Military Review

Russian partisans in 1812. "Flying detachments" of regular troops

75

A. Figner, F. Vintsingorode, A. Seslavin


Article Russian partisans of 1812: "people's war" we talked a little about the "people's war" which peasant detachments fought with the great army of Napoleon in 1812. This will tell about the "flying detachments" of regular troops formed by order of the Russian command, which at that time were considered (and were called) partisan.

This idea did not arise out of nowhere. In Russia, it was well known about the success of the Spanish guerrilla, because of which, as they said, since 1808 “Napoleon could only fight with one hand". The fact is that since that time, a significant part of his forces have always remained in Spain. According to E. Tarle, in 1812, in terms of their numbers, the French troops stationed in Spain were almost 2 times larger than the formations of the Great Army that took a direct part in the Battle of Borodino.

Russian partisans in 1812. "Flying detachments" of regular troops
Spanish guerrillas

Many consider Denis Davydov to be the "pioneer" of the partisan war in the fall of 1812: the gallant hussar personally informed the readers of his memoirs and the article "On the Partisan War" about this. In fact, Davydov was neither the initiator of such actions, nor the most successful commander of the flying detachment, nor the most adventurous and dashing of them. But competent PR triumphed even in those days. Davydov, who wanted to tell everyone about his exploits, had some (not too great) literary abilities. And this turned out to be enough for him to remain in the memory of the descendants as the main partisan of that war (as well as the most famous hussar of the Russian Empire).

But we will talk about Davydov a little later, for now we will decide on the true authors of the idea of ​​guerrilla warfare.

"Patriotic Thoughts"


The possibility and expediency of using regular army formations in the enemy's rear was expressed by Karl Ful - the one who built the absolutely useless Drissa camp for the Russian army. But the written substantiation of this idea was given by Lieutenant Colonel Pyotr Chuykevich, who in April 1812 drew up a document entitled “Patriotic Thoughts”. Chuikevich then served in the Special Chancellery of the War Ministry, which was not engaged in paperwork and not political investigation, but performed the functions of army intelligence. The initiator of its creation was the Minister of War M. B. Barclay de Tolly. Chuikevich addressed his note to him. He proposed, in the event of a new war with Napoleon, without engaging in major battles for the time being, to weaken the enemy army, constantly harassing it on the way. To this end, in his opinion, it was necessary to strike at its rear, cutting off supply sources, cut off and destroy individual enemy detachments. These actions were called by Chuykevich a partisan war, which was to be waged by the "parties" - the light cavalry detachments of the regular troops with the Cossack and Jaeger units attached to them. Such detachments should have been commanded by intelligent career officers, who in previous campaigns had proved their courage, management and ability to act independently.

First partisan


The first partisan detachment of 1300 people was created by order of Barclay de Tolly on August 2, 1812 (even before the start of the Smolensk battle). Ferdinand Fedorovich Vintsingerode became its commander. One of the officers of this detachment was the notorious A.H. Benckendorff. The task was set as follows:

"Protecting the interior of the region from detachments and foragers sent by the enemy ... trying to act, whenever possible, on the message of the French troops."

This detachment attacked the French in Velizh, then captured Usvyat, which became its temporary base. Finally, he effectively blocked Vitebsk, destroying all foraging teams sent from it, and then raided Polotsk. More than 2 thousand people were captured alone.

But this "party" is not very well known in our country. Probably, the attitude towards her was influenced by the German surname of her commander, and the personality of Benckendorff, who later became the chief of the gendarmes and the head of the famous Third Directorate of the Imperial Chancellery. Benckendorff was also a Freemason - a master of the United Friends Lodge, which included, however, people with a more positive reputation: Vyazemsky, Chaadaev, Griboyedov, Pestel, Muravyev-Apostol. After the departure of the Napoleonic army from Moscow, Benckendorff became the first commandant of this city. And on November 7, 1824, thanks to his decisive actions, many people were saved during the catastrophic flood in St. Petersburg, which is described in the poem by Alexander Pushkin "The Bronze Horseman":

“On the balcony,
Sad, confused, he came out
And he said: “With God's element
The kings cannot cope "...
The king said - from end to end,
On the streets near and far
On a dangerous path through stormy waters
His generals set off
Rescue and fear overwhelmed
And drowning people at home. "

Tsar - Alexander I, generals - Benkendorf and Miloradovich.

All this did not prevent the "London inmate" A. Herzen from dismissively declaring about Benckendorff:

"He did not do good, he lacked energy, will and heart for this."

Vintzingerode was also not a parquet shaker who came to Russia “to pursue happiness and ranks,” but an honest and experienced military officer.


F.F. Wintzingerode, portrait by D. Dow

He began his military career in the Austrian army, where he entered in 1790. In 1797 he transferred to the Russian service. He participated in the Swiss campaign of Suvorov, being in his army as an adjutant of the Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich. During the unhappy campaign of 1805, he deftly negotiated with Murat, gaining precious time for the retreat of the Russian army, which was in a difficult position after the surrender of Mack and the surrender of the bridges across the Danube by the Austrians (the same Murat). These events were described in the article Two "Gasconades" by Joachim Murat.

After that, he took part in the battle of Austerlitz.

In 1809, Wintzingerode again found himself in the Austrian army and was seriously wounded in the battle of Aspern. He returned to the Russian army in 1812.

After the Battle of Borodino, Vintsingerode settled down between Mozhaisk and Volokolamsk. According to the instructions, he conducted reconnaissance, intercepted foragers, attacked small enemy detachments. Having learned about the beginning of the movement of the French from Moscow, on his own initiative he tried to enter into negotiations. Later, he argued that, having learned about Napoleon's order to blow up the Kremlin, he hoped to dissuade the French from carrying out such a criminal order. However, Winzingerode did not take into account that his hometown of Hesse at that time was part of the vassal France of the Kingdom of Westphalia. And therefore the French decided that, being a subject of Westphalia, during the war he had no right to be in the Russian service, and declared him a traitor. Wintzingerode was arrested and sent to Westphalia for trial. So he missed the opportunity to be the first to inform Kutuzov's headquarters about the movement of the Great Army.

Between Minsk and Vilna, he was freed by A. Chernyshev's "flying detachment", who would later be elevated to princely dignity, become Minister of War and Chairman of the State Council. Chernyshev will be famous for his personal arrest of Pestel in 1825, as well as for the order, contrary to tradition, to re-hang the Decembrists who fell off the crossbar (K. Ryleev, P. Kakhovsky and S. Muravyov-Apostol became "twice hanged"). It is not surprising that Chernyshev's partisan activities are little known in our country.

But let's return to the liberated F. Vintsingerode, who later, in the rank of corps commander, took part in the Russian army's campaign abroad. And he even removed Denis Davydov from the command, who violated the order not to enter into negotiations with the Dresden garrison (this will be discussed in the next article).

The man who changed history



A. N. Seslavin. Portrait by D. Doe

Perhaps the most significant contribution to the victory of the Russian army in 1812 of all the commanders of the partisans of that war was made by Alexander Nikitich Seslavin. The first time he encountered the French during the battle of Heilsberg in East Prussia (May 29, 1807): he was wounded in the chest and awarded the Order of St. Vladimir, 4th degree. In the years 1810-1811. took part in the war with Turkey. He was awarded the Order of St. Anne, 2nd degree, and received the rank of captain. After being wounded in the shoulder, he had to undergo treatment for about 6 months.

He began the Patriotic War as adjutant to the commander of the 1st Russian Army M. Barclay de Tolly. For the battles near Smolensk he was awarded a golden sword with the inscription "For Bravery". He fought at Borodino: he was wounded in the battle at Shevardino, but remained in the ranks, was awarded the Order of St. George, 4th degree.

On September 30, 1812, Captain Seslavin was appointed commander of a partisan (flying) detachment (250 Don Cossacks and a squadron of the Sumy hussar regiment). With him, he went "on the hunt."

It was not at all difficult to go to the rear of the Great Army in 1812, since there was no single front line. Avoiding clashes with enemy units, a small detachment could easily reach even Poland. But Seslavin did not need to go there, his detachment operated in the area between Moscow and Borovsk.

It is interesting that Seslavin had his own artillery: its role was played by a kind of carts - sledges with guns mounted on them. And several times the large formations of the enemy, pursuing these partisans, retreated, falling under a volley of these "batteries".

As the commander of a partisan detachment, Seslavin performed the main feat in his life.

From the article The Russian army in the battles at Tarutino and at Maloyaroslavets you must remember that the first units of Napoleon's army that left Moscow were seen by the partisans of Dorokhov (which will be discussed later). But it was Alexander Seslavin who realized that the entire Great Army was going forward, and was able to determine the direction of its movement. The information he delivered was of truly strategic importance. Thanks to them, Dokhturov's corps managed to approach Maloyaroslavets in time and engage in a battle, after which both armies rolled back from this city. Napoleon did not dare to give a new general battle: his troops went west along the ravaged Old Smolensk road.

After the battle at Maloyaroslavets, Kutuzov lost contact with the enemy army and did not know where it was until October 22. And again it was Seslavin who found the French at Vyazma.

Then the "parties" of Seslavin, Figner and Davydov (the total number of partisans is 1300 people) and the raid cavalry detachment of the hero of the Tarutino battle Orlov-Denisov (2000 people) at Lyakhov surrounded and captured from one and a half to two thousand soldiers of the brigade of General Augereau. For this operation, Seslavin received the rank of colonel.


A. Telenik. "Fight of partisans with cuirassiers of General Augereau near the village of Lyakhovo near Smolensk on November 9, 1812"
In this picture, we see an episode of the battle when a detachment of French cuirassiers, sent to the aid of Augereau by General Louis Baraguay d'Illeère, was ambushed.

On November 16, Seslavin's detachment captured the city of Borisov, where 3000 French surrendered to the partisans. After that, the headquarters of the main army established contact with the troops of Wittgenstein and Chichagov. This remarkable and important victory was attributed to Davydov for a long time, and then to Platov.

Finally, on November 23, Seslavin had a chance to capture Napoleon himself. He decided to burn down the warehouse of the Great Army in the small town of Oshmyany (now part of the Grodno region of Belarus). And he really burned it - despite the unusually strong (and already unusual) resistance of the French. Just during this battle, Napoleon, who had left his army, entered the city. His escort and Seslavin's cavalrymen were separated by only a few tens of meters, but only later did Seslavin learn how large prey eluded his partisans, taking advantage of the darkness of the night. And I understood the reason for such desperate resistance from the French.

Finally, on November 29, his detachment captured Vilno. Seslavin himself was wounded in the arm during this battle.

Having recovered, he took part in the Overseas campaign. In 1813, after the Battle of Leipzig, he was promoted to major general. In 1814, Seslavin's detachment carried out communication between the Russian army and Blucher's troops.

The merits of Seslavin were not properly appreciated at court, and in 1820 he resigned, finally receiving the rank of lieutenant general.

Among other commanders of the flying detachments, Seslavin stood out for his humane attitude towards prisoners.

«Seslavin is better than me, there is not so much blood on him", - admitted another great partisan of that war - Alexander Figner. It was Seslavin that he considered his only rival (and Denis Davydov was not recognized as a “big partisan” by either one). We'll talk about Figner now.

"There was a man that adventurer"



Figner A.S.

Captain Alexander Samoilovich Figner, who became the prototype of Dolokhov's brether in Leo Tolstoy's novel War and Peace, was undoubtedly the most dashing and brightest partisan of 1812. It is even strange that until now he has not become the hero of an adventure novel or an action-packed historical film, in which, especially, nothing would have to be invented. Talking about him, one involuntarily recalls the lines of S. Yesenin from the poem "The Black Man":

“There was a man that adventurer,
But the highest and purest brand. "

At the same time, for some reason, his surname was altered in the Russian army. In the stories and reports sometimes appeared some "Captain Wagner" and "Captain Finken", who took away from our hero some of his exploits. But later we figured it out.

Alexander Figner's father was the head of the Imperial glass factories and the vice-governor of the Pskov province. He was stern and strict with his son, and he sent him to study in the 2nd Cadet Corps, which was considered less prestigious than the 1st. It was mainly the children of poor nobles who studied there. In 1805 Figner found himself in Italy, where the Russian corps was to act against the French in alliance with the British. Here, in between times, he perfectly learned the Italian language, which greatly helped him to partisan in 1812.

In 1810, Figner fought against the Ottomans and took part in the storming of the Ruschuk fortress, receiving the Order of St. George of the 4th degree for military services. He met World War II with the rank of staff captain of the 3rd light company of the 11th artillery brigade. He proved himself well in the battle for Smolensk. After the Battle of Borodino, he persuaded Kutuzov to send him for reconnaissance to Moscow occupied by the French. In this "party" there were only 8 people (together with the commander), but Figner added to it a certain number of volunteers found in Moscow and its environs. His mission turned out to be very successful: an officer who perfectly spoke French, Italian, German, Dutch and Polish, disguised in the uniform of different regiments, as well as a hairdresser, or even a simple peasant, obtained a lot of valuable information. But later Figner admitted that his main goal then was the assassination of Napoleon, and therefore he was dissatisfied with his visit to the Mother See.

After Napoleon's Grand Army left Moscow, Figner led one of the flying squads. Kutuzov appreciated the actions of Figner's partisans extremely highly. In his order for the army on September 26, 1812 it was said:

“A detachment sent for intrigues against the enemy, in the vicinity of Moscow, in a short time destroyed food in the villages between the Tula and Zvenigorod roads, beat up to 400 people, blew up a park on the Mozhaisk road, made six battery guns completely unusable, and 18 boxes were blown up, and a colonel, four officers and 58 privates were taken and a few beaten ... I express my gratitude to Captain Figner for the proper execution of the task. "

Kutuzov wrote to his wife about Figner:

“This is an extraordinary person. I have never seen such a high soul. He is fanatical in courage and in patriotism. "

But Figner became famous not only for numerous daring and successful operations against the French (for which he received the rank of lieutenant colonel with a transfer to the guard), but also for "greed for murder" (cruelty towards prisoners).

Figner especially hated the French and Poles; the soldiers and officers of these nationalities who were captured by him had no chances to survive. He treated Italians, Dutch and Germans much better, often leaving them alive.

Figner's nephew recalled:

“When the masses of prisoners were surrendered into the hands of the victors, my uncle was at a loss for their numbers and a report to A.P. He asked Ermolov how to deal with them, for there was no means or opportunity to support them. Ermolov replied with a laconic note: weapons to the Russian land - death. "

To this, my uncle sent back a report with the same laconic content:

"From now on, Your Excellency will no longer bother the prisoners," and from that time began the brutal extermination of the prisoners, who were killed by the thousands. "


John Augustus Atkinson. Cossacks attack the retreating French, drawing 1813

Denis Davydov even said that Figner once asked him to hand over the French prisoners so that they could be killed by the Cossacks who came with the replenishment, who were not yet "set on". However, this testimony should be treated with caution, because Davydov, who was clearly jealous of Figner's fame, could history and compose.

To match the commander were his fighters, who in the army, hinting at the motley composition of Figner's detachment, were called “different-sized daredevils","multicolored gang" and even "foolish men". AP Ermolov said that with the arrival of Figner's detachment, his headquarters became like a "den of robbers." And the commander of another "party" - Peter Grabbe (the future Decembrist) called Figner "a robber chieftain." But the actions of this "gang" were so useful and effective that they had to endure.

In Figner's detachment, a certain cornet Fyodor Orlov became famous, who came to him after an unsuccessful suicide attempt (the barrel of a pistol exploded, injuring his hand). Cornet, apparently, decided that with such a dashing and desperate commander, he would not heal for a long time. However, despite all his efforts, he did not manage to die for Russia; he had to suffer in this world for another 23 years.

During the famous battle near the village of Lyakhovo, which was described above, Figner went to Augereau as a parliamentarian. "With a blue eye," he informed him that both his brigade and Baraguay d'Illera's division were surrounded by a 15-strong Russian corps, and resistance was useless - unless, of course, Augereau did not want to heroically die for the glory of France in this dreary Russian village. Augereau, as you know, did not want to become a dead hero.

Polyglot Figner also used his acting skills during partisan operations. Sometimes he, posing as an officer of the Great Army, took command of a unit, or took on the functions of a guide. And he led this detachment to a pre-arranged ambush. For this he had a whole collection of uniforms from different regiments.

He tried the same trick in 1813 during the siege of Danzig. He entered there under the guise of an Italian robbed by the Cossacks in order to try to organize an uprising. But the vigilant French arrested the suspicious Italian. However, Figner played his role impeccably and was soon released for lack of evidence. After that, he charmed the acting commandant of General Rapp to such an extent that he sent him with a letter to ... Napoleon Bonaparte. As you probably guessed, the French emperor did not wait for Rapp's report. Information about the state of the fortress and its garrison seemed so valuable to the Russian command that Figner received the rank of colonel. Then he, having gathered a "vengeful legion", consisting of 326 Russians (hussars and Cossacks) and 270 captured Spanish and Italian infantrymen, began to "play pranks" in the French rear. On October 1 (12), 1813, near Dessau, Figner was surrounded and betrayed by his foreign subordinates. According to one of the versions, he died in battle on the banks of the Elbe, according to the other, being wounded, he jumped into the river and drowned in it. At the time of his death, he was 26 years old.

In the next article we will continue our story about the commanders of the flying partisan detachments and talk about I. Dorokhov, D. Davydov and V. Dibich.
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  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 May 2021 05: 33
    +3
    Thank you Valery!
    Timely cycle, although your love of pulling all black out of white is sometimes upsetting. Yes, for the man in the street D. Davydov "portrait" of a hussar and partisan in 1812, but for a person who is fond of history, priorities have long been set. The point is to once again denigrate the "hussar, whose life is not long"?
    Yesterday I heard an interesting thing that the Russians as a nationality (nation) took place after the Patriotic War of 1812. Controversial, but has the right to discussion.
    Good day everyone, with respect, Kitty!
    1. VLR
      18 May 2021 06: 19
      +9
      Good morning. To be honest, I am somewhat surprised by the fact that I also managed to "blacken" Davydov: just by writing that at that time there were also more dashing and successful partisans smile
      But, what can you do, they were. Breaking stereotypes is, of course, a thankless task, but, it seems to me, necessary. Moreover, Davydov, for whom you were offended, will still retain his place on the podium. But, someone will note and remember that he was not alone.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 May 2021 08: 27
        -1
        Quote: VlR
        To be honest, I am somewhat surprised by the fact that I also managed to "blacken" Davydov:

        From the article
        Denis Davydov even said that Figner once asked him to hand over the French prisoners so that they could be killed by the Cossacks who came with the replenishment, who were not yet "set on". However, this evidence should be treated with caution, because ] that Davydov, who was clearly jealous of Figner's fame, could have composed this story.

        You can continue in the text!
        hi
        1. Ryazan87
          Ryazan87 18 May 2021 16: 21
          +6
          well, if Davydov is not enough ...

          "... K. A. Biskupsky, who served in his detachment in 1812, treated his commander as a whole with sympathy and considered him and A. N. Seslavin real partisans, in contrast to Davydov, in his letters to A. A. Kraevsky in 1849 condemns the killing of prisoners practiced by Figner. He describes in detail, for example, the destruction of a party of prisoners of 180 people. Figner first ordered to undress them, removing the most valuable things, and then interrupt them with cold steel."
          ".. Biskupsky also tells how not far from Mozhaisk, in the village of Prince Vyazemsky, a detachment of 10 Frenchmen were discovered by their detachment." Figner has now hung them on the pines under the village, like they hang ham in the sun.
          "... V. I. Levenstern recalls how in 1813 he acted together with Figner's detachment. Once Figner, secretly from Levenstern, ordered to shoot all the prisoners they had taken for no apparent reason. Another time Figner, in front of Levenstern and other officers, killed the head from the blowgun of a French prisoner who refused to answer his questions. "
          "... Suddenly the music stopped. The head of the party went out into the courtyard, accompanied by two Cossacks, who alternately loaded his pistols for him, and with his own hand shot all thirteen prisoners one after the other, repeating the words:" All French dogs must die like this! " "(notes of captain K. Martens.).
          “His best and frequent fun was, instilling cheerfulness and confidence in himself with a gentle conversation with the captive officers, to kill them unexpectedly with a pistol and watch their dying torment” (P.H. Grabbe).

          Mikhailo Larionovich, by the way, openly asked about Figner, "is he not crazy." And he was very close to the truth - the Figners had a hereditary mental disorder.
          1. Astra wild2
            Astra wild2 18 May 2021 20: 45
            0
            "killing them unexpectedly with a pistol and looking at their dying torment" is, to put it mildly, ugly, but part of the blame must be shared with Yermolov: "who entered the Russian land with arms is death"
    2. Korsar4
      Korsar4 18 May 2021 06: 27
      0
      And under Peter and Catherine were they insolvent?
    3. Finches
      Finches 18 May 2021 06: 37
      +1
      I join the criticism about white and black, I think that in historical articles one should not give personal characteristics on behalf of the author - there is a lot of subjectivity in this! Wise Clea, according to this Patriotic War, has long put everything in its place. Davydov was no better, he was better known thanks to his poems, etc., but I heard no less about Figner and Seslavin in history lessons in the Soviet school - now the war of 1812 is being studied carelessly. In general, the article is interesting and informative! Thanks to the author!
    4. Richard
      Richard 18 May 2021 07: 03
      +9
      And why does the author not mention another hero of the Patriotic War, Vladimir Ivanovich Levenshtern, the famous commander of a flying detachment, who had much greater literary ability than Davydov and incomparably great military merits with him. The one to whom the historical miniature of V. Pikul “How the cities and capitals surrendered” is dedicated.
    5. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 18 May 2021 08: 50
      +1
      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      The meaning is once again to denigrate the "hussar

      Do not slander the author.
      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      that the Russians as a nationality (nation) took place after the Patriotic War of 1812. Controversial, but has the right to debate.

      But I'll agree. Only, probably, not "after", but "during".
    6. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 18 May 2021 17: 55
      0
      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      Best regards, Kitty!

      Vlad, welcome. hi smile
      Today I see Kote we have a record holder in terms of cons. Rarely does such luck happen to immediately grab a dozen, and then with the first comment, and on you ...
      Congratulations and even a little envy - I rarely succeed in doing this.
      Now, attention, a question.
      Conventionally, the commentary can be divided into two parts: the denigration of the hussar and the emergence of the Russian nation. Well, still "good day everyone" can be distinguished in a separate part. Which of these parts has the most disadvantages? Your opinion?
      laughing
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 May 2021 18: 37
        0
        Good evening Michael, apparently both!
        Our comrades do not like when they are against fur. hi
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 18 May 2021 18: 50
          +1
          Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
          apparently both!

          Both three? laughing
          I would also argue with the opinion regarding the time of the emergence of the Russian nation. But here you first need to decide what is a nation (people), what is "Russian" and what includes the combined concept of "Russian people" or "Russian nation", how much these concepts are identical ...
          And then you can move on to ethnogenesis. smile
          I am afraid, however, that this discussion may drag on for a long time, so I will not start it - it will still not be possible to complete it. smile
          I agree about the "vilification" of the hussar.
          But we love Valery not because he demonstrates impartiality and objectivity in his research, but because he helps to look at history from a slightly different angle, provoking a thought process in readers, even if even some initiate this process solely for the purpose of expressing to the author of his displeasure with his creation. smile
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 18 May 2021 19: 00
        +2
        Of course, the second one!
        There was quite a cat walking, humming songs, about how good it is to be a cat, about the fact that the grass "turns green", the birds (the infections are tasty, they sing under the window, "they don't give a good fellow to sleep"), walked on and on, and almost already intended to reach "the city of Paris" ...
        But then the evil lemmings came running! They say that we cannot bite, like our distant relatives, horses, but we can gradually gnaw!
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 18 May 2021 19: 56
          +1
          But that's okay ... And then suddenly, it hit !!! Resolution from GlavKot that you can't, kitty, cross the boundaries of the lands marked by me! And the koteiko walked back, bitten by the triumphant lemmings. And the Cat thought, maybe at least some little creature will help me, well, at least a dog, God forgive me on a sinful word!
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 18 May 2021 20: 24
            0
            “Only from the life of a dog,
            A dog can be biting ”(c).
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 18 May 2021 20: 29
              0
              Exactly!
        2. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 18 May 2021 19: 57
          0
          Well ... That's after all ... And then what happened? Or like Samsonov's - the most terrible phrase - "to be continued"?
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 18 May 2021 19: 59
            +1
            "to be continued"
            This is not for Samsonov, it is for "another author".
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 18 May 2021 20: 07
            0
            And then what happened?
            I can continue "the tale of Koteiko", but "The novel about the life and amazing adventures of captain Mikhailov", all one, I will not give up!
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 18 May 2021 20: 31
              0
              I'm worried about koteiko. Has he fought off the lemmings or not? What if a polar fox of a high degree of fatness came to their aid?
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 18 May 2021 20: 39
                0
                Of course, he will beat off lemmings, he even dumped artiodactyls. Of course, he fought off the Polovs, and from the Pechenezh ... But from the "incurable polar fox" ... However, I will keep the intrigue, or am I worse than George Martin?
          3. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 18 May 2021 20: 47
            0
            Oh, and here the cloven-hoofed lemmings have appeared!
        3. Korsar4
          Korsar4 18 May 2021 20: 23
          0
          Who cares? I look from the tablet - I don't bother.
          Climbing from a work computer is contrary to the moral code of the builders of capitalism (if any).

          If they are demoted to the captain, I will not be upset. But it will take a long time to try.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 18 May 2021 20: 46
            0
            But it will take a long time to try.
            Believe it or not, it happens for "one-two".
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 18 May 2021 20: 48
              +1
              I believe it.
              Self-esteem will not be affected.
              For a salary, too.
              In what society they were admitted, they will continue.

              What is the "bauble"?
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 18 May 2021 20: 50
                +2
                I'll tell you by phone.
                But in general, everything is correct, they will not be sent farther than the front, they will not give less company.
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 18 May 2021 22: 09
                  +1
                  Intrigued.
      3. vladcub
        vladcub 18 May 2021 20: 17
        +3
        Misha, good evening.
        You yourself answered the question: what are the cons? It's all about garlic: 3 minuses: -for D. Davydov, 3 "the emergence of the Russian nation," let's say it is controversial, but more on that separately. And 3 "good days, everyone."
        PS. About the "emergence of the Russian nation", something koshak went wrong. I would like arguments
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 18 May 2021 20: 29
          +3
          Hello, Glory.
          Arithmetic does not add up - there are only ten minuses. I think that "good day, everyone" is drawn to a greater number of minuses - as in that joke.
          - Defendant, why did you smash the beer stall?
          - In order not to scoff at the people. No, to write simply: "There is no beer." So they wrote "NO BEER!" Well, isn't it a mockery?
          How can a normal brutal fighting hamster come to terms with the fact that at first it turns out that the Russian people are only two centuries old, and not "a hundred thousand million" years old, and then "have a good day, everyone"? Shaped mockery, I think!
          And about the hypothesis - so after all he wrote, he says yesterday he heard an interesting opinion. And where did I hear, from whom ... Maybe a person inspected a psychiatric hospital, maybe he checked Navalny's complaint, they say they scold him for his historical views - what views? - yes, here! You never know where Vlad could have brought ...
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 May 2021 21: 08
            +4
            Quote: Trilobite Master
            And about the hypothesis - so after all he wrote, he says yesterday he heard an interesting opinion. And where did I hear, from whom ...

            To his sinful Koteikin soul, he took the habit of walking from work, and on the way to listen to the programs of Echo of Moscow with the historian S. Vivovatenko. The latter voiced this version. Well, after reading Valery today, he injured the whole flock of pseudo-combat fluffs, because of which L.N. Tolstoy did not graduate from Kazan University! Although I in vain mentioned this in the sui, since now the second half of the menagerie will come up, which will mention the second famous student, a dropout from the Kazan alma mater. The one that the polar beast predicted by Antonische will look at my funeral.
            As for Valery, he is definitely great.
            With regard to the gradation of nationality, nation, people and ethnic group. A moot point, but after the works of Eduard Vaschenko, I began to think about these concepts. Although I am not ready for discussion, I am getting very unpleasant conclusions.
            Good night everyone!
            1. vladcub
              vladcub 19 May 2021 09: 03
              +3
              Wow, hamsters: "turn into war elephants with a slight movement of the hand" (c)?
          2. vladcub
            vladcub 19 May 2021 09: 00
            +1
            You may be right
    7. vladcub
      vladcub 18 May 2021 20: 01
      +1
      Namesake, Valery "helmet politician"? Oh, what he is not good: on Davydov "raises blasphemy" as our ancestors used to say
  2. SERGE ANT
    SERGE ANT 18 May 2021 05: 39
    +13
    Cavalry General A.P. Tormasov, who formed the "flying corps". Later, on August 2, already M.B. Barclay de Tolly ordered the creation of a detachment under the command of General F.F. Vintsingerode. The main task of the partisan detachments was formulated by M.I. Kutuzov: “Since now the autumn time is coming, through which the movement of a large army becomes completely difficult, then I decided, avoiding a general battle, to wage a small war, for the separate forces of the enemy and his oversight give me more ways to destroy him, and in order to now 50 versts from Moscow with the main forces, I am giving away important units in the direction of Mozhaisk, Vyazma and Smolensk. ”The flying detachments included 36 Cossack and 7 cavalry regiments, 5 squadrons and a command of light horse artillery, 5 infantry regiments, 3 a battalion of rangers and 22 regimental guns. Thus, Kutuzov gave the partisan war a broader scope. In addition to those mentioned by the author, other army partisans were active: Colonel N.D. Kudashev with two Cossack regiments was sent to the Serpukhov and Kolomna roads. His detachment, having established that there were about 2500 French soldiers and officers in the village of Nikolskoye, suddenly attacked the enemy, killed more than 100 people and took 200 prisoners. In the area of ​​Mozhaisk and to the south, a detachment of Colonel I.M. Vadbolsky as part of the Mariupol hussar regiment and 500 Cossacks. In addition, a detachment of Lieutenant Colonel I.F. Chernozubov, numbering 300 people. To the north, in the Volokolamsk area, a detachment of Colonel A.Kh. Benckendorff, at Ruza - Major V.A. Prendel, behind Klin in the direction of the Yaroslavl tract - the Cossack detachments of the military foreman G.P. Pobednova, at Voskresensk - Major Figlev. Efremov, following on the right flank of the Napoleonic army, was ordered to go ahead, warning the enemy and raid individual detachments when they stopped. Large partisan detachment A.P. Ozharovsky was sent to Smolensk in order to destroy enemy stores, carts and individual detachments. From the rear, the French were pursued by the Cossacks M.I. Platov, partisan detachments were used no less energetically in the end of the campaign to expel Napoleon's army from Russia. Detachment A.P. Ozharovsky captured the city of Mogilev, where there were large rear warehouses of the enemy. On November 12 (24), his cavalry rushed into the city. Speaking about the partisan movement in the war of 1812, it should be explained that the partisans themselves were temporary detachments of military personnel of regular units and Cossacks, purposefully and orderly created by the Russian command for actions in the rear and on communications enemy. And to describe the actions of the spontaneously created self-defense detachments of the villagers, the term "people's war" was introduced, which, I hope, the author will talk about later.
    1. VLR
      18 May 2021 06: 03
      +10
      Good morning, an article about the "people's war" has already been published - on May 14th. There is a link to it at the beginning of this article.
      1. SERGE ANT
        SERGE ANT 18 May 2021 07: 09
        +11
        Excusez-moi, cher auteur. Did not wake up yet. I remembered this when it was too late to correct the comment)) However, this topic is so extensive that one more article would not be superfluous, especially since you get them interesting and lively .Yours faithfully.
  3. Ros 56
    Ros 56 18 May 2021 06: 27
    +7
    Spetsnaz, he was spetsnaz in 1812, they just did not know such words then. But they understood the matter correctly.
  4. Korsar4
    Korsar4 18 May 2021 06: 30
    +1
    I wonder how much Finger was the prototype of Dolokhov from War and Peace?
    If a person is not limited by life, then he either spreads his wings or unbelts.

    On the other hand, who called these twelve languages ​​to us?
    1. Richard
      Richard 18 May 2021 08: 02
      +9
      The final point in the development of military flying parties was undoubtedly put by Colonel Alexander Chernyshev.

      In 1812, he proposed to continue partisan operations at a new level - to fight not in parties of 300-400 people, but in flying detachments of thousands of sabers. The idea was appreciated. The bullet sent by Chernyshev killed a whole flock of hares. The French had nothing to oppose to the cavalry rushing through Russia, Poland and Germany - they had already eaten most of the horses in the theater of operations for a long time. While the garrisons of the fortresses and the remnants of the troops that wandered out of Russia would try to catch up with such a detachment on foot, he was already going far to the rear, burning warehouses, destroying the entire military infrastructure, disrupting the recruitment of recruits and the approach of reinforcements.
      The operations of the flying detachments made it possible to quickly occupy a large territory with small forces, move the line far to the west, where, in fact, hostilities with the main forces of Bonaparte would begin, and, finally, last but not least - they influenced big politics. Prussia hesitated about further action, and the Cossacks with the hussars were supposed to gently stimulate the Germans to oppose Napoleon. Moreover, the main army was slowly but surely following the flying detachments.
      Three shock columns totaled only a few thousand people (mostly Cossacks, but also hussars, dragoons and fighting Bashkirs) and a couple of horse artillery guns. However, that was enough. The detachments were headed by Chernyshev himself - the future "hangman of the Decembrists", Benckendorf and Levenshtern. At the end of winter, a complete mess reigned in the rear of the French troops.
      The successes of the partisans in 1812 were extremely effective, but in 1813 they operated even more dashingly. Kassel, sung by Velazquez Breda, Berlin - from the cities taken on the peak dazzled in the eyes. The position of the commander of a flying squad involved a peculiar style of thinking, very far from the ideals of moderation and accuracy. However, these daredevil captains deserve their fame no less than, say, corsairs of the times of classical piracy. For many partisans, their adventures have become a springboard to rank, honor and wealth. And in general, the lightning-fast flight of Napoleonics became an excellent example of maneuvering actions.
      1. SERGE ANT
        SERGE ANT 18 May 2021 09: 06
        +16
        These are already foreign campaigns of 1813-1814, where, in addition to Chernyshev, flying detachments under the command of Vorontsov, F.K. Tettenborn, brothers Alexander and Konstantin Benckendorff, F.F. Wintzingerode and others. Let me give myself a little more detail about the aforementioned Vladimir von Levenstern: if he were a sailor, he would certainly have become a corsair, but in the campaign against Napoleon his talents were also used on the dry path. Marshal Oudinot's treasury: salaries for tens of thousands of French soldiers and officers. Of course, the partisan chieftain could not resist such prey. To the great joy of the colonel himself and his Cossacks, the treasury was poorly guarded, and the saboteurs quickly dispersed the "collectors". However, now they had to figure out what to do with the captured mountain of gold and banknotes. The main threat did not come from the French; their partisans quickly and successfully outwitted them. However, their own Cossacks licked their lips at the booty, and in Berlin, where the Russian rear base was already located, the military commandant sat, confident that the money that Levenstern was taking home would be perfectly preserved under his protection and in his jurisdiction. Moreover, Levenstern's detachment was being chased by another Russian partisan detachment whose commander was eager to help his comrades-in-arms guard the gold. However, Levenstern was not going to surrender. He managed to escape from the detachment of assistants, desperately maneuvering, and distributed enough to his Cossacks to become accomplices. Now it remains to defeat the commandant of Berlin. Levenstern hid the treasured carts right in the city, and shut up his mouths to chatterboxes and rear officials, putting his hand right into the trophies. As the dashing commander himself put it, he "was glad to be useful to his friends." In the end, of course, Levenshtern handed over the booty for a grandiose amount of 2,4 million rubles. This should be understood so that 2,4 million is what got to the command. How much money was actually taken from poor Oudinot, only the corsair himself knew. In any case, there was a local surge in inflation in Berlin (!), Wine and champagne merchants became extremely wealthy, and a holiday took place in Berlin brothels that lasted for weeks. Maybe the winners showed themselves as not the most disciplined fighters, but after such damage inflicted on the enemy's pocket, they had every reason to be proud and slightly reward themselves for their military efforts. sense.
        1. Richard
          Richard 18 May 2021 10: 24
          +12
          Now it remains to defeat the commandant of Berlin. Levenstern hid the treasured carts right in the city, and shut his mouths to chatterboxes and rear officials, putting his hand right into the trophies. As the dashing commander himself put it, he "was glad to be useful to his friends."
          In the end, of course, Levenshtern handed over the production for a grandiose amount of 2,4 million rubles. This should be understood so that 2,4 million is what got to the command. How much money was actually taken from poor Oudinot, only the corsair himself knew

          The commandant of Berlin, Levenstern, simply "killed off" with his famous report, which went into the analys as the most anecdotal military report in history: laughing
          In [your] S [yatelstvo]. I have the honor to report that a detachment of my Cossacks and Sumy hussars seized the treasury of Marshal Oudinot with 30 poods of gold and banknotes. Since other crews of the same convoy were carrying food and something warming in the cold season, the brave hussars and Cossacks immediately used and aggravated, which made them somber. And while we were peacefully resting, the prisoners fled and took away all the gold. Honest is a noble word. I bow for this
          With great respect
          commander of the flying party of the corps of Baron F.F. Wintsingerode
          Sumy Hussar Regiment Lieutenant Colonel
          Vladimir von Levenshtern
          link Patriotic War of 1812: Dept. 1: Correspondence of Russian government officials and institutions: In 22 kn. - SPb. : Military-scientist. com. Ch. headquarters, 1900-1914. T. 17: Combat in 1812-13: (Journals of military operations and correspondence - June 1812 - December 1813). - 1911 .. - book .. 5, 374 pages

          As Vladimir Ivanovich himself explained the appearance of this report in his "Notes" with humor:
          "There were too many people who wanted to unfairly lay their eyes on this wagon train. Therefore, appropriate measures were taken to preserve it." link : Levenshtern V. I. Notes of General V. I. Levenshtern // Russian antiquity, 1900. - T. 103. - No. 8. - P. 265-297; No. 9. - P. 485-522; T. 104. - No. 11. - S. 331-361; No. 12. - P. 553-582

          Nevertheless, for the rest of his life, an order dominated him:
          to have strict secret supervision over all his relations and acquaintances

          However, there was no reason - there lived a knight of the Order of St. George and the Order of St. Anna, 2nd century. with diamonds V.I.Levenshtern does not stand out in any way - solely for the pension of a major general with a full salary. He died in St. Petersburg on January 21, 1858.
          PS and the ironic expression "Honest - noble word" from his famous report became a kind of memorial in Russia, and was even used by Ilf and Petrov in his famous novel
          1. SERGE ANT
            SERGE ANT 18 May 2021 19: 03
            +9
            Hello, the police? This is what today's robbed Shpak says ... And I’m not about theft - we have a cleaner case here - engineer Timofeev called a living tsar to his apartment! Cold steel ... I give honest noble word... I'm waiting.)))
            1. Richard
              Richard 18 May 2021 19: 12
              +9
              Now we will live wonderfully, Shura, I will put gold teeth in myself and get married, by God, I will marry, an honest, noble word! smile
          2. Korsar4
            Korsar4 18 May 2021 19: 12
            +3
            This is who Koreiko adopted his manners from.
          3. vladcub
            vladcub 18 May 2021 20: 30
            +3
            "the prisoners fled and took away all the gold" what bad prisoners. a real anecdote, not a report
        2. vladcub
          vladcub 18 May 2021 20: 25
          +4
          "only the corsair himself knew" + Oudinot. It concerned him the most: he had money "entered" and he had to make excuses before Napoleon
      2. Korsar4
        Korsar4 18 May 2021 19: 09
        +3
        This is our way. Not regular troops.

        https://stihi.ru/2005/05/14-2012
    2. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 18 May 2021 10: 48
      +4
      On the other hand, who called these twelve languages ​​to us?

      "Great Emperor" called personally! I'm talking about Bonaparte ... laughing
      Sergei, once again today caught himself in the "information field". drinks
      I woke up, and in my head there are lines from "The Bronze Horseman", these are these!
      On a dangerous path through stormy waters
      His generals set off

      I go to the site, and here - an article with the same verses! drinks
      Chernyshev will be famous for his personal arrest of Pestel in 1825, as well as for the order, contrary to tradition, to re-hang the Decembrists who fell off the crossbar (K. Ryleev, P. Kakhovsky and S. Muravyov-Apostol became "twice hanged").

      As far as I understand, "the tradition not to hang up a second time", if there was, it was only in the mouths of the people. It is unlikely that this was formalized by law. hi Therefore, the actions of the authorities were quite within the framework! request
      It is not surprising that Chernyshev's partisan activities are little known in our country.

      It seems that many factors played a role here. A dashing scout, a master of espionage, under Nikolai Pavlovich, he acquired a slightly different fame. I read somewhere that during the investigation of the Decembrists he tried to "drown" his conspirator-relative Zakhar in order to get some part of his fortune. In the subsequent post of Minister of War, Chernyshev, as far as I understand, also did not do so much that was necessary - if you remember how the army met the Crimean War - and, perhaps, they reproached him ... what
      Well, the final point in the popular opinion was put by Leskov with his "Lefty":
      Martyn-Solsky went at once, reported this to Count Chernyshev in order to inform the Emperor, and Count Chernyshev shouted at him:
      “Know,” he says, “your emetic and laxative, and don't get in the way of your own business: there are generals for this in Russia.


      In general, my friends, I would like an article about his role in history after 1814. hi
    3. Ulrih
      Ulrih 18 May 2021 17: 40
      +2
      Eeeeeeee, let me think ... Maybe the policy of Paul, and then Alexander directed against revolutionary France (and then against Napoloen) ...
  5. Olgovich
    Olgovich 18 May 2021 06: 50
    +6
    After the battle at Maloyaroslavets Kutuzov lost contact with the enemy army and did not know where it was until October 22... And again it was Seslavin who found the French at Vyazma.


    Platov's Cossacks after Maloyarosavets constantly pursued the French, attacking them. In view of this, the order was given to those to move in closed squares.

    After Maloyaroslavets and before Vyazma there were battles:
    October 13 (25), 1812
    –– Defeat of Yu.A. Ponyatovsky's corps near Medyn.
    –– Attack of M. Platov's Cossacks on the enemy convoy near Gorodnya.

    October 19 (31), 1812

    –– An avant-garde battle of MI Platov's corps at the Kolotsky Monastery.


    October 20 (November 1) 1812
    –– Vanguard battles at Gzhatsk and Tsarev Zaymishche.

    And on the night of October 22, the vanguard under the command of Miloradovich of 24,5 thousand soldiers went to Vyazma.

    And Kutuzov "did not know" anything about this.
    and Denis Davydov was not recognized as a "big partisan"

    no matter what the author thinks about Davydov, the opinion of his friend is much more interesting A.S. Pushkinwho painted his portrait on the original by Eugene Onegin and dedicated the following to him:

    You, the singer, you, the hero!
    I failed for you
    With the thunder of cannon, on fire
    Ride a mad horse.
    Rider of the humble Pegasus,
    I wore old Parnassus
    Out-of-Fashion Uniform:
    But even this service is difficult,
    And then, oh my wonderful rider,
    You are my father and commander.
  6. north 2
    north 2 18 May 2021 08: 20
    +9
    Quote: Richard
    And why does the author not mention another hero of the Patriotic War, Vladimir Ivanovich Levenshtern, the famous commander of a flying detachment, who had much greater literary ability than Davydov and incomparably great military merits with him. The one to whom the historical miniature of V. Pikul “How the cities and capitals surrendered” is dedicated.

    and therefore the author did not mention Levenshtern, because nothing is written about this hero of the Patriotic War on the official website of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation under the heading of the site "People's War", from which this article was actually copied in the first half, in the form of a synopsis. But in the second half of the article on the official website of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation under the heading "People's War" there are the names of the heroes Dorokhov and Dibich, because the author of today's article in his next article promises to talk about Dorokhov and Dibich ... section VO "History" or all the same the authors' own articles about history !!!?
  7. Mitya2424
    Mitya2424 18 May 2021 09: 25
    +3
    In the title photo there is a portrait of D. Dow Nikolai Nikolaevich Raevsky
    1. BAI
      BAI 18 May 2021 09: 54
      +2
      Yes, Raevsky doesn't look like Figner at all.
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 18 May 2021 10: 52
        +2
        Yes, Raevsky doesn't look like Figner at all.

        I agree with both of you ... yes
      2. Richard
        Richard 18 May 2021 10: 53
        +6
        A.S.Figner Portrait by an unknown artist, 1810s.
        1. Richard
          Richard 18 May 2021 15: 16
          +6
          What's wrong? Two minuses. So do not hesitate to write for what, otherwise I tried - I was looking for his portrait to show people smile
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 18 May 2021 15: 30
            +4
            So do not hesitate to write for what, otherwise I tried - I was looking for his portrait to show people

            Dmitry, look at Vlad's first comment ... hi
            Good day everyone, with respect, Kitty!

            Nine minuses for this comment - apparently, for a good message. what
            The feeling that a gang is acting ... There are no censorship words, I do not want to incur the wrath of the moderators!
            But this is really a gang of minusers who stubbornly (and, most likely, deliberately) shit some of us into karma.
            By the way, I haven't put any cons for a long time. And "these" - please! hi
    2. Mitya2424
      Mitya2424 18 May 2021 16: 25
      +2
      minusers, there are things that you can argue about, expressing your attitude "+" or "-", is everything obvious here ?!
      1. Richard
        Richard 18 May 2021 17: 22
        +5
        Information for minusers: yes
        On June 16.06.42, 18, all newspapers in the USSR published an obituary to A.S. Figner's grand-niece on behalf of the State Defense Committee of the USSR and the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks, and on June 1942, XNUMX, I.V. Stalin, V.M. ... Molotov, K. E. Voroshilov, G. M. Malenkov, L. P. Beria, N. A. Voznesensky, L. M. Kaganovich and A. I. Mikoyan.
        1. Richard
          Richard 18 May 2021 21: 17
          +1
          thanks for the pluses. And what is the name of this lady, and for which no one wrote such honors to her. Does everyone really know?
          1. BAI
            BAI 18 May 2021 22: 12
            +3
            Of course, everyone knows this. Vera Nikolaevna Figner 1852-1942

            Formally, she was not a member of the "Land and Freedom" organization, but headed the autonomous circle of "separatists" created by her (Alexander Ivanchin-Pisarev, Yuri Bogdanovich, Alexander Solovyov, etc.), which shared the platform of the Zemlevoltsy and collaborated with them. In 1879 she took part in the Voronezh congress of landowners. After the collapse of "Earth and Freedom" she entered the Executive Committee of the "Narodnaya Volya" organization, campaigned among students and the military in St. Petersburg and Kronstadt. She took part in the preparation of the assassination attempts on Alexander II in Odessa (1880) and Petersburg (1881).
            After the murder of Alexander II, she was able to escape, becoming the only member of the organization not arrested by the police. Having left for Odessa, she participated (together with Stepan Khalturin) in the assassination attempt on the military prosecutor VS Strelnikov [presumably].

            In the spring of 1883, in Kharkov, she was extradited to the police by S.P.Degayev, arrested and put on trial. In September 1884, Figner was sentenced to death by the St. Petersburg Military District Court under the Trial of 14.

            After 9 days of waiting for the execution of the sentence, the execution was commuted to indefinite hard labor.

            In 1904 she was sent into exile - first to Nyonoksa, Arkhangelsk province, then to Kazan province, and from there to Nizhny Novgorod.


            Vera Figner in 1857

            In 1906 she received permission to travel abroad for medical treatment. In 1907 she joined the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, from which she left after the exposure of E. F. Azef.

            In 1910 she initiated the creation of the "Paris Committee for Assistance to Political Prisoners", in the course of its organization she became close to E. P. Peshkova. The committee set out to organize public opinion in the West to protect political prisoners in Russia and at the same time provide them with material assistance, for which it worked in England, Belgium, Holland, Switzerland. Cash contributions came from Hamburg and Bucharest, Naples and Chicago. Figner herself, who had mastered English and French well, constantly spoke at rallies, in private homes, at student meetings. She has published a number of topical articles on political topics in foreign magazines. The style of her articles aroused the approval of I. A. Bunin: "This is who you need to learn to write from!"

            In 1915, on her return to Russia at the border, she was arrested, convicted and exiled under police supervision to Nizhny Novgorod. In December 1916, thanks to her brother Nikolai, a soloist of the Imperial Theaters, she received permission to live in Petrograd.

            Vera Figner met the February revolution of 1917 as the chairman of the Committee for Aid to Freed Convicts and Exiles. In March 1917, she took part in a demonstration of soldiers and workers who demanded the equality of women. At a reception hosted by the Chairman of the Provisional Government, Prince G. Ye. Lvov, she demanded that women be granted voting rights in elections to the Constituent Assembly. In April 1917, she was elected an honorary member of the All-Russian Congress of Teachers, a member of the Executive Committee of the All-Russian Council of Peasant Deputies; at the II Congress of the Labor Group, she called for the unification of the populist groups into one party.

            In May 1917, at the All-Russian Congress of Representatives of the Soviets, the Party of Constitutional Democrats was elected its honorary member, became a member of the executive committee of this party. In June, she was elected by the Cadets as a candidate member of the Constituent Assembly. She was a member of the so-called Pre-Parliament.

            On June 18, 1917, she signed the appeal of the old revolutionaries to all citizens of Russia for the continuation of the war "to a victorious end."

            The October Revolution of 1917 was not accepted.
            1. Richard
              Richard 18 May 2021 23: 23
              +2
              The October Revolution of 1917 did not accept

              Yes, but nevertheless remained in the RSFSR. She had a truly iron character and will. She enjoyed authority and respect in the world socialist movement. Her personal vision of socialism contrasted sharply with the views of V.I. Lenin and especially L.D. Trotsky, but in many ways overlapped with the views of Ya.M. Sverdlov and I.V. Stalin. Did not fall under any round of repression. In the pre-war USSR, she was considered the oldest leader of the revolutionary movement in the country. Streets, schools, factories, steamers were named after her.
              a photo steamer "Vera Figner" Volga 1937

              In 1926, a personal life pension was assigned by a special decree of the Council of People's Commissars. In 1933, by the Decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR, the pension was increased to 400 rubles.
              The 80th anniversary of the oldest revolutionary in 1932 was celebrated with a ceremonial meeting at the Museum of the Revolution. Messages about the commemorations were published in central newspapers. Figner never became a member of the Communist Party, although people usually perceived her as a communist. She died on June 15, 1942 at the age of 90 from pneumonia, and was solemnly buried in Moscow at the Novodevichy Cemetery.
              1. Richard
                Richard 19 May 2021 00: 02
                +2
                The fact that both uncle and niece both possessed an iron will, persistence in achieving goals, a passionate mindset and never stopped before murder, we know from historical documents, but look at how they even look alike!
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 19 May 2021 10: 03
                  +2
                  but look at how they even look alike!

                  Hmm ... but really! Dmitry, thank you - I didn't know that she was a relative of the partisan adventurer! drinks
                  Last night I read Wikipedia, I learned that the Perovskys are a side branch of one of the Razumovskys. The papa of the famous revolutionary once held the post of Pskov vice-governor, and in Pskov their house is located in the center. The house is residential!
  8. bandabas
    bandabas 18 May 2021 09: 59
    +5
    Good article. By the way, before the Second World War, it was precisely a fully organized guerrilla based on trained personnel that was planned. And the bases were created, and the people were trained. But, it went a little wrong. Unfortunately.
  9. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 18 May 2021 14: 38
    +6
    I agree with the author that such names as Figner and Seslavin are in the shadow of Denis Davydov's name completely undeservedly. But to blame Davydov for this is at least incorrect. For example, Davydov treated Seslavin very well and appreciated him highly. Much later, when the war of 1812 became legendary, it was the image of Davydov, as simply textbook (hussar, grunt, drunkard) and more "media" (poet), or something, became collective and all the exploits of the partisans began to be attributed to him. Like the epic Prince Vladimir, who accumulated the features of many princes, starting with Vladimir the Baptist and ending with little Ivan Kalita, so Davydov began to personify the image of a dashing partisan, incorporating the features and exploits of many glorious people into his image.
    It happens. In my opinion, this is not Davydov's fault.
    Thank you Valery for recalling the glorious names.
  10. Ulrih
    Ulrih 18 May 2021 16: 22
    +3
    In the title picture, not Figner, but Raevsky.
  11. Ulrih
    Ulrih 18 May 2021 16: 56
    +4
    And about Seslavin - I can't find the data right now, but from memory Kutuzov received information about the movement of the Great Army not only from Seslavin.
    And already in previous articles he noted that Napoleon's plans did not include a new general battle. Obviously, he clearly represented the deplorable state of the army (especially the cavalry) and the plan was to throw Kutuzov (which was done) and go to Smolensk to winter and continue the next campaign of 1813 with a rested and replenished army.
  12. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 18 May 2021 19: 18
    +2
    Colleagues, Valery, good evening. Circumstances developed so that only recently I was able to use the phone (it was very buggy). Included, and here is an interesting material
    Valery, we will read you tomorrow.
  13. Givi_49
    Givi_49 18 May 2021 20: 16
    +4
    Clarification. The triptych contains fragments of the following portraits:
    - left: J. Doe. Portrait of Nikolai Nikolaevich Raevsky, 1828, oil on canvas, 70,0x62,5 cm. Military gallery of 1812 in the Winter Palace.
    - center: J. Doe. Portrait of Ferdinand Fedorovich Vintsingerode, 1822-1825, oil on canvas, 70,0x62,5 cm. Military gallery of 1812 in the Winter Palace.
    - right: J. Doe. Portrait of Alexander Nikitich Seslavin, 1823, oil on canvas, 70,0x62,5 cm. Military gallery of 1812 in the Winter Palace.
  14. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 18 May 2021 20: 17
    +3
    Thank you, Valery!
    The fact that I am not commenting does not mean that I am not reading.
  15. Looking for
    Looking for 18 May 2021 21: 03
    +1
    more such articles !!!
  16. CastroRuiz
    CastroRuiz 18 May 2021 21: 11
    +1
    Dumayu, this Figner beat a psychopath - a sadist.
  17. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 18 May 2021 21: 15
    +2
    Colleagues, Figner is, of course, a person, but I would also say to passionary personalities, there was freedom in the 17th century or during the war, but they have no place in a peaceful life.
    By the way, it seems to me that Lunin looks like Figner: he was also a participant in the war of 1812, joined the Decembrists, and then in hard labor, he wanted to arrange a type of insurrection
  18. tank64rus
    tank64rus 20 May 2021 13: 54
    0
    There is no need to oppose the commanders of the Russian special forces; this is better suited to them, to each other. All of them are undoubtedly Heroes and Patriots of Russia. And let the rest remain in history.