Military Review

Heavenly patron of the Russian land

47

Entry of Alexander Nevsky to Pskov after the Battle on the Ice. V.A.Serov. 1945 g.


800th anniversary of the birth of the Russian prince Alexander Yaroslavich. Prince Alexander Nevsky is one of the most prominent figures in our stories... And it connects the most different and dissimilar epochs - medieval Russia, the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and our time.

Nevsky in our history


The prince was born on May 13, 1221. According to the old historiographic tradition, the date of his birth is May 1220. The son of the Pereyaslavl prince (later the Grand Duke of Kiev and Vladimir) Yaroslav Vsevolodovich and the Toropets princess Rostislav Mstislavna, daughter of the prince of Novgorod and Galician Mstislav Udatny. Grandson of the Grand Duke of Vladimir Vsevolod the Big Nest.

It fell to Alexander Yaroslavich to rule the Russian lands at a difficult, turning point in history, which coincided with the years of his Novgorod, and then Kiev and Vladimir reign. His father Yaroslav took over the Kiev table in 1236, and the Vladimir one in 1238. Russia at that time was defeated by the "Mongols" of Batu (Why did they create the myth of the "Mongol" invasion?). Kiev was weakened, deprived of its former power, wealth and populace by the previous princely strife and wars. The Horde ended his fall. Burned and devastated Kiev lay in ruins (Capture of Kiev. War of Pagan Rus with Christian Rus).

The death of this city in December 1240, like the death of countless Russian cities earlier, in particular, Pereyaslavl South and Chernigov, marked the final decline of the once mighty Kievan Rus. The possession of Kiev has lost all spiritual, military-political and economic value. Therefore, Yaroslav, when in 1243 the Horde approved him as the oldest prince in Russia, did not go to Kiev, put his governor there and chose Vladimir as his residence. As a result, Vladimir on the Klyazma became the capital of Russia.

Alexander will also confirm this. In 1249 he will receive the title of the Grand Duke of Kiev. But he did not even visit the Kiev he inherited. The ancient Russian capital has completely lost its former grandeur and splendor. And for a long time it became a small provincial town. Half a century later, Metropolitan Maxim of Kiev moved his residence from Kiev to Vladimir. So the spiritual center of Russia moved to North-Eastern Russia.

This was not the end of Russia. The spiritual, sacred center of Russia moves to the northeast. The Novgorod land escaped the invasion of Batu's troops. Many of the ruined "nasty" Russian cities of Ryazan, Murom, Vladimir-Suzdal lands were able to rebuild, life is gradually reviving in them. North-Eastern, "Zalesskaya" Russia was the first to take the blow of the "Tatars", and the first to recover from the invasion. New waves of immigrants flocked here (earlier they left the Polovtsian raids in the northern forests) from the later ruined principalities and lands of Southern and Western Russia.

Russian princes recognize the power of the Horde, their vassal position. This gave a certain degree of security and stability. Alexander Nevsky's father, Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, became the first of the Russian princes who accepted from the hands of the Horde Tsar Batu the label for the great reign of Vladimir. In Russia, the previous structure of power was preserved. He was poisoned by the Horde in the fall of 1246. Only in the spring of next year, his body was brought to the capital city of Vladimir, where he was buried in the white-stone Assumption Cathedral.

To continue the policy of his father, in essence, to develop the foundations of the policy of Russia in the new conditions of the rule of the Horde, had to the Grand Duke Alexander. It was about the very existence of the then Russia. Will she be able to survive, preserve her statehood, organization, faith? In particular, a number of Rus' neighbors lost not only their independence, but also their cultural identity. The Volga Bulgaria (Bulgaria), a longtime neighbor and enemy of North-Eastern Russia, ceased to exist. Bulgars will become part of the population of the Horde Empire, lay the foundation for the ethnos of the Kazan Tatars. Numerous Cumans disappeared from the map of the southern part of Eastern Europe. Some of them flee to Western Europe, Byzantium and the Caucasus, the majority will become simple "Horde".

Heavenly patron of the Russian land
"Alexander Nevskiy". N. Roerich

Brave prince


Prince Alexander Yaroslavich received the nickname Brave or Nevsky. At that time he was, undoubtedly, the strongest prince of Russia. Despite the fact that he was still young (at the time of his father's death he was 26 or 25 years old), he had great victories behind him, which glorified his name for centuries. The defeat of the Swedish discoveries on the Neva River in the summer of 1240 and the victory on the ice of Lake Peipsi over the German knights of the Livonian Order in 1242. Later than other princes, he went to bow to the king Batu. But he was recognized as the Grand Duke of Kiev and received "the entire Russian land." At the same time, Alexander enjoyed the special favor of the Horde king Batu, became a twin brother of his eldest son and heir Sartak. After their death he enjoyed the support of Ulagchi and Berke khans.

The reign of Alexander Yaroslavich was a turning point in Russian history. It was under him, in the 1250s - early 1260s, that the Horde's power over Russia was finally formed. The foundations of the Russian-Horde Empire are being formed. Symbiosis of Eastern Rus, pagan Horde (The myth of the "Mongols from Mongolia in Russia"; Russian-Horde Empire) with the Russes of Vladimir, Ryazan and Novgorod, the Russians-Christians and the two believers, who retained a pagan worldview. It is this alliance that will allow Russia to repulse the attempts of the West to baptize the Russian lands with “fire and sword, to enslave and colonize Russia. Unfortunately, in the future the Horde will be Islamized and Arabized. This will cause a series of severe troubles and the collapse of the Horde Empire. And the center of the northern, Eurasian empire will gradually move to Moscow.

The Horde tsars did not interfere in the internal life of the Russian Christian principalities, their structure, faith. They only demanded recognition of the supreme power, issuing a label-letters for the great reign, tribute-tithes for the maintenance of the army. Population censuses were conducted to determine the tribute. The first census was carried out in 1257–1259. with the direct fate of Prince Alexander. First, the "Tatar" officials (Baskaks) settled in large Russian cities, the "Great Baskak" was in the capital Vladimir. They collaborated with the Russian princes and, if necessary, "corrected" their policies, often at the request of the Russian rulers themselves.

Under Alexander Yaroslavich, the Horde army, which had only punitive functions, the so-called Nevryuev army of 1252, came to Russia for the first time. After her, Alexander completely occupied the table in Vladimir, before that he shared it with his brother Andrey. Obviously, the Horde intervened in Russian affairs in order to establish the supreme power of the more loyal and reasonable Alexander. Instead of his brother Andrew, who decided to revolt against the Horde king. Subsequently, the use of "Tatar" troops in the struggle with each other became commonplace for Russian princes, as they had previously used the Polovtsian regiments. These Horde armies were brought to Russia by the Russian princes themselves. Later, in many respects, it was with the help of the Horde troops that Moscow's power in North-Eastern Russia would be confirmed. Power over Russia and then the Horde (under Ivan the Terrible) will be given to the descendants of Alexander Nevsky's youngest son, Daniil Alexandrovich of Moscow. This is the historical picture.


F. Moller. "Alexander Nevsky and the papal legates". Painting of the Grand Kremlin Palace.

Turn to the East


Therefore, Alexander Yaroslavich is so hated by various liberals, Westerners, just people with a narrow mind who believe that the prince should have rebelled against the Horde and fell in an unequal battle. It was Alexander who made the historic choice between West and East. He recognized himself as a vassal of the Horde, made Russia a part of the East. Northern Russia decisively rejects a possible alliance with the Latin West. Alexander gave a decisive rebuff to the Swedish and German crusaders, feudal lords who wanted to enslave the Russian lands.

There is information about two letters of Pope Innocent IV to Alexander Nevsky. The Russian prince was offered to submit to the Roman throne, to conclude an alliance against the Horde. It is obvious that he, like Prince Daniel of Galitsky, was offered to become the king of Russia. It is clear that it was "bait". In particular, one can recall the fate of the Slavic-Russian tribes in Central Europe (modern Germany, Austria), which were either physically destroyed or enslaved and rather quickly assimilated, deprived of their faith, language and culture. We have become "Germans" - dumb. The same fate befell numerous Rus - Porus (Prussians) in Prussia-Porussia. The western branch of the glades, the Poles, underwent Catholicization and turned into a "battering ram" directed against Russia-Russia. The Baltic tribes, akin to the Slavs, in the Baltic region underwent Germanization and Westernization. They were turned into slaves of the German barons.

Thus, if Alexander Nevsky chose the West, Russia could well lose its essence. The Russian civilization and the Russian super-ethnos would perish, partially subject to enslavement and assimilation, becoming ethnographic material in the hands of Rome (the then command post of the West).

Hence the hatred and attempts to denigrate Alexander Nevsky on the part of lovers of the West and the "world community". Cosmopolitan Westerners. Indeed, in his Western politics, Alexander Yaroslavich will show himself to be a decisive and uncompromising ruler. He successfully resisted any attempts by the West (the Livonian Order, Sweden, Lithuania and Rome) to take advantage of the weakness of Russia, subjugate it to his influence, and seize the western and northwestern regions. He saved Russia from new pogroms by the Horde. By military force, trade and diplomacy, he strengthened his position in the North and West. This policy of the Grand Duke will be continued by his successors in the Grand Duke of Vladimir, then in Moscow.

In his policy, Alexander will receive the full support of the church. The union of church and state will be consolidated. Spiritual power will become a reliable support of the great princes, heirs of Alexander, in their struggle for the unification of Russia and in the movement to the East when the Horde kingdom collapses.

It is not surprising that Alexander Nevsky is not just an outstanding commander and politician, the greatest statesman of a turning era in the history of Russia. He is one of the most revered Russian saints, the heavenly patron of the Russian land. His veneration as a saint apparently began immediately after his death. Several decades later, the life was compiled, which was subsequently repeatedly altered, revised and supplemented.

The official canonization of Alexander took place in 1547, at a church council convened by Metropolitan Macarius and Tsar Ivan the Terrible. It is very symbolic that it was under Ivan the Terrible that Russia and the Horde again became a single empire, combining two ancient traditions.

The Church glorifies in equal measure both the military valor of the prince, "who is never conquered in battle, but always overcomes", and his feat of meekness, patience and humility. In the spiritual and, therefore, deeper history of Russia, Alexander Nevsky forever remained after his death the defender of the Motherland, a warrior and intercessor of Russia.


"Alexander Nevskiy". P. Corin. 1942 g.
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  1. Old electrician
    Old electrician 17 May 2021 05: 28
    +9
    In a strange way, the theological and ideological aspect is overlooked about all the articles on Alexander Nevsky.
    The theological foundations that distinguish Orthodoxy from Catholicism were defined in Byzantium in the 1054th-1054th centuries. Finally, Orthodoxy took shape as an independent church in 1204, when the division of the Christian church into Catholic and Orthodox took place (the Great Schism of XNUMX). Moreover, if Constantinople then limited itself to the anathema of the Pope, then Rome in XNUMX organized a crusade against Constantinople. The campaign was more than successful and, encouraged by this success, Catholics began to eradicate heresy throughout Europe. Since then, the fires of the Inquisition have become a symbol of European civilization.
    Long before that, the expansion of the Germans to the East began. At the same time, the famous motto "Drang nach Osten!" motivated by the need to spread the holy Catholic faith among the pagans. It goes without saying that the Catholics' favorite instrument here, as elsewhere, became the Crusades. The first such campaign was the 1147 crusade against the Polabian Slavs. The latter was declared against the USSR in 1941.
    Let me explain it for those who do not know. Polabian Slavs (Polab, Polabyane), a group of West Slavic tribes inhabiting in the end. 1st - early. 2nd thousand. Territory from the river. Laba (Elba) and its tributary r. Sala (Saale) in the west to the river. Odra (Oder) in the east and to the Baltic Sea in the north. They united in tribal unions: vigorous, lutich, Lusatian Serbs. They fought against German aggression, as a result of which in the second half of the 2th century. the lands of the Polabian Slavs were seized; the Slavs themselves were mostly exterminated or Germanized. Only the people of Luga have retained their identity.
    Further lay the lands of the Baltic Slavs and Orthodox Russia. Therefore, a common European movement began naturally to educate them in the spirit of love for Catholicism. In 1226 it was led by the Teutonic Order. In this glorious year for European history, the wise Polish Duke Konrad of Mazovia invited the Teutonic Order to the Chelmin (Kulm) land to fight the pagan Prussians. The conquest of the Prussians and Yatvingians, begun in 1233, ended in 1283; two large uprisings of the Prussian tribes (1242-1249 and 1260-1274) were brutally suppressed. Only the geographical concept of Prussia remained from the Prussians.
    Carrying the Holy Faith to the pagans is, of course, a very noble goal, but already in 1234, having confused the pagans with the schismatics, the Teutons moved to Novgorod - the subtle difference between pagans and Orthodox Catholics never caught. The first theological dispute in history between Teutons - Catholics and Novgorodians - schismatics took place in the same year 1234 at the mouth of the Omovzha River, which flows into Lake Peipsi. Another name for this river is Embach or Emeingi. In that theological dispute, the Novgorodian axes proved to be a more effective argument than the Teutonic swords.
    After this unsuccessful dispute in 1237, a branch of the Teutonic Order was created in Livonia and Courland, called the Livonian Order. In addition to the Teutons, the Livonian Order also included the remnants of the Order of the Swordsmen. This newly created order was intended exclusively for the final solution of the problem of Russian schismatics by the methods of the Holy Inquisition, founded to fight heretics at the Toulouse Cathedral in 1229.
    In addition to the Teutonic Order, the reluctance of the Pskov and Novgorodians to voluntarily rise to the stake for the glory of the Roman Catholic Church insulted Rome to the core. Therefore, in 1240, the heir to the victor of Constantinople, Pope Innocent III, Pope Gregory IX (pontiff from 1227 to 1241) blessed the European chivalry for a crusade against Russian schismatics. This is not surprising, since the crusade is the only form of tolerance available to European understanding.
    The first theological dispute at the call of Gregory IX took place in 1240 on the banks of the Neva River between Prince Alexander Yaroslavovich and the Swede Birger Jarl. Having no theological education, schismatic Alexander did not even understand at this dispute that he was dealing with another crusade for the Holy Faith. This blatant illiteracy of Prince Alexander offended Birger Jarl to such an extent that Swedish historians still completely deny the existence of this dispute. There was no and that's it! However, despite the bitter offense of the Swedes, Alexander after that began to be called Nevsky.
    At the same time, in Birger Jarl, in the same year 1240, the Livonian Order invaded the Pskov lands. To repulse this invasion, on April 5, 1242, a very meaningful theological dispute between Russian Orthodoxy and the Livonian Order took place on the ice of Lake Peipsi. Small disagreements on theological issues were then resolved in favor of the same Prince Alexander Nevsky. In history, this dispute is called the "Battle on the Ice".
    1. ee2100
      ee2100 17 May 2021 06: 12
      +8
      "To repulse this invasion, on April 5, 1242, a very meaningful theological dispute between Russian Orthodoxy and the Livonian Order took place on the ice of Lake Peipsi."
      Don't read history books. Read about it in the Chronicle, where it is clearly written who and when first attacked. am
      1. Richard
        Richard 17 May 2021 07: 49
        +4
        Author: Half a century later, Metropolitan Maxim of Kiev moved his residence from Kiev to Vladimir

        ee2100 (Alexander): Don't read school history books. Read about it in the Chronicle, where it is clearly written who and when

        And then you will be surprised to learn that in 1299 Maxim moved the metropolitan residence ("seat") from Kiev to Bryansk. And only a year later, when Bishop Simeon of Vladimir was transferred to Rostov, the entire metropolitan clergyman was transferred from Bryansk to Vladimir-on-Klyazma. while in Kiev and Bryansk the metropolitan governors were left
        “Maxim the Greek was holy in the summer of the world 6791 from the Nativity of Christ in 1283 to Kiev, but often for the sake of finding the Tatar, he moved the seat and clergy from Kiev to Bryansk, and the next year to the great-princely city of Vladimir on the Klyazma, he grazed the Church of Christ Maxim for 23 years, dead in the summer of the world 6812. "
        link - Laurentian Chronicle
      2. Old electrician
        Old electrician 17 May 2021 08: 01
        +3
        Read about it in the Chronicle, where it is clearly written who and when attacked first.
        - this must be understood as the fact that the Battle of the Ice did not take place on April 5, 1242, and that in it Alexander Nevsky, regardless of the date, vilely attacked the glorious knights of the Livonian Order, who went just to get some fresh air?
        1. ee2100
          ee2100 17 May 2021 09: 13
          +2
          In PNL there are only about 100 words about the battle, but one should read not from the moment of its description, but earlier from the moment of the "liberation" of Pskov.
          1. Old electrician
            Old electrician 17 May 2021 09: 50
            0
            Well, Alexander Nevsky recaptured Pskov from the knight-dogs. And what? Your thought is so deep that I do not catch it.
            1. Hantengri
              Hantengri 17 May 2021 10: 30
              +9
              Quote: Old electrician
              Well, Alexander Nevsky recaptured Pskov from the knight-dogs. And what?

              Yes, nicho! It's just that the occupation corps in Pskov consisted ... of only two knight-dogs, and they were foregt, i.e. lawyers. laughing
              1. Old electrician
                Old electrician 17 May 2021 16: 37
                0
                You're right! Is this a battle! So-so minor disassembly. I will refer to the fundamental work of Sergei Mikhailovich Solovyov in 29 volumes, published from 1851 to 1879. Quote "History of Russia since ancient times" Book II. 1054-1462. Third volume:
                Alexander went to Pskov and took it, and seventy knights perished with many simple warriors, six knights were taken prisoner and tortured, as the German chronicler says.
                - as we can see, only 76 knights have finished! The Germans did not even notice this.
                1. Hantengri
                  Hantengri 17 May 2021 18: 38
                  +3
                  Quote: Old electrician
                  You're right! Is this a battle! So-so minor disassembly. I will refer to the fundamental work of Sergei Mikhailovich Solovyov in 29 volumes, published from 1851 to 1879.

                  Soloviev, of course, is an excellent historian, but in the yard, now, it is far from the 19th century. ... It did not occur to you that in 170 years historical science could have made some progress and that what seemed to be an immutable truth in the 19th century. now may raise some questions?
                  Quote: Old electrician
                  - as we can see, only 76 knights have finished! The Germans did not even notice this.

                  Can you tell me which "German chronicler" Soloviev refers to?
                  And then another "German chronicler", and a synchronous one, claims that the Russians came and expelled two Vogts with their servants:
                  This news reached the [Novgorod] prince,
                  he gathered with many troops
                  against Pskov, this is the truth.
                  There he arrived with great strength;
                  he brought a lot of Russians
                  to free the people of Pskov.
                  This they were delighted with all their hearts.
                  When he saw the Germans
                  after that he did not hesitate for a long time,
                  he drove out both knight brothers,
                  putting an end to their worship,
                  and all their bollards were driven away
                  .
                  None of the Germans remained there:
                  they left the land to the Russians.

                  Senior Livonian Rhymed Chronicle.

                  As you can see, there is no question of any 76 brutally beaten knight brothers.
                  But the Chronicle remembers and even mourns about 20 killed, directly on Lake Peipsi, the Chronicle brothers:
                  (02257) Some of the Derptans left
                  (02258) from the fight, this was their salvation,
                  (02259) they were forced to retreat.
                  (02260) Twenty knight brothers were killed there,
                  (02261) and six were taken prisoner.
                  (02262) This was the course of the battle.
                  ................
                  (02269) As for the knight brothers who were in this battle
                  (02270) killed, which I just read about (69),
                  (02271) then they later mourned properly
                  (02272) with many fearless heroes,
                  1. Old electrician
                    Old electrician 18 May 2021 15: 48
                    +1
                    You're right! For 170 years, historical science was able to make as far forward as possible, which became shameless propaganda. Until 1985, although historical materialism embellished reality, it did not lie with such impudence as modern "historians". Nowadays, only one "New Chronology" by Fomenko is worth something. If we talk about the historical "science" of the Great Ukrainian Empire, then generally extinguish the light. Therefore, I would be careful not to brag about the latest achievements of modern historians.
                    Now about the Elder "Livonian Rhymed Chronicle". It was written in the years 1280-1290. The events of the Battle on the Ice are described most reliably, apparently, the author used the archives of the Order (1242-1280). So when you say that
                    And then another "German chronicler", with a synchronous
                    then you fold slightly. There is no evidence that the author of the Elder "Livonian Rhymed Chronicle" was an eyewitness to the expulsion of the Germans from Pskov.
                    But in this place you are lying openly:
                    "German chronicler" <...> claims that the Russians came and drove out two Vogts with servants
                    Knecht is a warrior of noble origin from a knightly detachment, and not a servant.
                    Nevertheless, the Elder "Livonian Rhymed Chronicle" in no way contradicts what Solovyov said:
                    he expelled both knight brothers, putting an end to their patronage
                    - as we can see, the chronicle states the fact of the expulsion of the Gauleiters, although there is not a word about the battle itself. Vogt is not an ordinary knight for you. Kicking a warrant officer and a general is not at all the same thing, so banishing the Vogts is doubly insulting. Which is reflected in the chronicle. I will repeat it again. Gauleiters do not go on the attack, for this there are knights and bollards. The bollards were to be commanded by the knights, and the knights, in turn, were to be commanded by the vogts. Nobody canceled the hierarchy of the order. Just do not tell the tales that the Germans could leave such a long-awaited fortress like Pskov defenseless. Two knights on an occupied, not cleared of schismatics city, this is like laughter even if there is a fifth column in it.
                    From the title of the Elder "Livonian Rhymed Chronicle" it follows that it is in verse, but in German the phrase "soaked 76 knights" does not rhyme with anything. The explanation for this is obvious. It is known (I believe that this is an indisputable historical fact for you) that in 1941 the Germans, as well as in 1242, had a bummer - they went on the wool and left with their hair cut. It's a shame you understand! No time for rhymes! You need a reliable excuse for oblom. Hence the "General Frost", filled up with corpses, etc., etc. But the most typical example. Just now I read the memoirs of a German - a tanker, I was sobbed almost to the point of a stroke. It turns out that in 1942 the Germans could not take Stalingrad in time because their tanks lost sight of and got lost in the endless fields of sunflower. And here you are talking about some 76 lost knights.
                    1. Hantengri
                      Hantengri 18 May 2021 16: 36
                      +1
                      Quote: Old electrician
                      And here you are talking about some 76 lost knights.

                      In the XIII century. Livonian landmastership had only about 200 knight brothers.
                      76 knights 200 - this is almost half of the Livonian part of the Order. And why, one wonders, for the sake of such a trifle the paper in the Chronicle to translate ... laughing
                      1. Old electrician
                        Old electrician 19 May 2021 14: 27
                        -1
                        Well, finally, you have got out of the deceitful wilderness of the newest Ukrainian historical science, which has received unprecedented development over the past 170 years, and it dawned on you that during the liberation of Pskov and for the Battle of the Ice, Alexander Nevsky finished more than half of the Livonian Order! These were such terrible losses for the order that the Livonian Order then went into circulation and did not even think about crusades against Russia until in the XNUMXth century it was finished off by Vanya the Terrible.
                        Representatives of the Great Ukrainian Empire, boots which trample from the Universe, such facts as a sickle in one place. Hence your tales of mythical agreements on the transfer of Pskov to the Germans, the depiction of the Gauleiters by OSCE lawyers on guard of these agreements, showing their bollards not as soldiers, but as servants (it would be even better to portray them as servants, so you can squeeze out more snot from naive readers), the transformation of a poetic monument XIII century Older "Livonian Rhymed Chronicle" into an indisputable chronicle, written in hot pursuit, etc., etc.
            2. ee2100
              ee2100 17 May 2021 11: 02
              +3
              Correctly written by Han Tengri, 2 vogt. In my opinion, Vogta is an analogue of the OSCE mission.
              And where is there in the Chronicle about the battle for Pskov?
              1. Hantengri
                Hantengri 17 May 2021 11: 49
                +5
                Quote: ee2100
                My opinion Vogta is analogous to the OSCE mission

                Rather, some jurists, left behind, to monitor the Pskovites' compliance with the agreement on the transfer of part of the land to the Order.
                Russians are exhausted from the battle
                near Izborsk:
                they surrendered to the order because they feared [greater] misfortune.
                Then they started negotiations for peace.
                Peace was made then
                with the Russians on such terms,
                that Gerpolt, who was their prince,
                on his good field left
                castles and good lands
                in the hands of the Teutonic brothers,
                to be controlled by the master.
                Then the assault on [Pskov] did not take place.
                After this reconciliation took place,
                didn't wait long
                the army then gathered on the return journey.
                They were all filled with God's grace
                and praised God;
                they were grateful to him for a lot.
                When the army was ready for the return campaign,
                it happily left there.
                two brothers-knights were left there,
                who were assigned to guard the land,
                and a small detachment of Germans.

                Senior Livonian Rhymed Chronicle.

                Quote: ee2100
                And where is there in the Chronicle about the battle for Pskov?

                The Germans did not notice this battle either. laughing
                This news reached the [Novgorod] prince,
                he gathered with many troops
                against Pskov, this is the truth.
                There he arrived with great strength;
                he brought a lot of Russians
                to free the people of Pskov.
                This they were delighted with all their hearts.
                When he saw the Germans
                after that he did not hesitate for a long time,
                he drove out both knight brothers,
                putting an end to their worship,
                and all their bollards were driven away.
                None of the Germans remained there:
                they left the land to the Russians.
                1. ee2100
                  ee2100 17 May 2021 12: 05
                  +3
                  Your "observance by the Pskovites of the agreement on the transfer of some lands to the Order." (c) Rather, simply for the observance of the peace treaty. This is the responsibility of the OSCE mission.
                  The complex relationship between Pskov and Novgorod forced the conclusion of a peace treaty.
                  Novgorod did not want to view Pskov as a subject of international law.
                  Having agreed with the Pskovites to denounce the treaty, Alexander decided to punish the Dorpat knights, who dared to bypass Novgorod, and arbitrarily conclude peace treaties.
                  Novgorod considered Pskov as its border fortress, which Pskov did not like at all.
                  And where is the aggression of the knight-dogs on the Russian lands?
                  1. The comment was deleted.
                  2. Old electrician
                    Old electrician 17 May 2021 14: 24
                    -1
                    Judging by the meaningful dialogue between HanTengri and ee2100 about the OSCE mission, you guys are clearly from the Great Ukrainian Empire, trampling the Universe with its boots.
                    The campaign of the Livonian Order from Dorpat to Pskov was initiated by the local bishop Herman Buxgewden in connection with the claims to the Pskov throne of Prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich, who was connected with the Germans by family ties: his sister was married to Theodoric, brother of the Dorpat Bishop Herman and from 1224 the owner of land in the vicinity of Oddpat Bear Head). Hermann's son-in-law, Engelbert von Tiesenhausen, also owned the land there. With the help of these relatives, Yaroslav already tried to capture Izborsk in 1233.
                    This time, Yaroslav was provided with a more impressive army, which counted on material and territorial benefits from the campaign.
                    The military training ended no later than September 1, and on September 16, 1240, the knights captured the city of Izborsk, defeated the Pskovites on the outskirts of the city and began a siege. The knights managed to bribe the Pskov mayor Tverdilo, and he opened the gates of the city for them. The Pskovites tried to resist, but, having lost the governor Gorislavich, surrendered. Two German governors (vogt) were planted in the city, and Yaroslav Vladimirovich took the princely throne.
                    So Yaroslav Vladimirovich is the ancestor of Mazepa, and Vogt is, in a modern way, a Gauleiter, and not a lawyer at all. Gauleiters do not attack. For this there are knights and bollards.
                    This campaign of the Livonian Order was carried out under the flag of the crusade announced by the idol of Ukraine by Pope Gregory IX. Therefore, the Livonian Order wanted to spit on any agreements with Novgorod. As for Pskov, the agreements of Novgorod for the transfer of Pskov to the Livonian Order simply did not exist.
                    A logical result. In 1242, Yaroslav Vladimirovich was kicked in the coat, and then Alexander Nevsky broke the Livonian Order on Lake Peipsi. On the mountain of modern Ukraine, the crusade of Gregory IX failed, and the OSCE mission did not help the Livonian Order.
                    1. ee2100
                      ee2100 17 May 2021 15: 01
                      +2
                      You are at least a piece of the Chronicle of 1242 Sylt. That could be substantively said.
                      1. Old electrician
                        Old electrician 18 May 2021 14: 04
                        0
                        Only a citizen of the Great Ukrainian Empire, whose boots they trample on from the Universe, could read the nonsense in the RUSSIAN chronicle that in 1240-1242 the Germans had some, even the most ephemeral, rights to the RUSSIAN city of Pskov, one of the most ancient cities in Russia, for the first time mentioned in the Laurentian Chronicle under 903. If this is not so, then substantively a quote from the chronicle in the studio! Don't weary our expectations!
                      2. ee2100
                        ee2100 18 May 2021 16: 23
                        0
                        Look for yourself, there are no servants here.
                2. Hantengri
                  Hantengri 17 May 2021 15: 45
                  +1
                  Quote: ee2100
                  The complex relationship between Pskov and Novgorod forced the conclusion of a peace treaty.

                  And the defeat at Izborsk and the army of the Order under the walls of Pskov, only helped the Pskovites to realize how strong these contradictions are ... Yes? laughing
                  Quote: ee2100
                  And where is the aggression of the knight-dogs on the Russian lands?

                  As where? In this particular case, the Livonians themselves wrote sincerely:
                  Dorpat (von Darbete) Bishop Hermann
                  at this time began
                  to be at enmity with the Russians.
                  They wanted to rise
                  against Christianity, as before.
                  Their blasphemy brought them a lot of grief
                  They'd hurt him enough.
                  He endured it for a long time,
                  until he asked for help from the brothers - knights (brudere).
                  The master came to him immediately
                  and brought many brave heroes to him,
                  brave and excellent.
                  The king's men (kuniges man, Danish vassals) arrived there
                  with a significant detachment;
                  Bishop Herman rejoiced at this.
                  With this army they (12a) moved then
                  joyfully to Russia.
                  Their business went very well there.
                  There they came to the castle,
                  the castle did not rejoice at their arrival.
                  Send them [the Russians] with an attack,
                  captured their castle (burc).
                  This castle was called Izborsk (Isburc).
                  Not a single Russian was given
                  [go away] unscathed.
                  Who defended
                  he was captured or killed.
                  Cries and lamentations were heard:
                  everywhere in that land
                  great crying began.
                  1. ee2100
                    ee2100 17 May 2021 17: 12
                    0
                    I meant April 1242, not at all
        2. The comment was deleted.
  2. Bar1
    Bar1 17 May 2021 08: 05
    -2
    on the Internet, a new interesting historian Dmitry Belousov has appeared, he has his narratives from the Slavic radio. It is very strange that the OI point of view is thoroughly selective, that what contributes to the strengthening of the positions of Russia / Russia is hushed up by the OI.

  3. Normal ok
    Normal ok 17 May 2021 09: 22
    +6
    Quote: Old electrician
    Since then, the fires of the Inquisition have become a symbol of European civilization.

    The Inquisition appeared several centuries later than the described time.
    1. Old electrician
      Old electrician 18 May 2021 13: 52
      0
      The Inquisition appeared several centuries later than the described time
      - wow! Who would have thought!
      Around 1000, the heretical movement of the Cathars (Albigensians), the harbingers of the Reformation, arose in western Europe. The peak of the movement falls on in the XII and XIII centuries. The Cathar movement especially affected Languedoc, Aragon, northern Italy and some lands of Germany and France. Rome immediately began to fight the Cathars and in 1022 (according to other sources, in 1017), twelve canons of the Orleans Cathedral were convicted of heresy and burned by order of King Robert the Pious. It was the first bonfire of medieval Christianity.
      After the crusade to Constantinople and the capture of it in 1204 Rome got a taste for and in 1209 the conqueror of Constantinople Pope Innocent III organized a crusade against the Albigensians. This military campaign had disastrous consequences for the entire Languedoc region. The crusaders exterminated the population without regard to their religious affiliation. The consequence of the crusade, which ended in 1229, was the complete devastation of the region. However, the Albigensian movement did not end its existence, and only the papal Inquisition established in 1229-1232, created deliberately to fight the Cathars, was able to completely destroy this movement by the end of the XNUMXth century.
      At the Council of Toulouse in 1229, Gregory IX decreed that each bishop appoint one priest and one or more lay persons to secretly search for heretics within a given diocese. Several years later, the inquisitorial duties were removed from the competence of the bishops and specially entrusted to the Dominicans. Those. the inquisition was founded by the same Gregory IX, who became famous for the crusades against Russia.
      The Dominican Order was founded in 1214. The "dignity" of the Dominicans was that they were not connected either by personal or social ties with the population of the area where they were sent, and therefore they did not give mercy to the heretics. That is why the Dominicans became the "dogs of the Lord" - ruthless inquisitors.
      The same Gregory IX introduced the Inquisition in Catalonia, Lombardy and Germany, and everywhere the Dominicans were appointed inquisitors. From Catalonia, the Inquisition quickly spread throughout the Iberian Peninsula, from Lombardy - in various parts of Italy, not everywhere, however, differing in the same strength and character. So, for example, in Naples, she never enjoyed great importance due to the incessant strife between the Neapolitan sovereigns and the Roman curia. In Venice, the Inquisition (Council of Ten) arose in the XIV century to search for the accomplices of the Tiepolo conspiracy and was a political tribunal. The greatest development and strength of the Inquisition reached in Rome. The Italian Inquisition reached its greatest development in the XNUMXth century under popes Pius V and Sixtus V.
      Installed in 1233, the inquisitorial courts in France caused a popular uprising in Narbonne in 1234, and in Avignon in 1242. This is the year of the Battle of the Ice. Despite the uprisings, the inquisitorial courts continued to operate in Provence and were extended even to northern France. At the insistence of Louis IX, Pope Alexander IV appointed one Dominican and one Franciscan monk in Paris in 1255 to the office of inquisitor general of France. Interference in the affairs of the Gallican church met, however, incessant opposition from its representatives; Since the XIV century, the French Inquisition has been subject to restrictions by state power and gradually declined, which could not be kept even by the efforts of the kings of the XVI century who fought against the Reformation.
      The first inquisitor of Germany was Konrad of Marburg; in 1233 he was killed during a popular uprising, and the following year his two chief assistants suffered the same fate. On this occasion, the Worms Chronicle says: "thus, with God's help, Germany was freed from the vile and unheard of judgment." Later, Pope Urban V, relying on the support of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV (concurrently king from Germany from November 29, 1378 to July 11, 1346), again appointed two Dominicans to Germany as inquisitors; however, even after that, the Inquisition did not develop here.
      After the defeat of the Reformation, the Council of Trent of the Catholic Church, which met from 1545 to 1563, confirmed all the dogmas of Catholicism. After that, the Inquisition began to persecute heretics with renewed vigor. The "Index of Forbidden Books" began to be published, which included the works of heretics. At such turbulent times, the climax of the "witch hunt" fell not only in Germany, but in Europe as a whole. However, in Germany, the Witchcraft trials were particularly brutal.
  • ee2100
    ee2100 17 May 2021 06: 07
    +3
    "Alexander will also confirm this" (c) What will he confirm? Where can I ask him about this? Some kind of chaotic article.
    Indeed, the figure of Prince Alexander Yaroslavovich in history is not unambiguous.
    The process of beatification was started by Ivan III and was canonized about 300 years after his death.
    It would be more realistic to canonize his father, here and the death of martyrdom and military victories more - a real lump, but probably the biography let him down. laughing
    1. Richard
      Richard 17 May 2021 16: 07
      +4
      "Alexander will also confirm this" (c) What will he confirm? Where can I ask him about this? Some kind of chaotic article.

      Alexander, why are you doing that? Haven't you heard anything about spiritualism?
      But the respected author has apparently used it with success more than once when writing his articles, i.e. - referring to his readers to the most direct and not biased witness: yes
      A. Samsonov: Alexander will also confirm this.
      1. ee2100
        ee2100 17 May 2021 17: 13
        +1
        In the morning I did not understand, but maybe he turned to me? drinks
  • igordok
    igordok 17 May 2021 06: 07
    +1
    This is what the prince looked like in real life.

    This is how the capital artist sees A. Nevsky.
    1. Richard
      Richard 17 May 2021 13: 55
      +3
      This is what the prince looked like in real life)))

      Lifetime images of the Grand Duke do not exist. Reconstruction of the appearance from the skull (the method of M.M. Gerasimov) is not possible due to its absence.
      On the cover (posthumous veil) of the XNUMXth century, the image of Alexander Nevsky differs significantly from the generally accepted standards that depict the Slavic hero. Oriental features are visible in it. But there is nothing surprising here, because the mother of Nevsky, Princess Theodosia, was a Polovtsian princess. In those days, the Rurikovichs often took Polovtsian women as wives. All this created many mysteries and questions around the appearance of Nevsky.
      a photo the image of Alexander Nevsky on the veil (posthumous veil) of the XNUMXth century

      Here is what Sytin's Military Encyclopedia writes about this:
      There is a depiction of the prince, which is very different from the accepted one. This is an image on the veil (posthumous veil), the beginning of the XNUMXth century. The holy prince looks completely different from the icons and miniatures. First of all, we can obscure the clearly eastern externalities. It seems surprising, but you can remember that on the maternal line Alexander comes from the Polovtsian family - Princess Geodosia, the mother of Alexander Nevsky, was a Polovtsian princess.
      You can also pay attention to the outside of Prince Svyatoslav, a relative of Uncle Alexander. This is almost the only lifetime depiction of an ancient Russian prince that has survived to this day in the high relief of St. George's Cathedral in Yuryev-Polsky, the first half of the XNUMXth century. Clearly oriental, cheeky face.
      Prince Svyatoslav. High relief of St. George's Cathedral
      in Yuriev-Polskom, per. floor. XIII century


      Further more. The nevѣstka of Prince Igor, the same "implacable enemy" from the textbook "Lay ..." is the Polovtsian princess, and the two nevstki of Vladimir Monomakh are the same. That is, the wife of Yuriya Dolgorukago (the founder of Moscow!) Is a narrow-eyed steppe girl. And his son, the holy Russian prince Andrey Yuryevich Bogolyubsky - the grandson of the Polovtsian Khan Aepa. Both Vsevolod Yuryevich the Big Nest, and his son Yaroslav, were also married to Polovtsian women.
      At that time, the Russian and Polovtsian princely families were closely related by kinship. Therefore, it is not surprising that the eastern external (or its elements) among the well-known Rurikovichs. Eastern externalities in this case do not necessarily imply Mongoloid features, because the Polovtsians (like the Turks in general) were different, not all had Mongoloid features.

      PS When the Order of Alexander Nevsky was established in 1942, the actor Nikolai Cherkasov was portrayed on it, who played the main role of the prince in the film "Alexander Nevsky".
  • nikvic46
    nikvic46 17 May 2021 06: 37
    +3
    For me, Alexander Nevsky is not a "heavenly patron", but a real person who did a lot of good for the heirs. And later his real deeds were buried by other rulers. This is, first of all, a community, and universal literacy.
  • ee2100
    ee2100 17 May 2021 06: 52
    +10
    Have a nice Monday morning!

  • Undecim
    Undecim 17 May 2021 07: 25
    +12
    Another tub of "Samsoniades" with obligatory rituals about "attempts to slander the West."
    True, writers like Samsonov are much better at denigrating Russian history than the West.
    For the sake of interest - from the introduction to one of the books about Alexander Nevsky, published "in the West" in Germany in 2004. The book is called
    Aleksandr Nevskij
    Heiliger - Fürst - Nationalheld. Eine Erinnerungsfigur im russischen kulturellen Gedächtnis (1263-2000)
    (Alexander Nevsky in Russian national memory: saint, ruler, national hero).
    Kaum eine Figur der mittelalterlichen Geschichte ist noch heute im russischen kulturellen Gedächtnis so präsent wie Aleksandr Nevskij. Der Novgoroder Fürst, der im Jahre 1242 das Heer des Deutschen Ordens bezwang, hat in Russland einen ähnlichen Symbolstatus wie Jeanne d'Arc in Frankreich.
    (Hardly anyone else in medieval history is as present in Russian cultural memory as Alexander Nevsky. The Novgorod prince, who defeated the army of the Teutonic Order in 1242, has a symbolic status similar to that of Joan of Arc in France).
    1. Bar1
      Bar1 17 May 2021 08: 38
      -8
      Quote: Undecim
      The book is called
      Aleksandr Nevskij


      In general, there is a Russian site, there is nothing in Russian?
    2. Moskovit
      Moskovit 17 May 2021 08: 59
      +2
      Samsonov is not entirely wrong. I cannot name the authors exactly, but I have read more than once about "Batu's friend", "enslaved Russia", "turned to the path of eastern satrapy".
    3. ee2100
      ee2100 17 May 2021 13: 10
      +3
      The author, Frithjof Benjamin Schenk, studied in St. Petersburg. He wrote 2 books on the history of Russia, at least there are so many of them on the Amazon.
      For the West, this is a new historical personality. I don’t think the author learned anything new from the German archives or, at worst, the Vatican. laughing
      Judging by the table of contents, everything is strictly according to the official history.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 17 May 2021 14: 28
        +3
        Author, Frithjof Benjamin Schenk,

        studied in St. Petersburg

        I would say - I studied the history of Russia in St. Petersburg. And before that he graduated from the University of Marburg.
        He also defended his dissertation on this topic.
        I don’t think the author learned anything new from the German archives or, at worst, the Vatican.

        And what could he learn from the German archives and the Vatican?
        1. ee2100
          ee2100 17 May 2021 14: 59
          +3
          On the basis of something, he compared Alexander and Joan of Arc.
          The West does not know the figure of Alexander, so he published a book, well done!
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 17 May 2021 15: 05
            +4
            He did not compare it. This reviewer compared.
            The figure of Alexander is not known to the West

            I would not say that.
            1. ee2100
              ee2100 17 May 2021 17: 34
              +3
              Maybe known to a narrow circle of lovers of Russian history
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 17 May 2021 17: 56
                +4
                Maybe known to a narrow circle of lovers of Russian history

                And in Russia, the figure of Henry III is known even to a wide circle of hamsters on the VO site?
                1. The comment was deleted.
                2. ee2100
                  ee2100 17 May 2021 18: 50
                  +1
                  Western history is still more promoted in our country than ours in the West
  • Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 17 May 2021 08: 14
    +1
    Nuuuuu ... Samsonov, turned around in full breadth ... laughing Here you have everything, and kings and cabbage and oysters .. And the Walrus and the Carpenter. laughing [B]
    In particular, one can recall the fate of the Slavic-Russian tribes in Central Europe (modern Germany, Austria)
    [/ b, and if you remember the unfortunate fate of the other Slavs-Etruscans? (Etruscan is Russian) how the Romans treated them cruelly, so this was when it was. laughing
  • Maks1995
    Maks1995 17 May 2021 08: 57
    +10
    Lord, what pathos .. All these enslavements, conquests, "various liberals hate", "resolutely refuses" and so on.

    I was just a realist. The Horde is close at hand. And the troops from it can be led to a neighbor, robbed, and they will leave.
    And Rome is somewhere far away. And more than a dozen or so other Catholic knights, with the militia of the cities, they cannot even put up for seizure.
  • Richard
    Richard 17 May 2021 13: 23
    +5
    He is one of the most revered Russian saints, the heavenly patron of the Russian land. His veneration as a saint apparently began immediately after his death. A few decades later, the life was compiled, which was subsequently repeatedly altered, revised and supplemented.
    The official canonization of Alexander took place in 1547, at a church council convened by Metropolitan Macarius and Tsar Ivan the Terrible.

    At the Moscow Cathedral in 1547 under the Metropolitan
    Macarius Alexander Nevsky was canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church in the face of miracle workers... This was due to the fact that the relics of the prince, lying in the shrine of the Nativity monastery, were not subject to decay.
    However, not all participants in the Moscow Council of 1547 agreed with this. Many "church fathers" headed by Archpriest Sylvester opposed it. They reasonably referred to the lists of Nikonovskaya and Voskresenskaya chronicles of the 23th-1491th centuries, stating that on May XNUMX, XNUMX, as a result of a devastating fire in the Rozhdestvensky Monastery, the remains of Alexander Nevsky burned down.
    The tsar took the side of Macarius and already in the chronicles of the XNUMXth century it is said that they miraculously survived the fire. Healing properties were also attributed to the relics of the prince.
    In May 1922, the silver reliquary with the relics was opened. According to eyewitnesses, there were 12 small bones of different colors. Among them were two identical bones of the right leg. This indicated that the remains of various people were buried in the cancer. The crayfish was transferred to the Hermitage, and the relics ended up in the storerooms of the Museum of the History of Religion and Atheism, located in the Kazan Cathedral. And only in 1989 they returned to the Trinity Cathedral of the Lavra.
    1. ee2100
      ee2100 17 May 2021 17: 52
      +4
      That would be great to do a genetic analysis!
  • not main
    not main 17 May 2021 23: 44
    +2
    I know that a lot has been written before me and is interesting and read! I just couldn't get past this topic! In the Republic of Ingushetia, the USSR, the Russian Federation there is an order of ALEXANDER NEVSKY! The ONLY one that was recognized by the Republic of Ingushetia, the USSR and the Russian Federation! I will recover the ONLY one who was present in every formation!
    1. ee2100
      ee2100 18 May 2021 16: 38
      +1
      And what does this prove? What was such a person? Yes! Did you accomplish feats? And here you have to figure it out.
      He was condemned 300 years after his death. Only the clergy remembered.
      Ivan III wanted to have a saint in his family and chose Alexander Yaroslavovich.