Military Review

Unique and forgotten: the birth of the Soviet missile defense system. Brooke and M-1

We stopped at the fact that Lebedev was going to Moscow to build his first BESM. But in the capital at that time it was also interesting. An independent machine with the modest name M-1 was being built there.

Alternative architecture began when Isaac Brook and Bashir Rameev met in early 1947, who were united by a common interest in creating an analogue of ENIAC. According to one legend, Rameev learned about the computer while listening to BBC radio, according to another version - Brook, being connected with the military, knew that the Americans had built a machine for calculating firing tables from some secret sources.

The truth is a little more prosaic: back in 1946, an open article about ENIAC was published in the journal Nature, and the whole scientific world knew about it, even a little interested in computing. In the USSR, this journal was read by leading scientists. And already in the second issue of "Uspekhi Mathematical Sciences" in 1947, a 3-page article by M. L. Bykhovsky "New American calculating and analytical machines" was published.

Bashir Iskandarovich Rameev himself was a man of a difficult fate. His father was repressed in 1938 and died in prison (interestingly, the same fate awaited the father of the second M-1 designer, Matyukhin). The son of the "enemy of the people" was kicked out of the MEI, for two years he was unemployed barely making ends meet. Until he got a job in 1940 as a technician at the Central Research Institute of Communications, thanks to his penchant for radio amateurism and invention. In 1941 he volunteered for the front. He went through all of Ukraine, survived everywhere, atoned for the crime of being a relative of an enemy of the people with blood.

And in 1944 he was sent to VNII-108 (radar methods, founded by the famous engineer - Rear Admiral and Academician A.I. Berg, who was also repressed in 1937 and miraculously survived). There Rameev learned about ENIAC and got the idea to create the same one.


Under Berg's patronage, he turned to the head of the ENIN electrical systems laboratory, Isaac Semenovich Brook.

Brook was a keen electrical engineer, but a minor inventor. But a talented and most importantly - a punchy organizer, which was almost more important in the USSR. For the previous 10 years, he was mainly engaged in taking part, leading and supervising (moreover, he took off to leadership positions immediately after graduating from the institute and subsequently systematically and successfully forged his career), until the creation of a device popular in those years at ENIN, a great analog integrator for solving systems of differential equations. As the project manager, it was Brook who presented him at the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences. The academicians were impressed by the epic nature of the device (an area of ​​as much as 60 square meters) and immediately elected him a member correspondent (though this, however, his career reached its peak, he never became a full academician, despite all his aspirations).

Hearing that computers are being built at ENIN, Rameev came there to present his ideas to Brook.

Brook was a savvy and experienced person. And immediately he did the most important thing in the design of the Soviet computer - in 1948 he filed an application with the Patent Bureau of the State Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR for a whole copyright certificate (to which, incidentally, Rameeva also wrote) for “Invention of a digital electronic machine”. Of course, now it looks pretty funny (well, wow, the USSR issued a patent for the invention of a computer, after all the ABC, Harvard Mark-1, Z-1, EDSAC, ENIAC, Colossus and others). But this patent, firstly, allowed Brook to immediately enter the pantheon of Soviet computer creators, and secondly, ranks and awards were relied on for each invention.

The construction of a computer, however, did not work out. Because immediately after receiving the patent, Rameyev was somehow dragged into the army again. Apparently to serve what he did not complete in 1944. He was sent to the Far East, but (it is not known whether Brook intervened or not) a few months later, at the personal request of the USSR Minister of Mechanical Engineering and Instrumentation, P.I. Parshin, as a valuable specialist, sent back to Moscow.

In general, the relationship between Brook and Rameev is full of fog. Upon his return, for some reason, he did not join the M-1 project, but preferred to leave Brook for another party "designer" - Bazilevsky, in SKB-245, where he later worked on "Strela", which competed with Lebedev's BESM (we will cover in more detail this titanomachy in the next issue).

Lebedev lost then. But I didn't go to the second round. And in accordance with the principle “if you cannot win - lead”, he himself started designing the M-20 machine in SKB-245 together with Rameev. In addition, Rameev is known as the general designer and author of the legendary Ural series - small tube machines, very popular in the USSR and the most massive in the first generation.

Rameev's last contribution to the development of domestic technology was his proposal not to use the IBM S / 360 model as an illegal copy model, but instead it is already quite legal to start developing, together with the British, a line of computers based on ICL System 4 (the English version of RCA Spectra 70, which was compatible with the same S / 360). It would most likely be a much better deal. But, alas, the decision was not made in favor of Rameev's project.

We will be back in 1950.

Frustrated, Brook sent a request to the personnel department of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute. And the creators of M-1, about 10 people, began to appear in his laboratory. And what kind of people they were! Not many had completed higher education by that time, some were graduates of technical schools, but their genius shone like the Kremlin stars.


Nikolai Yakovlevich Matyukhin became the general designer, with a fate almost identical to that of Rameev. Exactly the same son of a repressed enemy of the people (in 1939 Matyukhin's father received a relatively humane 8 years, but in 1941 Stalin ordered the execution of all political prisoners during the retreat, and Yakov Matyukhin was shot in the Oryol prison). Fond of electronics and radio engineering, also expelled from everywhere (including the family of the enemy of the people was evicted from Moscow). Nevertheless, he was able to finish school in 1944 and enter the MPEI. He did not get a postgraduate study (again, he was rejected as politically unreliable, despite already two copyright certificates for inventions received during his studies).

But Brooke noticed the talent. And he was able to drag Matyukhin to ENIN for the implementation of the M-1 project. Matyukhin has proven himself very well. And later he worked on the continuation of the line - machines M-2 (prototype) and M-3 (produced in a limited series). And since 1957, he became the chief designer of the NIIAA of the Ministry of Radio Industry and worked on the creation of the Tetiva air defense control system (1960, an analogue of the American SAGE), the first serial semiconductor domestic computer, with microprogram control, Harvard architecture and boot from ROM. It is also interesting that she (the first in the USSR) used forward, not reverse encoding.

The second star was M. A. Kartsev. But this is a man of such magnitude (who had a hand directly in many of the USSR's military developments and played a huge role in the creation of missile defense) that he deserves a separate discussion.

Among the developers was a girl - Tamara Minovna Aleksandridi, the architect of RAM M-1.

Unique and forgotten: the birth of the Soviet missile defense system. Brooke and M-1

General view and arithmetic device M-1 (Journal "Modern Automation Technologies" 2/2012, article by Yu. Rogachev "The first automatic digital computer M-1")

The work (as in the case of Lebedev) took about two years. And already in January 1952 (less than a month after the commissioning of the MESM), the practical operation of the M-1 began.

The paranoid Soviet craving for secrecy led to the fact that both groups - Lebedev and Brook - did not even hear about each other. And only some time after the delivery of the cars did they find out about the existence of a competitor.

Trophy secrets

Note that the situation with lamps in those years in Moscow was even worse than in Ukraine. And partly for this reason, partly out of a desire to reduce the power consumption and dimensions of the machine, the M-1 digital computer was not purely a lamp. M-1 triggers were assembled on 6N8S double triodes, valves on 6Zh4 pentodes, but all the main logic was semiconductor - on copper-oxide rectifiers. A separate riddle is also associated with these rectifiers (and riddles in stories domestic computers just heaps!).

In Germany, similar devices were called Kupferoxydul-Gleichrichter and were available to Soviet specialists to study captured radio equipment among the mountains. Hence, by the way, the most frequent jargon, albeit incorrect, naming of such devices in the domestic literature as cuprox rectifiers, which suggests that we got to know them thanks to the Germans, although there are also some mysteries here.

The copper-oxide rectifier was invented in the USA by Westinghouse Electric in 1927. Produced in England. From there he went to Europe. In our country, it seems, a similar design was developed in 1935 at the Nizhny Novgorod radio laboratory. Only here there are two but.

Firstly, the only source that tells us about this is, to put it mildly, biased. This is VG Borisov's brochure "Young radio amateur" (issue 100), published already in 1951. Secondly, these domestic rectifiers were used for the first time in the first domestic multimeter TG-1, the production of which began only in 1947. So, with a considerable degree of probability, it can be stated that the technology of copper-sour rectifiers was borrowed by the USSR in Germany after the war. Well, or individual developments were undertaken before it, but it obviously went into production only after studying captured German radio equipment and, most likely, was cloned from Siemens SIRUTOR rectifiers.

Those same cuprocks stumbling blocks in the German radio museum (

What kind of rectifiers were used in the M-1?

Without exception, all sources speak of the Soviet KVMP-2, this conversation is based on the memoirs of the participants in the events. So, in the memoirs of Matyukhin it is said:

The search for ways to reduce the number of radio tubes in the car led to an attempt to use the KVMP-2-7 cuprox rectifiers, which turned out to be in the laboratory warehouse among the trophy property.

It is not very clear how Soviet rectifiers (especially, the appearance of the KVMP-2 series - this is absolutely definitely not earlier than 1950) ended up among the captured German property a year before their creation? But let's say that there was a slight dip in time. And they got there. However, the developer of the M-1 I / O device, A.B. Zalkind, writes in his memoirs:

From the composition of captured radio components, I.S.Bruk suggested using selenium cuprox columns for signal decoding, consisting of five tablets and connected in series inside a plastic tube with a diameter of only 4 mm and a length of 35 mm
Leaving aside the mixing of selenium and cuprox columns together (and these are different things), the description shows that the original rectifiers do not correspond to KVMP-2-7 either in size or in the number of tablets. Hence the conclusion - the memoirs in our time cannot be trusted. Perhaps, trophy cuproxes were used on the first models, and when the possibility of their use was proved, then, as the same N. Ya.Matyukhin further writes,

Brook agreed to make a special version of such a rectifier the size of a conventional resistance, and we created a set of typical circuits.

Do you think this is the end of the riddles?

In the description of the next machine M-2, the parameters of the KVMP-2-7 are given, and they are as follows. Allowable forward current 4 mA, forward resistance 3–5 kOhm, allowable reverse voltage 120 V, reverse resistance 0,5–2 MΩ. This data spread all over the network.

Meanwhile, they seem absolutely fantastic for such a small rectifier. And all the official reference books give completely different numbers: direct current 0,08–0,8 mA (depending on the number of tablets) and so on. Reference books have more faith, but how then could Brook's KVMP work if, with such parameters, they would instantly burn out?

And Lebedev was far from being a fool. And he was very good at electronics, including trophy ones. Nevertheless, the idea of ​​using copper-sour rectifiers for some reason did not come to him, although he was a virtuoso in assembling computers from non-standard materials. As you can see, Soviet technoarcheology holds no less mysteries than the tomb of Tutankhamun. And it is not easy to understand them, even with memoirs and memoirs of eyewitnesses of the events on hand.


The text of the first program, which was performed on the M-1 (B. N. Malinovsky "History of computer technology in persons")

In any case, M-1 started working (but even establishing exactly when exactly is an unrealistic task; in various documents and memoirs, the date range appears from December 1950 to December 1951).

It was smaller than MESM and consumed less energy (4 sq. M and 8 kW versus 60 sq. M and 25 kW). But it was also relatively slower - about 25 ops / sec over 25 bit words, versus 50 ops / sec over 17 bit MESM words.

Outwardly, the M-1 looked more like a computer than an MESM (it looked like a huge number of cabinets with floor-to-ceiling lamps all along the walls in several rooms).

We also note that the monstrous battles about who was the first: Lebedev with the Ukrainian group or Brook with the Moscow one, do not subside to this day.

So, for example, despite the fact that the first launch of MESM was documented on November 6, 1950 (which is confirmed by numerous interviews with all the developers, and Lebedev's papers), in the article “History worth rewriting: where the first Soviet computer was actually made "(Boris Kaufman, RIA News) we meet the following passage:

“The fundamental difference between a computer and a calculator is that ordinary differential equations can be calculated on a programmable calculator, but not partial differential equations. The purpose of her [MESM-1] work was to speed up the counting, it was not a universal computing machine for scientific calculations - there were not enough resources to work with matrices, insufficient memory (31 variables) and small bit width, only four significant digits in the decimal system. It is no coincidence that the first production calculations at the MESM were carried out only in May 1952, when a magnetic drum was connected, which made it possible to store and read data, ”writes the Russian historian of computer technology, leading researcher at the Institute of Information Technology of the Russian Academy of Sciences Sergey Prokhorov. But in the M-1, the memory on cathode-ray tubes was initially integrated, and the tubes were taken from a conventional oscilloscope. It was improved by a student at the MPEI Tamara Aleksandridi ... An elegant solution that a young girl found was much better than all foreign computers of that time (all two). They used the so-called potentioscopes, which were developed specifically for the construction of computer storage devices and were at that time expensive and inaccessible.

It is rather difficult to comment on this.

Especially the unique author's definition of a computer and a calculator, which until then has not been found anywhere in a hundred years of development of computing technology. No less surprising is the "unique" superiority of tubes from oscilloscopes as RAM over Williams-Kilburn tubes (as they are correctly called, apparently, in the West they did not know that it was possible to assemble a computer from a trophy radio junk, and for some reason they made expensive and stupid solutions) , as well as the mention of only two (instead of at least 5-6) Western cars of that time.


According to Zalkind's memoirs, one of the first great scientists who showed interest in M-1 was Academician Sergei Sobolev. His collaboration with the creators of the next model M-2 was prevented by an episode in the elections to full members of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

Lebedev and Brook claimed one place. The decisive factor was the voice of Sobolev, given by him for his student Lebedev.

After that, Brook (who remained only a member of correspondent for life) refused to provide Moscow State University, where Sobolev worked, with the M-2 car.

And a big scandal erupted, which ended with the independent development of the Setun machine within the walls of Moscow State University. Moreover, its mass production ran into obstacles already from the Lebedev group, who wanted to achieve as many resources as possible for their new M-20 project.

We will talk about Lebedev's adventures in Moscow and the development of BESM next time.

To be continued ...
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  1. rocket757
    rocket757 20 May 2021 18: 56
    I don't remember M ki, but BESM is ... such a whistle !!!
    We changed them to "Elbrus **" ... probably one of the last ones to work.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 20 May 2021 19: 48
      For the beginning of the 70s, BESM-6 was very advanced. In the late 70s, it was already outdated.
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 20 May 2021 19: 49
        Everything has its time, it's a fact.
    2. region58
      region58 22 May 2021 02: 09
      Quote: rocket757
      BESM is ... such a whistle

  2. 210ox
    210ox 20 May 2021 19: 06
    I only captured Nairi. Studying at MPEI in the early 80s. But this is already a semiconductor computer. Data entry and printout on "Consul" typewriter
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 20 May 2021 19: 47
      This "Consul" thundered like a machine gun. I also found it in the early 80s.
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 20 May 2021 19: 54
        So many hybrids have never been encountered!
        Consuls, punched tapes, magnetic carriers on film and disks, with a basin the size.
        All in good time.
        The first Mas seemed to be the height of perfection !!! As time passed, the technique changed ...
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 20 May 2021 19: 57
          And stacks of punched cards stuffed with SCP code, and later with IBM code
      2. tolancop
        tolancop 21 May 2021 14: 06
        Why shouldn't this Consul rattle? The design is as follows: in fact, 2 strokes per printed character. the first blow after bringing the lever of the letter to the drive drum, and the second by the letter itself on the paper. And when the carriage was shifted to the left (especially long), the entire body of the EPU reacted, although it weighed 15 kilograms. It was an interesting car, it had to be repaired ...
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 21 May 2021 18: 16
          And then the German GDR matrix "Robotrons" went to SM-3, they worked quietly, but swayed at the same time - there were problems with the rigidity of the structure.
          1. tolancop
            tolancop 26 May 2021 13: 03
            The aviator, of the direct-printing pieces, dealt only with Consul, incl. I can't tell you anything about the others. And I fully admit that Consul was far from the best.
    2. mark1
      mark1 20 May 2021 20: 35
      I had the good fortune to use MIR-2 in the early 80s - punched cards, punched tapes, a "consul", a light pencil (I didn't immediately learn to get something) ... in general, it's great.
    3. aglet
      aglet 21 May 2021 09: 56
      "Data entry and printout on" Consul "typewriter"
      data input from punched cards, there was a tabulator, and the output, yes, through the CPU
  3. Virus-free crown
    Virus-free crown 20 May 2021 20: 09
    Author, keep it up !!! good drinks

    And for this phrase from the article:

    Brook was a keen electrical engineer, but a minor inventor. But a talented and most importantly - a punchy organizer, which was almost more important in the USSR.

    Ready to literally carry on your hands !!! soldier hi
  4. Knell wardenheart
    Knell wardenheart 20 May 2021 22: 18
    My God, what Shakespearean passions at the kindergarten level were boiling among scientific men ... that in space, that in computing ... in fact, after all, all science moved not thanks to but in spite of - the country did everything so that these people with all their abilities feed the fish or shook the streets somewhere for 101 kilometers. Realizing the terrible imperfection of that era, it just takes a shiver (
    It is absolutely incomparable in how different conditions people worked in our country and abroad (Of course, they also scoffed at some Turing, but this is absolutely not the same level ..
    It is amazing that the Soviet government, which often put these creators in the pose of a river dweller, for years then so easily took away some of their merits ... incredible cynicism, damn it, in fact you read all this and understand that cynicism was not born in power yesterday - and modern political ones " feints with ears "have the same long history as the history of computers ..
    1. Usher
      Usher 20 May 2021 22: 43
      The author of this "article" has already achieved his goal. The first one went.
      1. Knell wardenheart
        Knell wardenheart 20 May 2021 22: 56
        No, this is just another facet in the collection of personal observations. I read about space pioneers - bah! so many were sitting, they worked in sharashkas, they broke the Queen's jaw. I read about aircraft designers - baa! And here they sat and knocked on each other, and also worked in sharashkas. I read about scientists working in the field of improving agriculture - the harp is vigorous! and here they sat, hungry, in the camps, invented some kind of quinoa soup and anti-scorching concentrates, just so that the horses would not move (and someone died, the same Vavilov). Well, here, pazhalte - all the same sad story.
        What is the purpose here, dear, these are all historical facts. The skating rink rode great on people's fates ..
        1. glk63
          glk63 21 May 2021 00: 22
          You would have less confidence in publications from the 90s ... as well as the author of the article ...
          1. kalibr
            kalibr 21 May 2021 10: 43
            Dear Alexey, in what archives and with what documents did you work, what do you say? It would be interesting to know your level of competence in this matter.
            1. glk63
              glk63 22 May 2021 01: 30
              And you, excuse me, who are you to demand any reports from me? .. And I expressed my opinion, no more.
              1. rocket757
                rocket757 22 May 2021 02: 29
                In the history of any country there are periods .... all sorts.
                Someone has more, someone less. But the turning points of history have never passed peacefully and calmly ANYWHERE!
                For some reason, everyone just captured it, wrote it down in the annals and do not worry!
                However, no, the Yankees managed to step on this rake NOW! So what, will it do them good?
                We must remember what happened and move forward, in peace and harmony between people, remembering the WHOLE HISTORY of our country.
                The main thing is that we are not participants in those events, we find out everything in one interpretation or another !!! Let the "archive mice" dig further, and we have a goal, movement forward!
              2. kalibr
                kalibr 23 May 2021 16: 37
                I did not demand, but very politely asked. It’s just interesting to know where this mistrust comes from. Usually it has soil under it ...
                1. glk63
                  glk63 24 June 2021 08: 57
                  Yes, somehow I have been working on computers since the 77th year. I know a lot of interesting things.
                  1. kalibr
                    kalibr 24 June 2021 09: 05
                    Then, Alexey, you have the cards in hand. Write a material with an analysis of the inaccuracies of the author of this cycle. I am sure that it will print it and everyone will be only grateful to you.
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  7. Old electrician
    Old electrician 21 May 2021 14: 22
    Rameev's last contribution to the development of domestic technology was his proposal not to use the IBM S / 360 model as an illegal copy for copying, but instead it is already quite legal to start developing, together with the British, a line of computers based on ICL System 4
    - well, just a patriot of the country!
    June 29, 1948 Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR I.V. Stalin signed a decree in accordance with which the Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer Engineering of the USSR Academy of Sciences (ITMiVT) was created. This decree gave rise to computer building in the USSR.
    The complexity of the tasks set was incredible. We started from scratch. For the fastest solution of the problem, the Council of Ministers adopted a number of resolutions aimed at the development of computers in the USSR. Such, for example, as "On the design and construction of an automatic high-speed digital computer" (dated 11.01.1950/133/1.08.1951, No. 2759), "On measures to ensure the implementation of work by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR on the creation of high-speed electronic computers" (dated 19.05.1952 . № 2373), "On measures to ensure the design and construction of high-speed mathematical computers" (from XNUMX, № XNUMX) and others.
    Stalin did not keep eggs in one basket. Therefore, several SKBs took up the development of computers at once. The calculation was that among several developments, you can choose the best. The first computer developers in the USSR during Stalin's lifetime were:
    1. Laboratory SKB-245 of the Ministry of Mechanical Engineering and Instrumentation of the USSR (computer "Strela").
    2. Laboratory of electrical systems of the Energy Institute (ENIN) of the USSR Academy of Sciences (computers M-1, M-2, M-3).
    3. Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer Science of the USSR Academy of Sciences (ITMiVT, BESM-1, BESM-2).
    4. Laboratory of Modeling and Computer Engineering of the Kiev Institute of Electrical Engineering of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, in which the MESM was created (later it was transferred to the Institute of Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR).
    After his death, they were added to them in the 50s:
    5. Yerevan Scientific Research Institute of Mathematical Machines (YerNIIMM).
    6. Computing Center No. 1 of the USSR Ministry of Defense. TsNII-27 / VTs-1 of the USSR Ministry of Defense (military unit 01168) is the first Soviet computer center designed to solve especially important tasks of the USSR Ministry of Defense based on the use of computer technology (M-100 computer).
    7. SKB in Minsk.
    Under Nikita the Wonderworker, this multi-vector approach led to a monstrous interdepartmental bureaucratic war. It was won by the "team" of the President of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR Keldysh and Academician Lebedev. In the course of this war, the USSR Ministry of Mechanical Engineering and Instrumentation was "killed", SKB-245 became ownerless and went to the winners. Computer Center No. 1 of the USSR Ministry of Defense was defeated and ceased the development of computers. Other competitors were doomed to subordinate status.
    Through the efforts of Keldysh - Lebedev in the 60s, computer engineering in the USSR was deeply in the Afro-hole. It was then and it was precisely by this gang that the vile myth was invented about how Stalin spread rot on cybernetics. And this despite the fact that not one of the branches of cybernetics does not consider the design and production of computers.
    The development of operating systems and system software turned out to be in the most hopeless state (thanks to Lebedev!). To gain access to foreign software, at the level of the USSR Council of Ministers and bypassing the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1967, it was decided to copy the IBM System / 360. As a result, the ES EVM series was born. ES computers were of domestic design and only repeated the IBM System / 360 command system. Patent purity is confirmed by the fact that ES computers were sold to Western countries without any problems. For example, to Finland.
    Lebedev and his associates tried with all their might to block the development and production of the ES EVM series, but they failed. Therefore, in revenge, they gave birth to a myth about how the corrupt antipatriots of the country slaughtered domestic developers without a knife.
  8. Usher
    Usher 21 May 2021 15: 04
    The article is ordered, one-sided and false.
    1. OCefir
      OCefir 21 May 2021 22: 46
      And what do you see as one-sidedness? And what is the potential and from whom profit of the author of the article?
    2. Gori
      Gori 21 May 2021 23: 15
      Quote: Article author Sperry
      Meanwhile, they seem absolutely fantastic for such a small rectifier. And all the official reference books give completely different numbers: direct current 0,08–0,8 mA (depending on the number of tablets) and so on. Reference books have more faith, but how then could Brook's KVMP work if, with such parameters, they would instantly burn out?

      Complete ignorance of the course author Electronic Devices. You have a call to a friend:
      Quote: Anjay V.
      The local public itself is diligently trying to strangle all interesting authors and commentators. Exval and Sperry wrote something unusual - they are being bullied. Fiery Kitty publishes something in the comments - he is overwhelmed with minuses just like that.
  9. OCefir
    OCefir 21 May 2021 22: 23
    To the author of this series of articles - huge respect for raising this topic!
    Few people know that parallel programming (in advance of supercomputers) in the USSR originated precisely thanks to missile defense projects. We have implemented synchronous multiprocessing processing back in the early 70s.
  10. OCefir
    OCefir 21 May 2021 22: 30
    There is a good book about the formation of missile defense in the USSR. It's called "Annushki" - Moscow's sentries. "You can buy it online. But I can upload scans in PM page by page. Very interesting. It contains technical details of the first Soviet supercomputers, and intertwines with Berg, and the collapse that arose when multiple warheads appeared.
  11. OCefir
    OCefir 21 May 2021 22: 34
    If anything, QUIRTU
  12. Siegfried
    Siegfried 23 July 2021 00: 19
    on the other hand, if the Soviet government had not bet on mass education, then Russia would not have been destined to create space, computers, and even the T-34 ... whatever one may say, but tsarist Russia had no future.
    1. Siberian54
      Siberian54 24 July 2021 03: 44
      By the way, the T-34, raw with a bunch of childhood diseases, was put on the stream by the "punchy administrator", the designer was "eaten" back in 1936
  13. Siberian54
    Siberian54 24 July 2021 03: 40
    read- "in Ukraine"- it became clear that the liberoid deceived all the garbage dumps ...