Military Review

The Yenisei radar has been put into service. New opportunities for air defense missile defense

34

Radar station "Yenisei" during the exercises in 2018


The Russian army has adopted a promising multifunctional radar station "Yenisei". Due to its high performance and new capabilities, this product will be able to increase the overall potential of air defense. In addition, in the near future, this radar will become part of the S-500 anti-aircraft missile system.

Secret Project


Not too much is known about the promising Yenisei radar station. There are only fragmentary official reports, information from unnamed sources and various assessments. This allows you to draw up a rough picture and understand the general prospects of the project, but it imposes certain limitations.

The first open reports about the development work of the Yenisei date back to the mid-tenths. This ROC was mentioned in the annual reports of enterprises from the Almaz-Antey VKO Concern. According to these documents, in 2014 Lianozovsky Electromechanical Plant completed the stages of development of working design documentation. No details were provided, however.

In April 2018, the Russia 1 TV channel broadcast a report on an air defense exercise at the Ashuluk training ground. In the lens of the TV camera, a number of already familiar samples were put into service. In addition, for the first time openly showed and named the promising radar "Yenisei". Also revealed the main characteristics of this product, but without unnecessary details.


Finally, on May 13, 2021, Gazeta.ru, citing its sources in the military-industrial complex, reports that the Yenisei has been adopted by the air defense and missile defense forces of the aerospace forces. The issues of organizing serial production and the supply of new equipment in part have not yet been disclosed. At the same time, some technical details are given and the prospects for a new development are revealed.

Technical appearance


The appearance of the new radar has so far been demonstrated only once, in a report in 2018, the station was shown in working position along with other components of the radar complex. The shooting was carried out only from one angle, but this also allows us to consider the main features of the product.

Outwardly, the new Yenisei radar resembles the well-known 96L6E All-Altitude Detector station. It is also built on the MZKT four-axle chassis and has a similar layout. A full-turn antenna device and a container with equipment are located on the cargo platform. Moreover, the two stations even outwardly differ from each other - they use different antennas. During the 2018 exercise, two van trailers of unclear purpose were located next to the radar station. It is not known whether they are included in the set of station equipment.

The Yenisei is equipped with an active phased antenna array. In the stowed position, it is laid horizontally above the cab. When deployed, the AFAR rises to the required angle. Antenna device can rotate to provide all-round visibility or work in a given sector


The antenna device is larger

Externally, the AFAR "Yenisei" is similar to the devices from the 96L6E, but there are significant differences. So, the main antenna web is divided into two sections of different sizes, at the top there is an additional block of unknown purpose, and the lower part is equipped not with an open array antenna, but with closed blocks. All this makes it possible to distinguish between two modern types of radar.

Main Features


According to known data, the Yenisei radar is a multifunctional system capable of detecting and tracking aerodynamic and ballistic targets at ranges up to 600 km and altitudes up to 100 km. Target data is issued to the command post for further use by other air defense components. It is reported that there are several modes of operation with different capabilities.

The main mode is radar with the transmission of sounding signals. High performance range and detection accuracy are declared. It also provides resistance to electronic warfare. At the same time, new technical solutions improve the accuracy of target designation in the presence of interference.

A passive mode is provided, in which the radar operates on the principle of an electronic reconnaissance station. In this case, "Yenisei" receives and processes other people's signals, but does not betray itself by its own radiation. In this mode, it remains possible to issue target designation to air defense fire weapons.


Back side of AFAR

Unlike the All-Altitude Detector, the new Yenisei can operate not only in a circular view, but also in a narrow sector. Due to this, an increase in characteristics in the detection of ballistic targets is provided. In addition, long-term combat duty operation is ensured, exceeding the capabilities of older systems.

All modern domestic radars operate in an automatic mode, due to which the maximum speed of the station and the air defense system as a whole is achieved, as well as the load on the calculations is reduced. The new Yenisei is no exception and includes high-performance computing facilities.

Applications


In 2018, the Yenisei station was used during the exercises of the air defense and missile defense forces. Together with other radars, this product provided the operation of the S-400 anti-aircraft missile systems. It follows from this that Yenisei is compatible with modern complexes and can supplement their standard equipment, increasing the general characteristics.

It was also reported that the Yenisei will become part of the promising S-500 Triumfator / Prometheus air defense system. Again, we are talking about the use of several radars for different purposes, between which the tasks of searching for various targets with certain characteristics will be divided. In such a system, "Yenisei" can become the main means of searching for air targets and target designation.


Station 96L6E "All-Altitude Detector"

From the available data, it follows that the new radar has important advantages over existing models. Thus, the standard long-range detection station 91N6E from the S-400 air defense system has a detection range of up to 570 km (for large targets), and the 96L6E product monitors objects at ranges of up to 300-400 km at altitudes up to 100 km. It is easy to see that the Yenisei, with a range of 600 km and an altitude of 100 km, is capable of replacing both of these models. The increased performance and other features of this station will allow such a replacement without losses.

It is obvious that the introduction of "Yenisei" in the troops will not be associated with serious difficulties. The ability of such a radar to work as part of existing anti-aircraft systems has been confirmed by tests and exercises. Accordingly, serial stations, expected in the near future, can be immediately included in the S-400 and put on duty.

The situation with the S-500 complex also gives reasons for optimism. Earlier it was reported that the design and development of all its components have been successfully completed. This year, the first contract for the construction and delivery of the Triumphant to the troops is expected. Together with new missiles, launchers, etc. the army can also order the Yenisei radar stations. The timing of the deployment of the S-500 on duty is still unknown, but the prospects for the new radar in this context are quite understandable.

Radar prospects


Thus, the process of creating new electronic systems for the air and missile defense forces does not stop. A new Yenisei station has been created, which now has to go into large series and go into full operation. It should be expected that the appearance of such a sample, which is distinguished by high characteristics and wide capabilities, will have a positive effect on both existing and promising anti-aircraft systems.

In addition, we can count on the fact that now the army and industry will disclose detailed information about the new domestic development. It is possible that the currently available data and estimates do not fully correspond to the real state of affairs - and Yenisei is more effective than it is believed.
Author:
Photos used:
VGTRK / GTRK "Lotos", Wikimedia Commons
34 comments
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  1. Orange bigg
    Orange bigg 17 May 2021 18: 23
    +19
    Thing!!!

    The Yenisei radar, which entered service with the Russian army, is designed for continuous operation for a long time. For example, the S-400 Triumph radar systems (a command post radar system and a multifunctional radar station of an anti-aircraft missile battalion) were not originally intended to function for such a long period, since anti-aircraft battles and battles do not take place for long hours and days.

    It is this feature of the Yenisei that makes it possible to receive reconnaissance information for a long time, which is important for the means of conducting radar reconnaissance. At the same time, the operator error factor is practically excluded - the radar works, as they say, in full automatic mode.

    Yenisei is a fully digital locator, its antenna is an active phased array. In addition, the radar is an active-passive device, it can conduct reconnaissance and detect air objects and issue target designations to air defense fire weapons even without broadcasting. That is, "Yenisei" has the functions of conducting electronic intelligence.



    In particular, information on targets from the Yenisei is issued to the multifunctional radars of the S-400 and S-500 anti-aircraft missile systems.
    This year, a contract will be signed for the supply of the S-500 air defense system, since all the components of the system are already ready. As for the S-400 air defense system, the Yenisei (along with the 96L6 all-altitude detector) is already included in this system.

    The Yenisei locator is equipped with remote posts, which allows it to successfully deal with jammers. For example, the success of the US Air Force's actions in many local conflicts was ensured by the fact that practically all air defense systems of Washington's opponents were suppressed by powerful and well-organized interference.

    But this does not apply to the Yenisei. The higher the interference intensity, the better the locator ties the target tracks and more accurately gives target designation to air defense fire weapons. So with the adoption of the Yenisei by the Russian Aerospace Forces, the United States, one might say, lost this trump card.


    In addition, the Yenisei well “sees” and accompanies its launched anti-aircraft guided missiles and can very accurately determine whether the target has been hit in the event of a meeting. This feature of the locator really liked the leadership of the anti-aircraft missile forces of the Aerospace Forces. Now, with the help of the Yenisei, they can assess the effectiveness of the anti-aircraft missile units.


    And this system has another remarkable feature. For example, the missile of the Iskander-M operational-tactical complex first rises to a great height (about 100 km). Then, on the descending part of the trajectory, it begins to actively maneuver. This makes it almost impossible to intercept it.

    Moreover, on the way to the target, the Iskander missile releases carbon threads, which leads to a complete illumination of the enemy radar indicator screens, that is, there is such an abundance of false targets that any effective operation of the enemy's anti-aircraft missile systems on such missiles becomes simply unrealistic. ... The United States has not developed any effective method of confronting the missiles of this complex.

    Yenisei, on the other hand, “sees” such targets, can steadily accompany them and issue precise target designations on them.


    https://m.gazeta.ru/army/2021/05/13/13591220.shtml
    1. MrFox
      MrFox 21 May 2021 20: 36
      -2
      The higher the interference intensity, the better the locator ties target tracks and more accurately gives target designation to air defense firepower

      What is this nonsense?
  2. mark1
    mark1 17 May 2021 18: 49
    +10
    It is possible that the currently available data and estimates do not fully correspond to the real state of affairs - and Yenisei is more effective than it is believed.

    You were deceived. You've been given much better fur ...

    This is just the case when it is not offensive for deception.
  3. And Us Rat
    And Us Rat 17 May 2021 18: 51
    +1
    The Yenisei is equipped with an active phased array antenna.

    With an initiative. drinks
    And where are the PFAR apologists who argued that the AFAR has no advantages over the PFAR and is not needed at all? What will they say to this? fellow
    1. Orange bigg
      Orange bigg 17 May 2021 20: 19
      +3
      What is the start then? request Radars with AFAR also have the S-400 and S-350, adopted for service.
      1. And Us Rat
        And Us Rat 17 May 2021 20: 48
        -2
        Quote: OrangeBigg
        Radar stations with AFAR also have S-400

        The 91N6E detection radar operates in a circular view mode, is three-dimensional, anti-jamming. This radar has an important advantage in comparison with ground-based radars of standby and combat modes, it is equipped with a phased array with two-dimensional beam scanning.

        Rummaged through dozens of sites and nowhere did not find confirmation that 91Н6Е is AFAR.

        Quote: OrangeBigg
        and S-350

        For radar 50N6A - a similar picture.
        1. Grognag
          Grognag 21 May 2021 18: 24
          0
          And you were looking in the wrong place, try to read about VVO
    2. Hexenmeister
      Hexenmeister 17 May 2021 21: 00
      -2
      Where are the advantages? Firstly, this is a combined system, and for passive direction finding, AFAR is certainly better due to the larger range, and for the classic active mode, that is, with radiation, a very controversial solution is presented. Mechanical rotation to ensure all-round visibility is the twenty-first century in the yard, although there may have been such a technical specification, but it means that with autonomous work in all azimuths, not everything will be fine here. Sector view on a flat canvas - uneven detection range at different angles. Further, why is everyone attached to the height of 100 km? What is the difference between detection at altitudes of 100 and 200 km? And the most interesting thing, but what about low-altitude targets? Or will the "other uncle" keep an eye on them?
      1. DED_peer_DED
        DED_peer_DED 17 May 2021 21: 54
        +4
        AFAR is certainly better because of the larger range

        Because of the larger range, WHAT is AFAR better?
        I would like to hear the opinion of a specialist about "a larger range of something there, that, that ..."
        1. Hexenmeister
          Hexenmeister 17 May 2021 21: 58
          +1
          The working frequency range is larger.
          1. DED_peer_DED
            DED_peer_DED 17 May 2021 21: 59
            +1
            Quote: Hexenmeister
            The working frequency range is greater

            On what basis?
            1. Hexenmeister
              Hexenmeister 17 May 2021 22: 22
              +1
              And that the waveguide will pass any frequency through itself?
              1. DED_peer_DED
                DED_peer_DED 17 May 2021 22: 32
                +1
                Quote: Hexenmeister
                And that the waveguide will pass any frequency through itself?

                Are we answering the question with a question?
                Clear.
    3. bk0010
      bk0010 17 May 2021 22: 18
      -3
      Quote: And Us Rat
      and is not needed at all? What will they say to this?
      Not "not necessary", but you can do it. Which of the advantages of AFAR are critical here? Terrain mapping mode? Yeah, what about an air defense radar without it? The ability to block the direction from which interference is being placed? But excuse me, the enemy is there, and there are remote posts (they remained even with AFAR). Opportunity to put a hindrance? Yeah, this is very important for the air defense radar, there are no other cases. Yes, and there is a normal equipment for this. Continue working when the antenna is damaged by debris? This is not bad, but there is no air defense here, if a surface-to-air missile arrives with a few shrapnel hits, you will hardly get off.
      1. Herman 4223
        Herman 4223 18 May 2021 10: 19
        0
        With a large antenna area, AFAR is better in the sense that there is no danger of waveguide breakdown due to high power. The antenna area can be easily made larger, and that matters.
    4. sivuch
      sivuch 18 May 2021 11: 22
      +1
      Nobody has ever said that. Only first you need to decide what kind of radar we are talking about. , More precisely, land (sea) or air.
    5. spectr
      spectr 19 May 2021 10: 13
      0
      Each has its own pros and cons. In PFAR, the antenna design is simpler (since there are no active elements in the antenna), accordingly, there is less that breaks. But the further we want to see, the more powerful the klystron should be (which is not so easy to create). Failure of the klystron actually means the failure of the radar.
      In AFAR, active elements are located in the antenna array and are distributed, for example, along the lines (this also allows you to create very powerful antennas). Failure of some of them does not mean failure of the entire radar. Accuracy may drop, but it will work.
      However, the design of the antenna turns out to be more complex and massive, which is why there are additional difficulties in operation (it breaks more often), as well as installation on high-rise supports.
      1. Shopping Mall
        Shopping Mall 19 May 2021 14: 52
        0
        Quote: spectr
        Each has its own pros and cons ...


        AFAR works effectively in the presence of interference, providing a dip in the directional pattern in the direction of the interference source.
        1. Hexenmeister
          Hexenmeister 19 May 2021 15: 24
          0
          AFAR works effectively in the presence of interference, providing a dip in the directional pattern in the direction of the interference source.
          But it turns out that the author "L" in his old article, talking about the "obsolescence" of the Su-30MKI in the opinion of the Indian Generalisimo, unexpectedly gave a description of a certain electronic warfare system:
          The main purpose of the SAP-518 is the individual protection of the aircraft, '' said military observer Alexei Leonkov in 2018. - The system works on the principle of a radar detector. That is, it constantly gives out distorted information to the enemy locators: reflects a signal with a delay, confuses the measurement of distance to an object, speed and angular position... This prevents the radar from detecting targets determine their parameters and generate the necessary data for weapons systems
          And it turns out that there are jammers who do not allow determining the angular coordinates, but there will be no angles, and there will be nowhere to "put" a dip in the DP. So what method of determining the angular coordinates of the jammer do you propose, taking into account the indicated method of counteraction?
        2. spectr
          spectr 19 May 2021 17: 02
          0
          The failure is provided by an autocompensator.
          1. Hexenmeister
            Hexenmeister 19 May 2021 17: 15
            0
            How?
            1. spectr
              spectr 22 May 2021 10: 19
              0
              As far as I understand this, with the help of PBL channels, the presence of active interference is determined and additional suppression of the signal is introduced, which leads to a failure in the diagram.
              1. Hexenmeister
                Hexenmeister 22 May 2021 11: 15
                0
                The directional pattern of the AFAR is changed by controlling the phase shifters and attenuators. The creation of DNs with a failure for AFAR is a "common mathematical" problem, and if it is possible to make a "failure" in this way, it will certainly give a useful effect in all situations, but the problem is "in the corners". And all these "compensators", creating a kind of "failure", they have a "conditional" efficiency, since they give a lot of negative side effects, are applicable only for simple noise conditions, and in complex conditions they are simply not effective. In addition, all these "PBLs" are easily implemented on any types of antennas, and are characteristic not only of AFAR,
      2. Grognag
        Grognag 21 May 2021 18: 39
        0
        I want to add that at high power, the afar elements need to be cooled, and, again, with high air cooling power, there is not enough liquid, which again will carry a great complexity of the antenna and, therefore, low reliability
  4. Petrol cutter
    Petrol cutter 17 May 2021 19: 30
    +6
    It must be assumed that it is a useful machine in the national economy.
    Assemblers of the third / first shop, as well as welders, approve of such initiatives. hi
    1. Serpet
      Serpet 18 May 2021 14: 27
      +22
      This machine has another advantage - it was not exported. Yes, and with Ukraine, the paths in the development of radars parted for a long time - we already have our own path
  5. rocket757
    rocket757 17 May 2021 19: 32
    +4
    The Yenisei radar has been put into service. New opportunities for air defense missile defense
    ... There is no invisible, in our reality YET. They just looked the wrong way.
  6. Stepan S
    Stepan S 17 May 2021 22: 38
    +3
    In addition, the Yenisei “sees” well and accompanies its launched anti-aircraft guided missiles and can very accurately determine whether the target has been hit in the event of a meeting. This feature of the locator really liked the leadership of the anti-aircraft missile forces of the Aerospace Forces.

    Until that time, both in the air defense they learned that the target was hit. We've always seen on TV how air defense crews look at the radar screen and report that the target has been hit.
    1. spectr
      spectr 19 May 2021 09: 45
      0
      Previously, people did it with their eyes. And in principle, this is not difficult to do. The main operator (or the connected air defense system) must designate which of the targets is a missile, and then analyze this missile for rapprochement with other targets. If, after the rapprochement, the missile and the target are no longer detected, then one can make the assumption that the target is shot down.
  7. 123456789
    123456789 18 May 2021 09: 04
    0

    Russian weapon of the future.
  8. Herman 4223
    Herman 4223 18 May 2021 10: 42
    +1
    Judging by the picture, there are two different radars on the same installation. And they work at different frequencies as I understand it. The solution is as bad as our fighters.
  9. Ua3qhp
    Ua3qhp 18 May 2021 15: 54
    0
    So, the main antenna web is divided into two sections of different sizes, at the top there is an additional block of unknown purpose,

    The additional unit is most likely an interrogator of the 1030/1090 MHz range.
    Dividing the web into two parts - possibly the smallest part - the transmitting modules, the lower part - the receiving ones.
  10. Ua3qhp
    Ua3qhp 18 May 2021 16: 05
    0
    Unlike the All-Altitude Detector, the new Yenisei can operate not only in a circular view, but also in a narrow sector.

    Why did it happen?
    The 96L6E works quite well in the sector view mode.
    http://militaryarticle.ru/zemlya/rls-reb-i-t-p-sredstva/20243-radiolokacionnaja-stancija-96l6e
  11. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 22 May 2021 17: 32
    0
    Mikhail Khodarenok told in "the hour of the Militarist" that the Yenisei is not sensitive to interference, and the PP itself, by its interference, improves targeting.