Military Review

"Pitfalls" of historical knowledge

177

Where can one get acquainted with the top secret reports of the NKVD agents today? In the archives and ... in these collections of documents. But very few such collections are published. Let's say one for a university with 20 thousand students and 2 thousand teachers. That is, when at least some people will be able to familiarize themselves with it?


Meanwhile, a hermit in a dark cell
Here the terrible denunciation writes to you:
And you will not leave the court of the world,
How not to get away from God's judgment.
("Boris Godunov", A. Pushkin)

Paradoxes stories. June 3, that is, pretty soon, will be a significant day. I have to go to work at the Penza State Archives. And it is significant because I signed up for this day ... in March, at the very beginning! And also on the 4th and 10th ... And then that’s all - the archival staff will begin their vacation. The archive starts working at 10:00 and works until 17:00. For half an hour you will be looking for the materials or newspapers you need. Then work ... And so for three days. The question is, is there a lot of information in this way and at such a rate?

Now let's go a little from the other side. More and more people in VO are beginning to understand that information is relative. That any event occurs only when it is recorded. No description - no event. However, any description is subjective, and therefore not entirely true. What remains is a document that is more reliable than a description, since its purpose is precisely the accurate transmission of information. But the documents are not 100% devoid of distortions: either at will, or out of ignorance.

But getting documents for review is also a big problem. This was a problem in Soviet times, and now it is still a problem, although there is progress. For some reason, in pre-revolutionary Russia people were obsessed with statistics. By the way, this was what Lenin took advantage of when he wrote his famous book The Development of Capitalism in Russia. The provincial editions recorded the prices for work and food, the number of clamps and carts in the parishes, the huts covered with straw, boards and iron were listed ... The number of teachers who suffered from tuberculosis and barnacle. High school students are suicides ...

Conclusions, moreover, no one really, with rare exceptions, did not. But the facts collected in zemstvo publications and archives are of exceptional value. Moreover, their layer is so huge that no one ever thought of correcting and forging them. It's like rewriting tons of birth and baptism metrics from ... the twelfth year in some diocesan volost.

After 1917


After 1917, all these books were loaded into the premises of the former churches. Well, today they are already stored in a very, very decent environment. As well as data on industry, construction, agriculture, culture ...

Although there are some (and very serious) differences between the state archives and the archives of the regional committees of the CPSU.

First, the information, as a rule, goes at the level of the Pravda newspaper. Secondly, she is what ... she was. That is, it is sometimes very unsightly. But in Soviet times, it was possible to get to work in the archives of the OK KPSS only if you had access to secret documents No. 2 and only on the topic of your research, confirmed by a corresponding document. Steps to the left and steps to the right were not permitted. Everything that you wrote out, and everything was written out in a notebook with numbered pages, was checked and, if something was "wrong," was blotted out in blue ink.

The process of work itself was organized as follows: you come to the archive, register, fill out several questionnaires and documents. If there is room in the reading room (and there were only eight such places in the Penza archive), then you were allowed into this room. And you went to dig in a card index with an amazing number of cards, again, arranged by topic and by year. Then, having found the documents you needed, you made an application for them, and only for five documents... He made it out in writing and handed it over to the girl secretary. You could get them only the next day, so experienced researchers wrote applications in advance and handed them over in the morning. Then there was a chance to get five more documents in the afternoon. But not a fact ...

Now imagine that in five documents you did not find what you needed. And you will receive new ones only tomorrow. And the city is a stranger, and you yourself are on a business trip ... From anger and powerlessness you want ... But this is pointless. However, this is not all: Saturday, Sunday and Monday were non-working days in the archive. And his work ended, let me remind you, at 17:00. That is, no one, except for graduate students, in fact, had access to the party archives. And the workers and peasants, even more so.

Well, as for a graduate student, he is a specific person. His task in the USSR was to write and defend his Ph.D. thesis and receive first 280 rubles, and then, becoming an associate professor - 320. He was told that "no one has ever defended himself on one negative." Therefore, until 1988, those dissertations that were written on the materials of district committees, regional committees and even the Central Committee of the Komsomol and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, also came out "varnished", where the positive always (!) Prevailed over the negative. The "revealing period" took place only from 1988 to 1991. But even then, there was no sense in these studies, even the most relevant and acute ones. The people did not know about them and could not read. And the "parties" could not read the "qualification works" with their hands ...

That is, we had all the same things that J. Orwell wrote about in his time:

“The goals of these three groups are completely incompatible. The goal of the higher ones is to stay where they are. The purpose of the middle is to swap places with the highest; the goal of the lower - when they have a goal, because for the lower it is characteristic that they are crushed by hard work and only occasionally direct their gaze beyond the limits of everyday life - to abolish all differences and create a society where all people should be equal.
Thus, throughout history, a struggle flares up again and again, in general terms it is always the same. For a long time, the higher ones seem to hold firmly in power, but sooner or later a moment comes when they lose either faith in themselves, or the ability to govern effectively, or both.
Then they are overthrown by the middle ones, who have attracted the lower ones to their side by playing the role of fighters for freedom and justice. Having achieved their goal, they push the lower into their former slavery position and become higher themselves. In the meantime, new averages peel off from one of the other two groups, or from both, and the struggle begins anew.
Of the three groups, only the lowest never succeed in achieving their goals, even temporarily. "

((c) The book "Goldstein" / "1984" - J. Orwell).

We also note one more important point that the “lower ones”, firstly, are crushed by hard work (which VO readers constantly write about, complaining about the lack of time to deal with children!), And secondly, they are also completely separated from the primary information ... Everything they can read is secondary information, that is, subjective and inaccurate. In addition, they cannot determine the degree of inaccuracy, since they can (and do!) Compare it only with their personal life experience. Which the

a) is also subjective and
b) can be formed by various technologies of public opinion management.

After 1991


The situation seems to have changed radically after 1991. Now any citizen of Russia can come to the Regional Archives, clearly explain why he needs to work in this or that archive, get permission, say, to work in the former archive of the OK KPSS. Well, let's say, in the same Penza OFOPO GAPO. Go there and ... You will be allowed to the file cabinet, you choose the cases you need, they bring them to you - and they can bring more than five. And no one is watching your work anymore. Photograph whatever you want. A photocopy is made at a price of 10 rubles per sheet. In short, I don’t want to work.

Everything is more complicated in the State Regional Archives. Free access has led to a tremendous demand for ... the search for pedigrees. And there are only 11 seats in the reading room! People were queuing up in the morning, hoping to get there in the afternoon. Or in March they sign up for June 3! That is, in all respects today it is more profitable to work in the former party archives. There are no queues. And the information, and the most reliable, there is just a sea. But there is no Pravda newspaper in OFORO GAPO - all the files were transferred to the regional archive!

It is clear that mainly pensioners are engaged in the search for pedigrees. For many grandmothers, this is a good extra money. Searching for one pedigree costs 10 thousand rubles. But the archive had to set aside days for such "search engines". And it turns out that out of four working days, two are given to them, and two - to everyone else. True, graduate students and applicants for scientific degrees from other cities, if they have a business trip, are allowed out of turn. But how much can you do in four days?

I remember how in 1987 I finally got a business trip to the archives of the Komsomol Central Committee in Moscow. Scientific supervisor, Professor Medvedev ordered me to write out from other people's dissertations all references to cases that could somehow be useful to me. And immediately upon arrival, sign the book of their receipt, and only look ... then!

The archive was located opposite the building of the KGB and the "iron Felix" in the courtyard (!) Of some high-rise building. I arrived there at the very opening, smelled the old smell of sour cabbage soup in the corridor, and ... I very much upset the worker of the reading room there by immediately demanding an inventory of cases and starting to sign it, but did not look for anything, but five cases were immediately. She had hoped to sit and knit, but then it turned out that she had to work. "When will I find them ..." - she began. "I give you an hour, then I write a complaint to the director of the archive!" And it worked. Thus, in a day I processed as many as 15 cases, and at the time, while she was looking for a new party, I went to Detsky Mir.

Now the attitude towards researchers is different. Especially if they pay. But there are only a lot of people, especially those who are looking for the "shadows of forgotten ancestors." It turns out that they only have two days to work!
That is, again, not a pensioner, but a working person, today, even in his hometown, he practically cannot get into the archive. He, of course, can go to the archive via the Internet and ask him to find almost any number of any cases and send them in the form of photocopies and photocopies. But only this service is not cheap, especially if you do not know the cipher of the document you need. You can also get cases over the limit in the reading room of the archive itself, but for money. 80 rubles is one thing. It seems a little. But if there is a lot to do, then a lot!

So it turns out that, as before, people interested in the primary, most reliable and truthful information are in one place, and the information they are interested in is in another.

As a result, they are forced to be content with secondary information. That is, someone's writings, and even mostly without references to sources of information. Of course, "it is customary for gentlemen to take their word for it." But how many such “gentlemen” do we have in our country ?! And by and large they had nowhere to come from. Their generation has just begun ...
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  1. Alien From
    Alien From 19 May 2021 18: 19
    +3
    Eh Olegovich, Olegovich, how are you right hi
    1. Blacksmith 55
      Blacksmith 55 19 May 2021 18: 33
      +7
      Bureaucracy, bureaucracy.
      It is becoming more and more, although every government promises to fight with it and reduce it, but alas.
      1. dauria
        dauria 20 May 2021 14: 23
        0
        Bureaucracy, bureaucracy.
        More and more of it


        Yes, the problem is not bureaucracy. There is so much information that the search system is more expensive than the information itself. How to get gold from sea water. Well, there is a city dump where your gold ring got accidentally thrown along with your pants in a trash can. Going to search the dump? Will you force the government to support workers to be interrupted at your request?
        So it turns out - you can't burn it, you can't trust just anyone - something valuable will be dug up and sold, and sorting everything is very expensive.
        In principle, the solution is simple ... you need it, you pay for the additional work and the speed of its completion. Or the swarm itself did not whine.
        1. helvetic
          helvetic 20 May 2021 21: 07
          +2
          Perhaps I agree with you in part! For most Russian historical topics before the 18th century, for example, the number of published sources and new approaches is not particularly increasing (the material, after all, seems to be about history). But even in the more immediate past, there are a bunch of topics that have not been researched at all and are quite compact for the average person. I would probably single out the informational noise violent zapping from the problems, which makes it difficult to focus on something for a long time, as well as the "law of the forest and the dog".
    2. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 19 May 2021 18: 40
      +10
      I faced a similar problem in the early 90s. Specific technical literature was needed. I went to Kiev (studied there) to the Parliamentary Library. Half a day I searched the catalogs. I wrote it out. I went to order, and I got a turn from the gate: these books are in the archive, they mess around once a week ... if there is gasoline !!!
      In general, so I did not hold them in my hands. I had to use other sources ...
      1. Sahalinets
        Sahalinets 20 May 2021 03: 13
        +3
        He worked in the 90s at the RCKHIDNI and the State Archive of the Russian Federation. Everything was fine, although the docks had to be ordered a day in advance.
        Initially, I wanted to write a dissertation on the pre-war construction of the Red Army, but quickly realized that only a select few had access to the military archives. I had to change the subject.
        1. kalibr
          20 May 2021 11: 02
          +1
          Quote: Sahalinets
          but he quickly realized that only a select few had access to the military archives.

          In-oh-oh-from! This is our big problem! Throughout September 1990, he worked in the archives of the Ministry of Defense in Podolsk. I learned and saw a lot of interesting things.
  2. ee2100
    ee2100 19 May 2021 18: 30
    +17
    I did not understand what the article was about.
    About the fact that someone is hiding the truth in the archives?
    Or about the hard and unbearable work of a leading historian and spiteful and selfish archivists?
    1. Anachoret
      Anachoret 19 May 2021 18: 44
      0
      Quote: ee2100
      and evil and greedy archivists?

      to this there was always the answer, "Well, you saw how much gasoline is now?" )))
    2. Alceers
      Alceers 19 May 2021 19: 09
      +15
      This is the caliber. All articles of caliber about nothing but about anyone. About him beloved unsurpassed amazing, the right to emphasize. About his difficult accomplishments in the field of throwing mud at everything Soviet and his own underestimation. So you are not alone. When he does not just translate another foreign article, but tries to philosophize himself, then what turns out is what happens ...
      And then he relogs and starts praising his opus with the posts of his twinks.
      1. kalibr
        19 May 2021 19: 33
        +1
        Quote: Alceers
        And then he relogs and starts praising his opus with the posts of his twinks.

        Write about this to the site administration as well, as this is one of the most serious violations of its rules. Without a doubt, they will sort it out and put things in order, and you will receive moral satisfaction!
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 19 May 2021 20: 51
          +2
          Stop it, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
          I was even delighted, for a long time no one associated me with Ph.D.
          1. kalibr
            19 May 2021 21: 04
            -2
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            I was even delighted, for a long time no one associated me with Ph.D.

            By the way, I wrote to you more than once that I would not be surprised to learn that you have these three letters.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 19 May 2021 21: 20
              +2
              Thank you, but everything is like Alyosha Peshkov's.
              Chesslovo, in our reality it is easier to become a "Master of Swords" than a candidate of sciences.
              1. kalibr
                20 May 2021 11: 05
                0
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                in our realities it is easier to become a "Master of Swords" than a Ph.D.

                Today, yes". Very difficult. Judging by the fate of my graduate students. In the USSR, there were rules of the game: you plow for three years, do everything as ordered, and defend yourself. Then ... do whatever you want. Now in all universities the rules are different and they are ... "expensive". But on the other hand, I know girls without higher education (!) Who lecture on advertising to candidates of science!
          2. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 20 May 2021 12: 16
            +3
            I was even delighted, for a long time no one associated me with Ph.D.

            Anton, you are trying very stupidly to excuse yourself. yes We already know that you are Shpakovsky. And the Corsair - Shpakovsky .. yes And the Sea Cat is even more so Shpakovsky! laughing drinks But we won't tell anyone! Nearly...
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 20 May 2021 13: 24
              +1
              Uh-huh. He's Agent Smith.
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 20 May 2021 13: 36
                +1
                Uh-huh. He's Agent Smith.

                He's Gosha, he's Zhora, he's Yura ... Actually, he's similar! what You just have more hair. drinks
      2. IS-80_RVGK2
        IS-80_RVGK2 19 May 2021 19: 47
        -3
        Quote: Alceers
        All articles of caliber about nothing but about anyone. About him beloved unsurpassed amazing, the right to emphasize.

        Is it bad that a person values ​​and respects himself?
        I think you're just jealous.
    3. lucul
      lucul 19 May 2021 19: 50
      -1
      I did not understand what the article was about.
      About the fact that someone is hiding the truth in the archives?

      Find an excerpt from Orwell in the article and read it as many times until you get the gist of it.
      And history (especially objectionable) any government reliably hides in the archives)))
      1. ee2100
        ee2100 19 May 2021 20: 27
        +4
        Another Shpakovsky apologist?
        1. lucul
          lucul 19 May 2021 20: 37
          -1
          Another Shpakovsky apologist?

          He who has eyes, let him see ...
          1. ee2100
            ee2100 19 May 2021 20: 47
            +8
            He who has a nose smells.
            1. lucul
              lucul 19 May 2021 20: 49
              -3
              Another Shpakovsky apologist?

              I didn’t write the continuation of the quote, otherwise I’ll get another warning.
              1. ee2100
                ee2100 19 May 2021 20: 52
                +9
                The article is called "pitfalls ..." And where are they? In addition to the evil and greedy aunts of their archives, I do not have them with the afftor.
                Everything else from the evil one drinks
        2. The comment was deleted.
          1. kalibr
            20 May 2021 11: 10
            -4
            Alex, before you publicly broadcast about your stupidity to the whole country, look at my rating as soon as the article comes out. And then when another comes out. The difference between the first and second number is an exponent +. That is, there are disadvantages, but + they do not overlap. This means that people like it. And when people support you, it's good! Well, individual fools and ignoramuses have always been and will be. Where without them ... And to consider your opinion above the opinion of very many people means to show disrespect to them.
            1. Alex_1973
              Alex_1973 20 May 2021 14: 54
              +4
              kalibr (Vyacheslav)
              Alex, before you publicly broadcast
              "Squeal" here you and your singers.
              about your stupidity to the whole country,
              I have already written more than once, but your conceit causes continuous nausea, like you are the only one here smart, the rest are all deBills. Sick of your ego, to be honest.
              The difference between the first and second number is an exponent +. That is, there are disadvantages, but + they do not overlap.
              You can roll up your rating on THIS site and stick it in the place where Makar did not drive calves.
              And when people support you
              The marginals on the VO, this is far from the people, do not flatter yourself. You have nothing to do with the people personally.
              And to consider your opinion above the opinion of very many people means to show disrespect to them.
              Golden words, circle them in a frame and hang them at the head of the bed, they have the most direct relation to you. I repeat, do not flatter yourself, you have nothing to do with the opinion of the people.
              1. kalibr
                20 May 2021 15: 14
                -5
                Quote: Alex_1973
                The marginals on the VO, this is far from the people, do not flatter yourself.

                How lovely! Well, then my destiny is to write for the marginalized. But in my opinion, they are also people no worse than you.
                1. Alex_1973
                  Alex_1973 20 May 2021 15: 18
                  +6
                  kalibr (Vyacheslav)
                  How lovely! Well, then my destiny is to write for the marginalized.
                  They would write about knights and samurai, there would be no complaints against you, but when you try to judge the USSR, the feeling that the sewage pipe has broken through and shit is pouring right out of a cornucopia.
                  1. kalibr
                    20 May 2021 15: 35
                    -6
                    Quote: Alex_1973
                    the feeling that the sewage pipe has burst and shit is pouring just like from a cornucopia.

                    So after all, it flows from archival materials. It was! And since it was, then, alas. This is history. And if the story we had shit, then this is no longer my problem.
                    1. Alex_1973
                      Alex_1973 20 May 2021 15: 42
                      +3
                      kalibr (Vyacheslav)
                      And if the story we had shit, then this is no longer my problem.
                      Tell Kisa as an artist to an artist, can you draw?
                      Our history is just not shit, but historians, especially those like you, it is true, are shitty.
                      1. kalibr
                        20 May 2021 16: 11
                        -6
                        Alexei! What city are you from? You can hardly say, for some reason people like you are ashamed of this, but if the center is regional, then you should have a Regional Library and the former archive of the Regional Committee of the CPSU under the State Archives. You can go to the library and ... so, for fun, read the Pravda newspaper since ... well ... 24 years old, let's say, from 34th ... And you can go to the archive OK, getting permission is not a problem. And look at the materials hidden there: data on the percentage of marriage, theft at factories, brigades of the communist labor that fell apart due to drunkenness, the immorality of communists of all levels ... everything that went with the scoop under the heading "Soviet secret" can now be viewed. I am sure you will be very interested. You can also feel like a historian, at least for a while.
                      2. Alex_1973
                        Alex_1973 20 May 2021 16: 37
                        +7
                        kalibr (Vyacheslav)
                        Alexei! What city are you from? You can hardly say, for some reason people like you are ashamed of this
                        Why won't I tell you my address is Rostov-on-Don, Stroygorodok, if it tells you about anything.
                        You can go to the library and ... so, for fun, read the newspaper "Pravda"
                        Unlike you, I have no time, I need to feed my family. And I do more good for the country than you do.
                        immorality of the communists of all levels ...
                        Well, the immorality of the scoop is written on your face, for it was you and those like you who were the personification of the fall in morals in the USSR. By the way, about the immorality of the face, I am not in a figurative sense, but in a literal sense, such as you, gozman, Svanidze and others, literally wear an imprint of ugliness on their face, if you don’t believe it, look in the mirror.
                      3. kalibr
                        20 May 2021 16: 56
                        -6
                        Quote: Alex_1973
                        Why won't I tell you my address is Rostov-on-Don, Stroygorodok, if it tells you about anything.

                        Oh, so interesting. I lived in Rostov. Budenovsky prospect 98/67. But for a long time. The last time was in 1984. And my mother lived there for a long time. I gave lectures at Rostselmash and at the university ...
                        Quote: Alex_1973
                        Unlike you, I have no time, I need to feed my family

                        And this is the most serious problem. Again - read Orwell's article. You have no time, although it is you who should visit the archive. In principle, I don't need it anymore. I already know that Mordor had to die. I know why he died and what needs to be done to prevent this from happening again. But it turns out that you consider the information you need coming from me to be a deception, but you cannot get the "truthful" one yourself. Therefore, all your reproaches are groundless. You have no desire to get into the archives, you don’t read newspapers of the past, scientific journals too. That is, you, like Pushkin's mob, "feed on fables." And this is very bad, because only knowledge helps to find the right path in life. But it was not me who invented such a division of society into higher, middle and lower. It is determined by the possibility of obtaining information.
          2. kalibr
            20 May 2021 15: 18
            -6
            Quote: Alex_1973
            Golden words, circle them in a frame and hang them at the head, they have the most direct relation to you

            I do not consider VO readers to be marginals. But in relation to people like you, people who are clearly deprived of reason, this is - yes. You obviously do not deserve respect. Pity, yes.
            1. Alex_1973
              Alex_1973 20 May 2021 15: 22
              +7
              kalibr (Vyacheslav)
              But in relation to people like you, people who are clearly deprived of reason
              Excuse me, are you a psychiatrist to draw such conclusions and make diagnoses? Or is everyone who does not share your smelly point of view deprived of reason?
              You obviously do not deserve respect.
              Just like you and others like you.
              Pity, yes.
              In my eyes, you deserve no pity. Pity has yet to be earned ...
              1. kalibr
                20 May 2021 15: 39
                -9
                Alexey, your opinion does not matter. I am not a psychiatrist, but I know for sure that not writing it will not change anything. You will mind your own business, and I will write whatever I please. The main thing is to have a link to the source. Therefore, no court will decide the case in your favor or someone else's. So bear with it!
                1. Alex_1973
                  Alex_1973 20 May 2021 15: 45
                  +7
                  kalibr (Vyacheslav)
                  Alexey, your opinion does not matter.
                  Do you naively believe that your opinion matters to someone?
                  I am not a psychiatrist, but I know for sure that not writing it will not change anything.
                  Absolutely your writing will not change anything either.
                  and I write whatever I please.
                  This is for now, but everything flows, everything changes, so write a hack while the wind is without stones ...
                  1. kalibr
                    20 May 2021 15: 54
                    -5
                    Quote: Alex_1973
                    Absolutely your writing will not change anything either.

                    And I just don't want her to change anything. What kind of naive reasoning? And you also ask why I think you are stupid. From this one! Yes, I still will not change. The main thing is to read, and people like you wrote a lot of comments and made a lot of clicks. EVERYTHING! Nothing else is needed from you. And regarding the "change of the wind" ... I also wrote to you - take comfort. But no matter how he changes, my destiny is to be always at the top, and yours is below and no changes will change this. That is why you are so angry.
          3. kalibr
            20 May 2021 15: 20
            -8
            Quote: Alex_1973
            but your conceit is all nauseous,

            Well, high intelligence is difficult for a stupid person to understand. Hence the nausea. But there is aeron, it helps well against nausea!
            1. Alex_1973
              Alex_1973 20 May 2021 15: 25
              +5
              kalibr (Vyacheslav)
              Well high intelligence
              Are you talking about your wretched or something ...? laughing
              it is difficult for a stupid person to understand.
              Of course, where do we go with our workers 'and peasants' snout and into a Kalash row ... tongue
              aeron, it helps well against nausea!
              I can also advise espumizan, it obviously will not hurt you.
              1. kalibr
                20 May 2021 15: 30
                -4
                Quote: Alex_1973
                Of course, where do we go with our workers 'and peasants' snout and into a Kalash row ...

                Exactly! As you were below, you will remain there. The limit here is to knock on the keyboard. Again for my benefit. Because the more clicks, the better.
                But I just don't need espumisan, I am not at all sick of your writings. I rejoice. After all, an intelligent person once wrote - "good" and that's it. A fool writes and writes ... It is worth prying him a little. Here he is sick and writhing, and everyone around is marginal ...
                1. Alex_1973
                  Alex_1973 20 May 2021 15: 38
                  +4
                  kalibr (Vyacheslav)
                  Exactly! As you were below, you will remain there.
                  Who told you that you were upstairs? The passengers of the so-called "philosophical steamer" also imagined themselves to be the salt of the Russian land, but in actual fact the common people showed them their true place near the bucket. Aren't you afraid to be on such a ship one day?
                  The limit here is to knock on the keyboard.
                  This is not for you to decide for sure.
                  Again for my benefit.
                  Yes, for God's sake, just make sure that colic does not overpower you, otherwise your health.
                  Ed an intelligent person once wrote - "good" and that's it.
                  And why are you so "smart" you can't shut up, you don't have enough money?
                  Write-write, the fool sows words to no purpose, the harvest goes to the clever.
                  As I already wrote, I am not sorry if something falls on you from this, just one day a piece may not get through your throat ...
                  1. kalibr
                    20 May 2021 15: 57
                    -6
                    Quote: Alex_1973
                    Aren't you afraid to be on such a ship one day?

                    No, Alex, I'm not afraid. We tried it once. And how did it end? 1991: everything returned to normal.
                    Quote: Alex_1973
                    just one day a piece may not get through the throat ...

                    All the time I am writing to you: hope ... once again re-read in the article the place where Orwell writes about the lower ones ... They are just always destined to live with hope. Live!
                  2. kalibr
                    20 May 2021 16: 00
                    -5
                    Quote: Alex_1973
                    not enough money

                    No, not enough, Alex. I need a lot of money ... Last year I had to give up a trip to Scandinavia by ferry, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, from a bunch of museums. In this - from England by bus, here and castles and museums ... a lot. And everything needs money. And I don't like to save. I mine and spend. Therefore, we have to rub shoulders with whoever ...
                  3. ee2100
                    ee2100 20 May 2021 19: 27
                    +6
                    VOSH writes articles like this one, only for himself. On the site, the people are mature and easily separate the wheat from the chaff.
                    The site is dying, judging by the materials, so they print various nonsense.
                    I brought a quote from Orwell, he wants to touch the great, but he just got smeared.
                    The fact that he has a problem with the perception is 100%.
                  4. kalibr
                    21 May 2021 14: 08
                    -4
                    Quote: ee2100
                    On the site, the people are mature and easily separate the wheat from the chaff

                    Oh, don't tell my slippers. Probably you and yourself are considered mature, right? But you don’t understand that I am writing only for myself, but you pay me for it. Isn't it great? And then you say something about the "mature" people ... You also refer Alex from Rostov to mature people ... I have not read it, I will not go, but I condemn him.
                  5. ee2100
                    ee2100 21 May 2021 18: 14
                    +3
                    In your opinion, I waved from a high tower, and the fact that you read the comments to your page articles confirms once again that you are not indifferent to them.
                    If we help you to earn a pretty penny, consider it a milking.
                    Beads should be thrown in front of young animals to which you do not have access. And Alex 1973 and I and others like us perfectly understand where lies are sexot, and where was the truth of life.
                    Write, and I and your other opponents will increase your rating in the same way!
                    Good luck in your creative impulse!
                  6. kalibr
                    23 May 2021 16: 41
                    -1
                    Quote: ee2100
                    from a high tower

                    Very high?
  • Antokha
    Antokha 26 May 2021 10: 37
    -1
    The feeling that either Shpakovsky has a couple of dozen accounts, or people are so degraded to read and praise this squalor, who considers himself a "historian".

    Site Administration:
    when I lamented that one author (not this material) should be kicked out for systematic omnipotence and insult to patriots, I was given a warning. There I at least found fault with the work of the author, but here a person is called squalor, and for some reason it continues to hang.
    Those who want to minus and insult: I do not know the author of the material, this is generally his first material that I read. I don't see any problems with the material and theme. The quality of the controversy is overwhelming. What is it that clung to the bile? It is completely incomprehensible.
  • antivirus
    antivirus 20 May 2021 02: 45
    +2
    And history (especially objectionable) any government reliably hides in the archives)))

    + to yours - different ideas about the correctness of the development and actions of the authorities were and will be ... the unity and struggle of opposites and ... the obstinacy of individuals
  • tatra
    tatra 19 May 2021 18: 35
    -7
    Ha, yeah, "excellent" was the statistics in RI. Even the most important statistics, demographic, were conducted in an ugly manner, "by eye". The data for 1914 and 1917 are completely different, the population of the Republic of Ingushetia is 166, and 173, and 178, and 184 million of the RI subjects. Enemies of the communists naturally choose the largest number - and for the sake of praising Nicholas II for the sake of profit in anti-Sovietism, and in order to blame the Bolsheviks for the Civil War unleashed by the White Guards, White Cossacks, interventionists, throw more "victims of Bolshevism".
    And why are the enemies of the communists themselves so reluctant to honestly discuss what they themselves have done, if they do not consider what they have done to be their own crimes?
    1. Grandfather
      Grandfather 19 May 2021 18: 40
      +1
      Quote: tatra
      And why are the enemies of the communists themselves so reluctant to honestly discuss what they themselves have done, if they do not consider what they have done to be their own crimes?

      maybe ashamed ... a little ...
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 May 2021 18: 45
      +5
      What, auntie Tatra, are the second-hand booksellers' enemies acting outrageous again? Bastards seized the entire Manifesto of the Communist Party with fat fingers? laughing
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 19 May 2021 19: 08
        +9
        Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        What, auntie Tatra, are the second-hand booksellers' enemies acting outrageous again? Bastards seized the entire Manifesto of the Communist Party with fat fingers? laughing

        Tatra is not friends with the Manifesto of the Communist Party, Tatra is friends with Zyuganov, who is not quite a Marxist, therefore, not a communist, but a socialist who stands up for the good of the nation under his clear leadership fellow
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 May 2021 19: 11
          +2
          Quote: Krasnodar
          Tatra is not friends with the Manifesto of the Communist Party, Tatra is friends with Zyuganov, who is not quite a Marxist, therefore, not a communist, but a socialist who stands up for the good of the nation under his clear leadership

          Complicated. Almost like in Chizha's song about eternal youth. BUT...
        2. IS-80_RVGK2
          IS-80_RVGK2 19 May 2021 19: 41
          +8
          Quote: Krasnodar
          who is not quite a Marxist

          More precisely, not a Marxist at all.
          Quote: Krasnodar
          and a socialist who stands up for the good of the nation under his clear leadership

          Do not slander Zyuganov. It is solely on the part of the permanent struggle for social justice by the methods by which this struggle will never change the current state of affairs.
      2. tatra
        tatra 19 May 2021 19: 13
        -10%
        I hardly ever look at the answers to me, the enemies of the communists are primitive, predictable, the same as a blueprint, and I know that no matter what I write, the answers of the enemies of the communists will always be - malice against me and the communists.
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 May 2021 19: 20
          +3
          Quote: tatra
          I hardly ever look at the answers to me, the enemies of the communists are primitive

          Right! Enemies of paratroopers are entirely primitives. They plundered all the parachutes for the panties. laughing
          Quote: tatra
          malice against me and the communists

          Fear God (well, or the party organizer, whatever you like), auntie! You are a local landmark! Like Meehan. Only with a party card. You rally so amusingly ... laughing
          1. kalibr
            19 May 2021 19: 39
            -1
            Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
            auntie! You are a local landmark!

            At our university, in the HR course, among other rules, it was indicated that in any team it is necessary to have its own "little fool", and in no case should he be fired, even if it is worth it. Take care of it ... and only sometimes you can pour salt into the sugar bowl. It has been proven to help maintain a healthy team.
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 19 May 2021 20: 13
              -1
              Quite right - positiff
        2. kalibr
          19 May 2021 19: 27
          +1
          Quote: tatra
          I hardly ever look at the answers to me, the enemies of the communists are primitive, predictable, the same as a blueprint, and I know that no matter what I write, the answers of the enemies of the communists will always be - malice against me and the communists

          Well, answer my question, please!
        3. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 19 May 2021 19: 28
          0
          Quote: tatra
          I hardly ever look at the answers to me, the enemies of the communists are primitive, predictable, the same as a blueprint, and I know that no matter what I write, the answers of the enemies of the communists will always be - malice against me and the communists.

          The main enemies of the communists, in your opinion, are Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, who do not accept a priori the construction of socialism in a single country. yes
          1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
            Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 May 2021 19: 35
            +1
            Quote: Krasnodar
            The main enemies of the communists, in your opinion, are Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, who do not accept a priori the construction of socialism in a single country.

            And here I am in their promiscuity and do not try to figure it out. Obviously, the starting point should be the definition - who are the "communists" in the Tatar sense? Then it is easier to decide on the enemies. But - the water is dark in the cloud. Alas for me ....
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 19 May 2021 20: 15
              +2
              Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
              Obviously, the starting point should be the definition - who are the "communists" in the Tatar sense? Then it is easier to decide on the enemies. But - the water is dark in the clouds. Alas for me ....

              Zyuganoff - genau ... fellow
        4. Hagen
          Hagen 19 May 2021 19: 42
          +3
          Quote: tatra
          I hardly ever look at the answers to me, the enemies of the communists are primitive, predictable

          Well, of course! It is not royal business - to enter into polemics in the absence of arguments laughing
    3. kalibr
      19 May 2021 19: 13
      0
      Tatra! Was Lenin also an "enemy of the Communists"?
      1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 May 2021 19: 22
        +1
        Quote: kalibr
        Was Lenin also an "enemy of the Communists"?

        Not. Lenin was the enemy of the taxidermists. But it didn't help him.
        1. kalibr
          19 May 2021 19: 24
          -1
          Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          But it didn't help him.

          No, this is a question for the Tatra. Let him answer, I'm very interested.
        2. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 19 May 2021 19: 46
          +1
          Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.

          Not. Lenin was the enemy of the taxidermists. But it didn't help him.

          In his work The Development of Communism in Russia, he wrote:
          The irresponsible part of the Egyptian proletariat, making the mummies of the pharaohs, thus perpetuating the symbols of autocracy, was also the enemies of the communists, despite the membership card of the Communist Party of Thebes. negative
          1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
            Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 May 2021 19: 57
            0
            Quote: Krasnodar
            In his work The Development of Communism in Russia, he wrote:
            The irresponsible part of the Egyptian proletariat, making the mummies of the pharaohs

            suddenly...
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 19 May 2021 20: 17
              -2
              Friedman Engels, Ilyich Ramirez Blank and Nadenka Ulyanoff
              1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 May 2021 20: 29
                +2
                Quote: Krasnodar
                Friedman Engels

                Not. First on the left, judging by the trepanned skull - Nile Ice Ax Trotskstein
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 19 May 2021 20: 48
                  0
                  Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.

                  Not. First on the left, judging by the trepanned skull - Nile Ice Ax Trotskstein

                  Are you talking about a bearded political courtesan?
                  1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 May 2021 21: 05
                    -2
                    Quote: Krasnodar
                    Are you talking about a bearded political courtesan?

                    well yes. Concurrently - the virgin vestal of the world revolution.
                    From the local priestly class.
                    1. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 19 May 2021 21: 11
                      +1
                      And he hung out with other shtetl in the provincial shtetls - one Electra's dad and Oedipus's mother in Vienna is worth something lol
                      1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 May 2021 21: 51
                        +1
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        and Oedipus's mother in Vienna is worth something

                        Yes, no, in Vienna, a charlatan Dr. Ziggy F. popularly explained to him at a group therapy session that if you dream of a sickle and a hammer, then it's just a sickle and a hammer, but an ice ax ... it's either for a burrito, or .. ...
                      2. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 19 May 2021 22: 16
                        0
                        Either to the bukake
                      3. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 May 2021 23: 13
                        0
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        Either to the bukake

                        ... oder zur Tatra ...
                        So it seems to have been said.
                        But it is not exactly. Doctor's assistants in the form of the NKVD were noticed much later in one beautiful semi-mythical country. Where, by the way, despite the Ehrenburg officialdom, there were both kings and cabbage.
                      4. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 19 May 2021 23: 23
                        -1
                        And they drank there from Dusk to Dawn, and Salma Hayek revolted on Tarantino, but as soon as the clock struck 12, all the proletarians of gratifying gringos pulled out their membership cards and said: El pueblo unido jamás será vencido! negative
                    2. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 20 May 2021 10: 41
                      +1
                      Either to the bukake

                      Theoretical or applied?
                    3. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 20 May 2021 10: 48
                      +1
                      To the classic
                    4. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 20 May 2021 10: 58
                      +1
                      To the classic

                      According to a Heian-era treatise written by Mimokaku Kotoyoshi on Mount Hiei? wink
                    5. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 20 May 2021 11: 27
                      0
                      Drunk geisha
                      I fell under the sakura
                      The ronins were delighted
                      Bukake hour has come!
                    6. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 20 May 2021 13: 44
                      0
                      The ronins were delighted

                      Totally lean cat
                      He eats one barley porridge ...
                      And also love!
                      (Basho). Funny verse! drinks
                    7. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 20 May 2021 14: 16
                      -2
                      Kote-san is drinking valerian
                      Samurai Eats Sake
                      The daughter was named - Catwoman!
  • IS-80_RVGK2
    IS-80_RVGK2 19 May 2021 19: 44
    0
    With his NEP, he was an obvious opportunist.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 19 May 2021 20: 17
      0
      Quote: IS-80_RVGK2
      With his NEP, he was an obvious opportunist.

      Renegade - capitalist negative
      1. zenion
        zenion 19 May 2021 22: 16
        +1
        The author of this description is complaining to this site, instead of the animal welfare society, or to sports bingo. They do not let him cleave and butt someone, he lagged behind the herd. There are such "people" who are the farthest of all and teach others how to properly instruct the horns, or earn them.
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 19 May 2021 18: 41
    +2
    Conclusions, moreover, no one really, with rare exceptions, did not.
    And who was there? In this regard, the question arose: where and when did the analytical structures built into the governing organizations appear?
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
  • The comment was deleted.
  • out of habit
    out of habit 19 May 2021 18: 47
    +6
    The only thing that statistics do not know is how many chairs there are in Russia. laughing
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 19 May 2021 19: 09
      +2
      Needed - 1/12.
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 19 May 2021 18: 54
    +3
    He made it out in writing and handed it over to the girl secretary.
    In a black shapeless sundress and red scarf.
    1. kalibr
      19 May 2021 19: 00
      +2
      There was no kerchief, because she was in the room, but since it was cold in the archive (Penza), she was wearing something else in woolen clothes.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 19 May 2021 19: 34
        +1
        Orenburg shawl, tied from shoulders to mid-thigh.
        1. kalibr
          19 May 2021 19: 52
          +1
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          Orenburg shawl, tied from shoulders to mid-thigh.

          Jacket, homely green jacket with protruding pockets!
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 19 May 2021 19: 58
            +1
            That is, the girl, having discarded other formations of the female body, immediately turned into a grandmother?
            1. kalibr
              19 May 2021 20: 24
              0
              No, she was young. They brought me boxes of chocolates and for that she gave us interesting reading ...
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 19 May 2021 20: 41
                +1
                And she carried them to the buffet, in which they were sold to you, the proceeds of "fifty-fifty".
                "My Komsomol youth"
                1. kalibr
                  19 May 2021 20: 52
                  -2
                  What are you, Anton. I ate it myself! There were no buffets in the archives of the OK KPSS Kuibyshev, Penza and Ulyanovsk! There is no buffet in the State Archives either. But there are many good cafes nearby (today).
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 19 May 2021 21: 18
                    0
                    I ate it myself!
                    What a fool! Since I went to malfeasance, I could have played a bigger card.
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 May 2021 19: 15
      +4
      Quote: 3x3zsave
      In a black shapeless sundress and red scarf.

      Inspired by ...
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 19 May 2021 19: 40
        +3
        A nightmare, of course! On the other hand, this look has a little makeup and evening dress ... No James Bond can resist!
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 May 2021 19: 43
          +3
          Rrrock woman. Vamp. An outlandish mixture of Nepmanshi, Komsomol member and keeper of a spiritualistic salon.
          No, well, the truth is good ...
          )))))
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 19 May 2021 19: 50
            +4
            Duc, what am I talking about?
            1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
              Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 May 2021 20: 00
              +1
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              Duc, what am I talking about?

              )))
              But
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              No James Bond can resist!
              -
              this is hardly ... Stirlitz, after all, resisted the gaze with the drag of Gaby-Svetlichnaya. They are there, in intelligence schools, to teach the primacy of duty over testosterone!
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 19 May 2021 20: 11
                +4
                Well then Tikhonov! He even managed to get away from Mordyukova!
                "Would you leave a woman like that?" (FROM) laughing
      2. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 20 May 2021 10: 43
        0
        Inspired by ...

        - What is the main event in my life ?! lol
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 19 May 2021 19: 04
    +3
    However, this is not all: Saturday, Sunday and Monday were non-working days in the archive.
    And why is Monday? !!!
    Or the archive of the OK KPSS - all the theater and museum workers?
    1. kalibr
      19 May 2021 19: 26
      -2
      Quote: 3x3zsave
      Or the archive of the OK KPSS - all the theater and museum workers?

      When I first encountered this, I thought I would never collect material for a dissertation ...
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 19 May 2021 19: 44
        +3
        It's like that joke about the circus with flying crocodiles.
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 May 2021 20: 10
      +2
      Quote: 3x3zsave
      And why is Monday? !!!

      Well, like this.......
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 19 May 2021 20: 26
        +1
        Uh-huh. When today you come to any bureaucratic body, and you see the inscription "reception from .. to ..., by ... numbers (days of the week, the zodiac, seasons)," it is clear, honorable - people earn money! "( FROM)
        But then?!?!
  • north 2
    north 2 19 May 2021 19: 24
    0
    But the Shenderovichi, Svanidzi, Gozmans, Demarskys, who, as "historians", pour terrible dirt on the NKVD, KGB, Stalin, on the USSR and on everything Russian from the times and personality of Alexander Nevsky to the end of the days of the USSR, they somehow do not complains and does not say that these are facts not from the archives, but broken from the finger. And since, for example, Svanidze never announced that there were archives inaccessible to him and he invented this dirt himself, it means that the archives should be available to the author of today's article. How is it - Svanidze is possible, but the author of the article is not allowed! And if the author gets into the archives, will he unmask Svanidz and Gozmanov and tell all of us that they are lying to us from television screens about the NKVD and about Stalin and the USSR, since the archives testify to the opposite? Then he must get into the archives!
    After all, invite Svanidze with Gozman and Yuri Zhukov with Yevgeny Spitsin to the same studio, so
    the last two will instantly prove that the first two are lying and that in which specific archives he writes something completely different, because both Zhukov and Spitsyn devoted a lot of time to working in these archives. This means that the primary task of those public people who break into archives today is to unmask those who distort history and pour dirt on the USSR and Russia with the help of archives.
    1. kalibr
      19 May 2021 19: 43
      -3
      Quote: north 2
      the primary task of those public people who break into archives today is to unmask those who distort history and pour dirt on the USSR and Russia with the help of archives ..

      Yes, but there are obstacles. And an article about them. It’s expensive for me to skate from Penza to Moscow for 4 days. You will not sponsor me, will you? Then ... to expose, you have to compare. So? And to compare - to study their work VERY CAREFULLY and see - DO THEY HAVE LINKS TO THE ARCHIVE AND WHAT. Then go there and check ... And if everything turns out to be true, then ... then it is not dirt. And so it was! But if there is something else, it will be great. But there is no 100% guarantee. But troublesome and expensive!
      1. north 2
        north 2 19 May 2021 20: 54
        +3
        Quote: kalibr
        Quote: north 2
        the primary task of those public people who break into archives today is to unmask those who distort history and pour dirt on the USSR and Russia with the help of archives ..

        Yes, but there are obstacles. And an article about them. It’s expensive for me to skate from Penza to Moscow for 4 days. You will not sponsor me, will you? Then ... to expose, you have to compare. So? And to compare - to study their work VERY CAREFULLY and see - DO THEY HAVE LINKS TO THE ARCHIVE AND WHAT. Then go there and check ... And if everything turns out to be true, then ... then it is not dirt. And so it was! But if there is something else, it will be great. But there is no 100% guarantee. But troublesome and expensive!

        quite recently, when there was still no Internet and no one was indulged in links to the ARCHIVE and WHAT ARCHIVE, the crowd of thirsty for the truth believed Yakovlev and Volkogonov, who, of course, did not bother to notify whether on their own behalf and on instructions from the CIA, they shit THE USSR. Or they drew these materials from the archives in the USSR to humiliate the USSR and Russia. If there was then the Internet, you would demand that Yakovlev and Volkogonov refer to ARCHIVES and WHAT ARCHIVES, on the basis of and to materials from WHAT ARCHIVES Yakovlev and Volkogonov pour dirt on the history of the USSR? So no one today demands this from Svanidz and Gozmanov. But look at the historical lectures of Zhukov or Spitsyn, there is a link to the link to the ARCHIVES and to the opinions not only of themselves, but also to the opinion of their colleagues from the academic historical community, who spent half their lives in the archives. You will say that Volkogonov was also a professor of history. So this professor, during the collapse of the USSR, quickly collected his own archive from the archives of the USSR about the USSR in 1967-1995, in order to then transfer it to the US Congress, where it was classified and where it is still stored. What other links to you from the Democrats! But at the lectures and on the Internet pages of Zhukov and Spitsyn, you will receive links to Archival materials. And what would go from Penza to Moscow during Yeltsin's time, while there was no Internet, to work in the archives to achieve truth and truth, then it was probably worth doing. If you wanted to figure out who distorts the history of the USSR and Russia, and who is telling the truth. However, now is the time of the Internet and this, probably, can be done while in Penza.
        1. kalibr
          19 May 2021 20: 58
          -1
          Quote: north 2
          However, now is the time of the Internet and this, probably, can be done while in Penza.

          There will be about this!
  • sergo1914
    sergo1914 19 May 2021 19: 30
    +8
    ... Well, as for a graduate student, he is a specific person. His task in the USSR was to write and defend a Ph.D. thesis and receive first 280 rubles, and then, becoming an associate professor - 320 rubles.


    Well, neither add nor subtract. Don't work. Receive. And it did not grow together. The union fell apart. At first 280 fell out of the hands, and then 320. Gadsky bloody regime, filthy communists. So to deceive a bright romantic young man.
    Rzhu in a voice ...
    1. kalibr
      19 May 2021 19: 46
      -1
      Do you work for a salary, do you? But you inattentively read: WRITE AND PROTECT FIRST, receive later. Do you think this is not a job? Try it yourself!
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 19 May 2021 21: 22
        +7
        WRITE AND PROTECT FIRST, receive later. Do you think this is not a job? Try it yourself!

        Vyacheslav, do you seriously think that no one here knows what it is - a dissertation, all the more so - on a historical theme? A dissertation in history differs from a dissertation in physics and mathematics or technical sciences in a huge amount of opportunistic political rubbish - you have to keep up with the party line, and it is very changeable. So in your case, this is a very peculiar "job".
        1. kalibr
          20 May 2021 06: 03
          -1
          Quote: Aviator_
          here no one knows what it is - a dissertation, all the more so - on a historical theme?

          I don’t think, but I know! Because the people who defended them here can be counted on one hand, and even on the historical-party theme and not at all. That is, again you are using rumors. Only the person who has gone through this can judge about it. Working with documents is quite hard work. And then you still need to catch up with the line of the party. Which also required intelligence and imagination. 220 pages themselves did not appear like that.
          1. Alex_1973
            Alex_1973 20 May 2021 07: 25
            +1
            kalibr (Vyacheslav)
            Working with documents is quite hard work.
            With what such documents, with a textbook on the history of the CPSU? Have you tried to unload the wagons? Anything would be more useful than your vulgar pseudo-historical libels.
            1. kalibr
              20 May 2021 10: 48
              -8
              Quote: Alex_1973
              Have you tried to unload the wagons?

              Oh, did the junior scooper of the sewage convoy show up? Clean the buckets themselves and turn the bags. The carriages are heavy and cheap, for medium-sized ones.
              1. Alex_1973
                Alex_1973 20 May 2021 14: 13
                +4
                kalibr (Vyacheslav)
                Oh, did the junior scooper of the sewage convoy show up?
                Where did you get such knowledge in my career ...?! laughing
                Clean the buckets themselves and turn the bags.
                This is the whole essence of our lousy and rotten type of "intelligentsia" ...
                The carriages are heavy and cheap, for medium-sized ones.
                It is immediately clear that your dirty hands have never done anything good in your life. About people like you, Vladimir Ilyich said best of all that you are not the salt of the nation, but excuse her shit!
                1. kalibr
                  20 May 2021 15: 21
                  -4
                  Quote: Alex_1973
                  Where did you get such knowledge in my career ...?!

                  By the content of the comments and the manner of presentation. Well, Lenin said a lot of things, but not everything he said was justified.
                  1. Alex_1973
                    Alex_1973 20 May 2021 15: 27
                    +4
                    kalibr (Vyacheslav)
                    By the content of the comments and the manner of presentation.
                    Sorry, according to your comments, punitive psychiatry has been crying for a long time, but you are still not wearing a straitjacket, but it's a pity ...
                    1. kalibr
                      20 May 2021 15: 42
                      -3
                      Quote: Alex_1973
                      however, you are still not wearing a straitjacket, which is a pity ...

                      You see. You just have to complain about fate. And everything is fine with me. I can get any information, I can write whatever I like, without looking back at the different hegemons there. 8 novels in Russia, 8 in Singapore ... royalties are constantly coming. So dream, my friend, dreaming is not harmful.
                2. Aviator_
                  Aviator_ 20 May 2021 19: 28
                  +4
                  About the scooper - this is his slip of the tongue according to Freud. In the regional committee's archives, he seeks out all the most odorous and serves tendentiously. Since he has a scientific degree, he is the senior scooper in the level.
            2. kalibr
              20 May 2021 10: 52
              -3
              Quote: Alex_1973
              What kind of documents

              With documents from the archives of the OK KPSS. You can now look into any dissertation on the history of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, including mine, and see what archives there are links to. Nobody referred to the textbook on the history of the CPSU in their dissertations. By the way, you don't have to go far. There have just been three of my articles on agitation and propaganda in the 80-90s. There were just given links to the archives of OK Penza, Kuibyshev and Saratov
            3. kalibr
              20 May 2021 10: 54
              -3
              Quote: Alex_1973
              pseudo-historical libels.

              But you will prove that they are pseudo-historical! In some there are links to archives, in others to the Pravda newspaper, but no more. We don't write from the head!
            4. Aviator_
              Aviator_ 20 May 2021 19: 26
              +4
              Well, he's taller than any working people, he's an "intellectual". Even as a child, his mother (party worker) scared the workers, he himself wrote about it. Ordinary helminitis will try to get settled in any system and live off this system.
          2. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 20 May 2021 08: 36
            +5
            Vyacheslav, a dissertation is a qualification barrier. He himself wrote that there was a lot of rubbish and opportunism in the documents. Who forced this loyal dregs to engage in - a craving for money? Was there really no other way to make money? It looks like it wasn't. And about hard work - here the first was Sisyphus. As soon as he drags the stone up, the party line has changed, all over again. And why go to Sisyphus?
            1. kalibr
              20 May 2021 10: 45
              -6
              Quote: Aviator_
              Who forced this loyal dregs to engage in - a craving for money? Was there really no other way to make money?
              You are funny, Sergey! You don’t understand the simple truth that you need to work less and get more. And for me personally, it is also important that the work is interesting to me. I enjoyed lecturing and educating 80% (and I love it now!). Why else do something else. It's not just about making money, but about interesting work, and after that it's about making money. And here the choice was not great. Actually, it was not at all, and so there are some pluses. Everything was only for those who ... "for the Communist Party", and + interesting! Who would refuse such a thing? Savsem is stupid, huh? Did the party line change very often, or you don't know? Here, know! ... So which Sisyphus?
              1. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 20 May 2021 19: 22
                +4
                You don’t understand the simple truth that you need to work less and get more.

                But how could I, the orphan and the poor, understand the height of the life philosophy of an opportunist, such a "simple truth." This is true for helminitis, not for me. All the best, don't be cheap with royalties.
                1. kalibr
                  20 May 2021 19: 48
                  -4
                  Quote: Aviator_
                  This is true for helminitis, not for me.

                  Oh, Sergei, Sergei! So funny. It turns out that all around you are helminths, you are one person. Everyone thinks so, everyone, including you too. It's just that the majority are brought up on the fact that they are ashamed to admit it. But everyone thinks so. About myself. And here I can say aloud .... And don't worry about my fees, they are quite high, especially those that are paid in England and Singapore. I am sure you would like to receive them if you had such an opportunity. And then there are also royalties ... In a word - everything is OK.
          3. Alceers
            Alceers 20 May 2021 20: 53
            +3
            Heh! Caliber you are again burnt in your own unscrupulousness and servility! And they did not even understand this ... Well, who in their right mind admits to such baseness ... And you also prove that this is your dignity! I said a long time ago that you don’t even have the rudimentary ability to analyze. Stop philosophizing. Continue to simply translate other people's texts. This is the only thing that you get.
  • Undecim
    Undecim 19 May 2021 19: 48
    +4
    More and more people on VO are beginning to understand that information is relative.

    Straight on Lenin: "The circle of fighters has become wider ..." But as before: "The circle of these revolutionaries is narrower."
    1. kalibr
      19 May 2021 19: 50
      -2
      Well, you see. Now more often they began to demand links. True, they mainly refer to YouTube and live magazines. Well, according to Senka and a hat.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 19 May 2021 19: 56
        0
        I see a different trend. A link to the source is required, but if the information does not fit into the claims of the claimant, the source is declared untrusted.
        1. kalibr
          19 May 2021 20: 19
          0
          Quote: Undecim
          I see a different trend. A link to the source is required, but if the information does not fit into the claims of the claimant, the source is declared untrusted.

          And this: Тhis is another pair of shoes - as the English say. But there would be more open sources available, it would still be better!
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 19 May 2021 20: 21
            +3
            But there would be more open sources available, it would still be better!

            This is beyond any doubt.
        2. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 20 May 2021 10: 51
          +2
          I see a different trend.

          - Not that cadence! (x \ f "Monk and the Devil"). drinks
          A link to the source is required, but if the information does not fit into the claims of the claimant, the source is declared untrusted.

          Viktor Nikolaevich, if this is applied to the forum of our beloved VO and its individual representatives - they won't even require links from you, and for every word you don't like they will call you the last words. And your sources and your arguments rode on and on ... yes
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 20 May 2021 10: 53
            +3
            if this is applied to the forum of our beloved VO and its individual representatives

            I meant them, the representatives of the forum.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 20 May 2021 10: 59
              +2
              I meant them, the representatives of the forum.

              You are completely right, but you said it very culturally.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 19 May 2021 21: 05
      +3
      I have already criticized media clichés.
  • Revolver
    Revolver 19 May 2021 19: 53
    +2
    How to publish books with a circulation of 1 pc, can you put them online?
    1. kalibr
      19 May 2021 19: 57
      +2
      Quote: Nagan
      How to publish books with a circulation of 1 pc, can you put them online?

      Do not quite understand why you are? The circulation of the book on the screen saver is just not small. But compared to the number of universities and libraries ... very small. Although it was produced by a solid organization ... And about online, this is not for me. I would put it up.
      1. Revolver
        Revolver 19 May 2021 20: 00
        +5
        To the reasoning that is published in too small print runs. Online not only is cheaper and generally available, but also returns in search results. And of these books, count half of them pushed onto the shelf and will never be removed. If only because not everyone knows where and what to ask.
        1. kalibr
          19 May 2021 20: 13
          +4
          Quote: Nagan
          And of these books, count half of them pushed onto the shelf and will never be removed. If only because not everyone knows where and what to ask.

          Quite right! Here she came to me quite by accident.
  • Karabin
    Karabin 19 May 2021 20: 39
    +1
    More and more people in VO are beginning to understand that information is relative.
    What dull and dark people on VO, it turns out. And what has long been known about the relative nature of information to Mr. V. Shpakovsky, people at VO are just beginning to understand. More and more people understand, probably thanks to the author.
    1. kalibr
      19 May 2021 20: 54
      -1
      Quote: Karabin
      More and more people understand, probably thanks to the author.

      Me too. Certainly. You not only read your comments, right? You could read how many people say "thank you" to me. They write "I did not know this", etc.
  • BAI
    BAI 19 May 2021 22: 38
    +2
    And you went to dig in a card index with an amazing number of cards, again, arranged by topic and by year. Then, having found the documents you needed, you made an application for them, and only for five documents. He made it out in writing and handed it over to the girl secretary. You could get them only the next day, so experienced researchers wrote applications in advance and handed them over in the morning. Then there was a chance to get five more documents in the afternoon. But not a fact ...

    In the early 2000s, the Lenin Library worked like that. Day, digging in the card index, writing out numbers. The next day - immediately order rooms, study the materials. They gave 5 books (documents) each. You make a list of pages to copy - you give it to copy. While copying you order the next 5 numbers. etc. I don’t know how it is now.
    But apparently, it was a unified technology for storage of securities (books, documents).


    By the way, they wrote so much nonsense in the comments off topic. Selectively somehow moderators act. Someone every bast in a line, someone at close range do not see. Like an OSCE mission in Donbass.
    1. kalibr
      20 May 2021 06: 05
      0
      Quote: BAI
      In the early 2000s, the Lenin Library worked like that. Day, digging in the card index, writing out numbers. The next day - immediately order rooms, study the materials. They gave 5 books (documents) each. You make a list of pages to copy - you give it to copy. While copying you order the next 5 numbers. etc. I don’t know how it is now.
      But apparently, it was a unified technology for storage of securities (books, documents).

      By the way, they wrote so much nonsense in the comments off topic. Selectively somehow moderators act. Someone every bast in a line, someone at close range do not see. Like an OSCE mission in Donbass.

      Here is COMPLETELY AGREE WITH YOU!
  • Knell wardenheart
    Knell wardenheart 19 May 2021 23: 04
    0
    To try and search so that behind all this anew "open America" ​​- namely, that in particular there is a kind of "sensational departure" and in general the picture will be the same, which is called "clasped". The main trouble with a serious attitude to history as a discipline in our country (in my personal opinion) is that the history of any state leads somewhere - there are certain harmonious structures that lead to development or pauses between development or, at worst, to decline, disorganization and degradation. After some kind of heroism, you don't want to go to the stage of degradation, especially if you live in this wonderful historical period. But the periods that slowly lead to that, too, are not the best times. The pleasure from studying them is as much as from watching in slow-mo as a large-caliber projectile flies at you.
    So, now we (the last 10 years, probably) are increasingly fashionable to suck on the history of the Second World War and the beginning of the space era. Indeed, all my adult life I have been interested in both (although the latter is to a lesser extent, due to its smaller scale) - but at some point you come to the conclusion that a wagon has already accumulated information, kilotons, and you need to go to some kind of analytics , to some conclusions - and at this moment the whole depth of futility is involuntarily realized - from the awareness of the endless rupture of the era in which we are, and those EVENTS. With all their terrible imperfection, sacrifices, etc. All this - good and bad, heroic and sad - led us, among other things, into that "potential hole" in which we are now. Into the black hole of historical sucking and fetishism, involuntarily reminiscent of such a blurry picture with Adolf Aloizovich in a bunker, wiping military maps to the holes in search of .. something there.
    This is the whole meaning of our history, "popular history" today - this is selective historical fetishism, without conclusions, without analytics - all this is now somehow prohibited, such as pernicious historical revisionism, mockery of this and that ...

    In our country, many things are not what they seem, not what they should be, and do not perform the function that they SHOULD perform. Our story is sad and instructive, but it is still carried on a gold tray with fanfare and fanfare. And it will not help us in any way today, and will not lead us tomorrow to an objectively good future.
    All this, of course, is another portion of heresy :-) thinking aloud ..never mind
    1. kalibr
      20 May 2021 06: 07
      -1
      Quote: Knell Wardenheart
      This is the whole meaning of our history, "popular history" today - this is selective historical fetishism, without conclusions, without analytics - all this is now somehow prohibited, such as pernicious historical revisionism, mockery of this and that ...
      In our country, many things are not what they seem, not what they should be, and do not perform the function that they SHOULD perform. Our story is sad and instructive, but it is still carried on a gold tray with fanfare and fanfare. And it will not help us in any way today, and will not lead us tomorrow to an objectively good future.
      All this, of course, is another portion of heresy :-) thinking aloud ..never mind

      You have good thoughts out loud. Very correct.
      1. helvetic
        helvetic 20 May 2021 09: 56
        +3
        The article is good, acquaints the reader with the work in the party archives. Although I cannot agree with a number of statements, and some topics ... are not disclosed. From my observations, a pandemic inflicted a blow with a sledgehammer on archival work in Moscow and St. Petersburg. For example, to scan material in RGADA, now you have to wait ... two years. So, if you have, for example, a grant from the RFBR competition A, forget about working with high-quality copies.
        As for the party archives, I happened to work in the KKE Foundation (Tbilisi). Everything that was left of him lay in someone's loggia for several years, and then ended up in the archives of the Georgian Interior Ministry. In some places it looks a pity, in some places it is disgusting to read, but the documents of the end of perestroika are very interesting. But to get the right to work there, you need permission from the State Security Service of Georgia. I'm not sure that those who write the truth about the recent history of this country will receive it. Here is some expert on Central Asia - please)
        1. kalibr
          20 May 2021 10: 38
          0
          Quote: helvetic
          For example, to scan material in RGADA, now you have to wait ... two years.

          I also ran into this in a number of archives ...
    2. helvetic
      helvetic 20 May 2021 09: 41
      +5
      It smelled like Fukuyama. The commentator dreamed of "the end of history". The search for a global meaning in a picture of the past by constructing it is, in my opinion, as natural as it is senseless. By the way, and attempts to search for meaning in the actions of the historian or ... anyone else. And yet - in twenty years in the profession, I have not noticed that someone rigidly forbade revisionism. It's just that most revisionists, upon close acquaintance (with their work or personally), turn out to be either commercial charlatans, or dropouts, or crazy. For example, nobody stopped the same Azbelev with his "new" localization of the Kulikov field ...
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 20 May 2021 11: 34
        +1
        By the way, and attempts to search for meaning in the actions of the historian or ... anyone else. And yet - in twenty years in the profession, I have not noticed that someone rigidly forbade revisionism.

        Hmm .. Vladimir, are you a historian by training? With respect, Nicholai hi
        1. helvetic
          helvetic 20 May 2021 20: 46
          +2
          Yes. And, hmm ... practice)
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 20 May 2021 22: 44
            +2
            Yes. And, hmm ... practice)

            Do you teach or write? hi Come more often - the historian is always welcome! drinks
  • Olgovich
    Olgovich 20 May 2021 12: 38
    +1
    You can try to find what you need in the Electronic Document Libraries: there, quite by accident, I found a digitized Prerevolutionary the document where the direct speech of my great-grandfather ... It was in Petrograd 1917.

    The sensations are absolutely amazing: he speaks, as if in person, a person who has not been seen for a long time and who has not seen, you can even get an idea of ​​him.

    how to get to this among tens of thousands of documents? request But it happens ...
    1. kalibr
      20 May 2021 16: 18
      +2
      Quote: Olgovich
      how to get to this among tens of thousands of documents? But it happens ...

      Andrew! You're lucky. It's amazing.
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 20 May 2021 17: 02
        +3
        Andrew! You're lucky. It's amazing.

        Indeed, what is amazing!
        Colleagues, if someone wants to look at pre-revolutionary publications - there is a wonderful site. The periodicals there are gorgeous - "Russian Antiquity", "Russian Archive" ... And these are all memories! good
        https://runivers.ru/
        Download, read to your health, maybe you won't break your eyes with a pre-revolutionary font! drinks

        Vyacheslav Olegovich, I wanted to write a detailed commentary about my "history of a one-time trip to the archive", but ... I didn't want something! hi
        1. kalibr
          20 May 2021 17: 04
          +1
          Quote: Pane Kohanku
          Vyacheslav Olegovich, I wanted to write a detailed commentary about my "history of a one-time trip to the archive", but ... I didn't want something!

          The main thing is always to please your desires! Wanted - sacred. Got sick - twice sacred!
        2. helvetic
          helvetic 20 May 2021 20: 57
          +2
          Runivers is really incredible site. There, for example, wonderful periodicals and continuing publications - materials of the Archaeological Commission, the Annals of the Moscow Society of Russian History and Antiquities. From purely documentary collections - Russian Historical Library. Rare volumes skipped. In general, in the late Middle Ages in Russia, it is necessary to "begin" here.
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 20 May 2021 22: 58
            +2
            Runivers is truly incredible.

            Accidentally stumbled upon him, looking for notes from either Poletika or Turgenev - Pavel's adjutant. Pal Petrovich is my weakness ... winked From his achievements - I found Poroshin's notes on the internet, published in the 40s of the 19th century. Of course, you break your eyes about the pre-revolutionary syllable, but this is a treasure trove! fellow
            In general, in the late Middle Ages in Russia, it is necessary to "start" here.

            Where have you been?! smile There are tons of topics for communication! I myself am not particularly fond of the Middle Ages, but with Mikhail "The Master of the Trilobite" and Sergei "Mihaylov" you are guaranteed a discussion! good With Alexander "ee2100" you can culturally fight for Estonian sights, and with Alexei "Boltorez" - for England! drinks
            As Igor aptly said "The Leader of the Redskins" (KV-2 on the avatar, higher on the branch) - we are going here, as if drinking tea like a family. yes Conflict-free is a must! wink
            And on some of the characters on the forum - do not pay attention ... negative
        3. Olgovich
          Olgovich 21 May 2021 07: 17
          +1
          Quote: Pane Kohanku
          https://runivers.ru/

          Thank you very much, Nikolai!

          I went in and looked. appreciated: what you need ..

          I use http://docs.historyrussia.org/ru/nodes/1-glavnaya myself
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 21 May 2021 07: 04
        +1
        Quote: kalibr
        Andrew! You're lucky. Just amazing

        Yeah...

        By the way, when studying the documents of 1917-1918 in the "Electronic Library of Historical Documents" on the working anti-Bolshevik The Factory Commissioners Movement (an interesting topic, by the way!) surname Shpakovsky among the organizers.

        Not a relative, by any chance?
        1. kalibr
          21 May 2021 08: 15
          +1
          Quote: Olgovich
          Not a relative, by any chance?

          Actually, my stepfather's father was a trackman in Belev. It is unlikely that he could get into such an organization. "Not a hat for Senka."
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 21 May 2021 09: 10
            0
            Quote: kalibr
            Actually, my stepfather's father was a trackman in Belev. It is unlikely that he could get into such an organization. "Not a hat for Senka."

            yes, not him:
            Extraordinary meeting of authorized factories and plants of Petrograd. TsGA SPb. F. 3390. On. No. 62

            Materials of the meeting of the Bureau of the Extraordinary Meeting of authorized factories and plants of Petrograd on May 25
            Protocol record Present: Smirnov, Berg, Bobyl, Borisenko, Rogozin, Danilov, Shpakovsky

            Shpakovsky (Russian-Balt [iy] plant): "Our plant has long been anti-Bolshevik. Our workers say:" Why are we silent ...

            But Tula, like Moscow, were part of this organization.
            1. kalibr
              21 May 2021 10: 16
              +1
              He was a roadman in Belev ... He was not involved in politics in any form ...
        2. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 21 May 2021 13: 19
          +2
          Not a relative, by any chance?

          Andrei, if you want to laugh, then read the notes of General Dm. Parsky about how he tried to defend Yamburg in the conditions of revolutionary chaos - one of the best units subordinate to him, he considered the battery of a certain Shpakovsky. wink
          And here is a clipping from the émigré magazine Chasovoy from the 20s. An article about the Mikhailovsky Artillery School. Bottom right - the address of the "school" in Paris - W. Chpakowsky, 4, rue Bertrand. Paris, 7. And the signature in Russian: "V. S-kiy". lol

          Considering what was written about the artillerymen, it is possible that Parsky mentions this particular person! drinks
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 21 May 2021 15: 26
            0
            Quote: Pane Kohanku
            the battery of a certain Shpakovsky.
            And here is a clipping from the émigré magazine Chasovoy from the 20s. An article about the Mikhailovsky Artillery School. Bottom right - the address of the "school" in Paris - W. Chpakowsky, 4, rue Bertrand. Paris, 7. And the signature in Russian: "V. S-kiy".

            Thanks Nikolay hi

            The surname was not very rare ...
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 21 May 2021 15: 50
              +2
              The surname was not very rare ...

              Either someone has a time machine! wink drinks
  • Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 21 May 2021 08: 51
    +1
    However, any description is subjective, and therefore not entirely true. What remains is a document that is more reliable than a description, since its purpose is precisely the accurate transmission of information.
    Author, what are you smoking? You seem to be a humanist, should be guided in formal logic ?! I have not read such nonsense for a long time, where every two words contradict the next two. Plague...
  • place
    place 24 May 2021 18: 29
    0
    The AUTHOR pats the FOUNDER of the Russian Federation and the USSR on the shoulder condescendingly and solidly; "Which, by the way, Lenin took advantage of when he wrote his famous book" The Development of Capitalism in Russia. " The number of teachers who suffered from tuberculosis and barbarism. Gymnasium students were suicides ... No one really made any conclusions, with rare exceptions. "

    Yeah, where would he stupid conclusions to draw!

    Probably, the author himself founded something and is terribly proud of it. !
    And Lenin "only" substantiated his assertion that Russia does not have "its own special path." It follows the same path as Europe, only it is lagging behind. Therefore, one can even hope that someday the Russians will create their own workers' party ... or at least start to go to the elections, and not explain their "position" with the thesis; "and for whom else ... ? ". But so far these good times have not yet come ...
    which is clearly evident in the amazing comments from the readers. People of great mind!