                ee2100 19 May 2021 09: 16
                +3
                Of course Tallinn
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 19 May 2021 09: 35
                  +2
                  Now I remember. There it seems like a local actor played a local policeman, also our spy.
                  1. ee2100
                    ee2100 19 May 2021 09: 47
                    +1
                    It's a pity for Dahl, he was a talented actor. Do you remember the film "The Golden Mine", where he starred with the young Polishchuk?
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 19 May 2021 10: 01
                      +3
                      Of course I remember. An outspoken bastard played surprisingly superbly. good

                      "After all, I will kill you, you are my tenderness ..."

                      1. ee2100
                        ee2100 19 May 2021 10: 04
                        +2
                        We can say that we (I) are grumbling, but such films are not being made now, but then, as according to Stanislavsky, they believed!
                        I will kill, my tenderness!
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 19 May 2021 10: 17
                        +2
                        I don't watch our modern ones at all.
                    2. ee2100
                      ee2100 19 May 2021 10: 08
                      +4
                      A bit of history. Do you remember that bartender from "Option ..."
                      E. Koppel. since 1943 the ball was drafted into the German army, fought against the USSR, since 1946. director of the Estonian SSR radio.
                      Not everything is as straightforward as they say now.
                    3. Catfish
                      Catfish 19 May 2021 10: 17
                      +3
                      Yes, there were a lot of those who were in the army, who were in the police, I mean from the actors. What is in Estonia, what is in Latvia, but not in Lithuania.
                    4. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 May 2021 19: 08
                      +3
                      Quote: Sea Cat
                      Yes, there were a lot of those who were in the army, who were in the police, I mean from the actors. What is in Estonia, what is in Latvia, but not in Lithuania.

                      German from Go and See, I think he is Lithuanian. And he also served, they say.
                    5. ee2100
                      ee2100 19 May 2021 20: 45
                      +3
                      Viktor Lorenz is a Latvian. Born in 1927 at the age of 17, a Latvian battalion was drafted, 3 years in the camps.
                    6. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 May 2021 21: 03
                      +1
                      Quote: ee2100
                      Viktor Lorenz is a Latvian. Born in 1927 at the age of 17, a Latvian battalion was drafted, 3 years in the camps.

                      OK, thanks. hi
                    7. Catfish
                      Catfish 19 May 2021 22: 26
                      +2
                      Another. Hariy Liepinsh is a Latvian. After graduating from high school in 1943, Khariy was drafted into the ranks of the German army, got into the 15th division of the Luftwaffe. Served in the crew of the 8.8 cm Flak anti-aircraft gun. He fought against Soviet units while in the Courland Cauldron in 1944-1945. Then he tried to defect and was caught by Soviet soldiers. After the war he was transferred to Vorkuta. However, he spent only a year and a half in prison, after which he returned to the Latvian SSR. Then he entered the art studio in Riga. theater, finished it, and then went on to a career as an actor, filming in Soviet films, where he played, including the German military. In 1988 he received the title of People's Artist of the USSR.
              2. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 19 May 2021 20: 17
                +1
                If I'm not mistaken, he also played in Dead Season, where he arrested Ladeinikov (Banionis)
              3. ee2100
                ee2100 19 May 2021 20: 46
                +1
                Arrested Banionis L. Noreik.
              4. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 19 May 2021 20: 58
                +1
                Maybe, but is it not this artist that Banionis says in response to "What can I do for you" - "Write down in the protocol that I did not offer resistance during the arrest."
              5. ee2100
                ee2100 19 May 2021 21: 25
                +1
                Lorenz did not play in Dead Season
              6. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 19 May 2021 21: 29
                +1
                I'm not talking about a color photo, but about black and white, above. There E. Koppel, he played in the "Dead season".
              7. ee2100
                ee2100 19 May 2021 21: 32
                +1
                I didn't understand right away, but I played.
              8. ee2100
                ee2100 19 May 2021 21: 40
                +1
                Talented actors, and the fact that someone served in the German army, so they are rehabilitated.
            2. Catfish
              Catfish 19 May 2021 22: 52
              +1
              Einari Koppel played there the local chief of the CIA.

              In the photo he is with Escola.
              Yes, according to the film, he was present at the arrest of Ladeinikov, but Banionis talked with his friend, the police chief, Escola.
        2. Catfish
          Catfish 19 May 2021 22: 44
          +4
          Hello, Sergey. It was Estonian actor Ants Eskola as the head of the local criminal police. In the photo he is on the left.

          He did not serve either in the Wehrmacht or in the SS, but from 1945 to 46. was exiled to Solikamsk, just in case, I guess. Since 1964, People's Artist of the USSR.
        3. ee2100
          ee2100 19 May 2021 22: 55
          +1
          They were exiled, as a rule, on denunciation. There are no facts, but out of harm's way.
        4. Catfish
          Catfish 19 May 2021 22: 57
          +3
          So I say, "just in case," like they were vigilant.
        5. ee2100
          ee2100 19 May 2021 23: 07
          +2
          A friend died this Monday, stroke. Jew. After the Second World War, his family returned from evacuation, they had their own home. His grandfather is a hatter.
          Those who lived in their house during the occupation, as they say, “with a high degree of probability, concocted a denunciation and they were sent into exile, where Joseph was born, Orenburg region.
          Everything is purely pragmatic. As Bulgakov wrote, the housing issue corrupted not only Muscovites.
          I looked about "Season of the Dead" when I was still a schoolboy, I didn’t like it. There was no action.
          Later I looked with a different look
        6. Catfish
          Catfish 19 May 2021 23: 10
          +1
          No, I understand Estonians and Latvians, many of them served with the Germans, but somehow the Jews were sent into exile?
        7. ee2100
          ee2100 19 May 2021 23: 11
          +2
          Quite possibly a banal bribe. There would be a man, but ...
        8. Catfish
          Catfish 19 May 2021 23: 13
          +2
          Well, yes, it all depends on the cost of the service. request
        9. ee2100
          ee2100 19 May 2021 23: 16
          +2
          The most interesting thing is that Joseph harbored a grudge against everything Soviet for all his life.
          When asked who most likely wrote the denunciation, he replied that most likely the Estonians, and the Soviet authorities are to blame for not understanding it. Logics.
        10. Catfish
          Catfish 19 May 2021 23: 22
          +3
          In principle, he is right, of course. Power consists of people, and people in power - the audience is still the same, I myself have seen enough. Yes, and not in power, too, does not cause delight.
        11. ee2100
          ee2100 19 May 2021 23: 24
          +1
          I agree.
          Let's finish for today. Goodnight!
        12. Catfish
          Catfish 19 May 2021 23: 25
          0
          Good night, see you tomorrow. smile
    2. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 19 May 2021 23: 31
      0
      and the Soviet government is to blame for not understanding it. Logics.

      Some Jews cannot live without enemies. So the Soviet government was guilty before them.
    3. ee2100
      ee2100 20 May 2021 04: 37
      +2
      Let them evict you to the steppe, live in a dugout for 5 years and see how you sing toast to the government and personally.
      This is not only about Jews and Balts. It was all over the place.
    4. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 20 May 2021 08: 30
      0
      Let them evict you to the steppe, live in a dugout for 5 years and see how you sing toast to the government and personally.

      "Personally ..." thereby saved the evicted from the people's initiative from those who survived the occupation, they would have arranged such lynching for these accomplices that it would have seemed little. It seems that this should not apply to your Jew, but, after all, he went. Internal disassembly, the cause of which can no longer be determined. And do not frighten me with the Orenburg steppes, I myself am from there. As for the dugouts, half of the country lived like that then. I understand that your friend was a good conversationalist, but in this matter he was greatly offended by the USSR for some reason.
    5. ee2100
      ee2100 20 May 2021 08: 42
      0
      People's "amateur performance" is a separate conversation. And I will express my firm opinion - it actually did not exist. And there were no lynchings.
      My friend, Yosif, he was born in a dugout.
      I, too, did not understand his bitterness towards everything Soviet. Probably, as they say, he absorbed it with mother's milk.
    6. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 20 May 2021 19: 20
      0
      People's "amateur performance" is a separate conversation. And I will express my firm opinion - it actually did not exist. And there were no lynchings.

      Estessno was not. The supreme power stopped such excesses. The right to violence must be in the monopoly of the state, otherwise it will collapse.
    7. ee2100
      ee2100 20 May 2021 19: 42
      0
      Every government thinks so. The Germans also thought so
    8. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 20 May 2021 19: 51
      +1
      And not only the Germans. Any state, from the most primitive to the most developed.
    9. ee2100
      ee2100 20 May 2021 20: 10
      0
      Not everyone is given to understand this, many divide into their own and someone else's. Emotions and propaganda does not let go.
      I have one friend, after the war (50s) he entered TPI (polytechnic), a member of the Komsomol. his brother served with the Germans in the fall there will be a Komsomol meeting and he will be expelled from TPI and the Komsomol.
    10. ee2100
      ee2100 20 May 2021 20: 14
      0
      Accidentally.
      And he took the documents and went to Moscow and entered the historical-archinarian and studied with Radzinsky.
      He returned and began to teach history. Happy end!
    11. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 20 May 2021 21: 04
      0
      since his brother served with the Germans in the fall there will be a Komsomol meeting and he will be expelled from TPI and the Komsomol.
      Well, these are the local "faithful Leninists" currying favor. It is not clear what they could have presented to him at the meeting, because they were not discussing his brother, but him. Or did he behave in such a way in a student environment that he did not hope for the help of friends?
    12. ee2100
      ee2100 20 May 2021 21: 23
      0
      I did not reflect this fact in auto-copying
  6. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 19 May 2021 23: 29
    0
    After the war, the Balts settled their personal scores in this way, but it was impossible to figure out who stole the chicken from whom.
  7. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 19 May 2021 23: 25
    +1
    Thank you, Konstantin, for the clarification. A classic film for all time. As a child, I liked "Shield and Sword", the acting is wonderful, but the plot - how Johann Weiss frees prisoners of a concentration camp in Germany in his free time for the Abwehr - it seemed to me even then, in the late 60s, like a fairy tale. Well, now I can't watch it at all. Here is "Dead season" - I am revising it.
  8. Catfish
    Catfish 19 May 2021 22: 29
    +3
    No, Sasha, Laimonis Noreika played an American intelligence officer who was exchanged for Ladeynikov.
    Exchange on the famous bridge.
  9. ee2100
    ee2100 19 May 2021 22: 53
    +2
    Kostya! You know well the films that are so many years old.
    Soviet classics!
    I already vaguely remember them drinks
  10. Catfish
    Catfish 19 May 2021 22: 56
    +1
    So "Dead season" is one of my favorite films and I already knew before watching that this story is absolutely real. I saw the film after serving in the army, in Moscow, here is one friend from the Office and enlightened without unnecessary details.
  • Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 May 2021 10: 09
    -2
    Quote: Sea Cat
    Yes, I remember this film, Dahl as our spy - it was "something like that".

    And I don't like either "Option .." or "Shield and Sword". Cranberry.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 19 May 2021 10: 15
      +2
      And "The Man with the Golden Gun", and the rest of the balancing act?

      1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 May 2021 10: 41
        +1
        it's like ...

        1. Catfish
          Catfish 19 May 2021 11: 16
          0
          Well, before that there were others.


          1. Petrik66
            Petrik66 19 May 2021 11: 37
            -1
            It’s already nice that they don’t wear black uniforms.
    2. hohol95
      hohol95 20 May 2021 14: 29
      0
      The main thing is that it is not "Golden Raspberry" ...
  • Avior
    Avior 19 May 2021 07: 12
    +1
    ... Among the German high command, not everyone supported the idea of ​​the Cretan operation. Many initially proposed to seize Malta, establishing control over the central Mediterranean.

    Later, the operation in Crete was called Hitler's biggest strategic miscalculation.
    Malta was never captured by the Germans.
    General Rommel, the Axis commander in North Africa, was keenly aware of the importance of capturing the island. In May 1941, he warned that "without the capture of Malta, we will lose control of North Africa."

    And he was right.
    Hitler's next intervention in military planning proved to be a failure for the entire war in the Mediterranean.
    1. Liam
      Liam 19 May 2021 07: 21
      +2
      Quote: Avior
      ... Among the German high command, not everyone supported the idea of ​​the Cretan operation. Many initially proposed to seize Malta, establishing control over the central Mediterranean.

      Later, the operation in Crete was called Hitler's biggest strategic miscalculation.
      Malta was never captured by the Germans.

      The operation in Crete was already a gamble, but trying to take Malta with those forces and means is not even an adventure.
    2. chenia
      chenia 19 May 2021 08: 57
      +7
      Quote: Avior
      Later, the operation in Crete was called Hitler's biggest strategic miscalculation.


      What the fuck is a strategic miscalculation. An absolute success. Until the spring of 1943, four (from November 1942 more + half a SS division of the GG) German divisions (albeit with the Italians) held back almost all of the land forces of Britain.

      And this is a miscalculation?
      The Germans had other tasks, and all problems in this region were solved with a minimum amount of manpower and resources.
  • EvilLion
    EvilLion 19 May 2021 08: 21
    +2
    So, I do not understand, if Samsonov wrote, then where is the matrix of the Russian world ??
  • Konnick
    Konnick 19 May 2021 10: 00
    0
    Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    What does airmobility have to do with it ??? Delivery of paratroopers to the front took place in the same way as parts of the usual Wehrmacht. 1st traffic police, say, to the Eastern Front was transported in 75 railway trains

    Can I have a link? And fix the trains to wagons
    1. aglet
      aglet 19 May 2021 10: 30
      +2
      "Yes, and fix the trains for wagons"
      perhaps the compositions. imagine transporting a division with all its equipment on one train
      1. Konnick
        Konnick 19 May 2021 11: 04
        +2
        perhaps the compositions. imagine transporting a division with all its equipment on one train

        This is what distinguished the PPD from the PD, the absence of heavy weapons, a maximum of 37-mm anti-tank guns and mortars.
        1. aglet
          aglet 19 May 2021 11: 08
          0
          "lack of heavy weapons"
          you just try an infantry battalion, no means of reinforcement, only personnel with standard small arms and equipment, transport in 75 old two-axle wagons at a time
          1. Konnick
            Konnick 19 May 2021 11: 12
            -1
            you just try an infantry battalion, no means of reinforcement, only personnel with standard small arms and equipment, transport in 75 old two-axle wagons at a time

            800 people are elementary, and even with comfort, well, three will also fit
            1. aglet
              aglet 19 May 2021 11: 17
              0
              "and even with comfort"
              Have you been on the railway for a long time, except for the electric trains? 800 people for 75 old wagons is, if it is acceptable without hand luggage, things are already stressful. and the traffic police is not a battalion, a little more, and she has more baggage
              1. Alexey RA
                Alexey RA 20 May 2021 10: 16
                +2
                Quote: aglet
                Have you been on the railway for a long time, except for the electric trains? 800 people for 75 old wagons is, if it is acceptable without hand luggage, things are already stressful.

                The standard capacity of a standard wagon is well known:
                Three tons of fertilizer
                For enemy fields;
                Forty little men
                Or eight horses.
                © Hasek
                This is exactly the standard for the transport of the rank and file of the infantry - without any "seals".
  • andrew42
    andrew42 19 May 2021 14: 22
    +6
    And Hitler turned out to be smarter than many of his generals. Instead of Malta, which is very close to Tunisia, it was logical to seize Crete, which is at a great distance from Africa (communication between the seams of the British), but at the same time is extremely close to Greece (a dangerous bridgehead under the nose, and Crete is not a "rock of Malta", there you can concentrate a lot). The British in Crete are a constant threat to the Wehrmacht in Greece, the need for a significant grouping. Taking into account the "strange war" of 1940, I believe that Crete was "not supposed" to Hitler, but he decided to play it safe against "Barbarossa" and grabbed a bonus. And even the scoundrel Canaris could not disrupt it. At the same time, if Germany had a little more resources, if the Italians had fought at least "three with a minus", Malta would not have gone anywhere - from Sicily the Luftwaffe would have made a cutlet out of it and the grave of the British squadron in coastal depths. The capture of Crete is a competent strategic move, a perceived need.
  • Unknown
    Unknown 19 May 2021 14: 45
    +6
    Whatever they say later, the Germans coped with the task of capturing the island of Crete. Neither the Market Garden operation, which the Allies conducted in 44, nor the Dnieper airborne operation in 43, were successful. Rare operations were obtained, and the Vyazemsk airborne operation can be attributed to them. Together with Belov's Kavkorpus, who had broken through to them, they completed the assigned tasks and went to their own. Losses in the course of such operations the desantura bears great, there is nothing to be done ...
    Burning С-47, Market Garden
    Failed landing too Market Garden
    The losses are always great. After capturing Crete, the German Airborne Forces noted there, the infamous execution at Kondomari
    But this is a separate issue.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 20 May 2021 10: 40
      +1
      Quote: Unknown
      Failed landing too Market Garden

      Hmmm ... I immediately remember Blood upon the riers. sad
  • Seal
    Seal 21 May 2021 01: 49
    0
    I wonder why this argument is displayed everywhere.
    To seize airfields from which the enemy could attack the oil fields of the Romanian Ploiesti, the Fuhrer decided to capture Crete.
    After all, the British had planes capable of reaching Ploiesti even from Cyprus, even from North Africa, not to mention Malta.
    And in 1941 England had: bombers: Manchester (produced by Avro Aircraft in 1940-1941 in two versions - Manchester I. and Manchester IA.) - practical range - 2 623 km; The medium bomber was produced by the Bristol Airplane Company in 1939-1942. - practical range - 2 574 km; Attack aircraft Bristol Bisley (bomber-attack aircraft) was produced by Bristol on the basis of Blenheim Mk-IV since 1940. Practical range - 2 574 km; The Handley Halifax Mk-V bomber has been produced by Handley Page since 1940. The practical range is 3 800 km.
    Let me remind you that from Cyprus to Ploiesti it is 1214 kilometers (from Crete to Ploiesti 1095 km).
    For me, this is another reason.
    When Hitler's supporters took power in Iraq on April 1, 1941, (In March 1941, the pro-German Prime Minister of Iraq, Rashid Ali al-Gailani, expelled the pro-British Nuri al-Said, and on April 1, relying on the Golden Four, he removed Abd al -Ilah from the post of regent under the minor Faisal II, making Sheriff Sharaf regent instead) Germany asked Turkey:
    - to allow the transfer of a limited German military contingent to Iraq through the territory of Turkey;
    - to allow to transport a consignment of weapons and ammunition for the Iraqi army through the territory of Turkey;
    - at least take advantage of Turkish airspace for the transfer of weapons and ammunition to Iraq.
    To the displeasure of the Germans, Turkey consistently gave firm refusals to all requests. As a result, Hitler got into time trouble. He needed to prepare for war with the USSR and he needed not to lose Iraq. In the conditions of preparation for war with us, Hitler did not dare to attack Turkey. But he ordered to take Crete in order to provide an air bridge from Europe to Vichy Syria, and from there to Iraq.
    The Germans took Crete on May 31, 1941. But in Iraq on May 31, 1941, the British took Baghdad, Rashid Ali al-Gailani fled.
    The losses of the German paratroopers in Crete turned out to be pointless.
    But if Hitler could really support Rashid Ali al-Gailani, then the war could have taken a completely different path. England would essentially be pulled out of the war.
  • w70
    w70 5 June 2021 14: 21
    0
    By the way, Crete is full of monuments to the defeated British, New Zealanders, Australians