Military Review

Single-engine Japanese fighters against long-range American B-29 bombers

145

In the two previous parts of the series, devoted to the Japanese air defense system, it was about anti-aircraft artillery, which, due to its weakness, was unable to counter the American long-range bombers B-29 Superfortress. In the next two parts, we will talk about Japanese interceptor fighters and their successes in repelling the raids of the Superfortresses. But, before we talk about the army and naval Japanese fighters, it will be appropriate to briefly talk about the bomber they were trying to fight.


Flight performance of the American long-range bomber B-29 Superfortress


For its time, the B-29 was an outstanding machine, in which the most advanced achievements of the American aviation industry.

Single-engine Japanese fighters against long-range American B-29 bombers
B-29 of the first series, painted in olive color

The first flight of the Boeing Super Fortress took place on September 21, 1942. Serial production began in December 1943, operation in May 1944. Until mass production ceased in October 1945, 3627 bombers were assembled at four aircraft factories.


Due to the fact that the military wanted to get a heavy bomber with a maximum speed of more than 600 km / h, the aircraft had a streamlined fuselage of a circular cross-section. The long flight range was provided by the mid-wing of a large aspect ratio, in which the fuel tanks were located. Taking into account the fuel tanks in the fuselage, the aircraft could take on board 35 liters of gasoline. All tanks had multilayer walls, providing self-sealing in the event of a hole.

Eleven crew members (pilot, co-pilot, flight engineer, navigator, radio operator, radar operator, navigator-bombardier, 4 gunners) were located in fairly comfortable pressurized cabins.

Since the bomber had to operate at a great distance from its bases, he could not count on constant accompaniment by his fighters. In this regard, the B-29 had a very powerful defensive armament, placed in mobile turret mounts, with remote guidance from an automated rifle sight, the use of which made it possible to increase the firing efficiency by 1,5 times. When firing at one air target, it was possible to aim several firing points at it. In addition, the arrows could transfer control to each other, depending on the position of the target.


The layout of the shooters and firing points. The integrated fire control system allowed the gunner to control the corresponding turrets with the best view. In addition, if the shooter was incapacitated, another crew member could control his firing points.

In total, there were five turrets providing a circular shelling of the airspace: two above the fuselage, two under the fuselage and the tail. Each turret was armed with 12,7 mm machine guns with an ammunition capacity of 500 rounds per barrel.


Initially, the turrets contained two 12,7 mm machine guns. Since the Japanese fighters were actively practicing a frontal attack, the number of machine guns in the upper front turret was brought to four.


In the stern installation, in addition to machine guns, there could be a 20-mm cannon with an ammunition load of 100 shells. Subsequently, on later modifications of the B-29, the 20 mm cannon was abandoned, replacing it with a 12,7 mm machine gun.

In total, the aircraft had four shooters' workplaces: one in the bow and three in the rear pressurized cabin. Sights were displayed under transparent domes. Two domes were located on the sides, one in the upper part of the fuselage. The shooter of the tail defensive installation was inside it.


Aviation 12,7 mm machine gun .50 Browning AN / M2

The 12,7mm .50 Browning AN / M2 machine gun was very effective. weapons... Without ammunition, it weighed 29 kg, length - 1450 mm. The muzzle velocity of a bullet weighing 46,7 g was 858 m / s. Effective range at fast moving air targets - up to 500 m. Rate of fire - 800 rds / min. According to the Americans, at a distance of 700 m, a 50-caliber bullet pierced the cylinder block of a Japanese aircraft engine.

An official US report, covering the period from August 1944 to August 1945, states that the B-29 crews, having flown more than 32000 sorties, scored 914 victories. Most likely, the data on the number of Japanese interceptors shot down by turret guns is greatly exaggerated. Still, it should be admitted that the "Superfortress" possessed very effective defensive weapons, which were several times superior to the firepower of any Japanese fighter.

Not only the weapons, but also the flight data of the "Superfortress" were also at their best. In hostilities against Japan, bombers of modifications were used: B-29, B-29A and B-29B. Depending on the model, the maximum take-off weight was 61235–62142 kg. Maximum speed at 7020 m: 586–611 km / h. Cruising speed: 330-402 km / h. Service ceiling: 9700-10600 m. Maximum bomb load: 9072-10342 kg. Combat radius: 2575-2900 km. Ferry range: more than 8300 km.


The most advanced communication and sighting and navigation equipment was installed on the Super Fortress. For example, aircraft of the B-29B modification were equipped with AN / APQ-7 type radar, which made it possible to carry out bombing with a sufficiently high accuracy at targets that were not observable visually. Aircraft of the B-29B modification were also equipped with the AN / APQ-15B radar, coupled with the sight of the aft rifle mount. This radar was used to detect enemy fighters attacking from the rear hemisphere.

B-29 bombers of the early series had a lot of "childhood sores". Each bomber was equipped with four Wright R-3350 air-cooled engines with a capacity of 2200 hp. from. And at first, these motors presented a lot of problems. In the first combat missions, the engines often failed or even ignited, which, combined with the insufficient flight experience of the pilots, led to losses. At the first stage, for every "Superfortress" shot down by Japanese air defense systems, there were 3-4 aircraft lost as a result of flight accidents caused by technical reasons or flight crew errors.


A lot of "Superfortresses" crashed during landing after completing a combat mission. Eleven B-29s based in the Mariana Islands were destroyed in bombing raids by Japanese aircraft stationed in Iwo Jima.

Subsequently, as the qualifications of the pilots grew and they gained the necessary experience, the number of incidents decreased. And the capture of Iwo Jima and the total bombing of Japanese airfields by the Americans made it possible to prevent retaliatory attacks by Japanese bombers. However, indirect losses in combat missions were still greater than those from Japanese anti-aircraft guns and fighters. On average, the Superfortresses lost less than 1,5% of the number of crews that took part in combat missions. But in the first raids, losses approached 5% of the total number of B-29s involved in the raid.
By mid-1945, the aircraft wings, equipped with B-29s, reached their peak combat effectiveness. The frequency and force of the Superfortresses' blows increased systematically. Optimal tactics were developed, the crews gained the necessary experience, and the reliability of the equipment was brought to the required level.


In July 1945, B-29s made 6697 sorties and dropped 43 tons of bombs. Bombing accuracy increased, and losses from enemy countermeasures dropped sharply. More than 000% of the bombings were carried out according to airborne radars.

During the period of military activity against the Japanese islands, the "Superfortress" of the 20th Aviation Army dropped 170 tons of bombs and sea mines, and flew 000 sorties. For combat reasons, 32 aircraft and 600 crew members were lost. The total losses of the B-133s of the 293th and 29st Bomber Commands were 20 ​​aircraft.

After the start of the Superfortresses' raids on the Japanese islands, it became clear that the Japanese air defense forces have very few fighters at their disposal, capable of confidently intercepting the B-29. The victories won by the pilots of the Japanese interceptors in repelling the first American raids are largely due to the inexperience of the American crews and the wrong tactics of using the high-speed and high-altitude bomber.

The reluctance of Japanese fighter aircraft to counter the B-29 raids is largely due to the views of the Japanese command about what army and naval fighters should be like. The concept of aerial combat by high-ranking Japanese military personnel was based on the experience of the First World War, when fighter planes converged in a "dump for dogs." From the creators of fighters, first of all, they were required to provide excellent maneuverability, and altitude characteristics and rate of climb were considered secondary. As a result, the high speed and powerful armament of the light nimble monoplane were sacrificed for maneuverability.

Fighter Ki-43 Hayabusa


A striking example of this approach is the most massive Japanese fighter during the Second World War - the Ki-43 Hayabusa. This aircraft, created by the Nakajima firm in 1939, was produced in the number of more than 5900 copies.


Fighter Ki-43

Since December 1941, this aircraft took part in the battles in Malaya, Burma. And from the end of 1942 he became the main fighter of the Imperial Army. And he actively fought until the surrender of Japan. While in serial production, Hayabusa was consistently modernized. The Ki-43-I fighter, armed with two rifle-caliber machine guns, could accelerate to 495 km / h in horizontal flight. An improved modification of the Ki-43-IIb with a maximum take-off weight of 2925 kg was armed with a pair of 12,7 mm machine guns. Maximum speed after installing the 1150 hp engine. from. increased to 530 km / h.


Fighter Ki-43 in camouflage with PTB

Ki-43 fighters of all production variants were relatively cheap, easy to operate and could be quickly mastered by intermediate pilots. A number of Ki-43s of the later series were used in units providing air defense of the Japanese islands. However, given the weakness of the weaponry and the fact that the maximum flight speed of the Hayabusa was inferior to all modifications of the B-29, this fighter in most cases had a chance of winning, attacking the bomber from the front hemisphere. To do this, it was necessary first to take an advantageous position, which in practice did not happen often. Given the high survivability of the Superfortress, two machine guns in most cases were not enough to inflict fatal damage on the bomber. And Japanese pilots often rammed.

Thus, after the start of the B-29 raids on Japan, a situation arose when large, tenacious, high-speed and well-armed four-engine aircraft capable of carrying tons of bombs were opposed by weakly armed and very vulnerable to combat damage "aerial acrobats", who even at the end of the war more than half of the Japanese fighter regiments were armed.

Fighter A6M Zero


Perhaps the most famous Japanese fighter jet during WWII is the Mitsubishi A6M Zero. At the first stage of hostilities, he was a formidable enemy for all American combat aircraft. Although the Zero had an engine that was less powerful than that of the Allied fighters, due to the extremely lightweight design, this Japanese fighter was superior to enemy vehicles in speed and maneuverability. The design of the "Zero" successfully combined small size and low specific wing loading with excellent controllability and a long range.

Operation of the Zero began in August 1940. In total, 1945 aircraft were built by August 10. This naval fighter was very widely used in all areas of hostilities, flying from the decks of aircraft carriers and from land airfields.


A6M3 fighters over the Solomon Islands

The A6M3 Mod 32 fighter, released in July 1942, had a maximum takeoff weight of 2757 kg. And with a 1130 hp engine. from. in horizontal flight, it could reach a speed of 540 km / h. Armament: two 7,7 mm machine guns and two 20 mm cannons.

The A6M5 Mod 52 fighter, which entered combat units in the fall of 1943, had several weapon options:

- two 7,7 mm machine guns and two 20 mm cannons;
- one 7,7 mm machine gun, one 13,2 mm machine gun and two 20 mm cannons;
- two 13,2 mm machine guns and two 20 mm cannons.

Several A6M5 Model 52s in combat units were converted into night fighters. The standard machine-gun armament was dismantled, and a 20-mm cannon was installed behind the cockpit, firing forward and upward.


Fighter A6M5 Model 52

When repelling the B-29 raids, Japanese Navy fighters, in addition to machine gun and cannon armament, used other means of destruction. For "Zero" was developed a suspension of ten "air bombs" with a remote fuse. Thus, the Japanese tried to fight the Super Fortresses without entering the deadly fire zone of their defensive 12,7mm turrets.

The Type 99-Shiki 3-Gou 3-Shusei-Dan phosphorus bomb weighed 32 kg when loaded. In addition to white phosphorus granules, such a bomb contained 169-198 steel balls. The tail section also contained a charge of explosives - picric acid weighing 1,5 kg.


Air explosions of phosphorus bombs near B-29

There is a lot of evidence from American pilots about the use of such bombs by the Japanese. The phosphorus explosion was very effective, but usually completely harmless. The only benefit of using these bombs was to blind the bomber crews. The radius of destruction of the finished slaughter elements did not exceed 20 m (relatively small), and the incendiary effect of phosphorus was effective only if the target was below the break point. In addition, for the pilots of the Zero fighters, it was a great success to take a position for an attack above the B-29 marching formation, and in this case they had a chance of success using the machine guns and cannons on the plane.

When repelling the B-29 raids on Japan, it turned out that the Zero was generally ineffective as an interceptor fighter. At an altitude of 6000 m, the fastest serial modification, the A6M5 Model 52, developed 565 km / h. And it was not much faster than the army "Hayabusa", significantly surpassing it only in terms of weapons. The main naval Japanese fighter could relatively successfully fight American heavy bombers attacking residential areas with "lighters" from low altitude. But it was very difficult to detect the "Superfortress" visually in the dark.

Fighter Ki-44 Shoki


The first Japanese single-engine specialized air defense fighter was the Ki-44 Shoki. This aircraft made its first flight in August 1940. And in December 1941, an experimental batch of fighters was sent to Indochina for testing in combat conditions.


Fighter Ki-44-I early release

Unlike previously produced Japanese fighters, when designing the Shoki, the main emphasis was on speed and rate of climb. The designers of the Nakajima company attempted to create an interceptor capable of developing a speed of at least 5000 km / h at an altitude of 600 m. The time to climb this height should have been less than 5 minutes. To achieve the required characteristics, an air-cooled aircraft engine with a capacity of 1 liters was used. from. Much attention was paid to aerodynamics. The fuselage from the engine mount was rapidly narrowing towards the rear. A teardrop-shaped lantern, a retractable landing gear and a three-bladed variable-pitch propeller were used. The Shoki's wing loading was significantly higher than that of other Japanese fighters.


Japanese pilots accustomed to highly maneuverable aircraft called the Ki-44 a "flying log". However, this approach was highly subjective. In terms of maneuverability, the Shoki was no worse than many American fighters. The maximum horizontal flight speed of the Ki-44-Ia at an altitude of 3800 m was 585 km / h.

It was quite logical to improve the "Shoki" by increasing the speed characteristics and strengthening the armament. A 44 hp engine was installed on the Ki-1520-II modification. from. The serial Ki-44-IIa carried armament consisting of two 7,7 mm machine guns and two 12,7 mm machine guns. The Ki-44-IIb received four 12,7mm machine guns or two heavy machine guns and two 20mm cannons. The Ki-29-IIc interceptor with very powerful weapons was produced specifically to combat the B-44. Some fighters of this variant had two 12,7 mm machine guns and two 37 mm wing cannons. Some of the vehicles were equipped with 40-mm Ho-301 cannons with caseless shells, in which the propellant charge was pressed into the bottom of the projectile. Such a projectile weighing 590 g had an initial velocity of 245 m / s and an effective firing range of 150 m. When a 40-mm projectile containing 68 g of explosives hit, a hole with a diameter of up to 70-80 cm was formed in the aircraft skin. However, in order to achieve hits , it was required to get very close to the attacked aircraft.


Fighter Ki-44-II

The maximum takeoff weight of the Ki-44-IIb was 2764 kg. At an altitude of 4500 m, the fighter developed 612 km / h. Flight range - 1295 km. An interceptor with such characteristics, subject to mass use, was able to fight the B-29 during daylight hours. Sometimes the Shoki pilots managed to achieve good results. So, on November 24, 1944, Ki-44 destroyed 5 and damaged 9 "Superfortresses". At night, the pilot could only rely on his eyesight. And the Japanese had few pilots trained to intercept in the dark.

After American bombers flying during the day began to escort the P-51D Mustangs, the pilots of the Japanese daytime interceptors fell on hard times. "Shoki" in all respects lost to "Mustang". Nevertheless, Ki-44s continued to be used until the end of the war. In August 1945, three regiments were based in Japan, fully equipped with these machines. In total, taking into account prototypes, 1225 Ki-44 fighters were built.

Fighter Ki-84 Hayate


To replace the aging Ki-43 Hayabusa fighter, Nakajima engineers created a new Ki-1943 Hayate fighter in mid-84. This combat aircraft, which appeared at the front in August 1944, turned out to be an unpleasant surprise for the Americans and the British. At low and medium altitudes, in speed and maneuverability, it was not inferior to the most modern Allied fighters. From mid-1943 to August 1945, 3514 Ki-84 fighters were built.


Fighter Ki-84

Serial Ki-84-Ia were equipped with 1970 hp air-cooled engines. from. Normal takeoff weight of the fighter was 3602 kg, maximum - 4170 kg. The maximum flight speed is 670 km / h. The service ceiling is 11500 m. The flight range is 1255 km. Armament: two 12,7-mm machine guns with 350 rounds of ammunition per barrel in the upper front of the fuselage and two 20-mm cannons with 150 rounds of ammunition per barrel in the wings. The later series machine was armed with four 20 mm cannons. By Japanese standards, the Hayate had good protection for the pilot: an armored backrest with a headrest and a canopy made of bulletproof glass. However, there was no emergency discharge of the lantern and fire-fighting equipment on the plane.


The late production aircraft, known as the Ki-84 Kai and intended for use as air defense interceptors, received the Ha-45-23 engine, which developed a power of 2000 hp. from. Built-in armament included four cannons: two - 20-mm caliber and two - 30-mm caliber.

Fortunately for the B-29 crews involved in air raids on Japanese cities, there were few Ki-84 Kai interceptors in the Japanese air defense system. The combat value of this fighter was greatly reduced by numerous manufacturing defects. The engines did not produce the declared power, which, in combination with the roughness of the skin, limited the maximum speed. In the last year of the war in Japan, there was an acute shortage of high-octane gasoline. And this also negatively affected the combat effectiveness of the interceptors.

Fighter Ki-61 Hien


At the final stage of the war, the Japanese transferred their new front-line fighter Ki-61 Hien to interceptors. This aircraft of the Kawasaki company was in serial production from the end of 1942 to July 1945. The issue was 3078 copies.


Fighter Ki-61

The appearance of the Ki-61 became possible after the Kawasaki company acquired a license for the German Daimler-Benz DB 601A liquid-cooled engine installed on the Messerschmitts. Japanese V-shaped, 12-cylinder engine with a capacity of 1175 hp. from. produced under the designation Ha-40.

The use of a liquid-cooled engine made it possible to improve the aerodynamic qualities of the fighter. The speed of Ki-61 of various modifications ranged from 590 to 610 km / h, ascent to an altitude of 5 km - from 6 to 5,5 minutes. The ceiling is over 11 m.

Unlike many other Japanese fighters, this aircraft dived well. Sufficiently high power and relatively low weight of the engine, combined with a streamlined shape, made it possible to make "Hien" not only high-speed. A good thrust-to-weight ratio made it possible to increase the weight of the structure without cardinal loss of flight data and to install fireproof partitions, bulletproof glass and armored back of the pilot's seat on this fighter, as well as to protect fuel tanks. As a result, the Ki-61 became the first Japanese fighter on which measures to increase combat survivability were sufficiently implemented. In addition, in addition to good speed data, "Hien" had good maneuverability. The flight range reached 600 km, with an outboard fuel tank - 1100 km.


The first production Ki-61-Ia carried two 7,7 mm and two 12,7 mm machine guns. Subsequently, four 61 mm machine guns were installed on the Ki-12,7-Ib. Ki-61-Iс, in addition to two 12,7 mm machine guns, received two German wing 20 mm MG 151/20 cannons. On the Ki-61-Id, the fuselage was lengthened, control was simplified, many components were lightened, the tail wheel was not retractable. Armament: two synchronous 12,7 mm machine guns in the fuselage and two 20 mm cannons in the wing.

The upgraded Ki-61-II was powered by the Ha-140 engine, which was increased to 1500 hp. from. There were two options for weapons - the standard Ki-61-IIa: two 12,7 mm machine guns and two 20 mm cannons, and the reinforced Ki-61-IIb: four 20 mm cannons.


The upgraded Hien with a new engine of increased power was the only Japanese fighter capable of effectively operating at high altitude against the Super Fortresses. But successful interception was often hampered by the low reliability of the boosted Ha-140 engine.

From the very beginning, the introduction of the Ki-61 into service led to a number of difficulties. The Japanese ground technical staff had no experience in the operation and maintenance of liquid-cooled aircraft engines. This was compounded by manufacturing defects in the engines. And "Hien" had a bad reputation in the first stage. After the technical reliability of the engines was brought to an acceptable level, the Ki-61 began to pose a serious threat to all American combat aircraft without exception. Despite the negative attitude of the technical staff, the pilots loved this fighter. The Americans noted that, due to better protection and good speed characteristics, the Ki-61 in most cases behaved more aggressively than other light Japanese fighters.

Taking into account the critical losses from the B-29 turrets, in December 1944, Ki-61 pilots began using the Shinten Seikutai (Striking Sky) ramming tactics. At the same time, in most cases, it was not a question of suicidal attacks - a ramming strike was supposed to inflict critical damage on an American bomber, after which the pilot of a Japanese fighter had to either land his damaged car or jump out with a parachute. This tactic was based on close interaction of "ramming" fighters with conventional ones, which made it possible to achieve success. However, in April 1945 (after the capture of Iwo Jima), the Americans were able to accompany their long-range bombers with P-51D Mustang fighters. This dramatically reduced the effectiveness of the Japanese interceptors.

In June-July 1945, the activity of units armed with Ki-61 decreased significantly - in previous battles they suffered heavy losses, and the production of aircraft of this type ceased. In addition, in anticipation of the landing of an American landing on the Japanese islands, an order was issued prohibiting engaging in battle with superior enemy forces. In the conditions of the enemy's dominance in the sky, the surviving Ki-61 were saved to repel the American invasion. In early August, there were 53 combat-ready Ki-61s in Japan.

Fighter Ki-100


Production volumes of the Ki-61 were largely constrained by a shortage of liquid-cooled aircraft engines. In this regard, on the basis of the Ki-61, the Ki-100 fighter with a 14-cylinder air-cooled Ha-112 engine with a capacity of 1500 hp was developed. from.


Fighter Ki-100-Ia

The air-cooled engine had more drag. The maximum speed of the production Ki-100-Ia dropped in comparison with the latest Ki-61 by 15-20 km / h at all altitudes. But on the other hand, thanks to a decrease in weight and an increase in power density, maneuverability and climb rate have improved significantly. The flight range has also increased - up to 1400 (2200 km with outboard tanks). The altitude characteristics (compared to the Ki-61-II) remained practically unchanged. The later version of the Ki-100-Ib featured improved aerodynamics and a teardrop-shaped canopy.


Fighter Ki-100-Ib

The armament remained the same as on the bulk of the Ki-61-II: two 12,7 mm machine guns and two 20 mm cannons. Ki-100 production began in March 1945. And it ended in mid-July, after the B-29 bombed the plant where the assembly was carried out. The Ki-100 fighters managed to produce only 389 copies. And they did not have a noticeable effect on the course of air battles.

In the next part of the review devoted to stories air defense systems of Japan, we will talk about heavy twin-engine Japanese fighter-interceptors. The tactics of Japanese air defense fighters and their role in countering raids by American heavy bombers will be briefly discussed.

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Actions of American strategic bombers against Japan
Actions of American aviation against the Japanese islands at the final stage of the war
Japanese small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery
Japanese anti-aircraft artillery of medium and large caliber
145 comments
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  1. Anzhey V.
    Anzhey V. 21 May 2021 18: 05
    +14
    Thank you so much for another interesting article, Sergey!)
    1. Proxima
      Proxima 21 May 2021 19: 23
      +12
      "The muzzle velocity of a bullet weighing 46,7 g was 56 belay m / s "- from the text. Well, Sergei, explain to your girl editor that the power of an air-cooled engine of 250 hp is clearly too small, and so
      Quote: Anjay V.
      Thank you so much for another interesting article, Sergey!)

      JOIN! hi
      1. zyablik.olga
        zyablik.olga 22 May 2021 01: 32
        +14
        Quote: Proxima
        Well, Sergei, explain to your little girl editor that the power of the air-cooled aircraft engine is 250 hp. clearly too small,

        I'm not guilty... repeat lately I have no time to do editing. The family business consumes all free time.
    2. yehat2
      yehat2 24 May 2021 16: 25
      0
      I join, but ... in the story, I did not see in the description a number of important projects to solve the issue radically - a car with an anti-aircraft machine gun on board, a J7W1 Shinden with a propeller at the back and its second version - in the future with a jet engine, as well as J4M also with rear propeller and also the prospect of a jet engine.
      In addition, the Japanese have been preparing the release of their Me-44 Schwalbe since 262 - but in the summer of 1945, the first jet engine only appeared.
      In general, without these projects, the picture looks incomplete, in my opinion.
      the same J7w1 began flight tests in early May 1945, 4 months before the end of the war.
      But this machine in the fall could already begin to solve the problems of "fortresses".
      1. Bongo
        26 May 2021 03: 20
        +2
        Quote: yehat2
        I join, but ... in the story, I did not see in the description a number of important projects to solve the issue radically - a car with an anti-aircraft machine gun on board, a J7W1 Shinden with a propeller at the back and its second version - in the future with a jet engine, as well as J4M also with rear propeller and also the prospect of a jet engine.
        In addition, the Japanese have been preparing the release of their Me-44 Schwalbe since 262 - but in the summer of 1945, the first jet engine only appeared.
        In general, without these projects, the picture looks incomplete, in my opinion.
        the same J7w1 began flight tests in early May 1945, 4 months before the end of the war.
        But this machine in the fall could already begin to solve the problems of "fortresses".

        Sorry, but this publication, like the entire cycle, is devoted to real samples, put into service and participating in hostilities. hi
  2. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 21 May 2021 18: 10
    +11
    Thank you, Sergey. Interesting, but, in my opinion, the first part (with the description of B29 is slightly prolonged ...).
    And some kind of error with the initial speed of the bullet from the "Browning".
    And so - interesting, as always.
  3. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 21 May 2021 18: 23
    +4
    Yes, with motors, or rather with their production, the Japanese had a complete failure. Well, 12,7 and 20 mm, and even one or two pieces for the B-29 is completely unconvincing.
  4. Thrifty
    Thrifty 21 May 2021 18: 23
    +6
    Sergei hi as always, write interesting and informative! The question is, why was there such a variety of fighters at all? Was it difficult to choose a couple of models and saturate the troops with them, or was there a desire to promote "your" model by the manufacturer?
    1. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 21 May 2021 18: 36
      +12
      Quote: Thrifty
      The question is, why was there such a variety of fighters at all?
      6 models of single-engine engines (according to the article) during the whole war, as it is not very much, we, without taking into account the I-16, already had 4 not even models but "brands": MiG; LaGG; Yak and La. Well, the naval and army rivalry of the Japanese not only produced different fighters, they had different submarines, naval and army !!!. laughing
      1. Alf
        Alf 21 May 2021 19: 05
        +8
        Quote: Vladimir_2U
        Well, the naval and army rivalry of the Japanese not only produced different fighters, they had different submarines, naval and army !!!.

        The Navy created the Type 100 submachine gun, the army built submarines ... the Japanese military was not bored ...
        Quote: Vladimir_2U
        we, without taking into account the I-16, had as many as 4 not even models but "brands": MiG; LaGG; Yak and La.

        MIG was quickly removed, Lagg smoothly developed into La, Yak, by and large, one and the same machine with minor upgrades.
        1. Vladimir_2U
          Vladimir_2U 21 May 2021 21: 20
          +4
          Quote: Alf
          MIG was quickly removed, Lagg smoothly developed into La, Yak, by and large, one and the same machine with minor upgrades.
          But the MiG fought, changing the in-line water motor to an air star, while losing two designers as you like but not smoothly, and according to the Yak, "minor upgrades" are especially noticeable when comparing the Yak-1 and Yak-9.
          1. unknown
            unknown 22 May 2021 08: 54
            +2
            In fact, Jacob had two families "light" and "heavy". This is not one machine with minor upgrades.
          2. Alf
            Alf 22 May 2021 22: 22
            0
            Quote: Vladimir_2U
            change the in-line water motor to an air star, while losing two constructors as you like but not smoothly,

            The M-105 was replaced by the M-82, but the glider remained the same.
            Quote: Vladimir_2U
            and for Yak, "minor upgrades" are especially noticeable when comparing Yak-1 and Yak-9.

            And what are the "big" differences? Even the engine remained the same, M-105.
            From the Yak-1 they made the training Yak-7, then from the Yak-7 they made the Yak-9, there were no fundamental differences.
            1. yehat2
              yehat2 24 May 2021 16: 39
              +2
              Quote: Alf
              there were no fundamental differences.

              Yak consistently strengthened the glider due to the greater use of duralumin, corrected childhood illnesses, strengthened weapons, improved equipment in the cockpit, and improved operational capabilities.
              The Yak-1 of 1941 in the summer of the year was much worse than the Yak a year later.
              And the Yak-9 is just 2 heads better than the first version.
              Formally, nothing seems to have changed - the same engine, the same armament, almost the same weight, but the vehicle has become radically more efficient, actually reaching the level of technical sophistication of the bf-109. The only thing I don't like is the lack of automatic motor control. It could have been done in 5 years.
              1. Alf
                Alf 24 May 2021 20: 02
                0
                Quote: yehat2
                Yak consistently

                So that's exactly what I meant. The fact that the YaK-1 was consistently improved, stretched, completed, but
                Jacob had two families "light" and "heavy"
                there were no "two families".
                1. yehat2
                  yehat2 25 May 2021 08: 03
                  0
                  Lavochkin the second
                  1. Alf
                    Alf 25 May 2021 20: 50
                    0
                    Quote: yehat2
                    Lavochkin the second

                    Can you tell us more about this super-secret plane?
        2. hohol95
          hohol95 21 May 2021 22: 49
          0
          This is if without our own pre-war and imported equipment!
      2. yehat2
        yehat2 24 May 2021 16: 32
        +1
        Quote: Vladimir_2U
        we, without taking into account the I-16, had as many as 4 not even models but "brands": MiG; LaGG; Yak and La.

        well, the I-16 was already being written off
        in fact, for the summer of 41 we had a significant fleet of mig-s and the unfolding production of yak-1 and lugg. Lugg mimicked in La-5. We can assume that this is the same ruler.
        And out of 5 types, we come to 3, and already in 42, in fact, to 2 main lines of cars (yak-1 and la-5) + a considerable zoo of other cars in small numbers (including lend-lease).
        Let me remind you that even the I-42 (air regiment from the Caucasus) fought quite successfully in 44-153.
  5. rocket757
    rocket757 21 May 2021 18: 51
    +5
    Interesting, educational ... good work.
  6. Evil troll
    Evil troll 21 May 2021 18: 55
    +3
    What about Ryden? Siden-kai?
    1. Vladimir Mashkov
      Vladimir Mashkov 21 May 2021 21: 28
      +1
      Quote: Angry Troll
      What about Ryden? Siden-kai?

      I guess everything you mention and the commentators below will be in the second part.

      And the author many thanks for a sensible and informative article. I wanted to postpone it for later, but I read it without stopping to the end. We are waiting for the continuation! smile
      1. Evil troll
        Evil troll 21 May 2021 22: 14
        +1
        Let's see, although in the second part the author is going to consider already twin-engine fighters.
    2. zyablik.olga
      zyablik.olga 22 May 2021 01: 34
      +2
      Quote: Angry Troll
      What about Ryden? Siden-kai?

      As far as I know, the author wrote only about those fighters that actually fought against the B-29 in the Japanese metropolis.
  7. Undecim
    Undecim 21 May 2021 19: 31
    +13
    For some reason, the author left several types of fighters, very good ones, behind the scenes.
    The Kawanishi N1K-J Shiden is one of the finest Japanese fighters of the Second World War. During the period 1943-1945, 1532 vehicles were built.

    Had a maximum speed of 656 km / h at an altitude of 6000 m, a ceiling of 12 m, an armament of four
    20mm cannons.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 21 May 2021 19: 42
      +13
      To combat the B-29, the Mitsubishi J2M Raiden fighter-interceptor was developed.

      621 fighters were produced. Maximum speed at an altitude of 5300 m - 587 km / h, ceiling - 11700 m, armament - four 20-mm cannons.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 21 May 2021 19: 51
        +11
        It was also worth mentioning the attempt to create a replacement for the A6M Zero - the Mitsubishi A7M Reppū fighter.

        The aircraft had a speed of 628 km / h, a ceiling of 10900 meters and four 20-mm cannons. Only ten of them managed to collect them.
        1. KKND
          KKND 21 May 2021 22: 03
          +4
          Excuse my curiosity, but have you ever been a Curious user before?
          And I just "go nuts" from your knowledge in many areas, but I am overcome by one question, do you know how to do something specific, difficult to do with your head or hands at the level of a specialist?
          In no case do I want to belittle anyone, but I am interested in drawing a picture of life.
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 21 May 2021 22: 16
            +3
            Have you ever been a Curious user before?

            Was. For the rest, if interested, I can answer in a personal.
            1. KKND
              KKND 21 May 2021 22: 35
              +4
              Well, just write in a personal if you know how to do something and how much more complicated it is possible without specifics, I believe that you will not cheat.
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 21 May 2021 22: 36
                +3
                Ok, just write in a personal

                Posted
        2. zyablik.olga
          zyablik.olga 22 May 2021 01: 34
          +4
          Quote: Undecim
          It was also worth mentioning the attempt to create a replacement for the A6M Zero - the Mitsubishi A7M Reppū fighter.

          Quote: zyablik.olga
          As far as I know, the author wrote only about those fighters that actually fought against the B-29 in the Japanese metropolis.
  8. Knell wardenheart
    Knell wardenheart 21 May 2021 19: 46
    +5
    Thanks for the next article in the cycle! What amazes me is why the Japanese, in the face of a severe lack of resources, wasted them on such a wide range of aircraft?
    It is a pity that the author, in describing Japanese fighters, did not casually touch on the materials of their manufacture, I heard that Japan had a terrible duralumin hunger in the last year of the war and they experimented with composites, wood and almost chipboard ..
  9. Usher
    Usher 21 May 2021 20: 21
    -7
    All tanks had multilayer walls, providing self-sealing in the event of a hole.
    and just write that the tanks are protected?
    1. KKND
      KKND 22 May 2021 02: 29
      +5
      Quote: Usher
      and just write that the tanks are protected?

      The tanks can be self-sealing, or they can be protected from water hammer, for example.
  10. Constanty
    Constanty 21 May 2021 20: 28
    +3
    A prime example of this approach is the most massive Japanese fighter during World War II - Ki-43 Hayabusa... This plane, created by Nakajima in 1939, has been released in an amount of over 5900 copies
    .

    the word "armies" is missing here to make it true, especially as we read later:

    Exploitation "Zero”Began in August 1940. In total, 1945 aircraft were built by August 10..
  11. Catfish
    Catfish 21 May 2021 20: 33
    +6
    Good evening all! hi
    Except how about "Zero" I didn't really know anything about Japanese fighters, thanks to Sergey, he enlightened very specifically. I generally read his articles as fascinating novels, although they are purely technical. A person knows how to write! good
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 21 May 2021 20: 43
      +5
      The first attempt to insert a photo failed, I will try it most times.

    2. hohol95
      hohol95 21 May 2021 22: 54
      +2
      You have not read the magazine "Modelist-Constructor" in the 90s. In those "troubled years" and began to publish articles about the military equipment of the Third Reich and Imperial Japan
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 21 May 2021 22: 59
        +4
        Why haven't you read it? Was reading. Only I was always more interested in the shooter, and the rest from time to time. But even in Soviet times I bought books on any military topic from Druzhba, although there was, of course, a terrible problem with translation.
      2. unknown
        unknown 22 May 2021 09: 02
        +3
        And also the magazine "Wings of the Motherland".
        The first large series "Aircraft of the Second World War" was published in this edition in 1973-1975.
        True, it was written in the Soviet way, with a significant underestimation of the characteristics of Western technology and an exaggeration of the characteristics of domestic technology.
        Over time, the situation improved.
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 22 May 2021 10: 22
          0
          I doubt that there was such a magazine in simple libraries. And by the time I learned to read it might have been gone. hi
        2. Captain Pushkin
          Captain Pushkin 22 May 2021 15: 51
          +2
          Since perestroika times, you can add the magazines Aviation and Cosmonautics and Technics and Armaments.
      3. Captain Pushkin
        Captain Pushkin 22 May 2021 15: 46
        +1
        In 1996, the department of scientific and technical information of TsAGI in the series "History of aviation technology" was released in three parts "Aviation of Japan in the Second World War".
        The first part - Aichi, Yokosuka, Kawasaki.
        The second part is Kawanishi, Kayaba, Kokusai, Kyushu and Mitsubishi.
        The rest of the firms are in the third.
    3. zyablik.olga
      zyablik.olga 22 May 2021 01: 40
      +8
      Quote: Sea Cat
      I generally read his articles as fascinating novels, although they are purely technical. A person knows how to write!

      Konstantin, hello! smile
      Seryozha has practically no free time to write. Today I went fishing again, although we practically do not eat fish, and everything goes to friends and acquaintances.
      All articles are done at night, until the cat gets tired of it and starts to lay him down. Due to the lack of time, flaws inevitably arise. I am glad that readers do not perceive this too sharply.
      1. KKND
        KKND 22 May 2021 02: 17
        +4
        Quote: zyablik.olga
        Seryozha has practically no free time to write.

        Very sorry crying
        Quote: zyablik.olga
        Today I went fishing again, although we practically do not eat fish, and everything goes to friends and acquaintances.

        Under no circumstances take the fishing rod away from him. It is not the fish that is important here, but the very opportunity to relax. Let him go back if no one wants to take.
        1. zyablik.olga
          zyablik.olga 23 May 2021 10: 43
          +3
          Quote: KKND
          Under no circumstances take the fishing rod away from him. It is not the fish that is important here, but the very opportunity to relax. Let him go back if no one wants to take.

          It is impossible to take the tackle from my husband; cars, boats and engines would have to be confiscated along with them. Given its not the easiest nature, and the rather difficult job of fishing and hunting, Seryozha is an opportunity to rest his soul. In any case, it is better than relieving stress with alcohol.
          1. Bongo
            23 May 2021 13: 25
            +4
            Quote: zyablik.olga
            It is impossible to take the tackle from my husband; cars, boats and engines would have to be confiscated along with them.

            Well, yes ... you forgot about the guns ... lol
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 22 May 2021 13: 40
        +3
        Olga, good afternoon! love
        "The hunt is worse than bondage." (I'm talking about fishing) smile It is very good that Sergei manages to do everything, to which his heart lies, even in spite of the vigilant supervision of the cat. smile
        I roll over to read about the twin-engine Japanese, already posted.
        Good luck to both of you and all the very best. smile drinks
        1. zyablik.olga
          zyablik.olga 23 May 2021 10: 47
          +4
          Quote: Sea Cat
          Olga, good afternoon!

          Hello!
          Quote: Sea Cat
          Hunting is worse than bondage. "(I'm talking about fishing)

          I have already returned ... I went with my son, they caught a lot. I left myself a couple of delicious fish (auhu and yellow-cheeked), the rest was distributed.
          Quote: Sea Cat
          I roll over to read about the twin-engine Japanese, already posted.

          I haven't read it myself, I'll take a look.
          Quote: Sea Cat
          Good luck to both of you and all the very best.

          Konstantin, thank you very much! smile All the best to you and your loved ones too!
    4. Zug
      Zug 22 May 2021 12: 57
      0
      KI 44 is a terrible machine. It's good that our aircraft 7 didn't "try" it - there would have been serious problems
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 22 May 2021 13: 42
        +5
        Problems? Who?
        1. Zug
          Zug 24 May 2021 13: 07
          0
          He has who "whom" laughing
      2. Alf
        Alf 22 May 2021 22: 25
        +3
        Quote: Zug
        KI 44 is a terrible machine. It's good that our aircraft 7 didn't "try" it - there would have been serious problems

        What are the problems? The only thing the Japanese was superior to the LA-7 in was in range.
        1. Zug
          Zug 24 May 2021 13: 06
          0
          In the rate of climb, and flight data after the 1st altitude limit. There, without options, the LA-7 will be torn. 2200 horses were driven with methanol injection. The second stage of the supercharger was cut already at 2 meters.
          1. Alf
            Alf 24 May 2021 20: 08
            +2
            Quote: Zug
            In the rate of climb, and flight data after the 1st altitude limit. There, without options, the LA-7 will be torn. 2200 horses were driven with methanol injection. The second stage of the supercharger was cut already at 2 meters.



            TTX compare ...
            1. Zug
              Zug 24 May 2021 20: 11
              0
              yes, the Ki-84 had a 45-year take-off power of more than 2000 t.p., the engines on them were different
              1. Alf
                Alf 24 May 2021 20: 13
                0
                Quote: Zug
                yes, the Ki-84 had a 45-year take-off power of more than 2000 t.p., the engines on them were different

                So talk about the KI-84 (!), And your top post is about
                KI 44 is a terrible machine. It's good that our aircraft 7 didn't "try" it - there would have been serious problems
                .
                1. Zug
                  Zug 24 May 2021 20: 15
                  0
                  I know all their types. just after 2 thousand by switching the supercharger and ... I mean 7 in general, sorry if I confused ...
                  1. Alf
                    Alf 24 May 2021 20: 16
                    +1
                    Quote: Zug
                    I generally meant Ki 84, sorry if I confused it ...

                    What are the problems, we are all wrong.
                2. Zug
                  Zug 24 May 2021 20: 41
                  +1
                  I already wrote that I was mistaken, thanks.
              2. lucul
                lucul 24 May 2021 20: 18
                0
                yes, the Ki-84 had a 45-year take-off power of more than 2000 t.p., the engines on them were different

                The Lavka was also equipped with an M-71 with a capacity of 2 hp.
                Look at the speed of those Japanese - they are the lowest of all aircraft of the Second World War.
                In addition, the injection of methanol did not help the Me.109 against the Lavok in any way)))
                1. Zug
                  Zug 24 May 2021 20: 45
                  +1
                  They may have been put on the bench, for 10 aircraft about 1, because the m71 had such a low service life and so many problems that they do not even need to be considered for a standard serial engine. Well, methanol, as well as water injection, was not just used by mechanics. It helped. The shop behind Karl K4S3 does not at all, to be honest))) If you only bring him to the horizon.
                  1. lucul
                    lucul 24 May 2021 20: 49
                    0
                    They may have been put on the bench, for 10 aircraft about 1, because the m71 had such a low service life and so many problems that they do not even need to be considered for a standard serial engine.

                    On the M-71, the service life was much ahead of the Japanese engines at the end of the war. The Japanese put 2 strong engines on the planes, which were not supposed to advance beyond the test bench, they still had to be finished for 000 years.
                    1. Zug
                      Zug 24 May 2021 20: 52
                      +1
                      Yes, they were installed, but by the very end. But the pre-engine there almost reached 2 thousand horses, in my opinion, the take-off power. It's not only about the engine, it's about the superchargers. Injection.
                      1. lucul
                        lucul 24 May 2021 20: 54
                        0
                        Yes, they were installed, but by the very end. But the pre-engine there almost reached 2 thousand horses, in my opinion, the take-off power. It's not only about the engine, it's about the superchargers. Injection.

                        I repeat - there the level of those motors is at the level of the bench sample, M -71 is at the level of the test sample.
                        Japan was late with the development of new aircraft engines and lost the sky.
                      2. Zug
                        Zug 24 May 2021 21: 03
                        +1
                        She lost not because of the lack of new engines, but for the reason in general as a country that lost the war. I somehow read several veteran pilots interviews. The standard question is what engines are on the LA 7 !!! stood-F, FN. The answer is no, the usual ASH82 Carburetor! In 44 from the regiment Kozhedub was sent to the north-west near Leningrad, where the Germans arrived at the FV according to my A6 or A8. They began to drop ours, the losses went up. The group was taken away from the regiment and sent to St. Petersburg. Well, they met. Group FV and LA7, in my opinion, even three-gun. Nobody knocked down anyone, not ours, not they. So they parted. In pilots, what kind of pilots are such and planes. Karl K4 is the same, it is a very dangerous enemy. The Finns generally had G4-6, so, our people said that even until the end of the war they remained an extremely dangerous enemy.
                      3. lucul
                        lucul 24 May 2021 21: 15
                        0
                        The answer is no, the usual ASh82 Carburetor

                        The carburetor of 1850 hp did not give out.)))
                        I once read interviews with several veteran pilots

                        Seriously ? Then read better these real pilots here.
                        https://airpages.ru/ru/aleks.shtml

                        https://airpages.ru/ru/golbp.shtml

                        And not what you read there)))
                      4. Zug
                        Zug 24 May 2021 21: 47
                        +1
                        I never wrote that the carburetor produces 1850 horses))). And I read interviews with fighter pilots. I read a mechanic-mechanic. And so, according to him, ShA82 never went even up to 80 hours. Up to 100, all the more.
                      5. Zug
                        Zug 24 May 2021 21: 55
                        +1
                        The pilot dealt with the modification G. About ShVAKs that were shot at 400 meters, this is certainly strong ... Kozhedub in an interview stated and looked himself personally and the question of whether the PV would go away (the modification was not indicated) The answer is to leave, on a long pursuit near the ground of PV If the chase was short-lived, then yes. there was a chance to catch up, but if the chase dragged on, then the fokker left. This Kozhedub said. The ShVAK bullet has a mass of a blunt-headed projectile 96 in my gram with a normal mass of 20 mm shell under 180 grams. ersatz (was put into service as a temporary measure) 200 meters limit. The shell went down and to the left. As an example, what Pokryshkin advised the pilot in the hospital. What distance to hit. The sub-gun should be replaced with the appearance of a 23 mm projectile (by order of the Air Force) The GRAU made a shell, but there were problems with the guns. For shooting down, according to the commission's calculations for one single-engine vehicle, it took from 240 to 400 shells (in total) 250 somewhere, if you were very lucky. Well, 5-6 hits. G2 FN maybe verticaland caught up, I do not argue. But there are heaps of nuances. In the documents of the battle that I described above, neither ours nor the Germans lost a single one. Yes, and the PV modification was abound. And here's another. LA 7 of course was a very good car, but .. there were few of them. And they appeared by the end of the war. 200 hours of motor life is on paper. No matter how much I search and read. under 100 hours, it's not a fact. (unless the plane flies without driving the engine)
                      6. lucul
                        lucul 24 May 2021 22: 05
                        0
                        In an interview, Kozhedub claimed and looked himself personally and when asked whether the PV would go away (he did not indicate the modification), the answer would be, leave, on a long pursuit near the ground, the PV would leave the shop

                        In a dive, Foker went 100%, yes. And so the maximum speed at the ground for the FW-190 A-8 is 568 km / h, the La-7's speed at the ground is 597 km / h))) even La 5F (not fn) had 560 km / hour at the ground.
                        So that ....
                        At Nedopushka ShVAK

                        Our pilots didn't even complain about ShVAK, they had enough.
                        It was only later, according to their recollections after the war, when our pilots flew with 23mm NS and 37mm cannons and could compare, Shvaki seem to be rubbish, but in 1941-1945 they were quite at their level.
                      7. Zug
                        Zug 24 May 2021 22: 10
                        +1
                        Yes, they were not at the level. Although our pilot said that, in principle, if you flew closer, took aim, then the queue was enough for the eyes. Only here it was necessary to fly up about 50 meters. A blunt-headed projectile of 96 grams had extremely poor ballistics. Now I want to find an interview. I personally heard this and about 200 hours of motor life is generally prohibitive. ASH82 did not give out such hours even close. Well, if he (the pilot) did not drive the motor, then maybe 80 hours of his life is a maximum. I read more than one mechanic. The lower boilers were dying. About the LA-7. These were very few aircraft. To my surprise, even in 44, many were equipped with ordinary 82 motors on carburetors. So that's it.
                      8. lucul
                        lucul 24 May 2021 22: 18
                        -4
                        I personally heard this, but about 200 hours of motor life it is generally prohibitive. ASH82 did not give out such hours even close

                        The life time of the plane in that war, before it was shot down, was 20-40 hours, many were shot down in the first battle. Therefore, 80 hours behind the eyes)))
                        Only now it was necessary to fly up to 50 meters. The dull-headed projectile of 96 grams had extremely poor ballistics.

                        The German 30mm MK-108 mounted on the Me.109 and FW-190 had extremely poor ballistics (the projectile fell 41 meters down at a distance of 1000m !!!) due to the initial projectile speed of only 540m / s. Shvak had an initial flight speed of 800 m / s - which characterizes it as quite good ballistics.
                        It is the initial velocity of the bullet / projectile that is responsible for ballistics, if you did not know)))
                      9. Zug
                        Zug 24 May 2021 22: 23
                        +1
                        The MotorCanone MK107 -108 was not intended for hitting and shooting at fighters. But at strategists. At large targets. Just the ShVAK projectile had roots from a large-caliber machine gun cartridge. The Air Force appreciated the same gun. They took it but with the condition of its subsequent replacement. That was done. with the advent of 23 mm ammunition. Taubin is undoubtedly a hero and brilliantly coped with the task ... by May 41 the cannon was ready, but Comrade Shpitalnyi ... and Taubin was shot by December 41 ... however ... on the cannon - there an employee of the former research institute Lavochkin gives a full alignment of the guns, since this was directly related to the appearance of a new fighter
                        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OwQEONRzG6s&t=321s
                      10. lucul
                        lucul 24 May 2021 22: 26
                        -3
                        .The Air Force appreciated the same gun

                        My advice to you - read the opposition press less - they write such nonsense that you don't know whether to laugh or cry)))
                      11. Zug
                        Zug 24 May 2021 22: 29
                        +1
                        I sent an employee of the Research Institute Lavochkin there. He paints everything in detail. The Air Force appreciated the gun. For 36 years, for lack of a better option, this was a good option. And what do you consider opposition literature. The word that was applied to history is opposition. Here is just watching Kozhedub, interview, not that, but that's about the shooting down: having approached a SHORT distance ... By the way, the gun was also appreciated after the war. According to the commission, it was recognized as the most reliable air gun with a shot of how many (I don’t remember exactly) thousands of shots without failures.
                      12. lucul
                        lucul 24 May 2021 22: 32
                        0
                        I sent an employee of the Lavochkin Research Institute there

                        Read better about VYa 23mm, that was really an excellent gun))) Its recoil was such that only the IL-2 could withstand it))
                      13. Zug
                        Zug 24 May 2021 22: 35
                        +1
                        This is not entirely true. Normally, VYa kept fighters. It was just that they could not drive in large numbers like ShVAK and they had problems with reliability. 2 bolts in a set came with a gun in a box. However, I already sent a link there. There and the documents are given -You can clearly read yourself-opposition literary so to speak.Off. photocopied documents
                      14. lucul
                        lucul 24 May 2021 22: 36
                        0
                        It was just that they could not be driven in large numbers like ShVAK.

                        64 units were produced)))
                      15. Zug
                        Zug 24 May 2021 22: 38
                        +1
                        I don’t argue. For the ILs there were enough, and even then they were far from all flying with them. I sent a link. There are almost every day talking about the "weapon tragedy" when creating aircraft from Lugg and IL.
                      16. lucul
                        lucul 24 May 2021 22: 40
                        0
                        "gun tragedy"

                        The Shvaki successfully shot down everything, from a fighter to a bomber - there was no particular tragedy.
                        You will compare with the rest of the aircraft guns in 1941)))
                        There was enough for the ILs, and even then not all of them flew with them

                        Even Fokker with his battery of cannons did not go head-on against the Il-2)))
                      17. Zug
                        Zug 24 May 2021 22: 42
                        +1
                        I do not argue. Sbivivali. With what to compare it? With the Spanish-suizoy? Duck ShVAK is not suitable for her. The German, well, a bit better. With what else? There is an article on the site on 20 mm aircraft guns.
                      18. lucul
                        lucul 24 May 2021 22: 44
                        0
                        With a Spanish-suiza? Dak ShVAK is no match for her

                        Seriously ? )))
                        You do not take Hispanu sample of 1945, but take and read about Hispanu sample of 1941))) Or is there silence in your press about this? )))
                      19. Zug
                        Zug 24 May 2021 22: 47
                        +1
                        Why 41 years old. I'm talking about an English one, with a belt feed. There is a shell, for memory a gram under 200 weights. The gun is very good. The British bought it. We were satisfied. The Japanese are also 20 mm more honorable. From the ShKAS machine gun, at least how to inflate and expand you can't make a cannon. The large-caliber one was still working, but you can't shove in the unsupported and shove in the unpushed
                      20. lucul
                        lucul 24 May 2021 22: 48
                        0
                        Why 41 years old

                        Because they had to fight since 1940
                        Quote
                        The report of one of the Spitfire pilots, equipped with a pair of cannons of the first series from 1940, has survived, who stated that “when opening fire on the enemy, one gun jammed after the first shot, and the recoil when firing from the remaining one turned the plane around, so there was no aiming fire there was no question. Besides, after 30 shots, the second gun jammed too. "

                        Your vaunted Hispani)))
                      21. Zug
                        Zug 24 May 2021 22: 50
                        +1
                        I don’t know, sleeps with these guns flew off the whole war. Maybe there were problems, but they were solved. They translated the cassettes into tapes and norms. The British after the purchase modified the gun, it’s a fact. It worked normally afterwards.
                      22. lucul
                        lucul 24 May 2021 22: 52
                        -2
                        Then she worked normally.

                        Only after 1943)))
                        And before that, how to fight for 3 years, if she got stuck with a couple of shots? )))
                      23. Zug
                        Zug 24 May 2021 22: 53
                        +1
                        I don’t have information on this. I don’t think that until the age of 43 the British fought without guns. There’s nothing like that in the article about her. They brought her to her senses and fought normally-powerful cannon
                      24. lucul
                        lucul 24 May 2021 22: 56
                        0
                        I have no information on this

                        Voooot, you only have the belief that everything is the worst with us))) More precisely, they put it in your subcortex.
                        The main problems of Hispani
                        True, when trying to use the French development on the wing-mounted Spitfire, it turned out that the very large gun with a bulky magazine did not fit into the thin wing of a British fighter. The gun had to be installed with a turn on its side, which was followed by another series of failures.

                        She just stupidly wedged because she was turned on its side)))
                        The Britons were able to solve this problem only in 1943.
                        Details
                        http://www.airwar.ru/weapon/guns/hs404.html
                      25. Zug
                        Zug 24 May 2021 23: 02
                        +1
                        I have no faith in anything. I have documents. They are provided))) About Hispano, I talked about the power of the gun, not about its reliability. I know that the British solved it. And I did not say that we have the worst thing. These are your ideas Such are used by all cheers for patriots. 23 mm VYa cannon had certain drawbacks, which is why it was not put in mass quantities on fighters. It was heavy, overall. It had insufficient survivability. Particularly, slide-locking mechanisms. I will remind you again, there in transmission. With the submission of documents, orders, seals, everything is told. In the article with the pilot, even I saw inconsistencies (the engine stalls with negative overloads after 20 seconds) - this happened with carburetor engines. at 400 meters it is useless to shoot ShVAKs - at such a distance you will not hit anyone. etc.
                      26. lucul
                        lucul 24 May 2021 23: 05
                        -2
                        I have no faith in anything

                        What else is there)))
                        I gave you the facts, you brushed them aside and dragged out the mournful song again.
                        Goodbye
                      27. Zug
                        Zug 24 May 2021 23: 08
                        +1
                        In the lecture. That I sent the link, there are facts. Because there are documents, reports, etc., including on weapons. You, apart from articles without, did not even provide me with photocopies.
            2. Zug
              Zug 24 May 2021 20: 16
              0
              I think ki -44 is not an enemy for la-7 ... probably ..
              1. Alf
                Alf 24 May 2021 20: 19
                +1
                Quote: Zug
                I think ki -44 is not an enemy for la-7 ... probably ..

                Still, the brainchild of Semyon Lavochkin is 50 km / h faster, but in terms of maneuverability, in my personal opinion, they are about the same.
                1. Zug
                  Zug 24 May 2021 20: 41
                  0
                  Up to 1 altitude limit may be yes. But higher .... LA7 for KI 84 is not an opponent. In general.
                  1. Alf
                    Alf 24 May 2021 20: 42
                    +1
                    Quote: Zug
                    Up to 1 altitude limit may be yes. But higher .... LA7 for KI 84 is not an opponent. In general.

                    Can't you still understand that I'm comparing the LA and the 44th? What brings you to 84?
                    1. Zug
                      Zug 24 May 2021 20: 46
                      0
                      Well 44 there is still a question. LA7 will probably be more poshybche.
                      1. Alf
                        Alf 24 May 2021 20: 48
                        +1
                        Quote: Zug
                        LA7 will probably be shy.

                        Probably ? Have you ever analyzed the photos I gave? Or is there a conversation between the mute and the deaf?
                      2. Zug
                        Zug 24 May 2021 20: 49
                        0
                        Well, I've seen the photos. Beautiful.
                      3. Alf
                        Alf 24 May 2021 20: 51
                        +1
                        Quote: Zug
                        Well, I've seen the photos. Beautiful.

                        I, in fact, about the performance characteristics.
                2. lucul
                  lucul 24 May 2021 21: 06
                  0
                  Still, the brainchild of Semyon Lavochkin is 50 km / h faster, but in terms of maneuverability, in my personal opinion, they are about the same.

                  If the Shop is equipped with the same alloys from which the Zero was made, then it will drop at least 500-800 kg of dry weight - and this will be a completely different plane)))
                  1. Alf
                    Alf 24 May 2021 21: 10
                    +2
                    Quote: lucul
                    Still, the brainchild of Semyon Lavochkin is 50 km / h faster, but in terms of maneuverability, in my personal opinion, they are about the same.

                    If the Shop is equipped with the same alloys from which the Zero was made, then it will drop at least 500-800 kg of dry weight - and this will be a completely different plane)))

                    In general, there will be a superplane.
    5. Captain Pushkin
      Captain Pushkin 23 May 2021 18: 13
      +3
      Quote: Sea Cat
      I generally read articles as fascinating novels, although they are purely technical

      Here's a fun example.
      The Japanese fought the B-29 not only with fighters.
      On May 24, 1945, nine old Ki-21-II bombers without weapons, each with 12 paratroopers on board, at low altitude tried to land at the B-29 airfield (Yentan, Okinawa). Eight were shot down by fighters on the way, one broke through and sat down.
      While the paratroopers were eliminated, they managed to destroy seven B-29s, damage two, and also burn 2600 barrels of fuel and detonate part of the stock of aerial bombs.
      The airbase was put out of action for 10 hours.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 23 May 2021 18: 26
        +1
        Thank you, Peter. smile
        Funny episode, haven't heard of it. Here, as they say, "the need for invention is cunning." laughing
        But the sense of this heroic attack is somehow not very good. They took out the base for 10 hours, and nothing more, but what about the rest of the airfields? All this influenced, perhaps, the fighter cover of the "Fortresses", and even then it is unlikely. request
  12. mr.ZinGer
    mr.ZinGer 21 May 2021 21: 24
    +1
    Thanks to a good overview on the technical side, but little information on tactics.
  13. KKND
    KKND 21 May 2021 22: 12
    +3
    I have a question for experts why an air-cooled ICE has a greater (as far as I know) efficiency than water cooling? After all, it would seem that the losses to the water pump are minimal and the temperature difference should have a positive effect on the efficiency? Or have I misunderstood at all?
    1. mz
      mz 22 May 2021 00: 49
      +8
      For efficiency, the difference in gas temperatures in the operating cycle is important - how much the temperature of the working fluid will drop when performing mechanical work, i.e. how much heat energy can be taken. A liquid-cooled ICE has a lower cycle temperature than an air ICE, and an air ICE has a higher cycle temperature.
      The effective efficiency of air-cooled internal combustion engines on ground vehicles is usually lower - the power consumption for cooling can reach 20%. The liquid pump rarely draws more than 2-3%.
      On aircraft, there is no additional cost for cooling the air internal combustion engine, but a more powerful oil pump is required.
      So the efficiency of air and liquid ICEs on aircraft does not differ very much.
      But perhaps you were interested in the question why air-cooled aircraft ICEs were in general more powerful than liquid ones?)) The main answer is that they had a much larger working volume.
      1. zyablik.olga
        zyablik.olga 22 May 2021 01: 42
        +7
        Quote: mz
        For efficiency, the difference in gas temperatures in the operating cycle is important - how much the temperature of the working fluid will drop when performing mechanical work, i.e. how much heat energy can be taken. A liquid-cooled ICE has a lower cycle temperature than an air ICE, and an air ICE has a higher cycle temperature.
        The effective efficiency of air-cooled internal combustion engines on ground vehicles is usually lower - the power consumption for cooling can reach 20%. The liquid pump rarely draws more than 2-3%.
        On aircraft, there is no additional cost for cooling the air internal combustion engine, but a more powerful oil pump is required.
        So the efficiency of air and liquid ICEs on aircraft does not differ very much.
        But perhaps you were interested in the question why air-cooled aircraft ICEs were in general more powerful than liquid ones?)) The main answer is that they had a much larger working volume.

        There would be more such comments! good
      2. Cherry Nine
        Cherry Nine 22 May 2021 01: 58
        +2
        Quote: mz
        But perhaps you were interested in the question why air-cooled aircraft ICEs were generally more powerful than liquid ones?

        )))
        Were not. The most powerful relatively serial WWII engine was the Saber. This misleading impression is formed due to the situation in the USSR with weak JOs (VK-105 versus ASh-82) and the Americans with their, on the contrary, their maximum DVO (Packard-Merlin versus PV 2800 and Wright 3350).
      3. KKND
        KKND 22 May 2021 02: 11
        +3
        Quote: mz
        A liquid-cooled ICE has a lower cycle temperature than an air ICE, and an air ICE has a higher cycle temperature.

        Here I was interested in this moment. What is "cooler" for the efficiency of an internal combustion engine to burn a hotter fuel-air mixture and then get more resistance to the release of gases (air) or, on the contrary, burn a colder mixture, but then it is easier to push the exhaust gases (water)? For some reason, I have the opinion that the temperature difference between the exhaust gases "rules", since the additional velocity of the mixture particles is not as significant as the amount of internal energy during combustion.
  14. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 21 May 2021 23: 01
    +3
    The author is a young man! Some time ago, after reading articles about Japanese anti-aircraft artillery, I thought that for a long time there was no longer on the pages of VO "materiel" about Japanese aviation "finally" and fighter aircraft in particular ...! Even, "having heard enough" about the famous "zero" , we, often, do not know his performance ... as well as about other Japanese aircraft! And yet ... if the author of this article "finished" with single-engine fighters, then what about the attempts of the Japanese to develop and launch into production "single-engine" jet (rocket) fighters ... even unmanned ones? Will the Author touch this page of the Japanese military aviation so that I do not climb "ahead of the daddy" (did not try to overtake the "steam locomotive")?
    1. zyablik.olga
      zyablik.olga 22 May 2021 01: 43
      +3
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      Will the Author touch this page of the Japanese military aviation so that I do not climb "ahead of the daddy" (did not try to overtake the "steam locomotive")?

      The author is very limited in his free time, and experimental designs will not be considered.
  15. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 22 May 2021 00: 18
    +4
    In the fight against the B-29, Japanese fighter pilots often used battering rams ... at the same time, they did not at all seek to die "the death of the brave"! During the "ramming" attack, they tried to "hit" the wing or the "tail" ... this tactic gave more chances to stay alive ... The Japanese army even created the "Hagakure-Tai" aviation "ramming" divisions. But they did not get widespread; since this was also hindered by many high ranks in the army, believing that it was too wasteful to use trained experienced pilots who were in "short supply" in this way! Therefore, they supported the idea of ​​a special "ramming" fighter, remotely piloted ....
  16. Fitter65
    Fitter65 22 May 2021 03: 43
    +2
    Sergey please correct the error
    The muzzle velocity of a bullet weighing 46,7 g was 56 m / s.
    1. Bongo
      23 May 2021 13: 30
      0
      Quote: Fitter65
      Sergey please correct the error
      The muzzle velocity of a bullet weighing 46,7 g was 56 m / s.

      Already... hi
  17. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 22 May 2021 04: 04
    +2
    In the article, the Author briefly mentions the machine-gun and cannon aircraft armament of Japanese WW2 aircraft ... It is probably worth noting that the Japanese developed and produced aircraft rockets; incl. and "class * air-to-air *" ... these include: 1.Naval: Type 3 No. 1 Model 28 ("3-Shiki 1-Gou 28-Shūsei Roketto-dan")

    2.Naval: Type 3 No. 6 Model 27 ("3-Shiki 6-Gou 27-Shūsei Roketto-dan")

    Less is known about the development of "army" missiles ... But you can call
    1. "Ro-San-Dan" (Ro-3 according to the allied classification): weighing about 5 kg (anti-aircraft)

    2. "Ro-Go Dan" (Ro-5): weighing about 30 kg (anti-aircraft)

    Ki-43 army fighter with Ro-3-Dan rockets
  18. mvg
    mvg 22 May 2021 07: 33
    +6
    Very cool article ... or rather the whole cycle. I read it with pleasure. I wonder what the USSR would have done at the beginning of World War III, immediately after the Second World War? Against these machines? Lendlizovsky R-63 would obviously not have been enough ... but there was nothing else.
    1. Cherry Nine
      Cherry Nine 22 May 2021 10: 08
      +4
      there was nothing else

      The air defense of Moscow was on fives sleeps.

      It depends on when you are going to burn.
      If in the 48th, the Berlin crisis, then the B-29 is already a tactical vehicle, the AB will carry the B-36. There is no MiG-15 yet, there is zero chance of doing something.
      If immediately in the summer of 45, then it is reasonable to expect that there will be problems with LL, and a little in advance. And this applies not only to the R-63 themselves, but also to fuel, oils, and ammunition. As for the P-63, although it climbed 13 km, the engine settings were medium-altitude, it climbed to its ceiling for a very long time and at altitudes 10+ was far from being the king. If the Americans are considered competent, then one should expect the use of the B-29 without fighters either at night (Moscow) or against cities with unconvincing air defense (Gorky, Kuibyshev, Nizhny Tagil, Chelyabinsk), so the answer seems to be obvious.
      1. mvg
        mvg 22 May 2021 12: 20
        +4
        Well, as if AB are already there, 1000 ++ B-29 in service, dofig expertise, and Zero air defense. I am over 45 years old. Spity V is not a panacea. There is no Moscow and the Urals at once. Could be trampled into the Stone Age. And do not care that the English Channel would have reached. There is no Europe and you can't jump over a puddle
        1. Cherry Nine
          Cherry Nine 22 May 2021 13: 47
          +5
          Quote: mvg
          do not care that the English Channel would have reached. There is no Europe and you can't jump over a puddle

          Even in the craziest continuation war scenario - the first Unthinkable - the chances of reaching the English Channel are extremely slim for the Red Army. Do not forget that the imaginary Elbe-Rhine and Dutch operations are two different operations with an interval of at least 3 months, it is impossible to carry out one operation to such a depth in the reality of 45. In this case, the Dutch operation will have to not only be carried out, but also prepared in the zone of total domination of enemy aircraft from unattainable British airfields. And not English - take an interest in the German experience in December 44th.

          And these are our allies who are sharply insane, who do not use any of their trump cards at all and are fighting exactly as the Red Army is more convenient - they are losing the general tank battle between the Elbe and the Vistula. In the alternative with Roosevelt, an anti-communist since 33, the USSR has nothing to catch. In the alternative with a clear Churchill - an anti-Soviet conspiracy after Yalta with the participation of Churchill, Marshall and Truman, alternative actions of the British from February and the Americans from April - the defeat of the USSR is inevitable regardless of whether hostilities begin or not. To keep 10 million people under arms and wait for the attack of the USSR is not in a position, unlike the Allies. Comrade Stalin fully understood this, and whenever he was clearly asked - the liberation of South Azerbaijan (from Iran), the liberation of South Armenia (from Turkey) - he invariably quietly crawled away, if he didn’t take it in a hurry. Unlike the Americans in 45, Comrade Stalin fully understood and respected the logic of the balance of power.
          1. mvg
            mvg 22 May 2021 14: 27
            +2
            inquire about the German experience in December 44th

            Yes, I understand more that immediately copper, oil, gasoline and luminium cease to come to the country .. There is no economy, there is nothing to feed the army, only horse meat. Indeed, the allies have 3 times more aviation, a fleet and a fresh army ...
            And for the Germans in 44 .. this is not an indicator. Then England got up from her knees and the Germans were already eating.
            PS: Most likely nothing would have come of it ... There was nothing to catch the raids of 1000 ++ Liberators and Fortresses, and there was nothing to fight with mustags, thunderbirds and sleeps. They seem to have learned how to fight by land.
            1. Cherry Nine
              Cherry Nine 22 May 2021 14: 58
              +3
              Quote: mvg
              And for the Germans in 44 .. this is not an indicator

              The forces allocated at Bodenplatte are quite comparable to Soviet capabilities. Especially when you consider not only the number of aircraft, but also the combat load.
              Quote: mvg
              They seem to have learned how to fight by land.

              Not with the Allies. The Allies differed sharply from the Germans.
              Quote: mvg
              Raid 1000 ++ Liberators and Strongholds

              Depends on the option of the alternative. In the case of the former the unthinkable there would be no strategists - too far from England. In the case of more rational actions of the Allies, the relocation of the strategists' bases to Copenhagen - Trieste - Ebil - Rivalpindi is required. This is a matter of several months, during which Comrade. Stalin may well manage to come to an agreement without a fight. At the same time, the B-24 from Copenhagen is still far from Moscow, their task is to knock out railways in the Eastern European theater of operations (Elbo-Rhine operation, yeah), and the B-29 will be engaged in industry, mainly from Iraq and the vice-kingdom.
              1. Cherry Nine
                Cherry Nine 22 May 2021 15: 21
                +3
                Quote: Cherry Nine
                B-24 from Copenhagen is still far from Moscow

                Oh, no, I was wrong again. It is quite normal for the B-24.
      2. Alf
        Alf 22 May 2021 22: 28
        +2
        Quote: Cherry Nine
        The air defense of Moscow was on fives sleeps.

        At Eights.
        1. Cherry Nine
          Cherry Nine 22 May 2021 22: 47
          +1
          Quote: Alf
          Eights

          )))
          Both are wrong.
          Five in small numbers at the front, in the air defense - nines.
          Quote: Alf
          A gouged and then decommissioned American plane that reached the GDP

          There have been such things. But if 133 aircraft fell directly in Japan, then such a survival rate looks rather strange.
          1. Alf
            Alf 22 May 2021 22: 49
            +2
            Quote: Cherry Nine
            Both are wrong.
            Five in small numbers at the front, in the air defense - nines.

            Eights-nines ... the devil will not understand them.
  19. Non-fighter
    Non-fighter 22 May 2021 10: 10
    0
    The 12,7mm .50 Browning AN / M2 machine gun was a very effective weapon. Without ammunition, it weighed 29 kg, length - 1450 mm. The muzzle velocity of a bullet weighing 46,7 g was 56 m / s.

    Zero to the initial speed of the bullet, add plizz !!
  20. Proctologist
    Proctologist 22 May 2021 10: 31
    +5
    Thank you very much for the extremely informative article!
    The description of the B-29 bombers left a particularly strong impression. I myself am a supporter of the theory that WWII did not have a single turning point, but there were many nails that stubbornly and consistently hammered into the coffin lid of the Reich and the Axis countries. And after reading this article, the B-29 was added to the list of "nails"! I thought about the numbers:
    During the period of military activity against the Japanese islands, the "Superfortress" of the 20th Aviation Army dropped 170 tons of bombs and sea mines, and flew 000 sorties.

    Yes, this is a real weapon of mass destruction, and not at all 2 kiloton atomic bombs dropped at the end of the war! While other leading powers did not have strategic aviation at all (Germany, for example, with all its militarization and developed industry), they built not prototype models, but armada of huge new generation aircraft! 3600 aircraft were built - I shudder, imagining several hundred of these bombers in one raid ...

    ... More than 70% of the bombings were carried out according to onboard radars.

    It's 1945!
    And more:
    For combat reasons, 133 aircraft and 293 crew members were lost.
    - with 11 people / plane crew. Even on a downed bomber, 80% of the crew survived!

    Precisely, this weapon of Victory is the same as the T-34 or Katyusha.
    1. Cherry Nine
      Cherry Nine 22 May 2021 10: 44
      +4
      Quote: Proctologist
      Exactly, this is the weapon of Victory

      More like a wunderwaffe. As well as AB, in fact.
      Quote: Proctologist
      "Katyusha"

      Hmm ...
      Quote: Proctologist
      not at all 2 kiloton atomic bombs

      The power of the fat man and the baby was in the region of 20 Kt.
      But in fact you are right, this is a small part of the tonnage that flew to Japan. And absolutely microscopic, if we mean the European theater of operations.
      Quote: Proctologist
      there were no other leading powers of strategic aviation at all (Germany, for example, with all its militarization and developed industry)

      1. Was at the British.
      2. The Reich relied on tactical aviation. The effectiveness of the strategists, despite the tonnage figures, has always been questioned, both in Europe and in the maintenance department. In particular, the same Nimitz stated that the unthinkable volume of supplies required for the construction and operation of the B-29 base on Saipan in the winter of 44 hampered the actions of the fleet.
      Even on a downed bomber, 80% of the crew survived!

      For the Americans, everything is very difficult with the calculation of losses. Lost for combat reasons - not necessarily downed. He could reach Iwajima, or at least sit in the water. The American pilots' rescue was exemplary.
      1. Cherry Nine
        Cherry Nine 22 May 2021 11: 19
        +4
        Quote: Cherry Nine
        the B-29 base on Saipan,

        I'm sorry. Tinian, of course.
      2. Alf
        Alf 22 May 2021 22: 32
        +2
        Quote: Cherry Nine
        For the Americans, everything is very difficult with the calculation of losses.

        A gouged and then decommissioned American plane, which reached the GDP, was not considered downed.
  21. mz
    mz 22 May 2021 10: 35
    +3
    Quote: KKND
    Quote: mz
    A liquid-cooled ICE has a lower cycle temperature than an air ICE, and an air ICE has a higher cycle temperature.

    Here I was interested in this moment. What is "cooler" for the efficiency of an internal combustion engine to burn a hotter fuel-air mixture and then get more resistance to the release of gases (air) or, on the contrary, burn a colder mixture, but then it is easier to push the exhaust gases (water)? For some reason, I have the opinion that the temperature difference between the exhaust gases "rules", since the additional velocity of the mixture particles is not as significant as the amount of internal energy during combustion.

    Basically, you have the correct opinion about the temperature difference, from the point of view of thermal efficiency, it is the difference that is important, and in which direction it is biased is a secondary factor.
    The outlet resistance does not directly depend on the type of internal combustion engine cooling, but depends on the design features of the exhaust system.
    To increase the efficiency, it is more profitable to create the highest temperature and pressure in the working stroke of the internal combustion engine ("drive" as much of the cooled fuel-air mixture into the cylinder as possible, that is, inflation + intercooling), and ... do not force the internal combustion engine to cool! Since we lose a lot of energy during cooling. But the materials do not withstand, so cooling is needed.
    1. motorized rifle
      motorized rifle 23 May 2021 22: 13
      +2
      I'm writing late, probably no one will read it, but nevertheless.
      The temperature difference, of course, affects the efficiency, it was also Carnot deduced when the internal combustion engine was not in sight. But, the lower temperature limit, i.e. the temperature of the refrigerator, whether it is air cooled or water cooled, is the same as the temperature of the air in which the airplane flies. You can't get it below. but the upper one, the heater temperature, depends on the calorific value of the combustible mixture and on the heat resistance of the materials. The removal of heat mainly depends on the speed of the cooling flow passing through the radiator or the cooling fins of the cylinders. The higher the flow rate, the greater the heat removal. Everyone, in principle, in his life has come across this phenomenon, standing wet in the wind or putting his hand into the air stream (from the window of a car or train). The reason for the use of air vents, in their greater reliability, in the US Navy aviation, for example, water-cooled engines were therefore not used, as well as in a lower specific gravity (minus the cooling system with liquid, pump, radiators, etc.) Water-cooled engines gave an advantage only in a smaller midship, and hence resistance, which made it possible to increase the flight speed.
      1. Cherry Nine
        Cherry Nine 24 May 2021 00: 31
        +2
        Quote: motorized infantryman
        Water-cooled engines gave an advantage only in a smaller midship, and hence drag, which made it possible to increase flight speed.

        Not only.
        JOE makes it easier to organize heat removal, especially with a large number of cylinders of relatively small volume. Compare the Pratt & Whitney R-4360 with British H-pieces of the same power.
        Heat removal from the second row of cylinders became an incurable problem of the DVO. Despite the fact that the volume of the cylinder is also quite strictly limited by detonation.
        1. motorized rifle
          motorized rifle 24 May 2021 12: 32
          +1
          This is true, but they were not insoluble. Overheating problems of the second "star" arose during takeoff and climb modes, when the flight speed was low. It was solved in different ways, among the Germans, on the BMW-801 (FW-190), by installing a 12-blade fan in front of the motor, rotating 2,5 times faster than the propeller, among the Americans, by injecting water into the intake manifold (Thunderbolt, Corsair "," Hellcat "). Due to this, the temperature decreased (due to the latent heat of vaporization), there was no detonation for the same reason, and the power increased in any mode. In the USSR, they experimented a little with water, at least at the Research Institute of the Civil Air Fleet in 1941-45. Basically, they tried to solve the problem by designing and carefully adjusting the cooling channels of the cylinders and heads, which is understandable at low flight speeds did not give the desired effect.
          1. Cherry Nine
            Cherry Nine 25 May 2021 08: 42
            +2
            Quote: motorized infantryman
            She decided in different ways,

            The above was not a solution. Yes, this made it possible to increase the characteristics of the engine, but within certain limits.
            Quote: motorized infantryman
            Americans, water injection into the intake manifold

            MB-50 is a late, but mostly post-war version of the Americans.

            In my opinion, we are having some kind of strange argument. JOE and DVO had their pros and cons. Although the DVO is theoretically simpler, the powerful DVO turned out to be extremely complex, and this complexity is not visible from the outside - materials, oils, etc. Therefore, only two - the United States and Britain - were able to get a working double nine on time.

            In an ideal world, DVOs would be placed where combat survivability is needed (they have fewer critical elements) or ease of operation (transport aircraft), and JOE - where very high power of a single unit and / or pushing propellers are needed to the detriment of other characteristics (fighters Air defense, high-speed high-altitude reconnaissance, night bombers, transatlantic transports). In the real world, whoever knew how to do something, he put it.
            1. motorized rifle
              motorized rifle 25 May 2021 13: 15
              0
              In my opinion, we are having some kind of strange argument.

              And in my opinion there is no dispute, just a mutual addition on the topic.
              1. Cherry Nine
                Cherry Nine 25 May 2021 16: 07
                +2
                Then you need to briefly review the topic.
                1. Already by the 20s it was established in practice that with the radial arrangement of the cylinders there should be no more than nine of them. At the same time, it is irrational to make the crankshaft of an in-line engine more than 12 cylinders. When this number of cylinders is exceeded, the reliability of the engine drops sharply.
                2. Since 9 is more than 12, initially in-line engines were simply stupidly larger in displacement with similar CPG sizes. For example, M-17 versus M-25. Therefore, an in-line engine was needed for the most powerful engine. It was somewhat heavier, especially considering the cooling system, but it was a necessary payment for power.
                3. In the 30s, a number of manufacturers, primarily PV, began to attach two frying pans one after the other. DVO received 14, and in the future - 18 cylinders. It has become more JOE in displacement.
                4. In the meantime, while the hard workers were working, the chemists were doing the chemistry. Progress in fuels and lubricants (primarily among the Americans) made it possible to increase the liter engine power.
                5. And then there was a nuisance. Air - it is, of course, cold, but has a very low heat capacity and thermal conductivity. Therefore, it cools, frankly, lousy. The main auxiliary cooling path of the DVO is an oil cooler. It turned out to be damn difficult to make an oil that can work at such temperatures and such altitudes. Therefore, the power of the DVO turned out to be strictly limited by heat release.
                6. But the JOEs were much simpler from this point of view. Therefore, the little Packard-Merlin in the methanol version 1650-9 produced the same power from 27 liters and 746 kg as the early Wright 3350 with 55 liters and 1210 kg. This is without taking into account the forehead area. Post-war water wrights inflated up to 3800 forces, but the JOE had a trump card up its sleeve.
                7. Damn Englishmen with their hellish gears have learned to connect two crankshafts in an H-shaped configuration. JOE now had 24 cylinders. JOE took the lead again. The first engine to pass 2K was the Saber, with a volume of only 36 liters, slightly more in volume than Wright's 1820 (but much heavier). Already in the first versions, the larger CPG RR Eagle gave out power, like Wright on the latter, with water injection and all possible bells and whistles, with a smaller working volume than Wright's.
                8. So JOE overall won the power race in its dieselpunk class. But the damn British came up with jet engines and closed the matter.
  22. ankir13
    ankir13 22 May 2021 16: 02
    0
    the war of mutual destruction with the Americans until 1945 grew into tender love in subsequent history ... great tolerance ...
  23. bbss
    bbss 22 May 2021 22: 17
    -5
    Fu, what bloopers! "The muzzle velocity of the 46,7 g bullet was 56 m / s."[B] [/ b]
    1. zyablik.olga
      zyablik.olga 23 May 2021 10: 50
      +1
      Quote: bbss
      Fu, what bloopers! "The muzzle velocity of the 46,7 g bullet was 56 m / s."[B] [/ b]

      It is clear, however, that "typo". request
      Try to write something yourself at your leisure, and we will read it ... wink
      1. bbss
        bbss 23 May 2021 11: 37
        -2
        You need to read before publishing, and not be lazy! Well-known rule: Write today, publish tomorrow!
  24. yehat2
    yehat2 25 May 2021 11: 15
    0
    The iki-84 is generally a curious machine, in various aviation simulators, where it is carefully modeled, the question is generally raised that this fighter should seize the initiative in the air. To be honest, this plane, along with zero, impressed me very much.
  25. Oberleutnant
    Oberleutnant 26 May 2021 11: 36
    +2
    Very detailed and interesting. Thank you!
  26. Dimon-chik-79
    Dimon-chik-79 27 July 2021 13: 36
    +2
    good article! very interesting!