Military Review

Tombstones of knights and ... swords

161

"Hunting for effigies". Cathedral of st. Stephen's in Budapest. Photo by the author, taken by someone else ...


“From the abbey of St. Geraldine, where Sir Tristan Druricom died and, according to custom, lay in the church for three days, on the day of St. Agates carried him out in a pine coffin on a rich gilded stretcher. They carried him in four rows, four people in a row, sixteen men, and yet they often had to be replaced, because the knight lay in a coffin in full armor, in chain mail with a hood, in armor, in a helmet with a casing, in iron gloves, yes, besides, in dead hands he held his long sword, and an ax was placed at his feet, as was customary. "
("Jack Straw". Zinaida Shishova)

History weapons. Today we continue the theme of swords (and knightly armor, or armor and swords!) That were depicted on tombstones. However, I would like to start by referring to the epigraph. It is no coincidence that he is here. Probably, many in childhood read this romantic, touching and such a sad story by Zinaida Shishova about the love of a blacksmith's son for a noble lady and the uprising of Wat Tyler. The book is considered a classic, recommended for reading in the 6th grade as additional material on the history of the Middle Ages, and it describes a lot of things completely correctly. Much, but not all! Nothing of which she wrote in the passage that is placed in the epigraph was not and could not be.

Nobody put the deceased knights in armor in a coffin, dragged them to the grave, and laid a wooden coffin in a stone one, and buried them. Because that would be unacceptable paganism. Death equalized both the knight and the commoner, and the church followed this very strictly. A bare shroud and a candle in hand - that's all, in which both were sent to the next world. So everything written is an ignorant fantasy. However, understandable. She has not been abroad. Books about what bad feudalism was, I read only ours, Soviet ones, and for some reason the topic of effigies did not find a sufficiently intelligible reflection in them. All tombstones were credited to tombstones or statues, but what, how, their features - all this was not reported. As was not reported about the difference between effigies and breaststrokes, which we will tell you about today.


“Wow, another one got caught! And most importantly, it is a very late time, 1624. It turns out that in the presbytery of the cathedral are the tombs of Cardinal Aloysius Stepinats and Commander Tamash Erdödi. This is his effigy, made in the form of a wall bas-relief ”. The armor he wears is amazing! Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary and Saints Stephen and Vladislav is a Catholic cathedral in Zagreb, Croatia. Photo by the author

Recall that effigies are gravestone figures carved from stone and located on a gravestone. That is, it is such a specific sculptural tombstone. Sometimes this statue is standing. Stands in full growth, and the grave itself is nearby. Or, on the contrary, it is very far away. But the sculpture of the deceased allows him to remember him with prayer, which is always useful for him. For example, there are many effigies of Joan of Arc: in Reims Cathedral, in the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris, and in many other places.


But most of all I like this one, installed in the Cathedral of St. Michael in Carcassonne. Although the helmet at her feet is some kind of ... fantasy!

For a long time it was sculptural effigies that were in vogue in all European countries. But then it happened that the craftsmen learned how to make sheet brass. This material was expensive, but beautiful, and it immediately found its use on ... tombstones. Increasingly, knights abandoned sculptures, instead of which a flat image of a sheet of brass, usually with an engraved design, was laid on the slab. Such flat memorial plates were called "breaststroke", that is, "brass".

Tombstones of knights and ... swords
Brass by John and Alaina de Krecke, approx. 1340-1345, Westley Waterless Church, Cambridgeshire

Now it is difficult to say which breaststroke was the very first. But already in 1345 there were such tombstones. For example, in the same England. Of course, breaststrokes, due to their flat appearance, are less informative than voluminous ones. But they persist well. They are harder to damage, more accurately copied. So today breaststrokes are very important sources of information in the field of "knight costume" and knightly weapons. And on none of the breaststrokes does the ax lie at the feet ...


John de Argentine, 1382 Note the octagonal pommel of the hilt. It is by such small details that the time of production of a particular effigy is often determined ...


Brass by Andrew Latrell, 1390

The study of breaststrokes, like other effigies, led to a very interesting conclusion. It turns out that approximately in the last twenty years of the XIV century and the first XV knightly armor everywhere acquired a relatively uniform look. It was, if I may say so, the "final period" of the transition from mixed chain-plate armor to purely plate, "white armor".


William de Bruyne, 1395


Thomas Beauchamp, 1401

See how similar breaststrokes from that time are. And not only breaststrokes, but also sculptural effigies!


Edmund Cocaine, died 1403, effigy of 1412

As you can see, all these breaststrokes and Sir Cockayne's effigy are very similar: a bascinet helmet with a clip-on mail mantle, armor, over which a short jupon caftan is worn. The main thing that catches your eye is, of course, the chain mail mantle. The belt, decorated with square plaques, is lowered to the hips. In addition to the sword, the knight's weapon is the rondel dagger.


Georg von Bach, 1415

Pay attention to this tombstone, entirely of stone, the figure depicted on it is also almost flat, cut into its surface, also from 1415. It depicts the knight John Woodwill in armor, in which an all-metal collar is already visible over the chain mail mantle.


John Woodville, c. 1415 Grafton Regis, Northamptonshire. The chain mail in his armor is already a completely auxiliary role. And, of course, the pommel of the sword hilt in the shape of a decanter cork is very characteristic of this time.

And finally, before us is a knight in typical "white armor"!


Effigius of Nicholas de Longford of Longford Church, 1416 Helmet dropped over shoulders. Collar made of metal plates. Why the replacement of this part from chain mail to plates was delayed for more than 30 years is unclear. After all, the spearhead could well have grabbed the rings of the chain mail, and not slipped off them ... but, nevertheless, it was so. But then they no longer returned to chain collars! Pay attention to his besagyu - the shields covering the armpits, they are not round and of a very whimsical shape


Although at the same time there were knights on the continent who also dressed like this: Johann Kammerer, 1415 (buried with his wife Anna von Baikebach). And in the photo it was he, Kammerer, and not his wife!


We see full plate armor without textile cover on the example of the breaststroke of Henry Paris, 1427 Hildersham, Cambridgeshire. That is, by 1427, such armor finally became a mass phenomenon.

Interestingly, the first "white armor" was extremely functional. They had no frills, no decorations. Only one "white" polished metal! True, the sword sling has changed. Now it is no longer a belt lowered to the hips, but a simple belt on which a sword is hung. The scabbard of the dagger is most likely riveted directly to the stripes of the "skirt", assembled from overlapping plates, arranged like a tourist folding cup! At the same Henry Paris, we see the simplest round-shaped assagyu, a convex globular cuirass. The gunsmiths seemed to be trying on the possibilities of working with metal and therefore made only the simplest protective parts, without bothering themselves with special difficulties.


Randolph Leger, 1470 Ulcombe, Kent. It is interesting that a certain fashion also existed in the depiction of the figure of a knight on breaststrokes of different eras. So, towards the end of the XNUMXth century, for some reason, the sword began to be depicted on his stomach. For us, this is, of course, good. You can see its handle in detail. But the fact that no one wore it like that is also obvious, since it is impossible to walk with a sword hanging in this way. But ... it was so fashionable and that says it all!

Throughout the XNUMXth century, one might say, there was a process of developing the style of armor, which eventually took shape in two of the most popular: Milanese and Gothic, which spread in Northern Germany. Milanese armor appeared at the end of the XNUMXth century and existed until the beginning of the XNUMXth century. A feature of the Milanese armor was the large elbow pads, which even made it possible to abandon the shield, and also the asymmetrical shoulder pads, which sometimes went behind each other on the back; plate mittens with long sockets and an armé helmet, although a sallet (salade) was also used, like a barbut.


Richard Quatremain, Counselor to Richard Duke of York and Edward IV, 1478 Teme, Oxfordshire. He is wearing typical Gothic armor.


Peter Rede is depicted in knightly armor on a plaque in St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich. Interestingly, although he is depicted in armor and manner around 1470, he died in 1568. Apparently, the engraver of his breaststroke was asked to "dress" the deceased in armor of an earlier type, and ... he overdid it, obviously using the breaststroke created 100 years earlier as a model!

Gothic ones appeared in the second half of the XNUMXth century and were distinguished by sharp angles, especially noticeable on elbow pads, sabatons (plate shoes) and gloves, as well as their helmet - salad. But again, all the armor of this era had no adornments. They were distinguished by polished metal and nothing else!


Sir Anthony Gray, 1480 St. Albans, Herdfordshire. The same tradition is observed ...


Judging by this tombstone with breaststroke on its surface, the fashion for the image of a "sword in front" has exhausted itself. Edmund Clare, 1488, and his wife Elizabeth, Stokesby, Norfolk. Edmund is wearing a salade helmet with a visor, and a chin. Besagyu missing


Lukasz Gorka, 1475, Poznan Cathedral, Poland. Very interesting tombstone with breaststroke. It disappeared from the Poznan Cathedral at the beginning of World War II and was found only in 1990 in St. Petersburg in the Hermitage, which in 1990 returned it to its original place along with some other similar monuments. The breaststroke consists of eight plates with a total area of ​​2,64 x 1,43 meters, which is slightly larger than life size. Lucas de Gorca, who died in 1475, is dressed in the full armor of a Nuremberg knight - the breaststroke was made in Nuremberg in the famous Fischer workshop. It stands opposite a damask curtain in an ornate gateway, in which the niches are filled with the apostles. Only the lion at his feet reminds us that this breaststroke comes from those that depict a horizontal figure lying on his back with his head on a pillow and a beast at his feet. This, as well as the fact that the inscription runs along the entire perimeter, and is easy to read if the "brass" was in a horizontal position on the floor, but difficult to read in an upright position, once again confirms that initially this slab was lying on the floor, although now for some reason it is fixed on the wall of the cathedral upright

For a short time, it became fashionable to wear heraldic robes over armor again, as this French tombstone tells us about ...


Ambrose de Villiers, 1503, Notre Dame du Val, France


John Leventhorpe, 1510, St Helen Bishopgate, London

In addition, for example, in England, the fashion spread for wearing tasset shields, which were suspended from the lower edge of the carapace "skirt", under which there was also chain mail as an additional reinforcement. There was no sense in such "booking", but judging by the large number of breaststrokes with knights in such armor, it was again another fashion that they tried to follow.

Someone had these shields more, someone less, but ... the fashion for them and the chain-mail hem lasted quite a long time.

Henry Stanley, 1528 Hillington, Middlesex

Another hundred years passed and the fashion for clothes (fluffy pants stuffed with cotton became fashionable) changed again, at the same time the armor changed. Even the position of the figure on the tombstone was different. Armor is increasingly decorated with a decorative strip along the perimeter of the details. The sword-epee with crosshairs and rings was also very characteristic of this time.


Sir Edward Filmer, 1629, East Sutton, Kent. However, he was no longer wearing knightly armor, but armor "in three quarters", that is, they could belong to the reiter, and the cuirassier, and the spearman - the main types of English cavalry of this time


But there were, of course, those who, according to tradition, due to loyalty to the principles and lack of the necessary funds, worn out old armor. For example, they are depicted on the breaststroke of Sir Alexander Newton, 1659 Brysworth, Suffolk. Probably, when he appeared in them in public, they laughed at him ...

In a number of European countries breaststrokes have not taken root. There they continued to carve tombstones out of stone. Moreover, the sculptors did not always succeed in depicting the deceased. However, since we are mainly interested in armor and weapons, body defects are not important to us.


Tombstone of Nickel von Miltitz (1532-1595), circa 1595. Hans Kohler the Elder (c. 1540-1606). From the courtyard of Siebeneichen Castle. Museum of the City of Meissen. Well, this Hans Kohler the Elder turned out to be an obvious freak. It would be better not to undertake. Although the armor is shown well. And one more thing: his weapon is still a sword and a dagger.


Tombstone of R.N. Centurius von Miltitz, circa 1607 from the courtyard of Siebeneichen Castle. Here you can look at the figure of the deceased without shuddering. As you can see, the armor still uses chain mail, from which the codpiece is made, and it looks like he is wearing chain shorts under his legguards. And under them, too, there was probably something thick and, most likely, quilted, because it is not very pleasant to sit on the "fabric" of chain mail in the saddle. A scarf over his shoulder shows that we are facing not just a soldier, but an officer! Museum of the City of Meissen. By the way, this museum is extremely interesting. Usually tourists are offered a choice: a city or a porcelain factory. But porcelain is also porcelain in Russia. And in the city you can see a museum with a lot of unique exhibits, and a castle with a cathedral, and ... refresh yourself in local cafes and restaurants with excellent cuisine and local beer and wine from the city vineyards that grow right in the city on the castle hill!

This concludes our journey into the world of effigies and breaststrokes.

PS And in conclusion, our traditional gratitude to the British Medieval Society for the provided photos of effigies and breaststrokes.
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  1. depressant
    depressant 17 May 2021 18: 15
    +3
    Good evening, dear colleagues! ))))
    Apparently breaststroke is a type of coinage.
    1. kalibr
      17 May 2021 18: 21
      +7
      And good evening to you. Just the name of the material is brass.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 17 May 2021 18: 37
        +8
        The name monumental brass is used in relation to the gravestone images.
        1. kalibr
          17 May 2021 20: 13
          +5
          Yes, but for British medievalists, everything is simple: "breaststroke" period.
      2. depressant
        depressant 17 May 2021 19: 39
        +5
        Vyacheslav Olegovich, thank you for letting me see "The tail wags the dog" - a masterpiece! As for the topic of your article, the variety and richness of the material is breathtaking. Thank you!
        1. kalibr
          17 May 2021 20: 08
          +4
          Quote: depressant
          breathtaking

          Reading this is especially pleasant! Thanks to you, too!
        2. kalibr
          17 May 2021 20: 42
          +3
          Quote: depressant
          thank you for letting me see "The Tail Wags the Dog" - a masterpiece!

          Now watch the series "Absolute Power!" All this, by the way, is from our high school PR training program! The students also really liked it. Especially this: "The President wants a white cat ..." And - again - she became white!
          1. depressant
            depressant 17 May 2021 21: 37
            +4
            Necessarily! I will try to watch one episode a day. The film "The tail wags the dog" itself is not an exposure, it is the same propaganda and agitation that it exposes. It turns out that if you want to remove someone from a high position, make a film about how he got to it.
      3. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 17 May 2021 22: 42
        +3
        And I, Vyacheslav Olegovich, when I was in Budapest, did not go into this church. The wife brushed it off. We took pictures with it in the background and went on, along the planned route ...
        1. kalibr
          18 May 2021 06: 39
          +3
          And we got to the service and waited for the end. It was so ... touching. It is clear that we did not understand anything. But many came out with very ... such faces. We said goodbye to each other very well. In a word, it had a strong effect on people. Have you been to the museum of totalitarianism?
          1. The leader of the Redskins
            The leader of the Redskins 18 May 2021 07: 01
            +3
            Also, passed by! laughing But, here already on the advice of a friend - she retold the exposition in a nutshell. Moreover, then we were in a hurry to the royal baths, where, by the way, we gave ourselves up to bliss from lunch until seven in the evening!)))
            And on the way back on foot, there was no longer enough strength and took a ride on the Budapest metro.
            1. kalibr
              18 May 2021 07: 42
              +4
              Quote: Leader of the Redskins
              Moreover, then we were in a hurry to the royal baths, where, by the way, we indulged in bliss from lunch until seven in the evening!

              In-oh-oh-from! I had to too ... But the duty to VO called to go around everything, see and snap off ... There was no time for bathing!
              1. The leader of the Redskins
                The leader of the Redskins 18 May 2021 08: 27
                +1
                But in vain! We were there in early May. The weather is fresh, and one of the pools is +37))) Nega, light steam from the mouth ... People in moderation, old people play chess right in the water. Sometimes underwater "water cannons" turn on, if you find one - here's a massage for you ...
                1. kalibr
                  18 May 2021 09: 58
                  +1
                  You can't eat a fish and ride on bones at the same time ...
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 17 May 2021 18: 32
      +6
      Apparently breaststroke is a type of coinage.

      This is not chasing, this is engraving.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 17 May 2021 18: 56
        +2
        Brass is an increasingly popular style of brass music performed by orchestras consisting only of brass instruments, usually supplemented by a percussion section. (C)
    3. Bar1
      Bar1 18 May 2021 06: 33
      +2
      and yet where is the Christian funerary symbolism? there are no crosses except for the crucifixion in the first image, but there are clearly pre-Christian symbols - birds with human faces. Did they depict angels or any cherubim there? No, they weren't portrayed like that.
      But in the Old Belief, such birds were called the bird Sirin, maybe Gamayun?

      1. kalibr
        18 May 2021 06: 40
        +4
        The inscription around on the slab ... contains a prayer appeal to the Lord.
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 18 May 2021 06: 45
          0
          Quote: kalibr
          The inscription around on the slab ... contains a prayer appeal to the Lord.


          more details can be given. To which Lord?
          1. kalibr
            18 May 2021 06: 50
            +4
            Christian, of course. But I can’t translate. Gothic ... and the language is not modern.
            1. Bar1
              Bar1 18 May 2021 21: 33
              -2
              Quote: kalibr
              Christian, of course.

              Yes, I really can't translate, but to the Christian God, that's not how things are done.
              1. kalibr
                19 May 2021 12: 24
                +1
                Do you mean to say that the English baron could have an appeal to some other god? You just had to open Wikiyedia and read: John Woodville (eng. John Woodville [k 1]; c. 1445 - August 12, 1469) - the son of Richard Woodville, 1st Earl of Rivers, and Jacquette of Luxembourg, younger brother of Queen Elizabeth Woodville.
                John Woodville was the second of five surviving sons of Sir Richard Woodville (later 1st Earl of Rivers) and Jacquette of Luxembourg, widow of John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford. John's parents' marriage was socially unequal and shocked the English court. Sir Richard Woodville at the time of his marriage was a simple knight from a respectable and fairly wealthy, but not noble family; he followed in his father's footsteps into the service of the Duke of Bedford, where he first met his future wife. Jacquette was the daughter of Pierre of Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Paul, and married the Duke of Bedford in 1433 at the age of 17; the duke was much older than Jacquette and died just two years later, leaving her childless, a wealthy widow. The king granted Jacquetta a widow's share, provided that she did not marry without his permission. But in March 1437 it was revealed that she was secretly married to Sir Richard Woodville, who was far below her in rank and was not considered a suitable husband for a woman revered as the king's aunt. The couple were fined £ 1000, but later received a royal pardon, probably in connection with the birth of their first child.
                John was born on the Woodville Manor House family estate in Grafton Regis, Northamptonshire. The exact date of birth of the boy has not been determined, but he was born around 1445. That is, it is Woodville from one of the branches of this genus. In any case, there are documents on the baptism of such a noble person. This is England ... perks and everything. So no need to fantasize about God.

        2. Snail N9
          Snail N9 18 May 2021 08: 15
          +3
          I don't like watching effigies ... There is something in them ... personally unpleasant for me ... just like looking at a corpse, you almost feel the smell of corpse ...
          1. kalibr
            18 May 2021 09: 14
            +3
            That's it! And I really like them. They speak directly, talk about themselves ...
  2. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 17 May 2021 18: 47
    +4
    Enchanting !!! So many personalities! There is something to dig deeper into.
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 17 May 2021 19: 45
      +4
      Enchanting !!! So many personalities! There is something to dig deeper into.

      Good evening.
      If there is a desire to poke around in personalities (in a good way), then download something like this book.

      (https://ia800902.us.archive.org/26/items/monumentalbrasse00boutuoft/monumentalbrasse00boutuoft.pdf).
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 17 May 2021 19: 54
        +2
        Thank you Victor Nikolaevich!
      2. kalibr
        17 May 2021 20: 34
        +3
        By the way, it's better to type in a search engine like this: monumentalbrasse00boutuoft / monumentalbrasse00boutuoft.pdf
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 17 May 2021 21: 24
          +3
          Can I have some more
          https://ia800902.us.archive.org/24/items/amanualmonument02haingoog/amanualmonument02haingoog.pdf
    2. depressant
      depressant 17 May 2021 19: 50
      +5
      Anton, I support! )))
      This is what it means when the Author is very much in the subject. We'll have to poke around. I don’t know how you, in my suburbs of Moscow, have a heat of 29 degrees, it’s difficult to withstand this, so it’s hard to master all these ... to another, and it will hardly work even in a couple of days wassat )))
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 17 May 2021 19: 57
        +5
        My respect, Lyudmila Yakovlevna!
        Damn, you can't please! Ten days ago, you complained about the lack of sun ...
        1. depressant
          depressant 17 May 2021 20: 02
          +5
          It was, it was, Anton! But such an excessive amount of the sun, which behaves like a bandit - grabs the throat with a suffocating technique and knocks down with a sweep, this is already redundant. It's too much for me, I can't stand it)))
      2. Undecim
        Undecim 17 May 2021 20: 00
        +4
        heat 29 degrees

        Is 29 degrees hot?
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 17 May 2021 20: 08
          +5
          In the suburbs - yes, in St. Petersburg, above 25 - do not care, on average the Volga region, +40 in the shade - it's hot, but no more.
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 17 May 2021 20: 12
            +5
            Come on, friends, the weather in Moscow is quite comfortable. I have my cat, Phil, lying on the carpet and not blowing his mustache. And you about the weather.
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 17 May 2021 20: 21
              +4
              In May - one or two days it is not yet hot. Nice evenings.
        2. depressant
          depressant 17 May 2021 20: 19
          +3
          Victor Nikolaevich, my dear, what do you think is this? lol )))
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 17 May 2021 20: 28
            +5
            It's warm. Moreover, in the evening, at night and in the morning, the temperature is quite comfortable. But when it does not fall below 38 at night for weeks, it is already hot.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 17 May 2021 21: 18
              +4
              The customer flew in from Guayaquil in mid-March with children. Grandmothers refused to babysit them due to the fact that grandchildren do not know how to dress in anything more complicated than T-shirts and shorts.
        3. ee2100
          ee2100 17 May 2021 20: 50
          +2
          Maybe I'm already tired of you today, but I asked the question earlier.
          In the epityphia, as a rule, an animal is always at the feet. Dog, lion, etc. It was somehow regulated and what did it mean?
          And then the author is carrying some kind of blizzard
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 17 May 2021 21: 56
            +6
            In the epityphia, as a rule, an animal is always at the feet. Dog, lion, etc. It was somehow regulated and what did it mean?

            I don't remember what the author wrote about animals on effigies, but this is, in general, a separate large article, because each animal symbolized some specific qualities of the deceased.
            The ferret, for example, meant that the deceased was a good hunter, and the dog meant loyalty to the sovereign.
            In addition, they served as protectors of the dead in the afterlife.
          2. kalibr
            18 May 2021 06: 43
            0
            Quote: ee2100
            In the epityphia, as a rule, an animal is always at the feet. Dog, lion, etc. It was somehow regulated and what did it mean?
            And then the author is carrying some kind of blizzard

            You have already asked this question.
            You have been answered.
            You wrote back that it is concise and comprehensive. What else is needed? How many times will you ask the same question?
          3. depressant
            depressant 18 May 2021 14: 44
            +4
            Alexander (ee2100), if you don't mind, I will help you a little.
            - if the legs are crossed, then the knight was a member of the Crusade,
            - if the legs look normal, then the deceased did not participate in military campaigns against the infidels.

            - the dog lies at the feet of the knight who died a natural death,

            - the lion lies on the grave of a knight who died in a victorious battle,

            - a helmet denotes a knighthood,

            - if the helmet is removed and the sword is hidden in a sheath, then the warrior died from wounds received in battle,
            - if there is no helmet, but only weapons, then the deceased was not a knight, but served in the army,

            - a raised visor, spurs and a sword, as well as full combat gear - from a multiple winner of knightly duels and tournaments,

            - an empty scabbard and the absence of spurs indicates that the knight died in captivity.


            But what the bird at the feet of the breaststroke can mean, I did not find)))
            1. Richard
              Richard 18 May 2021 15: 30
              +3
              Why do some have folded arms over their chests, while others do not?
              1. depressant
                depressant 18 May 2021 16: 18
                +3
                Dmitry, something flashed about hands in the materials I looked at, but, I'm afraid, I didn’t remember accurately. If the knight died in battle, then the arms did not fold. If in a peaceful life, then - in a sign of piety. If you can, please clarify.
                1. Richard
                  Richard 18 May 2021 17: 36
                  +2
                  Thank you, Lyudmila Yakovlevna hi
            2. ee2100
              ee2100 18 May 2021 16: 28
              +3
              Good afternoon.
              Thank you so much! A very important addition. Now it is clear how to "read" offigii correctly.
              The author could be worried himself.
            3. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 18 May 2021 19: 33
              +2
              - if the legs are crossed, then the knight was a member of the Crusade
              And here the question arises: in which crusade could William Marshal Pembroke II participate?
              1. depressant
                depressant 18 May 2021 21: 51
                +3
                But he did not participate! For example, Richard was on a crusade in 1199, and for this period the Marshal was appointed lord of the protectorate with duplication of the functions of the king. Apparently, during the entire campaign, Richard was with him in his soul and thoughts, and this participation was limited laughing )))
                But he was a glorious fighter! He won 500 tournaments, trained fighters, one might say, a first-class teacher of the art of knightly combat, a trainer. For achievements and crossed his legs wassat laughing )))
                It's like a posthumous award.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 19 May 2021 06: 39
                  +1
                  Error, Lyudmila Yakovlevna.
                  Everything that you said refers to the father of the character, the effigy of which I have given.
                  But even here there is an intrigue.
                  1. depressant
                    depressant 19 May 2021 08: 04
                    +1
                    Good morning Anton! )))
                    That's it ... Daddy was nice. And what's the intrigue? Did Young go on hikes or went, but came in the wrong place? wassat )))
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 19 May 2021 08: 25
                      +1
                      Good morning!
                      VikNik and I discussed this riddle under the previous article.
                      The fact is that in Wikipedia (from where I actually pulled the image) there is a lithograph from Addison's book. But it does not correspond to the real effigy of Pembroke II.
                      1. depressant
                        depressant 19 May 2021 09: 01
                        +1
                        And I, reading the biography of a person almost equal in importance to the king, peering into the image of the tombstone, was surprised - you must, at such an old age, have such a youthful appearance. It is unlikely that this is possible even now, he is not a Chinese!
      3. kalibr
        17 May 2021 20: 28
        +2
        We have 31 degrees in Penza and nothing. Perceived as 27. I put the barrel on the shower at the dacha and yesterday the whole family was already swimming. So everything is OK!
        1. depressant
          depressant 17 May 2021 20: 52
          +4
          Like this! And I, unhappy, was determined to get under a cold shower at exactly half past six in the evening and it’s good that I tried the water first - there’s no cold water! There was a distant uterine roar, which gradually died away - so a dinosaur could announce its death, and everything was silent. After a couple of minutes, cold water suddenly appeared, quickly replaced by an industrial solution of alumina, and now I hopelessly go to check if it has gone clean. But I know my hopes are in vain. Okay, at least the kettle is full. And then I heard wild swearing in the yard of our housing office, it’s just across the street from me. It turned out that angry citizens came for the head of his boss - the whole village was plunged into the clay flowing from the cranes!
          And this is in this heat.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 17 May 2021 21: 23
            +4
            And then I heard wild swearing in the yard of our housing office, it’s just across the street from me. It turned out that angry citizens came for the head of his boss - the whole village was plunged into the clay flowing from the cranes!
            "Sparkling persons of impeccable blood
            Get out on the boulevards, crawl out live.
            Get out your tight skinny butts
            Let's get drunk today, a holiday of common misfortune.

            Dear ladies of the blazing nests
            You will be extinguished today by the gentlemen of the white stars.
            Today, as always, it will be calm again,
            After all, the common misfortune is a terrible swill.

            And someone's unquenchable hot eyes
            Cool water will pour over the edge.
            And a yellow and red bow up your sleeve
            Will turn blue like moonlight on the grass.
            A holiday of common trouble is just when
            A really big trouble is coming.
            And all that is in you, as in common trouble,
            And this is quite worthy of all of us. "(C)
            1. depressant
              depressant 17 May 2021 21: 44
              +1
              What an unexpected association! I would even say the interpretation of a humble disaster message wassat )))
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 17 May 2021 21: 49
                +3
                How spontaneous is it? It is quite man-made.
          2. Undecim
            Undecim 17 May 2021 21: 27
            +6
            Your pipes have been changed, but you are complaining.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 17 May 2021 21: 40
              +3
              Yes, if only pipes!
            2. depressant
              depressant 17 May 2021 22: 00
              +4
              Viktor Nikolaevich, it is not a replacement of pipes, it is not otherwise a sabotage on the part of utilities laughing
              Or an unsuccessful attempt at a miracle. Freshly clean water, turn off for a couple of minutes, then clay. But Christ turned water into wine!
              Today at one o'clock in the afternoon I was already attacked by the ZhEK, whose representative appeared today at my call to prove that a basin with leaked water from newly installed new meters is my hallucination. I didn’t agree, and he had to tinker with the imperfection as with a very real entity, he left disgruntled. Such a day, full of communal problems, combined with the heat, will melt your brains!
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 17 May 2021 22: 04
                +6
                A housing office worker, this is not a specialty - this is a diagnosis. They can work normally only under a real threat of physical harm. Proven by practice.
                And mechanical impurities in the water supply can be for various reasons. In any case, this is a man-made phenomenon.
                1. depressant
                  depressant 17 May 2021 22: 11
                  +4
                  Eh, the Holy Inquisition would - yes to them!
                  How easy it would be! They say, they deliberately perverted the miracle of the Lord in order to prove that turning water into wine is impossible in principle - to their fire!
                  1. Undecim
                    Undecim 17 May 2021 22: 22
                    +3
                    Eh, the Holy Inquisition would - yes to them!

                    Sometimes an ordinary baseball bat is enough in the hands of an MSMK in judo weighing over 100 kg.
                    1. depressant
                      depressant 17 May 2021 22: 52
                      +1
                      MSMK in judo in weight over 100 kg.


                      MSMK =?
                      It is you? recourse
                      1. Undecim
                        Undecim 17 May 2021 23: 01
                        +5
                        Not. This is my friend, who, having physical training, worked as the head of the ZhEK. And I am not strong in hand-to-hand combat. I'm a CCM in shooting. For the housing office, this is already an extreme case.
        2. Richard
          Richard 18 May 2021 17: 54
          +1
          We have 31 degrees in Penza and nothing. Perceived as 27. I put the barrel on the shower at the dacha and yesterday the whole family was already swimming. So everything is OK!

          we have +23. it was raining, but the ground is already dry. On Sunday we went to swim at Podkumok. Suga is gone, but the water is very cloudy
  3. Catfish
    Catfish 17 May 2021 18: 52
    +3
    The piously folded palms of these thugs are touching. laughing

    Vyacheslav, thank you, but then the people are completely depressed. smile

    It's a pity I didn't find it in such gloves.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 17 May 2021 18: 59
      +4
      Hi Uncle Kostya!
      And what is wrong here?
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 17 May 2021 19: 19
        +2
        Hello Anton!
        Did I say that something is wrong? Everything is so, but for some reason these palms remind me of a sobbing crocodile over the skeleton of its victim. smile request
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 17 May 2021 19: 27
          +3
          Why then "thugs"?
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 17 May 2021 20: 08
            +6
            And who are they, members of the charitable society. Mother Teresa?

            Well, straight angels in the flesh. laughing
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 17 May 2021 20: 17
              +4
              This character plays for another team, them. Holy Virgin Mary.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 17 May 2021 20: 20
                +3
                Here I am about it. wink drinks
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 17 May 2021 19: 58
      +6
      It's a pity I didn't find it in such gloves

    3. kalibr
      17 May 2021 20: 11
      +5
      Sea Cat (Constantine)
      Hands did you draw?
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 17 May 2021 20: 18
        +4
        No, no, I found it on the net. It is not difficult to draw them from nature, especially with a pencil, but it will take much more time than just downloading. smile
      2. Undecim
        Undecim 17 May 2021 20: 21
        +4
        Hands did you draw?

        No, Dürer, who is Albrecht, 1508. It is also called "Sketches of the Apostle's Hands."
        1. depressant
          depressant 17 May 2021 21: 27
          +2
          To the photograph of the hands.

          I have sinned a lot, you - forgive me!
          Don't give the breed lime
          Otherwise everyone will become holy
          Inside their iron armor.
          "Saint, Villain" - such a duet
          Light will support Christianity.
  4. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 17 May 2021 19: 07
    +6
    Красиво.
    However, I'm already starting to get used to it. Vyacheslav Olegovich's visuals are always at their best. smile
    Still, these dukes and earls lived richly. Our princes and boyars, for the most part, could not afford this.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 17 May 2021 19: 22
      +7
      Our princes and boyars, for the most part, could not afford this.
      The vector was different.
      "Women, vodka, accordion and salmon!" (FROM) laughing
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 17 May 2021 20: 22
        +4
        With the continuity of generations, we are in good order. good
      2. Korsar4
        Korsar4 17 May 2021 20: 26
        +5
        But our sables are the fluffiest!
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 17 May 2021 20: 42
          +4
          Not sable - Arctic foxes !!!
          But hamsters are definitely the most aggressive!
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 17 May 2021 21: 14
            +4
            And the Arctic foxes are the fullest!
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 17 May 2021 21: 29
              +5
              And incurable!
    2. kalibr
      17 May 2021 20: 29
      +2
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      Our princes and boyars, for the most part, could not afford this.

      But they wore furs!
      1. Richard
        Richard 17 May 2021 21: 23
        +7
        Didn't the European dukes and counts wear them?
        Even in time immemorial, this fashion spread in the court environment, then it was borrowed by chivalry and legally enshrined in the bull of Pope Innocent III (1198-1216).
        Addressing Corradius, the Archbishop of Würzburg, who was ordered to go beat the Saracens, Innocent III pointed out that one must be “in a vestment decorated with ermine or squirrel fur, or for lack of them, any other fur of those used in knightly tournaments. ".
        1. kalibr
          18 May 2021 06: 46
          +2
          Walking in furs and wearing clothes decorated with fur are two different things.
        2. Korsar4
          Korsar4 18 May 2021 07: 09
          +5
          Went. But either the European squirrel or our sable - feel the difference.

          Even Pechkin said: "There are three people like you on the hat!"
          1. Richard
            Richard 18 May 2021 07: 32
            +6
            Good morning, Sergey
            An article about knights. And medieval heraldry (and modern too) recognized only two furs - an ermine and a squirrel. Sable, beaver and all the rest, according to knightly concepts, belonged to ... "not noble" furs. This is an indisputable fact. It got to the point of curiosities - if you want to look like a noble knight, but don't have a squirrel or an ermine - make an imitation at least from a cat or sheepskin. So we owe chivalry to furs made from "Shanghai leopard" and "Mexican jerboa" smile
            Only these two furs are included in the heraldic tinctures. No longer alone.

            1. kalibr
              18 May 2021 09: 19
              +3
              Yes of course. I wrote a whole series of articles about this on heraldry. Moreover, the fur could be not only squirrel, but also anti-squirrel (inverted), but there was no anti-mountain fur.
              1. Richard
                Richard 18 May 2021 11: 11
                +4
                Moreover, the fur could be not only squirrel, but also the opposite (inverted)

                Rather not fur, but fur tinctures
            2. Mihaylov
              Mihaylov 18 May 2021 11: 04
              +6
              Quote: Richard
              Sable, beaver and all the rest, according to knightly concepts, belonged to ... "not noble" furs.

              A beaver is generally a fish. wassat
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 18 May 2021 13: 11
                +3
                And effigia is a genus of archosaurs.
              2. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 18 May 2021 17: 25
                +5
                A beaver is generally a fish.

                Not according to knightly, but according to monastic concepts, until the Pope personally appeased the gluttons in cassocks with some document on this topic! wink For ate in the post! bully
                1. Richard
                  Richard 18 May 2021 19: 20
                  +4
                  - * Pig, piglet turn into a crucian carp! * (C) yes
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 18 May 2021 20: 12
                    +4
                    Anyone on the road is allowed.
                    Think of Brother Goranflo.
              3. Korsar4
                Korsar4 18 May 2021 19: 06
                +5
                “Whoever curls up into a ball is called a hedgehog.
                Whoever swims in the water is reputed to be a turtle ”(c).
            3. Korsar4
              Korsar4 18 May 2021 19: 05
              +4
              What beautiful ermines. Even so stylized.
    3. kalibr
      18 May 2021 09: 22
      +3
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      However, I'm already starting to get used to it.

      You always get used to good things quickly!
      1. depressant
        depressant 18 May 2021 19: 02
        +4
        By the way, here's another thing.
        While studying breaststroke, I found that there are few pictures of breaststroke. Most of the breaststrokes presented look like shooting from the surface in a way that I discovered as a child (I suppose, not only me - many children).
        A sheet of paper is placed on a hard surface with an embossed pattern and shaded entirely with a simple pencil. Since the pencil, although soft, bypasses the grooves, a black sheet is obtained, covered with white lines of the drawing. Something like a negative image.
        But, one must think, the British made their "negatives" somehow differently, and not in such a primitive way. wassat )))
        1. kalibr
          18 May 2021 19: 46
          +2
          This is exactly what they did, you are right!
          1. depressant
            depressant 18 May 2021 21: 02
            +1
            Vyacheslav Olegovich, who would have thought! laughing )))
            It can be seen that sometimes the most primitive method is the most reliable. As the saying goes, they do not seek from goodness.
  5. Alien From
    Alien From 17 May 2021 19: 41
    +1
    Thanks to Olegovich! I will study) hi
  6. depressant
    depressant 17 May 2021 23: 29
    +1
    Effigia are recumbent, effigia are erect in the form of a bas-relief. Catholicism is Rome. And in ancient Rome it was always like this: there is a person, there is a sculpture, or a bust. Died, and depending on the level of greatness - the same. I don’t remember that the Romans sculpted effigies. It turns out that the recumbent effigy is a reduction in the terms of work? After all, there is no need to trim from the back, and it turns out cheaper. But brass effigies are tin! Economy option?
  7. balabol
    balabol 17 May 2021 23: 42
    +3
    "Glazed a shroud and a candle in their hands - that's all, in which both were sent to the next world. ”A ridiculous typo. What would old man Sigmund say?
    1. depressant
      depressant 18 May 2021 07: 00
      +3
      Nobody put the deceased knights in armor in a coffin, dragged them into the grave, laid a wooden coffin in a stone one, and buried it. Because that would be unacceptable paganism. Death equated both the knight and the commoner, and the church followed this very strictly. A bare shroud and a candle in hand - that's all, in which both were sent to the next world. So


      First.

      There is also a hollowed out, or just a hollowed out weapon.

      a bare weapon is a real military weapon that cannot be used for its intended purpose after a series of specific "improvements" have been carried out ...
      This is a set of technical measures aimed at depriving weapons of the ability to use live ammunition. All of them are subsequently listed in the weapon's passport, and a special SHP mark (“shooting blank cartridges”) appears on its body, indicating that the use of combat cartridges is impossible. Strictly speaking, using special blank cartridges, such a weapon does not shoot, but only imitates shots.


      Yes, a person who knows a lot about weapons and thinks in terms of these weapons could make a reservation and call the canvas shroud, that is, the shroud made of canvas, hollow. But not in the sense in which the previous speaker indicated this reservation.

      Second.

      I suppose, if the knight bequeathed to bury himself in armor and with weapons, the relatives would be extremely unhappy with the loss of sometimes a whole fortune, or an important part of it. The armor was expensive, even the cheapest and, I suppose, could be inherited. Otherwise, it would look like the burning of a house after a person's death.
      But not only for this reason - again my conjecture - it was impossible to bury a knight in armor. Knights were not a rarity, and therefore there would have been a massive digging of graves by marauders already a short time after the funeral. Living knights would be extremely unpleasant to hear about such facts. It is not comfortable to know that your grave will be dug up, and your corpse, as something superfluous and already disregarded in the future, will be shaken out of the armor.
      The desire of the clergy to avoid identification with paganism and the legitimate fears of the knights about the possible desecration of their corpses led to the ritual according to the "shroud - candle" class.

      The mounds were no longer poured! )))
      1. kalibr
        18 May 2021 09: 16
        +4
        Very good and true comment!
      2. balabol
        balabol 18 May 2021 22: 07
        +1
        Lyudmila, you just intrigued me. What kind of secret meaning, which is "not the same", you saw in a trifling remark, that's really true, everyone understands to the extent of their depravity. A casual and fun play on words.
        The respected author prepares a large amount of printed material, I don't think that next to him there is a staff of professional reactors and proofreaders, so mistakes and misprints are natural. In fact, I understand very well how difficult it is to proofread and edit my own texts. You yourself have to constantly monitor that in your professional activity the texts do not have a double or different interpretation from the underlying idea - a tedious activity that takes a lot of time. But the habit of noticing has formed, there is nothing to be done. moreover, I am sure that the author is above that to pay attention to such remarks. Remove the extra letter and all the cases.
        And thank you, Lyudmila, for finding on the Internet what kind of blazed weapon it is, otherwise it was unclear.
        1. depressant
          depressant 18 May 2021 22: 56
          +1
          Dear colleague balabol))) Realizing that Vyacheslav Olegovich made a slight negligence, but did not replace the meaning of the word, I would not look for anything on the Internet if it were not for the mention of Sigmund Freud. You see, people who are initially hostile to the Author and commentators sometimes come across the topic, and in their statements there is often something very reminiscent of a desire to offend. You, as I now see, did not have such an intention, you were just joking, but the sediment arose at the moment of reading. After all, Freud is an established brand, something like a stigma that is imprinted on a person's forehead, reducing him to a primitive entity that lives by instincts. Not knowing you, I was concerned and very glad that I was mistaken hi )))
  8. depressant
    depressant 18 May 2021 15: 57
    +2
    The spoken word "doll" interested me greatly. Bulky stuffed animals of objectionable politicians in the modern era are burned everywhere. This means that effigii are burned. The burning of large flat figures is equally successful - also for the purpose of demonstrating political rejection. So breaststrokes are burned. Every now and then watching how this happens all over the world, I was simultaneously surprised, and monuments are being destroyed for what?
    It turns out, due to the presence of associative thinking among the people!

    Monuments are perceived as punishable effigies and breaststrokes. And they began to punish them a long time ago!
    It was found that "in medieval Europe there was a custom of public execution of effigy dolls or depictions of a criminal when he managed to escape from justice. It was assumed that this shameful procedure would have a corresponding impact on the personal fate of the criminal.
    Punishments in effigie were carried out until the beginning of the XNUMXth century. In the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries, a straw doll, which depicted a condemned person, was hanged or set on fire. In the XNUMXth century, to designate a criminal, his name was written on a tablet, which the executioner nailed to the gallows. "(C)

    And this is how judicial practice, gradually becoming the usual way of punishing a person rejected by the law, was revived in the form of a folk custom in many countries of the world - in view of the spectacle and the possibility of a public outburst of emotions fueled by the crowd. And this is regardless of the dominant religion. Only now the person, whose effigia or breaststroke is being burned, is rejected not by the law, but by public opinion.
    At one time, I remember, somewhere in the Middle East, Bush junior dolls were burned. It was fun to watch what the TV showed. I suppose the custom won't fade away so soon. Smoldered for 150-200 years, but flared up, fanned by the wind of change.

    I hear the wind howling and whistling terribly outside the window - the weather is trying.
    1. kalibr
      18 May 2021 19: 49
      +2
      What interesting thoughts come to your mind, however!
      1. depressant
        depressant 18 May 2021 21: 06
        +2
        Vyacheslav Olegovich, constant studies of mathematics tend to catch patterns and make generalizations wassat
        1. kalibr
          19 May 2021 12: 36
          +2
          Women are generally prone to taxonomy ...
    2. Korsar4
      Korsar4 18 May 2021 22: 24
      +2
      The main thing is that the wind on the way does not pick up the monument. As a punished Effigia.
      1. depressant
        depressant 18 May 2021 23: 07
        +2
        So, I don’t see easily torn off monuments yet. Monumental too. Someone prudent decided not to put them. Unless a portrait breaststroke will fall off the wall somewhere, but under a gust of only natural wind.

        Such, you know, today there was a hurricane in our area, nature ignites! As if it really did not ignite.
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 18 May 2021 23: 30
          +2
          I wonder how many monuments are protected by the science city? Which one is in charge? And do they change?

          Like Nils, who stayed in the hat.
          1. depressant
            depressant 18 May 2021 23: 58
            +3
            Nils travels through life, the nation travels through time. The science city always takes off its hat, the main one is the one at the moment. There is a warehouse. Each era has its own ... I do not remember exactly how the Strugatskys' in the "Doomed City" named a living statue - Either the Most Beloved and Simple, or somehow else. The people are gone, the statue is still there. He walks, looking for people. And the Pantheon, always the Pantheon.
            And then there was Niels Bohr.

            When Niels Bohr spoke at the Physics Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences, when asked how he managed to create a first-class school of physicists, he replied: "Apparently, because I never hesitated to admit to my students that I ..." Niels Bora E.M. Lifshits conveyed this phrase to the audience as follows: "Apparently, because I never hesitated to tell my students that they are fools ..." This phrase caused a stir in the audience, then E.M. Lifshits, after asking Bohr, corrected himself and apologized for the accidental slip of the tongue. However, P.L. Kapitsa thoughtfully noted that this was not an accidental slip of the tongue. It actually expresses the fundamental difference between the schools of Bohr and Landau, to which E.M. Lifshits ".
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 19 May 2021 07: 20
              +2
              It is important that schools continue to exist.
              1. depressant
                depressant 19 May 2021 08: 06
                +2
                It is desirable that not only general education, but also scientific. Previously, scientists were heard, now there is a lull.
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 19 May 2021 08: 17
                  +2
                  Yes. About them.

                  “We, looking back,
                  We see only ruins ”(c).
                  1. depressant
                    depressant 19 May 2021 08: 20
                    +2
                    It's easy to lose a naive mind
                    Loss will not respond for centuries.
                    Let the mighty mind hide in its scabbard
                    The ability to grab is in your hands!
                    wink )))
                    1. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 19 May 2021 08: 25
                      +2
                      Still, the phrase about not snatching unnecessarily is close to genius. Or just time-tested.
                      1. depressant
                        depressant 19 May 2021 08: 53
                        +2
                        Self-preservation instinct.
                        Have everything of value with you, peering into the era. And it may be such that your values ​​are not in demand, and you must humbly agree with this, and not call fire on yourself from all sides. Especially when an era is poor in needs of a higher order.
                        Here was a journalist with a naive mind, she burnt herself. She did not know the art of snatching even that. Do I remember her name? Not.
                      2. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 19 May 2021 12: 06
                        +2
                        “Watson, take a gun and a toothbrush with you” (c).
                      3. depressant
                        depressant 19 May 2021 12: 14
                        +3
                        And also a military meal for a lifetime.
                        No, we will not walk in vegetable gardens, we will stand by the road, watching empty energy bubbling, and in quiet reverie, use its outbursts for what is noncriminally useful for us.
                      4. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 19 May 2021 13: 22
                        +2
                        As the wise Chinese taught, if you sit on the river bank for a long time, you can see a lot.
                      5. depressant
                        depressant 19 May 2021 13: 34
                        +2
                        Having passed a lot by myself wassat
                        A law has just been passed banning quotations from foreign media outlets. I've never seen them swim past me. They row their own with oars. They float towards each other, but in one direction - such is the observation.
                      6. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 19 May 2021 17: 30
                        +2
                        Take a look at the site "Inosmi". There are interesting things.
                      7. depressant
                        depressant 19 May 2021 18: 18
                        +2
                        It's enough for me to read the official information. Here, for example, the other day - the law on evacuation with interesting details about loading the population into evacuation facilities. How many people can you stuff into buses, electric trains and dump trucks, what to take with you. Today - the law on the signals that tell of the beginning of a disaster. There are loudspeakers in my village. About 5 years ago, they were tested, civil defense exercises were conducted, firefighters and police gathered on the square, the population for some reason perceived their presence as unfriendly, as a hindrance. And you say - InoSmi. What new can InoSmi tell me - what I can't see myself? You don't have to go far to see everything.
                  2. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 19 May 2021 18: 24
                    +3
                    "If you fly for a long time with constant acceleration around the Earth, sooner or later you will see the exhaust of your own nozzles." (Wisdom of Chinese Taikonauts)
              2. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 19 May 2021 18: 18
                +3
                "In fact, I don't need much. A clean collar, fresh Times ..." (C)
              3. depressant
                depressant 19 May 2021 18: 50
                +2
                Are you being ironic, Anton? )))
                And me too. But not really. At least guess on the cards - what happened, what will happen ... Once she knew how to guess. Student. The whole hostel ran to me, and everyone thought that I was guessing for sure. And I was really just interpreting the cards, knowing what each meant.
              4. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 19 May 2021 19: 29
                +3
                Are you being ironic, Anton? )))
                No, I usually want to loudly!
              5. depressant
                depressant 19 May 2021 19: 34
                +2
                Let’s guess: You don’t know how to cry. Well, no tears are shed, and that's it!
              6. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 19 May 2021 19: 48
                +2
                I can. But not when you need to.
              7. depressant
                depressant 19 May 2021 20: 05
                +2
                Once I had a chance to hear that tears, they say, are silent speech.
                Imagine, you come to the official and start crying in silence. After a short time, the official busily asks: "Is everything there?" And starts crying back wassat
                Rough, huh?
              8. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 19 May 2021 20: 14
                +2
                No, not rude. Simply, the theater of the absurd. Check out Lars von Trier.
              9. depressant
                depressant 19 May 2021 20: 44
                +2
                The theater of the absurd is my life. I stopped crying from self-pity long ago. According to my observations, any tears are the body's response to a failure in life, in which the person is to blame. Even if they are tears from physical pain.
                "Many failures in life have happened to people who did not realize how close they were to success when they gave up," said Thomas Edison, and laughed with disdainful superiority at the seven losers whose inventions he appropriated.
                If a person gets tired in the process of achieving a goal, then there will always be someone who will pick up what has already been almost achieved and make it his own.
                Here we must not cry, but look for a new goal. But fatigue from the former is so great that a person convinces himself that the former was the limit of his capabilities. So, you know, it's convenient to live tired.
              10. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 19 May 2021 21: 11
                +2
                I know. By the way when I get tired - I quarrel with myself.
              11. depressant
                depressant 19 May 2021 21: 18
                +2
                You and me, yes you and me, well, in general, with myself wassat )))

                Sometimes I can't be serious, I would all giggle and hakhanki. Keep your chin up! And then you will hang it, and there will certainly be someone who will grab hold of him and start poking you with it in this or that laughing
              12. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 19 May 2021 21: 32
                +2
                But you cannot simply substitute. You can only share your pain with those who respond by asking, "How can I help?" Anyone you meet is ready to share the joy, but to share the pain ...
              13. depressant
                depressant 19 May 2021 21: 50
                +2
                And here there are limits. Pulling on the veil of someone else's pain is such a load that is not given to everyone, and maybe one in a thousand, or even less often. And woe to the one who has full empathy.
                Let's say Napoleon's windy middle sister. Who would have thought that from the whole family she turned out to be the most sympathetic and most devoted to him, and after his death due to worries she herself did not live long. That's how I loved my brother! I mean Princess Pauline Borghese.
              14. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 19 May 2021 21: 55
                +3
                Sometimes just touching your hand is enough. Bioenergy is a funny thing. Have you met energy vampires?
              15. depressant
                depressant 19 May 2021 22: 22
                +2
                I meet here on the VO site with mental vampires. After the meeting, I feel sick. I try not to communicate. But in reality, energy vampires constantly pull life out of you without any touch. Enough to talk.

                But let me finish my thought.
                Some suffer from the impossibility of achieving an invented goal. Here was Montferrand, a man of ordinary, perhaps even nondescript appearance. All his life he suffered seriously because he was not Apollo. He strove to become one, reproducing at least the features of Apollo's life. For example, among other things, he had breakfast every morning, surrounded by nine beautiful girls, whom he considered to be his muses. Does Montferrand deserve sympathy?
                He was the creator of St. Isaac's Cathedral and remained as such in the grateful memory of people.
                And vampires - save the Lord from vampires! Their persistence in trying to drink life out of you is amazing.
              16. Undecim
                Undecim 19 May 2021 23: 23
                +2
                I meet here on the VO site with mental vampires.

                And who are these devourers of individual consciousness? Give a hint, at least, who these inhabitants of the Solo World hive are. And we will find the Shepherd.
              17. depressant
                depressant 19 May 2021 23: 51
                +2
                Certainly not you, dear Viktor Nikolaevich! hi )))
                But I can't name it, and that's the reason.
                The perception of an individual as a mental vampire is strictly individual and depends on the nervous system of the attacker. In other words, for some, an individual is a vampire, but for others, not. But even if this individual was a universal vampire, ate everyone in a row, I am not the person who is capable of shouting "Kill him!"
                Note, I spoke in general, and you sharpened the topic dangerously. It seems to me that you should not do this. Everyone has the right to communicate the way he does - both a vampire and a normal person. The latter, if he already feels his defenselessness in front of the phenomenon, just need to be careful and restrained. In this case, the best defense is to retreat. wassat )))
              18. depressant
                depressant 20 May 2021 00: 12
                +2
                I would like to add that by digression I mean the exclusion of communication.
              19. Undecim
                Undecim 20 May 2021 00: 17
                +2
                The perception of an individual as a mental vampire is strictly individual and depends on the nervous system being attacked.

                Oh, No. This menagerie has many varieties and is dangerous to anyone. And retreating is a bad way. He showed weakness - that's it, they ate it.
              20. depressant
                depressant 20 May 2021 08: 32
                +1
                And there is. But depending on what this weakness is. In a worthy return? Sometimes this, depending on the circumstances, is more expensive.
  9. Korsar4
    Korsar4 19 May 2021 21: 34
    +2
    “Yes, our city is flourishing,
    But Odessa lacks
    The smallest thing - a variety theater "(c).
  10. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 19 May 2021 21: 45
    +2
    "Bow-legged girls from the boulevards?" (FROM)
  11. Korsar4
    Korsar4 19 May 2021 21: 53
    +2
    '- Everyone knows you,
    And this is how I see it for the first time ”(c).
  12. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 19 May 2021 21: 57
    +2
    "Semen, shove her under the rib." (FROM)
  13. depressant
    depressant 19 May 2021 22: 24
    +3
    Hooligans! How else to define you wassat
  14. Korsar4
    Korsar4 19 May 2021 22: 30
    +2
    “But taxi drivers love me,
    And they take a drunk home "(c).
  15. depressant
    depressant 19 May 2021 22: 37
    +2
    Instead of "it's time!" snoring is heard.
    Instead of buzzing - Sleeping
    With a friend "buzzed" yesterday,
    Now we don't want to.
    I put on slippers - I wanted pickle.
    I can't remember "yesterday".
    The cat on the table finished the salmon;
    Remembers everything, but not "gu-gu". (C)
  • Chack wessel
    Chack wessel 20 May 2021 08: 29
    +1
    I got the impression that the production of these breaststrokes was put on stream. Painfully they look alike ... But what? The wizards had a set of stencils (which they probably used to pull from each other), from which they compiled the image. :)
    1. depressant
      depressant 20 May 2021 12: 08
      0
      Dear Colleague hi
      I have looked through dozens of articles and hundreds of effigies and brass, but none of the articles have found at least one name of the master.
      Probably, at one time the workshops were famous, like the masters who headed them, but nothing more. After all, this was a craft that could hardly be equated with paintings and statues. Although many effigies, especially group ones, are true masterpieces. Armor for very noble persons is another matter, piece pieces, thanks to which the masters are known.
  • Crimea26
    Crimea26 17 July 2021 17: 40
    0
    I always believed that on such slabs, figures MUST fold their hands in prayer, or simply keep them on a belt, sword, and so on. But here's the position of Elizabeth Claire's hands ... Like "Well, that's how it happened, sorry"))))