Military Review

Provincial, peripheral, but also Lend-Lease

19

Dutch account



On May 15, 1945, the last group of cargoes from the "Netherlands East Indies" (since 1949 - Indonesia) arrived in Vladivostok (pictured - the port during the war) as part of lend-lease goods from the USA, Canada and Australia. The incoming consignment consisted of tin ore, cobalt briquettes, lube oil, raw cane sugar, knitted fabric, palm oil, tea and coffee.

These valuable cargoes were contracted by the Americans under Lend-Lease from the Dutch authorities back in mid-1942. But by that time, Japanese troops had captured almost the entire Dutch East Indies. Except for a small southeastern region in the Dutch - western region of New Guinea, which "held out" until the surrender of Japan.

Dutch goods had to be evacuated at the end of 1942 to the depots in the port of Cairns in northeastern Australia. At the end of April 1945, the same cargoes were included in the aforementioned convoy to Vladivostok.

Soviet-Dutch diplomatic relations were established only on July 10, 1942, when the small metropolis had already been under occupation for two years. However, trade between the USSR and the future Indonesia has been going on since the early 1930s.

According to the data of the People's Commissariat of Foreign Trade for June 22, 1941 - December 31, 1945, the volume of Soviet imports from this region amounted to 14,2 million rubles. But all deliveries from there were made only in 1941 and 1942: 12 and 2,2 million rubles.

At least 70% were the same cargo as mentioned above (with the "addition" of raw cotton, fabrics, leather goods, fish products, citrus fruits and bananas). At the same time, there was no Soviet export to the Netherlands East Indies (NOI).

Provincial, peripheral, but also Lend-Lease

The USSR was ready to pay off such suppliers in gold, but the example of the "senior" allies dictated - Lend-Lease. All accounts and accounts were undoubtedly postponed until after the war.

Winged Metal Raw Material


The share of Lend-Lease cargo contracted by the British and Americans for the USSR in the NOI, in deliveries from this region of Holland in 1941-1942. was over 70%. Deliveries were made to Vladivostok; in winter 41/42 about a quarter of supplies to the USSR from NOI went through Iran.

Plus, as part of lend-lease supplies (within the framework of the total US and Canadian quota for the USSR), oil products were sent to the USSR from the refineries in the Dutch South Caribbean islands of Aruba and Curacao, and from the South American "Netherlands Guiana" (since November 1975 - Republic of Suriname) - bauxite.

Bauxite supplemented with Guiana-based North American aluminum. Let us explain: the supply of aluminum to the USSR in September 1941 - October 1945. from the USA and Canada amounted to almost 330 thousand tons - a third more than the USSR produced during that period.

At the same time, a third of aluminum in the United States and at least 15% in Canada was produced in the United States in those years from Surinamese bauxite. So, the aluminum plant in Baton Rouge (the capital of Louisiana), built in 1941-1942, worked only on Surinamese bauxite. He worked until 1946, supplying aluminum to the USSR.

Forgotten ally?


Of all the European countries participating in the anti-fascist coalition, practically only the Netherlands, together with the colonies, had to suffer the greatest occupational damage. France, Belgium, as well as Denmark and Norway were looted by the Nazis less openly, but only because the situation did not allow them.

Germany and Japan occupied almost 90% of the total territory and over 90% of the total population of Holland and its colonies. Such a catastrophic situation is described in detail in the book "Neerland's Zeemacht in Oorlog" (London, Netherlands Publishing Co, 1944) of the 1st rank of the Dutch Navy (in the 40s - 50s), military historian André Kroose:


“... The occupation of Holland was a real disaster for the Dutch East Indies. But when Holland was attacked in May 1940, 22 German ships with a total displacement of 135 tons were captured in the East Indies. They were a significant addition to the Allied naval forces in the region.

Increase plans fleet, which the Dutch government approved in 1937, also provided for the defense of the East Indies. But over 30 ships (military and dual-use), which were under construction in 1940, were lost during the Nazi invasion of the metropolis. And at the NOI shipyards, the construction of torpedo boats has been accelerated. "

A. Kroose clarifies that,

“Despite all the defensive innovations that had been introduced in the East Indies since the fall of Holland, the air and especially the naval force that defended the eastern part of the Dutch Empire had already decreased so much by the end of December 1941 that there could be no question of defending a huge an archipelago, equal in size to the European continent, from a strong aggressor. When the territories of the Kingdom itself in Europe and the Far East are in the hands of the enemy, it is hardly possible at all to increase the size of the Dutch armed forces. And make up for the loss. "


Batavia (Jakarta, September 5, 1945 Parade of Dutch troops arriving from northern Australia

Nevertheless, the "Netherlands East Indies" returned to the control of the metropolis from the date of the Act of surrender of Japan on September 2, 1945 (on behalf of the Netherlands, the Act was signed by Admiral-Lieutenant of the Navy Konrad Emil Lambert Helfrich). Which soon turned into a five-year war with Indonesian nationalists.

This war was lost by the Netherlands - primarily "thanks" to the USSR and the PRC. Until August 1962, only the "Dutch West Irian" remained under the control of Amsterdam in the former NOI - the western region of the island of New Guinea, the largest European possession in Asia and Oceania.

Taking into account the Soviet experience


Despite the possibly explainable "offense" against the USSR, the NII and the Dutch government in London have never officially denied the decisive role of the USSR in the world war. So, the governor of the Dutch East Indies in 1941-1948. Lieutenant General Hubertus van Mook said on November 24, 1942, at a meeting of the Allied Command in Southeast Asia and the Pacific:

“... Tokyo does not respond to Berlin's requests for a demonstration of Japanese military force near the borders with the USSR or Mongolia. Because Stalingrad will force Japan to increase its political distance in alliance with Germany and soon go on the defensive in many, if not all sectors of the Asia-Pacific front. "

Van Mook turned out to be a visionary: all this in Japanese politics took place already from the beginning of the Soviet counteroffensive at Stalingrad. We also consider it necessary to cite his opinion on the Soviet experience of evacuating hundreds of industrial enterprises to the rear regions of the country:

“... In the winter and spring of 1942 from Java, Sumatra, Celebes and West Irian (regions of the Netherlands East Indies. - Ed.), Over 20 enterprises, a large number of refugees and workers of local administrations were transferred to the North of Australia. This was helped by the study of large-scale evacuation measures in the USSR, which were successfully implemented in 1941-1942. "


Dutch Premier 1939-1947 Peter Gerbrandi

It is also worth noting the message (from London) of the Prime Minister of the Netherlands Peter Gerbrandi on September 9, 1943 to JV Stalin "On behalf of Her Majesty, the government and the peoples of the Netherlands - on the occasion of the great victories of the Russian people":

“... At this moment, when the Soviet armies are threatening all Nazi positions in Ukraine, I send sincere congratulations to Your Excellency and the Russian people on the occasion of your great victories. At the same time, I want to express our admiration for the successes achieved by you personally, together with the Russian people, in the course of this fierce struggle. And convey to you our heartfelt wishes for the prompt liberation of your invaded territories. The dimensions in which German war materials and manpower are being destroyed along a wide and ever-expanding front testifies not only to the bravery of the Russian soldier and the skill of his leaders. But also about the magnificent achievements of the Russian workers (highlighted VO), whose industrial power the Nazis so often declared “destroyed”. I am sure that just as in February and March, when underground fighters in Holland wrote the word "Stalingrad" in chalk on the walls and sidewalks, so now and for the coming weeks, the names of your liberated cities will sound like a challenge to the Nazis in Holland. "

Stalin's reply on September 21 was succinct:

"Thank you for your message on the successes achieved by the Red Army."


Admiral-Lieutenant Konrad Emil Lambert Helfrich of the Royal Navy signs the Act of Surrender on behalf of the Netherlands, September 2, 1945, aboard the battleship Missouri
Author:
Photos used:
from the authors' archive, regnum.ru, wows-wowsp-global.gcdn.co, archschool27.edusite.ru
19 comments
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  1. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 18 May 2021 05: 27
    -9
    Van Mook turned out to be a visionary: all this in Japanese politics took place already from the beginning of the Soviet counteroffensive at Stalingrad.

    So after all, then Amsterdam was the capital of the Netherlands, not drug addicts!
    1. Finches
      Finches 18 May 2021 06: 06
      +9
      Interesting article! Cognitive!
    2. parma
      parma 18 May 2021 09: 38
      +7
      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      Van Mook turned out to be a visionary: all this in Japanese politics took place already from the beginning of the Soviet counteroffensive at Stalingrad.

      So after all, then Amsterdam was the capital of the Netherlands, not drug addicts!

      Of course, we will most likely not survive, but in 70-80 years it may also turn out that now everything is far from what they say in Russia 24 ...
  2. serg.shishkov2015
    serg.shishkov2015 18 May 2021 05: 54
    +7
    Thank you very much for the article! absolutely unknown page of that war for me! I will add these materials to my Lend-Lease notebook!
  3. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 18 May 2021 06: 16
    +10
    Little-known page of history. I would like to thank the authors for finding such materials. I read it with great interest.
    1. SERGE ANT
      SERGE ANT 18 May 2021 07: 17
      +13
      I would like to express my gratitude to the authors, I did not know anything about the participation of the Netherlands East Indies in Lend-Lease. Thank you for the material.
  4. sergo1914
    sergo1914 18 May 2021 06: 29
    -6
    ... I send my sincere congratulations to Your Excellency and the Russian people on the occasion of your great victories.


    We would like to show these lines to our president. So that he knew who to thank on May 9th.
  5. Pushkowed
    Pushkowed 18 May 2021 08: 48
    +2
    ... by that time, Japanese troops had captured almost the entire Dutch East Indies. Except for a small southeastern region in the Dutch - western region of New Guinea, which "held out" until the surrender of Japan.
    It seems like it was in the Australian (eastern) half of New Guinea: Milne Bay, the extreme southeast of the island.
    And in the western (Dutch) half - perhaps a few Dutch soldiers organized a partisan detachment, which operated until the expulsion of the occupiers. But it was on the Bird's Head Peninsula, in the extreme northwest of the island.
    1. Pushkowed
      Pushkowed 25 May 2021 16: 15
      0
      Somewhere here:
  6. BAI
    BAI 18 May 2021 08: 50
    +4
    Batavia (Jakarta, September 5, 1945 Parade of Dutch troops arriving from northern Australia

    Controversial name.
    There is also such:
    Melbourne 1943: Escaped Dutch East Indies troops march through the streets of Melbourne.
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 18 May 2021 10: 12
      +6
      Quote: BAI
      Controversial name.
      There is also such:

      You are absolutely right) I will say more - this is the Melbourne Swanston Street. June 14, 1943 - Flag Day parade.
      And a boy with an Australian flag on the street of a Dutch colony at a parade of Dutch marines - that would be rather inappropriate) Like an Uzbek boy with a sign "Pakhtakor" in Yeralash.
  7. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 18 May 2021 10: 31
    +7
    Admiral-Lieutenant Konrad Emil Lambert Helfrich of the Royal Navy signs the Act of Surrender on behalf of the Netherlands, September 2, 1945, aboard the battleship Missouri
    It is strange that a bike like: "... General Umezu asked Derevianko, nodding at the representative of the Netherlands - Did these people defeat us too?"
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 18 May 2021 16: 45
      +4
      Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      It is strange that a bike like: "... General Umezu asked Derevianko, nodding at the representative of the Netherlands - Did these people defeat us too?"

      It's just that in those parts at the beginning of the war, everyone screwed up the same way. Against the background of Singapore and Bataan, the actions of the Dutch do not stand out for the worse. Plus, the Dutch fought on the side of the Allies even when their mother country capitulated.
      1. Fat
        Fat 18 May 2021 22: 57
        -1
        After the honorable surrender in 1940, Dutch men rushed en masse to the Waffen SS. Prove then that they are not stoned and whether they are men at all. Who, the ashes of Claes pounding in the heart, about what?
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 18 May 2021 17: 07
      +1
      good good good
      There is nothing more to add. smile
      1. Fat
        Fat 18 May 2021 23: 05
        0
        Well, how is there nothing? At all? I know a couple of taxi drivers and there are numbers, in the sense of the telephone first ..))))))) And what kind of interlocutors we have - guides ..... Take a steamer and come. To us in Kostroma. Let's pop with historical bows, fry a goose if we shoot ... Arrows are expensive now ... But instead of a skewer, they'll pull ...
    3. Dkuznecov
      Dkuznecov 20 May 2021 01: 02
      0
      I also thought about this phrase.
      To win a war is to choose the right side.
      And most importantly - on time.

      Otherwise, you will be shocked, like the same Romanians who like
      eggs, according to Faina Ranevskaya - "participated,
      but did not enter. ”They ogrebli here and there.
  8. Pavel57
    Pavel57 18 May 2021 13: 29
    +2
    A little-known page in history.
  9. Operator
    Operator 18 May 2021 19: 34
    -5
    The USSR and the United States (each with their own goal) after WWII, relying on the UN, consistently pursued a policy of destroying the European colonial system in Africa and Asia, so the demolition of the Dutch colonial subsystem in Indonesia was inevitable.
    The only unknown was the transition of the former European colonies to socialism or capitalism - at the end of the twentieth century, Vietnam became the only former colony that switched to socialism.