Military Review

"Model Maker"

97
"Model Maker"
"Solar boat" of the Pharaoh Cheops. A model from the Sun Boat Museum near its pyramid


“Glory to you, Osiris, God of Eternity, king of the gods, whose names are innumerable, whose incarnations are holy. You are a sacred image in temples; the twin soul will always be sacred to incoming mortals. "
(Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead - Hymn to Osiris)

History ancient civilizations. The interest in Ancient Egypt, caused by articles about Akhenaten and Ramses among the readers of materials on VO, did not go out at all, as evidenced by their letters. And many are even interested in such "little things" as the ancient Egyptian ships. In particular, there were questions about the so-called "Pharaoh's Solar Boat", but there is simply nothing to add to what VO wrote about earlier. And to everyone who is interested in this topic, I can recommend the material by S. Denisova "Cedar boat of Cheops: a journey of 5 years."

Nevertheless, quite a lot is known about the shipbuilding of the ancient Egyptians. And the point is not only in the two found "Solar boats", and drawings on papyri and on the walls of temples and tombs. We were just very lucky that due to some circumstances that are difficult to explain today, in one of the Egyptian tombs a whole "fleet" of models was discovered, and even with figures of people. These models were made very carefully, skillfully, so that their study gave Egyptologists a lot in relation to the ancient ships of Egypt. Well, today we will tell you about how these models fell into the hands of scientists and what they are ...


Imhotep's boat model, c. 1919-1878 BC e. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

And it so happened that back in 1895, French archaeologists investigated the Theban tomb No. 280, which belonged to the dignitary of the Middle Kingdom Maketra (or Maketra), but did not find anything interesting, since all the available rooms in this tomb were plundered back in antiquity. But in early 1920, Metropolitan Museum archaeologist Herbert Winlock decided to get an accurate plan of this tomb for his map of the XNUMXth Dynasty necropolis in Thebes, and therefore ordered his workers to clean up the accumulated debris.


Cowshed from the tomb of Meketra. OK. 1981-1975 BC e. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

It was during this cleaning operation that a small hidden chamber was discovered, filled with many almost perfectly preserved models and models, which, like the ushebti figures “I am here,” were supposed to make life easier for the owner in the next world. Half of them ended up in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, and the other half, when dividing the finds, went to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.


This model of a river vessel was found along with twenty-three other models of boats, ships and workshops in a secret chamber on the side of the passage leading to the rock-cut tomb of the chief steward Meketr, who began his career under Pharaoh Mentuhotep II of the XI dynasty and continued to serve as successors. friend to the kings in the early years of the XII dynasty. The scene shown on the model shows us Meketra himself, sitting in the shade of a small cabin, which on a real boat would have been made of a light timber frame with linen or leather curtains. Wooden shields covered with bovine skins are painted on each side of the cockpit roof. The singer, holding his hand to his lips, and the blind harper entertain Meketra on his journey. Before him stands a man, probably the captain of the ship, with his arms crossed over his chest. While twelve oarsmen set the boat in motion, an observer at the bow holds a lot to determine the depth of the river. At the stern, the helmsman controls the steering wheel. A tall white post on the deck of the ship should support the mast and sail (not found in the tomb), which could have been removed while the boat was sailing downstream - as here - against the prevailing northerly wind. Going south (upstream), with a fair wind, the boat could have both a sail and a mast. Meketra could have used such a boat during his lifetime. However, some details of the composition suggest that on this journey, Meketra goes to the afterlife. For example, the flower he holds is the blue lotus, a flower that the Egyptians associated with rebirth. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

In general, these models represented the whole life of Meketr, who held a high position of the king's administrator. Imagine this: an entire room at the back of the tomb was filled with elaborate models of polished and painted wood. Among them were houses, workshops, a slaughterhouse, a bakery and a brewery (how can one live in the next world without bread, beer and meat?), And models of various ships.


Model of an abattoir from the tomb of Meketra. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


But this is nothing more than a bakery. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Among the ship models, some are very interesting. For example, a model of a ship carrying the mummy of a certain Dzhehuti. His mummified body lies on a stretcher under a canopy and is looked after by two women who play the roles of the goddesses Isis and Nephthys, sisters of the god Osiris. Jehuti became a blessed spirit and, in a sense, Osiris himself: because in a short text on a papyrus scroll held by a priest, he refers to the mummy as a deity: "Oh, Osiris."


Model of a sailboat with a mummy, approx. 1900-1885 BC e. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

A group of sailors standing at the mast hoists the sail (not preserved), and four people sit, crouched in front of the mast. Their posture is akin to the so-called "block sculptures" or "cubic sculptures", well known from the art of the Middle Kingdom. It has been argued that this pose indicates that the person presented in this way is participating in rituals. The helmsman and another person next to the stretcher sit in a similar position, although each of them has a free hand for movement.


A boat sailing downstream. The sail is folded, the oars are tied to the hull ... Tomb of Meketra. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Among the pleasures of the life of a noble Egyptian were hunting excursions to the swamps of the Nile for fishing and hunting birds. For such trips, papyrus rafts or light boats like this were used. There is a model of a boat on which Meketra and his son or comrade watch the hunters from a light shelter made of wicker cane and decorated with two large shields. On the bow, two men with harpoons are clearly hunting large fish, while on deck a kneeling fisherman retrieves a harpoon from the fish. The woman brings the catch to Meketra. The presence of women from a noble family in such scenes in the swamps is a very recurring theme in Egyptian art.


Meketra on a boat while fishing. Model dimensions: boat with rudder and oars: length 121,7 cm; height 34,3 cm; width 30,6 cm. Case: length 112,5 cm; width 23,7 cm. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Various religious ceremonies played an important role in the life of the Egyptians. And they knew so much about the "next world" that ... "they lived now" solely for the sake of "living later." To ensure the repose it was necessary to "go to Abydos". This was such a very important religious center for the Egyptians. And not to go to the living, but to the dead. And when it was impossible to take the mummy there, they carried the statue of the deceased. There, rituals were performed over her, after which she was taken back and placed in a memorial church.


Green Rook, approx. 1981-1975 BC e. The hull of this boat is green, its vertical bow, stern curved back and double steering oars imitate the elements of vessels made of papyrus stalks. Even the leather straps covering the bow and stern of such boats are depicted. Boats of this type appear in depictions of the "voyage to Abydos", which has been part of Egyptian funeral ritual since the Middle Kingdom. The ritual nature of this boat trip is clearly indicated by the fact that it is not a living Meketra, but his statue sits under a canopy, accompanied by a companion (possibly his son), while the priests make offerings to her. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


In this photo, the boats are also green, and the way they are painted shows that they are connected from bundles of papyrus. This is how the Egyptians fished ... Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


Boat from the tomb of Meketra. OK. 1981-1975 BC e. The boat is sailing in a northerly direction, downstream, against the prevailing northerly wind. Length 117 cm. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

In Egypt, it was easy to determine in which direction a particular ship was sailing. If heading north, the mast was usually folded and supported by a forked support beam, always ready to set up for the return trip. The sail is folded on the deck. The small cabin, located amidships, leaves room for eighteen rowers. Speed ​​is clearly important on this journey. Sitting on a chair on the nose, Meketra brings a closed lotus flower to his nose. Before him stands a man (possibly the captain of the boat), arms folded reverently across his chest. Inside the hut, a servant guards Meketr's chest. Is the general manager on an inspection trip for the pharaoh, and are there bills in this chest? Even if this is a real-life event, the model still has a cult purpose, because the lotus flower, which opens every morning at sunrise, is a symbol of rebirth.


Model characters close up ...

And now a little for those who, seduced by the models of ancient Egyptian boats, decide to do something similar for themselves. On the Internet there are drawings and projections of models of various Egyptian ships, so finding them is not a problem. The problem should be done, and it is desirable in a technique that is as close as possible to the technique of the ancient Egyptians, because it was very interesting. And we know enough about how they built their ships. Firstly, on the basis of reliefs on the walls of temples, and secondly, on the basis of studying the design of "solar boats".


Construction of an ancient Egyptian ship on the wall in the tomb of Ti - the overseer of the pyramids of the pharaohs Niuserra and Neferirkar in Saqqara

Egyptian ships, which originated from knitted papyrus boats, had neither a keel nor frames. They cut out the boards of the required curvature, and then connected them in a very clever way: they made holes in the boards and inserted wooden spikes into them, sawn at the ends and with wedges inserted into the cuts. When the board with its holes was put on the tenons of another, these wedges wedged the tenons, and the connection turned out to be extremely strong. In addition, the body was pulled together with ropes up and down. The ship turned out to be light, strong and load-carrying.


Reconstruction of the image from the tomb at Saqqara


The hull profile of a typical ancient Egyptian river vessel and its planking

To some extent, the technology of the ancient Egyptians can be repeated as follows. The base of the body is glued from cardboard frames and a diametrical profile. You can make two profiles so that the body blank consists of two halves.


Manufacturing technology of the hull of an Egyptian ship: 1 - deck, 2 - diametrical profile (there may be two of them), 3 - frames, 4 - plasticine, 5 - finished hull made of plasticine, 6 - planking boards made of stirring sticks

Then take the stirring sticks for coffee. They are cut into "boards" of suitable length, which are then attached to plasticine blanks as tightly as possible to each other. The first layer of cladding is obtained. Then the second layer is glued onto it with PVA glue, and so that the joining lines of the boards do not coincide. The body must dry thoroughly, after which the halves are removed from the plasticine base and cleaned with sandpaper from the inside and outside. The deck is laid on the beams. Deck planks are also made from stirring sticks. The rest of the details of the model, 30 cm long - matches, slats, plywood spatulas for ice cream. The model is painted with acrylic paints, but it is quite possible to try to mold the figures of people from plastic!
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  1. knn54
    knn54 12 May 2021 18: 12
    +8
    There are elements of the Trypillian culture. The ancient Egyptians should be grateful to the Proto-Ukrainian Makitra.
    (A joke, however).
    1. Bar1
      Bar1 13 May 2021 08: 19
      -4
      you would rather talk about the high technologies of the ancients, for example, the diorite vases in the Cairo museum, than about these primitive clay crafts.
      1. kalibr
        13 May 2021 09: 23
        +4
        Quote: Bar1
        you'd better talk about the high technologies of the ancients, for example, diorite vases in the Cairo Museum

        And they were high, these technologies? How much?
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 13 May 2021 12: 01
          0
          Quote: kalibr
          And they were high, these technologies? How much?


          a good historian. How so, and the polygonal masonry in South America - Olyamtamba, Saxuaman, etc., and the Nazca drawings, and the polygonal masonry in Kronstadt, and the Temple of Jupiter in Balbek, and the temples of India - from stone, not from clay, as yours, and the blast furnace in Istye (Russia) is a REALITY.
          You somehow wanted to find a lawyer in England for remakes from Stonehenge, but you didn’t find something, somehow. Stonehenge is a fake, which says that there were fakes and such a scale is the scale of the STATE level.
          As for the diorite vases, for a long time there has been a program on state TV - the journalist Sokolov from yours, he is trying to oppose that the pyramids can be built with copper chisels, and that, among other things, he found one needlewoman Vdovina, who undertook to make a diorite vase better than in the Cairo museum , and of course she did it, let's see.

          [media = https: //youtu.be/_nnZzJFqyas]
          1. kalibr
            13 May 2021 13: 46
            +5
            Quote: Bar1
            look.

            Poor Timur! I went through all this while still a 3rd year student of our pedagogical university. I read about all this in Tekhnika-Youth and in order not to go to agricultural work in the fall of 1975 (a daughter was born and where for a long time from her?), Offered his services to the OK Komsomol. Read lectures on the same agricultural work, but with delivery and removal on the "lawn", as an OK lecturer. The lecture was called "Mysteries of Ancient Civilizations". And, of course, they agreed. She was extraordinary in popularity until 1985. And what happened to the people when at the end I said in a grave voice: "And if they ask us where we are, we will answer; we are still flying back-n-o-o-o-o!" They clapped ... oh. And then, he sat down to think, read not only TM ... and stopped spreading all nonsense ... But I agree: all this has a strong effect on weak minds!
            1. Mihaylov
              Mihaylov 13 May 2021 14: 21
              +4
              Quote: kalibr
              "Mysteries of Ancient Civilizations".

              As a child, I liked all this terribly. I had a book at school about Machu Picchu and other Inca "riddles", I prepared a report on it and spoke with it several times, was successful. And now I have matured, left my childhood and I find it funny. wassat
              1. kalibr
                13 May 2021 15: 55
                +3
                Quote: Mihaylov
                And now I have matured, left my childhood and I find it funny.

                And me!
            2. Bar1
              Bar1 13 May 2021 14: 28
              -2
              Quote: kalibr
              But I agree: all this has a strong effect on weak minds!


              that is, "weak minds" are minds that see what is not supposed to be seen. Are there diorite vases in the Cairo museum or not, in your opinion?
              1. kalibr
                13 May 2021 15: 57
                +3
                And also, Timur, I will tell you a terrible secret, there are 300 vessels from alabaster from the tomb of Djoser and about 3000 (3 thousand) broken ones. Alabaster! True, there is a drawing on the wall - "how" and it seems to be very simple. But it fails to repeat!
                1. depressant
                  depressant 13 May 2021 17: 56
                  +3
                  Well, I also found another link, this one:

                  https://planeta.ru/campaigns/diorite_vase

                  The vase is made. We started making the second, and ...
                  What and who to believe? The Internet is like this - believe it or not. They will show what you want, and immediately refute it. In my opinion, it is better to trust professional historians.
                  Here, for example, is the Alexander Column. I also read: aliens! Meanwhile - the names and surnames of the engineers, how they were cut down, how they were transported, how they were processed, and then they were installed. And numerous eyewitness accounts. There the procurement was at the beginning - no less than 4000 tons.
                  1. kalibr
                    13 May 2021 18: 20
                    +4
                    Of course, aliens! And eyewitness accounts - they changed their memory.
                    1. depressant
                      depressant 13 May 2021 19: 10
                      +2
                      You are ironic, Vyacheslav Olegovich ...
                      And here I can't get out of the topic of propaganda, I brought out its old types, new ones, and also the prospects for development, which I could understand, and horror went through me. What will it be like for a future professional to approach an objective understanding of history? Already now we need to add our own archives and classify events. For example, an ordinary person sees an event, but it does not! Or does not see, but it is.
                      1. kalibr
                        13 May 2021 19: 16
                        +3
                        Quote: depressant
                        Already now we need to add our own archives and classify events. For example, an ordinary person sees an event, but it does not! Or does not see, but it is.

                        I wrote to you many times that you are an intelligent woman. You are 100% right. I have such an archive. Including a folder of articles from the Mysteries of the Twentieth Century. And mine and others ... And much more ...
                        Once again: you can reread my textbook "Internet Journalism and Internet Advertising" (it is free on the Internet) and "Technologies of Public Opinion Management". There are many interesting examples. You'll like it!
                      2. depressant
                        depressant 13 May 2021 19: 26
                        +2
                        She added up the secrets of the XNUMXth century, there are in several years, even disassembled them by numbers. But when this is not a professional activity, it is very difficult to navigate this pile. And there such facts are sometimes cited, but with links to sources ...
                        In general, I feel that we need to muster up the courage and make an inventory like a filing cabinet - what is in what number. But, you know, laziness. The fuse is dying out. Recently I read on the Publicist that the entire population is sunk into the water, so I am not alone.
                      3. kalibr
                        14 May 2021 07: 43
                        +3
                        Quote: depressant
                        the entire population is sunk into the water, so I am not alone.

                        You are thinking wrong. Don't like everyone else! All omitted - GOOD, Climb up, take advantage of it! Get rich on rarities. In summer, ice is rare. In winter flowers ...
              2. Bar1
                Bar1 13 May 2021 22: 12
                -1
                Quote: depressant
                What and who to believe? Internet, it is like this - believe it or not


                But this is not that. Firstly, what Vdovina did is marble, and this is a soft material, and secondly, even the marble is roughly tiled, and the Cairo diorite vases are thinnest and let light through from the inside, Vdovina cannot even do this with marble.
                Secondly, you watch until the end, there she just swung at the processing of diorite, but COULD NOT and this is exactly the video that I offered you to watch.
                That is why ancient technologies are high technologies, and what Shpakovsky and Vdovin offer us for consideration is primitive and quackery made of alabaster.
                1. depressant
                  depressant 13 May 2021 22: 43
                  +3
                  I watched this video too. There is some kind of green narrow horror put on a stick.
                2. kalibr
                  14 May 2021 07: 44
                  +2
                  Quote: Bar1
                  quackery of alabaster.

                  Quackery from Djoser's tomb ... Funny!
            3. Bar1
              Bar1 13 May 2021 22: 00
              -1
              Quote: kalibr
              And also, Timur, I will tell you a terrible secret, there are 300 vessels from alabaster from the tomb of Djoser and about 3000 (3 thousand) broken ones. Alabaster! True, there is a drawing on the wall - "how" and it seems to be very simple. But it fails to repeat!


              you can talk about clay and alabaster, but you can't talk about diorite?
              1. kalibr
                14 May 2021 07: 45
                +2
                Does someone forbid you? On the contrary, they offer to write an article. The syllable is praised!
      2. kalibr
        14 May 2021 07: 54
        +2
        Quote: Bar1
        You somehow wanted to find a lawyer in England for remakes from Stonehenge, but you didn’t find something, somehow.

        So I don't want to rewrite what is already there. They repaired it - yes, they reinforced it with concrete. But no one hid this. And it seems to me that I just wrote about this. Because I remember how I selected illustrations from old "pre-concrete manuscripts", and how a dispute came to VO when concrete appeared there. Take a look at the search engine ...
  • Catfish
    Catfish 12 May 2021 18: 46
    +10
    Meketra brings a closed lotus flower to his nose

    It seems that he brings a microphone to his mouth and commands the rowers: "a-one-two-three ... a-one-two-three ..." smile
    Very cute toys, and even visually representing for us a world that has gone into oblivion.
    Thank you, Vyacheslav, very beautiful. good
    1. kalibr
      12 May 2021 19: 14
      +13
      I'm glad you liked it. I liked them too. Only at that time no one considered them to be toys. These were important funeral attributes. In the next world, all these people had to come to life and serve their master as well as in life.
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 12 May 2021 20: 50
        +5
        Really, a whole flotilla of layouts!)))
        Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich, you continue to please.
        But in the era of my hobby for modeling, I tried not to use plasticine - it is not that "product". I put the model on the battery or on the sunny side of the window - and it "floated". I have always worked with "stronger" substances.
        It's a pity I didn't take pictures - a lot was lost, and what has survived - I don't remember where it's stored ...
        1. depressant
          depressant 13 May 2021 08: 25
          +3
          Igor, good morning!)))
          I believe that Vyacheslav Olegovich, speaking about the fact that it is possible to sculpt some parts of the reconstruction from plastic, did not mean plasticine at all, but namely plastic of a modern type.
          Professionals who create sculptures for themselves or for commercial purposes use different materials for their work. The most popular is special clay, but craftsmen also use plasticine for sculptures. This material is also used in art schools, there are even special circles, for example, modeling from sculptural plasticine for beginners.


          This is exactly sculptural plasticine. It freezes. For example, there are amateurs who, using sculptural plasticine of many colors and shades, sculpt figures and even figures up to half a meter high of the heroes of "Star Wars" and sell them via the Internet. There are those who sculpt warriors of various armies also for sale. Accordingly, there are many amateurs who buy and collect all this.
          So, this is not the plasticine of our childhood)))
          1. kalibr
            13 May 2021 09: 22
            +3
            Quote: depressant
            This is exactly sculptural plasticine. It freezes. For example, there are amateurs who, using sculptural plasticine of many colors and shades, sculpt figures and even figures up to half a meter high of the heroes of "Star Wars" and sell them via the Internet. There are those who sculpt warriors of various armies also for sale. Accordingly, there are many amateurs who buy and collect all this.
            So, this is not the plasticine of our childhood)))

            Good girl!
            1. Richard
              Richard 13 May 2021 11: 37
              +4
              I sculpt from plasticine
              Plasticine is softer than clay (c)
              1. kalibr
                13 May 2021 14: 01
                +3
                Plastic molds well too, Richard, and hardens. I used it to make ships (floating) and even submarines with a rubber motor.
  • Alexander Betonkin
    Alexander Betonkin 12 May 2021 19: 49
    +4
    It's good that the robbers didn't get to them. Thrown out or trampled, and so a visual aid from the past. Most likely, there were such "toys" in other burials, but they were found and simply thrown away. It seems to me that the arms of the figures are too long?
    1. kalibr
      12 May 2021 20: 28
      +7
      Quote: Alexander Betonkin
      It seems to me that the arms of the figures are too long?

      They did not strive too much for realism. And some have no hands at all. It wasn't that important.
      1. Alexander Betonkin
        Alexander Betonkin 14 May 2021 17: 32
        0
        Sorry for the late answer - the Internet is tight at the dacha. It just seems to me that the sculptor of these handicrafts with elongated limbs could show the presence of people of greater stature in the past world. Which by the way indicate archaeological finds. Of course I may be wrong.
        https://sell-off.livejournal.com/1045203.html
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 12 May 2021 20: 20
    +2
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, good evening. I want to reproach you: there are no clothes for a long time.
    PS
    The boats are beautiful. I would like the top boat, I like it more, willingly put it in my closet
    1. kalibr
      12 May 2021 20: 30
      +5
      Quote: Astra wild2
      I would like the top boat, I like it more, willingly put it in my closet

      A long time ago, I had the idea to establish the production of such copies for interiors and collectors. But ... the time has passed when I could have done this.
    2. kalibr
      12 May 2021 20: 35
      +5
      Quote: Astra wild2
      I want to reproach you: there are no clothes for a long time.

      There are problems with clothes. Now we are preparing material about effigii. All of this has to do with clothing. So she will go after. Now the early Middle Ages are next in turn, and this is a very complex and extensive topic.
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 13 May 2021 15: 07
        +1
        Already waiting
  • Undecim
    Undecim 12 May 2021 20: 24
    +10
    They cut the boards of the required curvature, and then connected them in a very clever way: they made holes in the boards and inserted wooden spikes into them, sawn at the ends and with wedges inserted into the cuts. When the board with its holes was put on the spikes of another, these wedges wedged the spikes, and the connection turned out to be extremely strong. In addition, the body was pulled together with ropes up and down. The ship turned out to be light, strong and load-carrying.

    There is nothing tricky about this connection. The classic "tongue-and-groove" system still used today.

    True, the Egyptians, unlike the Phoenicians, did not use dowels (open groove). On the one hand, this made it possible to quickly disassemble the skin for repair or storage, but reduced its strength, so the Egyptians additionally tied the skin with ropes.

    The fastening of the spike in the groove with a wedge is also still used.
    To repeat this technology on "coffee sticks" is not a trivial task.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 12 May 2021 20: 27
      +7
      And now a little for those who, seduced by the models of ancient Egyptian boats, decide to do something similar for themselves.

      The ancient Egyptians had about ninety types of ships, so modeling them is more than one day's work.
      1. kalibr
        12 May 2021 22: 27
        +9
        Quote: Undecim
        The ancient Egyptians had about ninety types of ships, so modeling them is more than one day's work.

        And imagine a book published in England or Japan with all the photos of these 90 models, a story about them, photos of models from museums. You can buy a good car for the fee!
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 12 May 2021 22: 38
          +9
          Can you imagine a book published in England

          Imagine.
          1. kalibr
            13 May 2021 06: 36
            +8
            I didn't know that there was one. But .. and about the models and their manufacture, I wonder, there is. That is, not about what happened, but about how to do it? And this book can be used as a source and link to it!
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 13 May 2021 06: 48
              +7
              But .. and about the models and their manufacture, I wonder, there is.

              Is there. But this is Italy.
    2. kalibr
      12 May 2021 20: 37
      +7
      Quote: Undecim
      To repeat this technology on "coffee sticks" is not a trivial task.

      So after all, only externally, without grooves and wedges-ha-ha! Everything works out great on glue.
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 12 May 2021 20: 25
    +8
    Gorgeous.
    I still hope that someday, somewhere there will be reliable information about the ancient Slavic gods, ceremonies and rituals. At least the sixth or seventh century. With the same models, it is desirable. smile
    1. kalibr
      12 May 2021 20: 32
      +7
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      somewhere there is reliable information about the ancient Slavic gods, ceremonies and rituals. At least the sixth or seventh century.

      If it is still somehow possible to collect in different sources, then where will I get you some models?
    2. mr.ZinGer
      mr.ZinGer 12 May 2021 21: 14
      +8
      This is a question for "Samsonov and K"
      1. kalibr
        12 May 2021 21: 53
        +7
        Quote: mr.ZinGer
        This is a question for "Samsonov and K"

        + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
  • Saxahorse
    Saxahorse 12 May 2021 22: 32
    +3
    The toys are just wonderful! Interesting everyday scenes from the life of the pharaoh. :)
    But there is very little information about the boats themselves. For example, did these boats have frames or a clean monocoque hull? Why do you need such a big, even huge steering paddle? Understand ..
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 12 May 2021 23: 13
      +7
      Understand ..

      https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/obzor-osnovnyh-konstruktivnyh-osobennostey-drevneegipetskih-korabley
      1. kalibr
        13 May 2021 06: 47
        +5
        Very interesting stuff!
      2. Saxahorse
        Saxahorse 14 May 2021 22: 51
        +2
        Just gorgeous stuff! Thank you!
    2. kalibr
      13 May 2021 06: 39
      +3
      Quote: Saxahorse
      For example, did these boats have frames or a clean monocoque hull?

      I wrote that there was no keel, no frames ... And with a huge steering oar, they often ... rowed. Like a fish with a tail ...
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 13 May 2021 07: 00
        +6
        I wrote that there was no keel, no frames ...

        If approached from a technical point of view, then it was necessary to indicate the elements that played the role of the power elements of the set in Egyptian shipbuilding.
      2. Saxahorse
        Saxahorse 15 May 2021 19: 43
        +1
        Quote: kalibr
        And they often rowed with a huge steering oar. Like a fish with a tail ...

        It was clearly impossible to row with such a huge drone. And so as not to try, the upper part is simply fixed in the fork of the high rack. But in a wonderful article given by the respected Undecim a little higher, I managed to see for the first time what I suspected, the tiller! A cross stick inserted into this huge oar and turned it like the stock of a modern rudder. The scheme of the rudders and later Greek and Roman triremes / triremes became immediately clear.

        But thank you very much for the article too! It was these wonderful toy figures that you discovered that helped to understand the most important and interesting structural elements of ancient ships. Thanks again!
  • tlauicol
    tlauicol 13 May 2021 05: 34
    +4
    Stunned! And this is thousands of years before all the Sylvanian Familis and the plastic Star!
    How much would such a collection cost now?
    1. kalibr
      13 May 2021 06: 40
      +3
      Quote: Tlauicol
      How much would such a collection cost now?

      Establish relatively cheap production and ... it will be money!
      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol 13 May 2021 07: 57
        +3
        no, I meant the cost of these 3500 summer sets. no price, probably
        1. kalibr
          13 May 2021 09: 19
          +7
          Quote: Tlauicol
          no, I meant the cost of these 3500 summer sets. no price, probably

          Got it! THE COST IS EXTREMELY !!! In fact, you can't even buy or sell them ...
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 13 May 2021 10: 26
            +4
            Got it! THE COST IS EXTREMELY !!! In fact, you can't even buy or sell them ...

            Just steal and sell at an underground auction "not for everyone" ... recourse
            Vyacheslav Olegovich, your themes about models evoke pleasant feelings in people, so we look forward to continuing! drinks
            1. Mihaylov
              Mihaylov 13 May 2021 10: 37
              +6
              Quote: Pane Kohanku
              Just steal and sell at an underground auction "not for everyone" ..

              Good afternoon Nikolai,
              for this, a small war is arranged in the country and soon the richest collections of museums in this country are slowly migrating to private collections. As we have recently observed in the example of several countries. hi
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 13 May 2021 10: 41
                +4
                As we have recently observed in the example of several countries.

                Well, the goals of the war are most likely more global, but the fact that valuables are also exported under the guise of a general noise is the true truth, Sergei! yes
                1. Mihaylov
                  Mihaylov 13 May 2021 10: 44
                  +4
                  Quote: Pane Kohanku
                  Well, the goals of the war are likely more global.

                  Of course, but one thing does not interfere with the other, and I can suggest that rich collectors are very animated when they see on TV that a military operation has begun in another country to "force it to democracy."
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 13 May 2021 10: 50
                    +3
                    Of course, but one thing does not interfere with the other, and I can suggest that rich collectors are very animated when they see on TV that a military operation has begun in another country to "force it to democracy."

                    I agree completely! It should already be like a mania for some.
                    1. Mihaylov
                      Mihaylov 13 May 2021 10: 52
                      +3
                      Quote: Pane Kohanku
                      I agree completely! It should already be like a mania for some.

                      Have you seen The Best Offer movie?
                      It is very indicative in this regard. hi
                      1. depressant
                        depressant 13 May 2021 11: 31
                        +4
                        So, it would seem, what could be so interesting in terms of historical values ​​in Afghanistan? In the same place, the war has been going on for several generations. Well, at one time I heard that for some reason the extremists shot two huge rock sculptures of Buddha (I remember my surprise: do these savages have such a thing?). For centuries, those sculptures stood, did not interfere with anyone - neither the Afghans, nor the British, nor all subsequent "curators". And then they took and shot! It turns out because they could not be sold.
                        During the civil war of 1979-1989, power in Afghanistan was seized by the Taliban, trained and funded by the United States, Britain, and others. During the hostilities, the exhibits of the National Museum of Kabul were looted and most were sold at auctions, and the museum building itself was bombed. To hide the traces of the robbery? The fate of many of the exhibits is still unknown. What they could not sell was destroyed. Much later, she said that almost simultaneously with the destruction of two large rock statues of Buddha, a precious collection of Buddhist statues in the National Museum of Kabul was destroyed.
                      2. Mihaylov
                        Mihaylov 13 May 2021 11: 36
                        +3
                        Quote: depressant
                        During the hostilities, the exhibits of the National Museum of Kabul were looted and most were sold at auctions.

                        A similar situation is in Iraq, and the other day I watched a program about Syrian museums - everything is the same. hi
                      3. depressant
                        depressant 13 May 2021 12: 06
                        +2
                        Both in Iraq and in Cairo! They impudently came in and took what had been ordered in advance by collectors. At first I did not understand why the museum was bombed in Kabul? Why were many of the exhibits in the Baghdad Museum deliberately damaged? And for this it was necessary that the value of those remaining in private ownership, as well as in museums of the West, increases. The fewer exhibits on any culture, the more unique they are. And, as it were, a signal is given: in the museums of the USA and Europe - it is reliable. And in yours - expect guests who are not burdened with awe in front of historical values. And the signal: it’s not yours, they say, it’s culture, it wasn’t your ancestors who created it, you have no history, therefore you are nobody, no claims are accepted.
                      4. Bar1
                        Bar1 13 May 2021 12: 20
                        -1
                        Quote: depressant
                        Both in Iraq and in Cairo!

                        about diorite vases, the author knows nothing about them.

                        [media = https: //youtu.be/_nnZzJFqyas]
                      5. Richard
                        Richard 13 May 2021 15: 00
                        +3
                        about diorite vases, the author knows nothing.

                        Hello dear, Pavel. hi
                        Take and write about them yourself. The topic is very interesting. There will definitely be reader excitement. Your syllable is good. There is a lot of material on the internet on this topic. There is a photo of not only vases but also other products. In the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, for example, a diorite statue of Pharaoh Khafra is exhibited.
                        a photo statue of Pharaoh Khafra. Ancient kingdom, IV dynasty. Valley of the Temple of Khafra, Giza, dark green diorite. Egyptian Museum. Cairo





                        On the stele of black diorite, the Code of Laws of Hammurabi (XNUMXth century BC) was carved - the oldest surviving legislative collection. No less famous is the statue of Gudea made of diorite - the Sumerian ruler of the state of Lagash (XXII century BC).
                        a photo.Gudea statue, Louvre

                        I will wait with great interest for your article about this in the history section
                        Dmitriy
                    2. Richard
                      Richard 13 May 2021 13: 32
                      +6
                      Shortly before the withdrawal of Soviet troops, the director of the National Museum, Omara Khan Massoudi, decided to hide the collection. With his own hand, he and a few like-minded people packed the exhibits into newspapers and hid them. From 1988 to 2003, the treasures lay in the basement of the presidential palace. Not a single person let it slip. Thanks to this, the collection has been preserved.
                      Everything that they did not have time to hide - perished, plundered or destroyed, like those two stone Buddhas that stood in Bamiyan.
                      In 2009, the collection of the Kabul National Museum was exhibited in Russia
                      a photo thicket with bearded bulls, gold, 2200 - 1900 BC

                      a photo plaque from the burial in Ai-Khanum - The goddess Cybele is depicted on a chariot, gilded silver, early. 3 c. BC.

                      a photo glass goblet depicting a collection of dates. 1-2 century.

                      a photo Folding female crown, gold, 1st century.

                      a photo Buddhist ritual object, ivory, 8th century.

                      a huge number of photos from this exhibition on the site https://tiny-rat.livejournal.com/161303.html
                      PS Lyudmila Yakovlevna, the Taliban ruled Afghanistan from 1996 to 2001
                    3. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 13 May 2021 15: 12
                      +5
                      photo Buddhist ritual object, ivory, 8th century.

                      It is interesting that along the edges of the ritual object "the very symbols" are located. hi
                    4. Mihaylov
                      Mihaylov 13 May 2021 15: 17
                      +5
                      Quote: Pane Kohanku
                      "the same symbols" are located.

                      Nikolay, if you go to the Hermitage, for example, to the Greek hall, you can enjoy these symbols to the fullest. hi
                      As it was with Raikin: "- In the Greek hall, in the Greek hall ..." wassat
                    5. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 13 May 2021 16: 46
                      +5
                      As it was with Raikin: "- In the Greek hall, in the Greek hall ..."

                      Sergei, and we don't have a bust of my beloved Vespasian in the Hermitage, in an hour? winked
                      But no, there is! French sculptor. XVII century

                      And there is also a cameo! good

                      After the revival of the traditions of Hellenistic glyptics in the era of Nero, the conversion of the unknown master of the 70s is not surprising. XNUMXst century to such an archaic device as a cameo made of a single-color mineral. The author of the portrait of Emperor Vespasian chose a transparent purple amethyst. Depicted face-to-face, the good-natured and simple emperor-soldier is completely devoid of all the traditional features of officialdom in this portrait: we do not see any external attributes of power - a laurel wreath, a commander's shell, etc. Historians say that Vespasian was an opponent of luxury and unjustified "expenses to the representation ". When the servile senators issued a decree to erect statues of gold for him, according to legend, instead of protesting, stretching out his palm, he said: "Come on, here is a pedestal for them!" In a long series of mask portraits, this human face evokes sympathy.
                    6. Mihaylov
                      Mihaylov 13 May 2021 16: 54
                      +2
                      Quote: Pane Kohanku
                      And we don't have a bust of my beloved Vespasian in the Hermitage, in an hour?

                      Strange, for some reason he seemed different to me, I thought he was thin, but here he is kind of plump ... hi
                      - Bronze bust of Alexander III. Can serve as a paperweight. More, it seems, is not good for anything. A bust of Alexander III comes from the offered price.
                      The audience whinnied.
                      - Buy, leader, - Ostap quipped, - you seem to love!
                      Ippolit Matveyevich did not take his eyes from the chairs and was silent.
                      wassat
                    7. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 13 May 2021 17: 00
                      +4
                      Strange, for some reason he seemed different to me, I thought he was thin, but here he is kind of plump ...

                      Yes, on the second day it is no longer a soldier emperor, but a benevolent, cheerful chubby. "Life is a success!" bully A fighter with free toilets, by the way! good
                    8. The comment was deleted.
                    9. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 13 May 2021 17: 10
                      +5
                      He succeeded in the phrase about not smelling money. In principle, he can be considered the founder not of the water utility, but of the department that collects fees for wastewater disposal. laughing
          2. Richard
            Richard 13 May 2021 15: 23
            +6
            The word "swastika" is of Indian origin, but the symbol itself is more ancient and did not appear in India. This symbol has been found since 8 thousand years BC. BC, presumably crystallized from the rhombo-meander ornament, which first appeared in the Late Paleolithic. Such signs are found on clay vessels from Susa (the territory of modern Iran), and in the monuments of ancient art of China and Japan: on Neolithic ceramics, bone products and in bronze vessels of the Shang and Zhou periods (2-1 millennia BC). ...
            The word consists of two Sanskrit roots: सु, su - "good, good" and अस्ति, asti - "to be, to be," that is, "prosperity" or "prosperity."
          3. Mihaylov
            Mihaylov 13 May 2021 15: 58
            +5
            Quote: Richard
            The word consists of two Sanskrit roots: सु, su - "good, good" and अस्ति, asti - "to be, to be," that is, "prosperity" or "prosperity."

            Hmm, and I always thought that sous is a small French coin, and asti is the name of champagne .. wassat
          4. Richard
            Richard 13 May 2021 16: 31
            +6
            then I wish you well-being not in Sanskrit, but in your interpretation:
            so that you always have champagne and change your pocket change drinks
          5. Mihaylov
            Mihaylov 13 May 2021 16: 33
            +5
            Quote: Richard
            then I wish you well-being not in Sanskrit, but in your interpretation:
            so that you always have champagne and change your pocket change

            Thank you, otherwise more and more "the cold wind is pulling the last money out of my hands" wassat
          6. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 13 May 2021 16: 56
            +4
            Thank you, otherwise more and more "the cold wind is pulling the last money out of my hands"

            Cold wind ... Is that how we now need to name the reason for our spending? I'll write it down ...
            Situation: I came home drunk and without money.
            A question for you: Where is the money to do?
            You: Hic .. X-cold wind out-x-enough ...
          7. Mihaylov
            Mihaylov 13 May 2021 16: 59
            +2
            Quote: Pane Kohanku
            Cold wind ... Is that how we now need to name the reason for our spending? I'll write it down ...

            Main costs:
            1) the cold wind snatched from the hands
            2) thrown into the abyss wassat
          8. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 13 May 2021 17: 07
            +4
            thrown into the abyss

            - Wine .. Broke .. Two bottles ..
            - Three!
            - Write - three ...
          9. Richard
            Richard 13 May 2021 21: 48
            +2
            "the wind snatches the last money from the hands"

            The songs of Sergei Chigarkov have long been sorted out by the people by quotations.
            And his 2004 Grammy nominated "Crossroads" was named by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences among the best rock blues of our time.
  • Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 13 May 2021 16: 54
    +5
    and asti is the name of champagne ..

    Asti is a dumb singer with dubious vocal abilities (girls, sorry!), Who, together with her boyfriend, are regularly played on Europa Plus. lol But to discuss it - ethno Sea Cat as a partner is needed! wink drinks
  • Undecim
    Undecim 13 May 2021 12: 40
    +6
    During the 1979-1989 civil war, the Taliban seized power in Afghanistan

    In the years you indicated, no Taliban existed.
    The Taliban emerged as an organized movement in August 1994. The Taliban came to power in 1996. But in the fact that they appeared, the introduction of Soviet troops into Afghanistan played a very significant role.
  • depressant
    depressant 13 May 2021 13: 13
    +3
    Oh, this internet!
    I told you you won't find the truth there. For example, right now I have been given information that in 1994 the Taliban had just emerged, and was not at all an organized movement. Another source says that the Taliban, supported by the Islamists of Pakistan, among other movements took place even before 1989 as a response to the atrocities of the Afghan military leadership and even minor officers ...
    In general, I read it - there is a snake ball, into which the Soviets initially did not have to meddle. But, apparently, someone then came up with a convenient scheme of how else to steal money from the state treasury.
    God bless them! They were morally corrupted by the British for a long time, these people interest me insofar as they had a museum, it was plundered and bombed. How much hatred the primal vice contains!
  • Richard
    Richard 13 May 2021 13: 36
    +7
    Bamian 1983
    the second sculpture, unfortunately, was not included in the frame
  • depressant
    depressant 13 May 2021 14: 49
    +2
    It remains to be surprised at the sprouts of culture in the form of a seemingly useless museum in Kabul in a utilitarian sense. Who needs it among the flowering fields of future poppy straws? It is exciting and scary for the bright souls who grow not poppies, but culture. Irresistible attraction.
  • kalibr
    13 May 2021 14: 03
    +5
    Quote: Pane Kohanku
    waiting for the continuation!

    About the model will be ... We all come from childhood!
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 13 May 2021 14: 19
      +4
      We all come from childhood!

      These were the very words I wanted to say ... But I didn’t. yes
  • depressant
    depressant 13 May 2021 12: 44
    +5
    Well, who cares! )))
    For example, I was interested in the third and fifth photographs - "Cowshed" and "Slaughterhouse". There are black and white cows, the so-called Dutch, as well as the ham of such a cow. This is not so much a meat herd as a dairy herd. I believed that the Egyptians' cows were small, skinny, milk was like goats. And on the figurines there are quite decent cows of a rather modern look. Not Dutch, of course, but still.
    1. kalibr
      13 May 2021 14: 09
      +5
      Lyudmila Yakovlevna! Egypt is a country of millennial culture. People always want to live well. Bred both meat and dairy breeds. I advise you to read a very interesting book about Egypt "If the Sphinx spoke" - by Guy Petronius Amatuni. Don't be lazy, read it!
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 13 May 2021 20: 01
        +5
        People always want to live well.
        First of all, people, as biological subjects, are hungry. In this sense, the person has not gone far from the ciliate shoe.
        Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
        1. kalibr
          14 May 2021 07: 47
          +3
          Dear Anton! You are a well-read person, but all the same I will risk to offer you this book ...
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 14 May 2021 07: 52
            +2
            Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
            I have a habit of putting everything proposed for review in a separate file.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Andobor
      Andobor 13 May 2021 14: 14
      +4
      Quote: depressant
      cows of the black and white breed, the so-called Dutch, as well as the ham of such a cow. This is not so much a meat herd as a dairy herd.

      Cows in Egypt were often kept at temples, for the sake of milk, which was used in rituals, and by that time the beginning of the 2nd millennium there were already more than 1000 years of such selection, the Dutch do not have this age.
      And meat, beef was an elite product, not available for regular consumption by the population, they ate pork, sheep, goats, and poultry.
      No matter how massively cows were raised in the Nile Delta, on wetlands not suitable for farming, there was not enough of them for the entire population.
  • depressant
    depressant 13 May 2021 21: 57
    +3
    Yes, that's what the gaze still lingered on - the cedar boat of the sun god. Presumably from the Lebanese cedar.
    The Lebanese cedar survived the axes of the ancient Egyptians and Phoenicians. The palace of King Solomon in Jerusalem was built from Lebanese cedar.
    And who else has not chopped the Lebanese cedar!
    Few trees were saved from complete destruction only in well-protected high-mountain reserves. They form the Divine Cedar Forest, protected by UNESCO and numerous public and political organizations. But the heat coming on the planet began to take its toll. The giant cedars began to die from it in dozens. Trees, which sometimes reach thousands of years old, were unable to respond to global environmental changes. This process went so quickly that very old trees simply could not adapt. Warming cannot be stopped, and one can only hope for a miracle or for the trees themselves.
    In addition, global climate change has given birth to new diseases and insects that could quickly end the entire cedar population. In the Tannurin cedar park-reserve, younger cedars are trying to climb higher and higher into the mountains, and the height of 1800 meters is far from the limit for them. Striving to survive, trees show miracles of resourcefulness, trying to grow on bare stones.
    The Lebanese view the possible disappearance of the cedar as a tragedy. After all, the cedar is on their flag.
    Years will pass, and perhaps the boat of the sun god will become one of the few items made from ancient Lebanese cedar.