Military Review

The tragedy of Sakhalin

81

1904



By the beginning of the Russo-Japanese War, Sakhalin Island was practically defenseless against an external invasion. Moreover, they did not think much about his protection. Although against the background of Kamchatka, which was not prepared to defend at all, Sakhalin looks almost like a fortress. 1500 people with six guns, the absence of coastal defense, machine guns, fortifications is still much better than nothing. Of course, there were plans in case of war. They provided for the creation of detachments from among the exiled settlers in the amount of three thousand people, the transfer of additional artillery and products from Vladivostok, the construction of fortifications. But it didn't work out with the fortifications, but with the rest ...

With more than a year in reserve, Sakhalin could be turned into a fortress: there were enough cannons (there were hundreds of obsolete naval guns in the Baltic and the Black Sea), and there were also enough people. There were no problems with delivery: in winter, the Tatar Strait freezes over and anything can be done. But only 12 machine guns and 8 guns of the 1877 model were transported. The mobilization was carried out. But, again, most of the exiled convicts were not soldiers, and 2400 people, poorly trained and with Berdan's rifles, were not drawn to force. This is not counting the fact that a good half had simply dispersed by the time of the Japanese invasion. The trenches on the coast, however, were dug. But, again, sit in an earthen hole under the fire of the United fleet - below average pleasure. With coastal artillery, capable of responding to ships, somehow it did not work out. She was represented by as many as four guns: two 120-mm Kane and two 47-mm, taken from the cruiser "Novik".

With the light hand of Pikul, the struggle for Sakhalin is shown as a kind of mixture of the heroism of the people and the treachery of the top. But, alas, there was no special heroism, no special betrayal. With such forces, it was impossible to defend the island. And everyone understood this perfectly. The calculation was on a retreat with battles and partisan actions in order to play for time and designate a defense for diplomats, and they were carried out. And the lower classes fought in different ways. There was also heroism. But no feats from a shell weighing a couple of hundred kg will help. And with the advantage of the enemy.

15th division of General Kharaguchi, consisting of 12 battalions, 1 squadron, 18 guns and 1 machine-gun squad, a total of 14 people. The transport fleet, consisting of 000 steamers, was accompanied by the 10rd Catoaca squadron of 3 naval units.

This heroism was nothing more than a way to die for the mistakes of the command.

This is not to mention the fact that when planning the actions of partisan detachments in the south of the island, no tactics were worked out for the partisans. And the partisans had to operate in detachments of hundreds of people. To summarize briefly - having a year and a half, they did nothing, although there was both time and opportunity: either for coastal defense, or for mining convenient landing sites. When you read the research on the defense of Sakhalin, you begin to think that the island of Russia was not particularly needed, and the unwillingness to show weakness prevented it from evacuating it.

Certificate


The tragedy of Sakhalin

At 9 o'clock on July 7, 1905, the Japanese began landing on the coast of Aniva Bay between the village of Mereya and Savina Pad'ya. The defense of Sakhalin began. The sailors of Lieutenant Maksimov entered the battle.

In his report, the lieutenant from the Novik cruiser of the Russian Imperial Fleet gave a description of not only battles, but also preparations for military operations on the island, simultaneously revealing many secondary, but very interesting points. For example:

On August 24, at 6 o'clock in the morning, two Japanese mine transports arrived, anchored five miles from Korsakovsk, and sent two steam boats to detonate the cruiser.

The first battle of the newly formed battery with the Japanese fleet. The Japanese lost three people. The cruiser was not blown up, four three-pound (48 kg) mines were removed from the engine room. The Japanese were very afraid of lifting the cruiser, otherwise they would not have fenced off the combat operation, risking both people and ships. But, alas, until the end of the war, at least we did not even plan anything like that.

The main naval headquarters ordered the cruiser to be prepared for destruction and, when the need arises, to blow it up. Having received this order, I sent a telegram to Rear Admiral Greve, asking him to send 4 mines to destroy the cruiser, 50 mines to mine the bay, 100 120 mm and 200 47 mm rounds, but I still did not receive even my secondary telegram answer. Thinking that he would have to have a fight on the shore in the depths of the island, he installed two 47 mm guns on a sleigh in a harness of two horses each, made a test, and a rollback turned out to be one step.

Moreover, everyone did not care about the cruiser itself, or Sakhalin as a whole. It was not a problem to send fifty mines, the ships went to Sakhalin. And Maksimov also points to this:

From the transport "Ussuri" received 4 machine guns without belts. I sent Rear Admiral Greve a telegram with a request to send machine-gun belts, rifle cartridges, clothing for the team, and again 4 mines to destroy the cruiser, 50 mines to mine the bay. On the Emma transport I received clothes, provisions for the team, 90 belts for machine guns and two hundred 47 mm iron cartridges with black powder. He met all the arriving transports at sea, brought them to an anchor point, supplied them with water, coal, money, provisions and a machine crew, repaired cars, somehow the Ussuri transport. On transport, Emma arranged bunks for passengers with his team and installed ovens. Transport "Lily" took off the shallows and led to the Krillon lighthouse, since the named transport had an old general card and did not dare to go on its own at night.

Moreover, they were unhurriedly unloaded by the forces of sailors and were even repaired and refitted. There was no problem, but there was no desire either. The dispatch of cast-iron shells with black powder and machine guns and belts separately - nothing else can you call a mockery. In the autumn of 1904, when there was no Japanese domination in these waters, it was possible to transfer to the island at least a division, and even though a dozen batteries with everything needed for construction and autonomous actions, but they limited themselves to the removal of some of the Novik sailors (they left 60 people). One can understand Greve, on which Vladivostok was hanging, with his squadron of cruisers and no repair facilities, in addition, the repair of the "Bogatyr", the modernization with the repair of the Rurikites and preparation for the meeting of the Second Squadron. But what Petersburg was thinking about is absolutely incomprehensible. Pumping colossal funds into Chinese Manchuria, nothing was done to defend the Russian land. The mess on the island was just enchanting:

Arriving at the Krillon lighthouse and familiarizing himself with the arrangement of the service, regretfully found complete chaos ... The lighthouse keeper is very old and insane, in fact, his 12-year-old daughter played the role of the keeper, managing the warehouses and keeping the crew happy ... The mast had no signal cables, and all the new flags were eaten by rats ... To my question - why the lighthouse did not respond to the signals of the transport "Emma", the caretaker answered - "There are many of them walking around here, and everyone raises a signal, I will not answer them, and besides, I don't have to. " The team was dressed out of shape, dirty, completely unfamiliar with discipline and dignity ... The signal cannon, when fired due to the dilapidated installation, overturned and threatened to injure the shooter ... Having examined the air siren, I saw the steam cylinder cover, broken into two parts ... Krillon came Japanese boats and when the team wanted to arrest them, the caretaker did not allow them, receiving alcohol, tobacco and some luxury goods from the Japanese.

In more adequate times, the superintendent would become a victim of repression even without a tribunal, and his subordinates would go to bathe in blood in a penal battalion. The right to sit deep in the rear and signal to rare ships during the war must still be earned. But then in adequate, and in Russia, which we lost, did not suffer from anything like that. On the contrary, flight lieutenant himself puts things in order persuades sailors to carry out their duty.

Being in captivity and meeting with the caretaker of the named lighthouse, to my question - why the lighthouse was not destroyed, the answer followed: "I'm not a fool, if I burned it, they would kill me, but to hell with him."

Looking ahead, he will not really achieve anything. This is not Joseph Vissarionovich, in which you would walk to the wall from Greve to the caretaker. This is an empire at war with Japan. Petersburg does not care about the island. Greve doesn't care about the cruiser. And nobody cares about a particular lighthouse, in general, except for Maksimov.

After the Tsushima battle, Rear Admiral Greve received an order "to blow up the cruiser, to distribute the property to the poor, taking receipts." Due to the storm, the cruiser could not blow up, but blew up four 120 mm guns, which were buried in the ground, and distributed the property, according to the order received. After 3 days, using the calm, I laid a 3-pound Japanese mine on the left side of the medium vehicles and detonated ... Having laid the second mine near this hole, closer to the stern, I made an explosion, but it turned out to be weak .. Report to Rear Admiral Greve , shrinking from myself any responsibility for the further fate of the cruiser, because to my requests for the sending of mines, I did not even receive an answer. Received orders from Rear Admiral Greve to destroy the cruiser with gunpowder. Having received from Colonel Artsishevsky 18 poods of black powder, using the tanks of self-propelled mines, he began to manufacture mines.

The cruiser Maksimov still blew up, building explosives literally from feces and sticks. True, the Japanese raised and restored the ship anyway. Touches the fate of four five-inch Kane - did Greve have no calculations and shells? In 1904, to arm the auxiliary cruisers, they bought gun trash all over the world, and here four brand new guns were buried in the ground and then blown up. By the standards of any other war, it has already been tribunal, even twice: the first time - for the order to blow up without explosives, the second time - for the cannons. But nothing, Greve after the war became vice admiral, commanded the St. Petersburg port and a separate detachment of ships of the Baltic Fleet, retired in 1907 and died in Nice in 1913. Honored man, hero, Order of St. Stanislav 1st degree at the end of the war.

An interesting point - the Sakhalin and Tsushima people with the EBR "Emperor Alexander III":

On June 14, at 3 o'clock in the morning, an ensign from the island of Urup arrived on a whaleboat for the sea part Leyman with 10 sailors. Arriving at the pier, he found the named warrant officer lying down, as he was very sick and exhausted. Ensign Leiman at sea became very ill from a large abscess formed in the caecum. For 5 days he had urinary retention and for the last 7 days he has not taken food or water. At 4 o'clock in the morning by military doctor Baronov, the named warrant officer received medical assistance. When questioned, it turned out that the named warrant officer was on the prize steamer "Oldgamia", which crashed on the island of Urup.

Novikov wrote about the fate of Oldhamia in Tsushima. I wrote it briefly. In the style of socialist realism and extremely uninformative. But Leiman is the only surviving officer from "Alexander III". And the sailors recruited from battleships could tell a lot ... But that is a question stories... Leiman himself also left a report, but only about the transfer of the prize ship and about his capture by the Japanese already on the island. But he knew a lot. Or did he tell? Maybe where is the testimony or memoirs? After the war, Leiman lived in Latvia, Germany and the USA, and died in 1951. But this is the lyrics.

Returning to Sakhalin.

Invasion



Rear Admiral Greve sent a telegram asking permission to go to sea to help the victims, but received the following answer: "I do not allow, be prepared for the enemy's occupation of Sakhalin Island." Indeed, the next day, namely the 23rd at 5 o'clock. In the evenings from the Krillonsky lighthouse, the signalman Burov of the Novik cruiser team informed me by telephone about an enemy squadron that had appeared, heading for Cape Aniva.

Maybe I don’t understand something in the office books of the beginning of the last century, but what does it mean “be ready for class”? Was it not planned to fight at all? Maximov and prepared:

“At 9 o'clock. In the evenings he sent servants for the guns, the people assigned to destroy Korsakovsk, supplied them with kerosene, ordered them to get ready for the wagon train and set out for Pervaya Pad, gave the people rusks and canned food for three days. I prepared aft flags, pennants, all signal flags, as well as signal books, secret documents for destruction, folding them in my office and ordering to light everything, as well as Korsakovsk at the first cannon of my battery. In addition, 27 120 mm high-explosive shells were laid under the building of the consulate ”.

And he gave a fight:

At 2 hours 50 meters from behind Cape Endum a mine detachment, consisting of 4 3-pipe destroyers, appeared. Letting them go to 25 cables (on luzhols), personally zeroed in and, giving the batteries a sight of 22 cables, opened rapid fire ... After 5-7 minutes. on the second destroyer, on the starboard side, there was a fire (near the wardroom), and on the third there was an explosion of a 120 mm projectile in the stern, after which the destroyers began to blow short whistles and rushed in different directions ... opened rapid fire with segmental shells ... 18 minutes later, with a sight of 20 cables, two 12 mm shells were noticed simultaneously hitting the starboard side ... Then the destroyer ceased fire, turned into the sea, began to move away, having a roll of 120 to 5 degrees to the right board ... Knowing exactly where the fleet was stationed, he opened switch fire, to which he received a brutal bombardment in response. With a sight of 8 cables, the upper tooth burst at the comb of the lifting mechanism of gun No. 60 ... Turning to the second gun, he continued throwing fire until the last cartridge, after which he also blew it up, ordered to burn the cellar. Arriving at 1 mm guns, he ordered to shoot the house on the pier and the boat, which were quietly burning. The remaining about 47 cartridges were shot through the forest, beyond which the enemy could already see. Having blown up both 40 mm guns, having waited for the end of the bombardment, he ran to the lighthouse mountain, which was outside the shots and where the people who set the whole city on fire were supposed to gather. In battle with the enemy, he used 47 73 mm and 120 110 mm shells. Cruisers also took part in the bombardment, for 47 "and 6 mm shells fell. In total, they burned 120 sheds, 32 houses, 47 large and 92 small kungas in all three pads.

What if Kane's guns were six? And if there are plenty of shells, at least some fortifications and normal infantry cover? And if the shells, not soaked with wild dispersion, but full-fledged? That they shot and burned the city is all right. But it would be more correct to defend, given the forces, of course. By the way, there are doubts about hitting the Japanese:

The fire of our coastal battery lasted about 20 minutes, as for the result achieved on our side and how much damage was inflicted on the enemy, I cannot testify so as not to fall into error in view of the report of Lieutenant Maksimov, which is attached to the description itself.

According to the report of Colonel Artsyshevsky. But the fight was for sure. And they drove away the Japanese, too, for sure. In those conditions, it would have been a miracle to wait for more. Maximov continued the war further:

About 5 minutes later I saw several silhouettes of enemy soldiers at 6-7 paces, and therefore ordered to open fire. On the first shot, the entire detachment opened fire. The enemy also did not hesitate to respond with brutal rifle fire, but after 30 minutes the enemy, having been repulsed with great damage, ceased fire and quickly retreated with great noise. In the detachment, rifle fire was stopped, and the guns continued to shoot, trying to fire at the area located near the village of Dalniy, where, as we knew, reserves were concentrated.

Before being captured.

The rest took place without his participation. And there was little interesting in this.

The Japanese quickly occupied the island with minimal losses. Separate detachments, however, resisted for a long time. And the detachment of Captain Bykov did break through to the mainland. But these were exactly bright spots against the background of what was happening: from the Russian coastal defense battleships in the Japanese fleet, firing at Sakhalin, to the surrender of General Lyapunov, who was not even a military man.

The Japanese did not take the island. The island was surrendered by our authorities, having failed to organize its defense in a year and a half. And this is a fact.

A fact that, as for me, is much more shameful than Tsushima, where our ships died, but did not surrender (the morning of May 15 and Nebogatov is a completely different story, from the Rozhdestvensky squadron only "Bedovy" and "Eagle" were lowered, from not rich people only "Ushakov" surrendered, the proverb about lions and rams has not been canceled), and Mukden combined.

Another question is that after the shattered lost war, no one was particularly interested in this.

Interest arose only after the book "Hard labor" by Pikul. But a lot is wrong there. The same captain Bykov was married, fought in Manchuria, where he was awarded, and resigned only in 1906. By the way, the tendency is that career sailor Maximov and career captain Bykov, who smelled gunpowder, fought desperately and inspired people. But the local rear garrison officers fought much worse and reluctantly, which is understandable:

“... Formed back in 1904, the squads did not correspond to their combat mission; many people were old, weak, and physically handicapped; unsuitable people from the teams were allocated to the cadres of the squads; with a few, of course, exceptions. People from convicts and exiles entered the squads not out of conviction or desire to fight the enemy and defend Sakhalin, but because the benefits given for serving in squads quickly reduced the mandatory terms of their stay in exile on the cursed island. "

And only a few Manchu officers were able to organize something combat-ready. There is nothing to be surprised at - the significance of Sakhalin was not understood in St. Petersburg, which was proved by the Portsmouth Peace.
Author:
Photos used:
https://sakhalin.info/
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  1. Ross xnumx
    Ross xnumx 19 May 2021 05: 32
    +16
    A publication worthy of history textbooks. The situation once again showed that there were few real statesmen among the sovereigns of autocrats. This is how some gathered land in the Republic of Ingushetia, while others squandered them ineptly and carelessly.
    1. Pavel Vladimirov
      Pavel Vladimirov 19 May 2021 05: 44
      +11
      to keep the people in poverty, and to expect that they will fight for the sovereign? The Bolsheviks opened their eyes. Thanks to them.
    2. Finches
      Finches 19 May 2021 05: 54
      +27
      Russia then had a tsar-bell, a tsar-cannon and, unfortunately, a tsar-rag ...!
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 19 May 2021 06: 36
        +7
        Yeah...
        I knew the events on Sakhalin only from Pikul ...
        1. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 19 May 2021 08: 33
          +4
          I knew about the same, or rather even less: I did not finish reading Pikul
        2. Spring fluff
          Spring fluff 19 May 2021 16: 58
          +3
          Pikul is strongly fiction, you should not be guided by it
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 19 May 2021 09: 55
        +5
        Alas, "henpecked" is bad, and the henpecked emperor is a trouble in the cube
    3. Uncle lee
      Uncle lee 19 May 2021 06: 08
      +21
      Not everything is so simple. Slepikovsky's detachment fought. The captain himself died in battle and was buried by the Japanese with military honors.
      1. Civil
        Civil 19 May 2021 07: 36
        +23
        1. The population of the Sakhalin region in 1991 - 715 333.
        2. The population of the Sakhalin region in 2021 - 485 621.
        This is the tragedy of Sakhalin, the population decline by 32%.
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. Free Island
          Free Island 19 May 2021 13: 15
          +3
          And we have hundreds of thousands of guest workers from Central Asia
          1. alystan
            alystan 20 May 2021 17: 16
            +1
            Here I had no desire to start a polemic, but a couple of "counter questions" arose ...
            1. Why is there such a shade in statements of this kind regarding representatives of Central Asian states / former republics (who were considered fraternal after all not so long ago)?
            2. Let me ask a respected audience for the opinion of this fact: the entire North, all Siberia, the entire Far East and plus the Northern capital with the Leningrad Region are completely inhabited by immigrants from Ukraine - how to understand this? It is clear that all these territories (with the exception of the Leningrad region) were attractive for high earnings, various nishtyaks like a year for two years of work experience, etc. etc. It turns out that the Ukrainians here are not quite like these (from Middle Asia)? Although, in my opinion, in Soviet times, Ukrainians were motivated, first of all, by the desire to earn money, etc., in order to live better than others, and the representatives of Central Asia today (they were not seen in such migration movements before), in my deep conviction, they are forced to break away from their homes (relatives, families, children, friends, colleagues) only to survive (unemployment, impoverishment, an increase in crime, drug addiction, debauchery and other democratic delights).
            Please do not "come off" on me, but give your point of view on a serious problem, remembering at least the "holy 90s", when the majority of Soviet citizens (regardless of their place of work and position) suddenly turned into "shuttle traders".
            Thank you.
        3. ism_ek
          ism_ek 20 May 2021 14: 27
          0
          In general, the Sakhalin Region is the economic engine of the Far East. Unfortunately, it is mainly oil and gas. The decline in numbers is associated with the depletion of fish stocks and the cessation of coal mining.
      2. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 19 May 2021 10: 43
        +12
        Not everything is so simple. Slepikovsky's detachment fought.

        Head-captain Dairsky (it is interesting that he himself was a Crimean Tatar by origin) also fought, and his detachment was killed after surrender. At the place of death (read - massacre), a memorial sign was installed already in the 2000s.

        Here are the articles:
        https://sakhalin.info/news/32523
        https://skr.su/news/post/57804/

        They write that the invaders killed about 130 prisoners there, including two officers ...

        And one of the squads was generally led by a former warrant officer-murderer, Raskolnikov's imitator - Karl Landsberg. Although in his act there were no philosophical components and mental throwings - he killed the usurer in St. Petersburg for the sake of money. Former guards officer (warrant officer of the 7th Sapper battalion of the Turkestan sapper company), warrant officer since 1875. In 1876 he was awarded the Order of St. Stanislav 3rd degree with swords and bow, in 1877 - the Order of St. Anna 3rd degree with swords and bow. So, upon arrival to Sakhalin, Landsberg applied his skills and knowledge to the utmost in the construction of bridges and other structures, which caused universal respect. As a result, in 1905 he headed one of the "squads". He fought, was captured. After that, by the decision of the tsar, he was restored to rights, and died in 1909 in St. Petersburg. hi
        1. Richard
          Richard 19 May 2021 13: 26
          +4

          The squad of Captain Ilyas-Devlet Dairsky fought the longest on southern Sakhalin. She fought when all the other Russian units were already defeated or captured. Dairsky's detachment did not live to see the signing of the peace treaty for only five days. He died on August 17, 1905.
          1. Richard
            Richard 19 May 2021 14: 16
            +9
            And the detachment of Captain Bykov did break through to the mainland. But it was a single bright spot against the background of what was happening.

            Officially, the last defender of Sakhalin is considered to be the driver of the second article of the cruiser Novik, Arkhip Evgrafovich Makenkov, from the squad of Captain Ilyas-Devlet Dairsky. he entered Russian territory on October 20, 1905.
            It was his testimony that shed light on the fate of Dairsky's detachment:
            “Dairsky led a squad across the ridge to the Naiba valley.
            On one of the high river banks on August 17, they were ambushed, and an unequal battle ensued. Part of the squad was killed in battle, and the rest, led by Staff Captain Dairsky, were captured by the Japanese. Who fled and who stayed. The Japanese took away their rifles and tied everyone up and Staff-Captain Dairsky ... I fought back far to the side, lay in the taiga behind a hemp ... Then they took everyone to Otradnoye. I - behind them ... The Japanese urged on our bayonets. They took the prisoners 12 versts away from the place where the battle had taken place, stopped and shot them ... Having come later to the place of execution, I saw buried ... only the captain Dairsky and the mediocre warrant officer Khnykin. " The rest lay dead in the taiga - there were about 130 of them ... Until dark I walked through the taiga - looking for survivors. I did not find anyone and decided to join some kind of detachment to get to the post of Aleksandrovsky. I do not remember how long I walked without food. I walked around the village, and not far from Leonidovo I came across a tent with two Japanese sappers and an engineer officer. When they fell asleep he stabbed them. I took a paper blanket, a compass, a map, matches, canned food, arisaka and a pistol with binoculars .... On October 20, not reaching 40 miles to Mgachi, I came across my own ... "
            link Russian-Japanese War 1904-1905: Dept. 1: Documents of Russian military and government officials and institutions: In 11 kn. - SPb. : Military-scientist. com. Ch. headquarters, 1900-1914. T. 08: Combat in 1812-13: (Journals of military operations). - 1911 .. - book .. 10, page 752
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 19 May 2021 17: 06
              +4
              Dmitry, thank you!
              On October 20, not reaching 40 versts to Mgachi, he stumbled upon his own ...

              It was he who came from the south of Sakhalin to the "new border", almost two months after the signing of the peace treaty ... what However, hero!
  2. bald
    bald 19 May 2021 05: 37
    +9
    Thanks to the author, for the documentary, the Far East, in general, for an ordinary person in Russia, the western side - "somewhere out there, behind the clouds ...".
  3. Far B
    Far B 19 May 2021 06: 05
    +8
    In addition to Greve, one can recall the very strange (to put it mildly) decisions of Stessel and the same Kuropatkin - everyone did a bit of fright (even Stessel). Looks like Nicolas, too, "did not give up his own." The end was a bit predictable.
  4. Free wind
    Free wind 19 May 2021 06: 10
    +10
    Sakhalin, in those days, was just a piece of land. And they sent all the rabble there. Of the enlightened figures, there was a violinist from Astrakhan, he said. I saw how salted herring in Astrakhan, Tryndets, this is a great technologist !. As a result, millions of tons of fish were sold to Japan to fertilize the fields. And now Sakhalin is needed only as a source of minerals.
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 19 May 2021 07: 41
      +10
      When furniture from the Novgorod region is sold in a furniture store in the city of Nogliki, you understand that something is wrong here.
      1. Richard
        Richard 19 May 2021 14: 48
        +3
        Border signs dividing Sakhalin under the Portsmouth Treaty on September 5, 1905 into 2 parts
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 19 May 2021 17: 33
          +3
          Didn't come across.
          And here is the name of the district - Smirnykhovsky - a window to the history and personalities of the Second World War.
  5. Pushkowed
    Pushkowed 19 May 2021 07: 08
    +9
    On August 24, at 6 o'clock in the morning, two Japanese mine transports arrived, anchored five miles from Korsakovsk, and sent two steam boats to detonate the cruiser.
    These were the auxiliary cruisers Hong Kong Maru and Nippon Maru.
    Here's the first:
    Here is the second one:
    The same type, 1898, British construction, 17-node "six-thousanders", each with 2x152mm, 4x120mm, 2x47mm.

    The Japanese themselves describe it this way:
    ... a reconnaissance detachment was sent to the Novik under the command of the chief of watch from the Nippon-Maru Lieutenant-Commander Kavanami and 10 crew members, who went to Novik on 2 steam boats. After firing several shots from the rifles and making sure that the enemy was not on him, they climbed onto the cruiser and began to lay in the explosive cartridges they had taken with them; when suddenly an enemy detachment with a force of more than 1 company appeared on the shore and opened strong fire on them, why they had to return to the ship ...
    The losses were not reported. Modestly so.

    And here is how it is described in the work of the historical commission “The Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. Book VII. Tsushima operation ":
    August 24 at about 6 a.m. In the morning, two Japanese vehicles with a capacity of about 6 thousand tons were seen at the Korsakovsky settlement. Two steam boats were launched from them and headed to the sunken cruiser Novik. At 2 o'clock. In the morning, movement was noticed on the deck of the Novik of enemy sailors, who were fired on from the shore by volleys from the Korsakov's local team. After several volleys, the enemy cleared the deck, and the boats, fired upon by the crew, began to move towards the transports. The Japanese from the boats responded to the team's fire with rifle fire, which did not cause losses. At 10 o'clock. 12 minutes in the morning, the transports, having taken on board the boat, went to sea. The cruiser was examined and 45 unexploded mines were found on it, planted in various parts of the cruiser; the mines were removed by a crew of sailors.
    The “local Korsakov team” is the Berdan gunners. About the participation of artillery and sailors of Lieutenant Maksimov in the shootout - not a word.
  6. Olgovich
    Olgovich 19 May 2021 07: 23
    +6
    the author's claims are unclear: Sakhalin became Russian only over 30 years before the events described.

    Vladivostok, Primorye-behind 40 years... Khabarovsk was only -25 years old, Ussuriysk ... 7 years old, and so on.

    Before indigenous Russia -7 thousand km of impassable taiga, mountains, rivers and windbreaks, the travel time took several months through the mud. The Transsib began operating only a year before the start of the war.

    A huge sparsely populated area with no roads and transport and a bunch of complex problems everywhere..

    Nevertheless, Russia firmly stood on the Pacific coast: in the shortest possible time it grew city-fairy tale Vladivostok- with a port, a fortress, amazing, beautiful buildings, theaters, factories, etc., other cities, fortresses, ports were also built, the region was quickly settled.

    Naturally, hands did not reach everything and could not even reach the island, especially in the conditions of war:not there her fate was decided.

    Primorye remained Russian, the region developed and grew rapidly.

    Everything in Russia was "bad", but with this "bad" Russia grew continuously over the centuries and became the largest country in the world with the fastest growing population and even under the last Emperor increased for hundreds of thousands of km2 and the population increased half.
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 19 May 2021 07: 39
      +4
      Many years have passed since the Great Patriotic War.
      But the population dynamics on the island is as follows: from the North - to Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, and from there - to Krasnodar.

      Although both oil and fish.
      Hopefully we can do something about the ports problem.
  7. Korsar4
    Korsar4 19 May 2021 07: 36
    +15
    Pikul's "hard labor" is still a talented thing. It is understood that fiction. But how else do you learn about Captain Bykov, for example.

    And you read, and settlements become not only points on the map.

    Unfortunately, now the same Aleksandrovsky district cannot be called otherwise than depressive.

    And the island is fabulous. And I want to remain Sakhalin, not Karafuto.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 19 May 2021 07: 58
      +3
      And the island is fabulous.
      Upload your photos?
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 19 May 2021 08: 05
        +6
        If you can - post it, please.
        I can also send it to the post office.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 19 May 2021 08: 13
          +6
          Well done.
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 19 May 2021 08: 15
            +5
            Thank you.
            A little more communication on the site - and I will love pictures and photos.
    2. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 19 May 2021 08: 30
      +4
      Unfortunately, now the same Aleksandrovsky district cannot be called otherwise than depressive.

      Even Orenburg has recently become depressed after the funds from Narodniy Dostoyanie (Gazprom) were redirected directly to St. Petersburg.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 19 May 2021 08: 41
        +2
        What is far to go - between the rivers Unzha and Vetluga. There is still room to fall.
        Only migratory geese are good at rest in the Kologrivskaya floodplain.
    3. Catfish
      Catfish 19 May 2021 08: 32
      +5
      Sergey, I join Anton. smile
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 19 May 2021 08: 41
        +6
        He has already done it.
    4. SERGE ANT
      SERGE ANT 19 May 2021 10: 10
      +13
      Quote: Korsar4
      But how else do you learn about Captain Bykov

      His personality is bright and heroic. In February 1905, shortly before the Japanese invasion, the main headquarters of the Amur Military District sent 12 officers with combat experience in Manchuria to command partisan detachments to Sakhalin. Among them was the captain of the 1st Siberian Stretensky infantry regiment Vasily Petrovich Bykov. In the post of Korsakov, Colonel Artsishevsky appoints Vasily Bykov as the head of the 1st squad of the 5th partisan detachment, which was stationed near the village of Naibuchi. The new commander arrives in the squad at the end of March. At that time, there were 168 people in it, of which 11 were lower ranks of the Korsakov reserve battalion, the rest of the composition was from settlers, peasants and convicts, among whom there were many old people. In May, 44 recidivists under investigation arrived from the prison in Galkino-Vrasskoe (now Dolinsk), and at the beginning of hostilities the detachment has 212 bayonets. From the testimony of the warrior Alexander Shaputko: “When Captain Bykov took the squad, it got better; food was stored until August 1905, except for meat and fish, which was bought with money. He treated us very well and took care of everyone. ”Bykov fought very well too:“ In Romanovsky, I ambushed and killed an officer and 18 soldiers. ” "On July 9, I decided to set up an ambush ...", "... about 150 Japanese were walking along the Naibe River, of which, according to the settlers, 6 people returned. The rest were killed by me."
      1. SERGE ANT
        SERGE ANT 19 May 2021 10: 16
        +16
        Realizing that the battle for Sakhalin was over and the governor shamefully surrendered the island to the Japanese, Vasily Bykov, being in the center of the territory seized by the enemy, did not intend to surrender. He makes the only, as it turned out, right decision to bring his people alive to Cape Pogibi, cross the strait and get out to the mainland. In total, Vasily Bykov brought 203 people out of the campaign alive, having lost 54 warriors dead and dead. The total route of the detachment from Naibuchi to Tenga was about 900 kilometers. Assistant to the commander of the Amur Military District, Lieutenant General Mikhail Andreev, in the "Note to the collection of testimonies" assesses the actions of Captain Bykov as follows: "... Selflessly bravely fought and caused great harm to the enemy squad of Captain Bykov , who then managed to avoid the shameful captivity, passing with incredible difficulties through the taiga and bringing the surviving part of the squad to Nikolaevsk "," ... caused great harm to the Japanese, held out for a long time and, as a consequence of the impossibility of further struggle, disappeared into the taiga and was taken to the mainland by the brave 1st squad of courageous and staunch captain Bykov ".
        From the report on the General Staff No. 373 of October 4, 1906, Major General Martynov, addressed to the emperor: "Thus, the actions of Captain Bykov in the midst of general cowardice prevailing on Sakhalin should be recognized as outstanding, and only this captain's detachment decided, not giving the enemy a single trophy, prefer all the difficulties of retreat to the shame of captivity. "Priest Alexei Troitsky:" The Japanese spoke with enthusiasm about Captain Bykov. "In honor of Vasily Petrovich Bykov, a village, a mountain and a cape are named in the Dolinsky District of the Sakhalin Region.
        1. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 19 May 2021 12: 46
          +3
          Good day. Colleague Serge, where can you read about this?
        2. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 19 May 2021 13: 19
          +4
          In honor of Vasily Petrovich Bykov, a village, a mountain and a cape are named in the Dolinsky district of the Sakhalin region.

          Interesting, in detail - thanks! Is there any information about the future life of the hero? hi

          Now rummaging in the internet, I found interesting notes about how they examined the place of the last battle of Grotto-Slepikovsky:

          https://rg.ru/2017/06/09/rodina-sahalin-okruzhen.html

          For 1989, excerpt:
          The complete remains of 33 people and 1 incomplete were recovered and reburied. Of these, no more than 10-12 people constituted the actual garrison of the trench. The position of the rest of the bodies indicated that they had been dragged and thrown into a trench. Typical injuries from blows to the head with a butt, and holes from revolver bullets were recorded. The nature of the uniform was quite varied - army tunics and harem pants, civilian jackets and trousers, convict canvas jackets and harem pants, naval pea jackets and trousers coexisted with convicts' caps and peakless caps. Only a few pairs of boots could have belonged to the servicemen of the Korsakov reserve battalion, the rest testified that their owners were exiled settlers and even exiled convicts.
          1. Richard
            Richard 19 May 2021 14: 26
            +6
            Local military units numbered 1160 in the north and 330 in the south. Of course, with such a number and weak weapons, they would not have been able to withstand the invasion of Japanese units. The headquarters of the Amur Military District decided to provide the defense of the south with the forces of partisan detachments. The plan for the defense of Southern Sakhalin was developed by Lieutenant General M.N. Lyapunov, military governor of the island. The plan was that, retreating with battles inland, make guerrilla sorties behind enemy lines and hold out in this way until the day of the conclusion of a peace treaty. As long as there was at least one Russian unit on the island fighting, the Japanese could not claim this territory.
            The population of the island was only 30 thousand people, mostly exiled settlers. It was possible to form 14 militia squads of 200 people each. People signed up as volunteers because they hoped to reduce the terms of serving hard labor. For most of them, the "damned island" did not evoke sympathy, and they did not feel any patriotic feelings towards it as a part of the Fatherland. No military exercises were conducted. Probably because the leadership of the penal servitude was afraid to trust the Berdan women to their wards ahead of time. A group of officers arrived from Manchuria in the spring of 1905 and replaced prison officials in command positions. The officers created 5 partisan detachments, each of which was assigned areas of action and food supplies were allocated for 2-3 months:
            The first detachment of Colonel Joseph Aloizovich Artsishevsky: 415 people, 8 guns, 3 machine guns (area of ​​action - Dalneye village).
            The second detachment of Staff Captain Bronislav Vladislavovich Grotto-Slepikovsky: 178 people, 1 machine gun (the village of Chepisan * and Lake Tunaicha).
            The third detachment of Captain Polubotko: 157 people (the village of Sevastyanovka).
            The fourth detachment of the captain Ilyas-Devlet Dairsky: 184 people (the valley of the Lyutogi river).
            The fifth detachment of Captain Vasily Petrovich Bykov: 226 people (the valley of the Naiba river).
            The sixth detachment of Shabs-Captain Vasily Nikolayevich Shabavin: 199 people - under the prison department - 18 people, exiled settlers 72 people, exiled convicts 108 people.

            The vigilantes were armed with Berdan rifles that fired black powder. In the taiga, warehouses with food were laid in advance.
            Artsishevsky was also the chief of defense of South Sakhalin.
            link Russian-Japanese War 1904-1905: Dept. 1: Documents of Russian military and government officials and institutions: In 11 kn. - SPb. : Military-scientist. com. Ch. headquarters, 1900-1914. T. 08: Combat in 1812-13: (Journals of military operations). - 1911 .. - book .. 10, page 752
  8. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 19 May 2021 08: 19
    +16





    Sakhalin.
    Photo by S. Korotkov (Korsar4)
    1. Uncle lee
      Uncle lee 19 May 2021 08: 33
      +14



      Sakhalin. Kholmsk
    2. Far B
      Far B 19 May 2021 09: 01
      +7
      Three Brothers are good! Only they need to be photographed closer, they are white on top - seagulls do not sleep
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 19 May 2021 12: 09
        +4
        But we nevertheless climbed into the Tatar Strait, even though it was September.
        There are interesting photos from the mountain forest.
        If you're interested, I'll ask Anton to post it again.
        1. Far B
          Far B 19 May 2021 12: 17
          +4
          There is also a cool tunnel next to the Three Brothers. In general, Aleksandrovsk is a good town. I worked there with pleasure. It is a pity that he is somehow unlucky with mayors.
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 19 May 2021 13: 26
            +4
            Yes. The tunnel was cut from both sides. The galleries were separated by six meters. Then I had to connect it with a kind of "integral".
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 19 May 2021 13: 45
              +3
              I bow to both of you for the photos! good Well, and Anton - for helping to lay out yours, Sergey.
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 19 May 2021 17: 31
                +2
                What we can do without Anton.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 19 May 2021 18: 05
                  +4
                  "- Darling, what would I do without you!
                  - I would live well, happily ever after! "
          2. Astra wild2
            Astra wild2 19 May 2021 14: 24
            +2
            Colleague Dalny, I'll tell you more: we are all unlucky with the "mayors". As the Central Committee of the party began to distort the Leninist course, the confusion with the "mayors" began.
            1. Richard
              Richard 19 May 2021 20: 01
              +6
              As the Central Committee of the party began to distort the Leninist course, a confusion began with the "mayors

              Fuck them with the mayors. Today is that holiday from childhood, when people were allowed to go to the cinema and parks for free and they did not ask for tickets on public transport.
              1. Astra wild2
                Astra wild2 20 May 2021 08: 22
                +3
                I save my tie, and the badge is gone.
    3. vladcub
      vladcub 19 May 2021 09: 46
      +6
      Thanks to the "corsair" for the photos
  9. north 2
    north 2 19 May 2021 08: 26
    +5
    The tsarist government called Sakhalin Russian Guiana. And this is not only because of the ambition of Britain, France and Portugal, which as their colony had their own Guiana on the coast of northeastern South America, which is no closer from London, Paris and Lisbon than Sakhalin from St. Petersburg. The attitude of the Romanovs to Sakhalin could not be different than the attitude of the prosecutor to the prison, because the main population of Sakhalin was made up of exiled criminals and political criminals.
    And at the expense of Pikul's books, in the book "Hard labor" he describes Sakhalin and the book is based on documents, and in the book "Wealth" Pikul describes Kamchatka and the content of the book looks more like a beautiful fairy tale with a good ending ... More Pikul's books about the Far East I didn't have to read.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 19 May 2021 09: 44
      +12
      Pikul did a lot to popularize history, and for this, many thanks to him, but NOT a HISTORIAN. He is a writer, but as a writer he had the right to his own vision of the situation.
  10. vladcub
    vladcub 19 May 2021 09: 16
    +6
    When I read it and thought it was Skomorokhov, it was very emotional. There is a big difference with the manner of Edward or Valery.
    1. depressant
      depressant 19 May 2021 09: 59
      0
      Svyatoslav, and everyone's emotions will go off scale when it comes to the actual fragmentation of the country into separate, unkempt parts with its formal integrity.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 19 May 2021 12: 12
        +6
        Don't be discouraged, Lyudmila Yakovlevna. To cheer up a little Sakhalin landscapes.

        1. Undecim
          Undecim 19 May 2021 12: 17
          +4
          And a bit more.


          1. Undecim
            Undecim 19 May 2021 12: 24
            +2
            A place for romantic dates.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 19 May 2021 13: 43
              +2
              A place for romantic dates.

              Sometimes you are in the mood that you will agree to live at this lighthouse for a couple of months! wink The photos are beautiful, Viktor Nikolaevich. drinks For some reason, I immediately remembered about the banana-lemon Vyngapur ...
            2. vladcub
              vladcub 19 May 2021 13: 56
              +3
              Vic. Nick, dating romance doesn't turn me on. Get there yet
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 19 May 2021 14: 00
                +3
                Vic. Nick, dating romance doesn't turn me on. Get there yet

                But then - do what you want! drinks If the typhoon does not blow away in the sea ... wink And no one around! fellow
                1. vladcub
                  vladcub 19 May 2021 18: 52
                  +1
                  You will get into a typhoon and ... you will forget your name, and not that about a date
              2. Richard
                Richard 19 May 2021 20: 22
                +1
                Vic. Nick, dating romance doesn't turn me on. Get there yet

                Come on, get there yourself, but who's going to go to you on a date in such a wilderness?
                Then an old bearded anecdote involuntarily comes to mind: laughing
                The man bought Viagra. He brought it to work, showed it to friends, discussed it. He called the girl in front of everyone, arranged for the evening ... The next morning he comes to work, everyone rushes to him: - Well, how? - Guys, thing! I got pleasure eight times in three hours!
                - Wow! And she?
                - But she did not come
                1. vladcub
                  vladcub 20 May 2021 07: 59
                  +2
                  That's it. It will be cool: sailed, but she is not
            3. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 19 May 2021 18: 08
              +2
              Uh-huh. And a honeymoon trip. Across the White Sea. By kayak. At the end of September.
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 19 May 2021 18: 38
                +3
                I have not been to the White Sea, but at the end of September you can ride in the Tasman Sea or the Cook Strait. By canoe.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 19 May 2021 19: 24
                  +2
                  To be honest, I "pulled" a phrase from one x / f.
                  But the White Sea, at the end of September, is still an adventure.
          2. Astra wild2
            Astra wild2 19 May 2021 12: 55
            +2
            Viktor Nikolaevich, is this by chance not the Krillonsky lighthouse, which was actually led by a 12-year-old girl?
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 19 May 2021 13: 01
              +5
              No, this is the Aniva lighthouse on the cape of the same name. The Japanese who built the lighthouse in 1939 called it Nakashiretoko.
              Currently abandoned and polluted by looters.
        2. depressant
          depressant 19 May 2021 12: 25
          +2
          Thank you Victor Nikolaevich!
          How not to get upset. The farm is in desolation, and everyone sees how to fix things so that it brings income to everyone, they suggest. And the owner says: "I have enough, and okay, but you, experts, cannot replace mine with your right, therefore do not pretend to the rules for managing the site, and therefore if you please go out! Oh, you still live here?"
          Problem.
          1. Astra wild2
            Astra wild2 19 May 2021 14: 16
            +2
            Lyudmila Yakovlevna, I subscribe to your words.
            Р
            S.
            I wonder how you did not please the minus players? Some kind of misogynist, perhaps?
  11. vladcub
    vladcub 19 May 2021 12: 23
    +4
    The author does not have information on the realities of that time. "The sending of cast-iron shells with black powder" at that time in the Republic of Ingushetia was tight with modern shells and their shortage was outraged by the old ones. Even in WWI, the British Navy used black powder.
    4 machine guns and 90 for them is a lot for that time. Maxim on Sokolov's machine appeared in 1910 (!), And Madsen machine guns throughout Europe, perhaps, there were 10 thousand
  12. vladcub
    vladcub 19 May 2021 12: 34
    +1
    "this is not Joseph Vissarionovich, in which you would walk to the wall from Greve to the caretaker" read Solzhenitsyn less, but for a change read: Kremlev, Isaev or Martirosyan in extreme cases
  13. sevtrash
    sevtrash 19 May 2021 13: 35
    +1
    ... But Leiman is the only surviving officer from "Alexander III" ...
    Was the author wrong? No one escaped from the crew of "Alexander III".
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 19 May 2021 13: 56
      +7
      No one escaped from the crew of "Alexander III".

      Sergei, I thought so too, before today's article. It looks like he was transplanted to the captured "prize" before Tsushima ... hi
      Here is his report from the Sakhalin Internet publication.

      https://sakhalin.info/weekly/128325
      The report of the naval warrant officer Pyotr Leyman addressed to the head of the crew of the cruiser "Novik" dated June 18, 1905.
      In accordance with your order, I am reporting to your honor the following: May 6, 1905, by order of the commander of the 2nd Pacific squadron, Vice Admiral Rozhdestvensky I switched from the battleship "Emperor Alexander III" to the prize steamer "Oldgamia" as the chief of watch. The commander of the steamship "Oldgamia" was Warrant Officer Tregubov from the battleship Prince Suvorov, the senior officer, Warrant Officer Potapov, from the battleship Oslyabya, and the mechanic, Warrant Officer Zayonchkovsky of the auxiliary cruiser Ural. The crew consisted of the upper and engine crew taken from the squadron, including 37 people, including the boatswain. The British were removed from the steamer around lunchtime of the same day, excluding the commander, mechanic and restaurateur, but they were also removed by evening. Separated from the squadron on May 7 this year. around lunchtime, and went to their destination - around Japan to Vladivostok.
      And further, about everything that happened ...
      Lucky for Leiman and his people! soldier
      1. sevtrash
        sevtrash 19 May 2021 17: 44
        +2
        Quote: Pane Kohanku
        Sergei, I thought so too, before today's article. It looks like he was transplanted to the captured "prize" before Tsushima ...
        Here is his report from the Sakhalin Internet publication.

        Ok, thanks for the info. hi
        The author's expression "... the only survivor ..." immediately refers to the Tsushima battle, in which he seemed to have survived. In fact, this is not so, perhaps - rather and probably - from the crew of Alesander III from the moment of formation and even the campaign, a lot of people dropped out for various reasons. Thus, the author could count several more people as survivors.
  14. vladcub
    vladcub 19 May 2021 13: 52
    +5
    "The island was surrendered to our authorities" or rather not the whole island, but half. For this, Witte received the nickname: "Count half-Sakhalin".
    Comrades, who is in the subject, as historians now believe: was it possible in those conditions not to concede the floor of Sakhalin? Even Ignatiev says the terms of the Portsmouth Agreement were comparatively lenient.
  15. Mike_E
    Mike_E 19 May 2021 14: 32
    +3
    It would have been much better without references to executions and repressions in a slightly later period. Moreover, they did not help in any way to fight better (in the first 2 years) in the immediate vicinity of the capital.
  16. Looking for
    Looking for 19 May 2021 18: 16
    +2
    Interest arose only after the book "Hard labor" by Pikul. But a lot is wrong there. Ivanov, yes you are aphids! against Pikul.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 19 May 2021 19: 21
      +2
      Rough, but correct: V.S. we all have to say a huge thank you for aroused interest in our story