Military Review

Unique and forgotten: the birth of the Soviet missile defense

47

Diagram of a modern American missile defense system


If you ask anyone what area of ​​science and technology in the USSR was the most resource-intensive and was at its peak, required the infusion of astronomical funds and, in the end, failed, which indirectly contributed to the collapse of the Soviet idea as such, then many will call anything - from space race to generalized military technology. In fact, this role was played by one specific part of the preparation for a potential war - the creation of a missile defense system. As a result, it was the missile defense system (which never really worked) that absorbed more money than the nuclear missile and space programs combined! The answer to the question, how did this happen, and this cycle will serve, which will take us to the early 1960s, so that we can follow everything through the development of domestic missile defense: from the inception to the 1972 ABM Treaty.

Introduction


The race for space was a matter of prestige (in which we even took 2 colossal prizes - the first satellite and the first man in space), and not the survival of the country and the imposition of our political will on the world. The military-industrial complex absorbed huge, unrealistically gigantic money. But production tanks and even nuclear missiles - the task is generally trivial (especially considering that the groundwork for missiles we and the Americans had at the start was approximately the same, and it grew from the same place - the legendary German Peenemünde test site). Problem number one, the most important and topical, requiring an unimaginable amount of money (only for the project of three over-the-horizon radars "Duga" more than 600 million rubles were killed - an amount that could have been used to build more than one tank army!) all the really best minds in the country, was the creation of a defense against nuclear missiles.

We are not joking about more than one army! As of 1987, the cost of the T-72B1 tank was 236930 rubles, the T-72B - 283370 rubles. T-64B1 cost 271970 rubles, T-64B - 358000 rubles. If we talk about a more adequate vehicle in terms of creation time and combat qualities, the T-80UD, then in the same 1987 it cost 733000 rubles. Back in December 1960, the office of the chief of tank forces was created and the post of chief of tank forces was introduced. In total, by the beginning of the 1960s, 8 tank armies were deployed only in the western theater of operations. In 1987, the USSR already had an unimaginable 53,3 thousand tanks. One tank army consisted of approximately 1250 tanks. As a result, in 1987 prices (and the Duga radar station was developed from 1975 to 1985 and was put into operation at about the same time), the cost of the project could be used to build 2 full-fledged tank armies from T-72 or one from T-80 ...

Taking into account how domestic generals adored the great tank armada (for example, only in the USSR after the war there was the title of Marshal of armored forces), one can imagine what it would have been like for them to sacrifice a couple of thousand more tanks in exchange for a radar station. But they donated. And more than once.

In principle, it is obvious why this happened.

Tanks and warheads - weapon offensive and, by the standards of the most complex missile defense system, relatively low-tech. There is nothing particularly difficult in creating a rocket that (in its simplest version) would fly into space along a ballistic trajectory, and then itself would fall on the enemy's continent (as you know, even the Germans coped with this back in 1942, when the first test run V-2). Taking into account the power of the charge and the number of these missiles, special accuracy was not required - something would hit, and that would be enough.

But no opposition is possible without the balance of the shield and sword. The anti-missile defense systems were supposed to become a shield against the missile threat. And this task was much more important: without a working missile defense system, the Soviet Union turned out to be a naked giant with a nuclear club. You try to attack, and the American missile defense system will shoot down (in theory) everything that you have released, and the response will be crushing. This was especially true at the end of the 1950s, when the United States already had more than 1600 warheads, while the USSR had only a modest 150.

In such circumstances, the idea of ​​taking a risk and trying to end the "evil empire" was very tempting and warmed some American generals. The absence of a reliable shield against missiles in general devalued the entire nuclear race and all types of offensive weapons. What is the use of them if the enemy is protected from you, but you are not from him?

As a result, the creation of an effective missile defense system has become the number one problem in the Union (note that it has not been completely resolved). When Reagan announced the initiation of the "Star Wars" program, which was supposed to become an absolute shield against Soviet missiles, it was tantamount to announcing that the next round against a barely alive and almost not standing boxer would come out straight from the tin Mike Tyson. It turned out that it didn’t matter that the SDI program had failed (and it could not have failed) - by the beginning of the 1980s the USSR was monstrously exhausted, and 80% of this exhaustion arose precisely thanks to the missile defense race.

As a result, even the rumor that the new American system would surpass everything we had finally broke the spirit of the Politburo. Nobody objected to the beginning of perestroika. Everyone understood that either that way, or in another year or two, the USSR would collapse by itself already without any Gorbachev. The Cold War was lost, the United States won. Thanks to hundreds of times better money management and skillful bluffing. It was a conflict of attrition. The first world economic systems and armchair scientists - and the USSR broke down earlier.

Yu.V. Revich, a researcher at the Federal State Unitary Enterprise OKB OT RAS, later a journalist of the publishing house "Computerra" in the field of information technologies, recalls:

“The anti-missile defense of the USSR was one of the most significant projects of the Soviet era, and not only due to the crazy scale of the funds and resources spent. The availability of advanced means of defense against missile attacks in the USSR became one of the main factors that determined the entire world political landscape of the second half of the 1940th century. All political disagreements and differences in the marks of assessment of the Soviet system pale before the fact that the way out of the Cold War, especially in its initial stage (late 1960s - early XNUMXs), was only in turning it into a "hot" one. The world had rather big chances to burn out in a thermonuclear furnace ... The very realization of the fact that nuclear weapons are an irrelevant means of suppressing the enemy, applicable in combat conditions on an equal basis with others, and only a weapon of deterrence, preventing the development of events according to a catastrophic scenario, did not come on both sides of the barricades. right away. And the presence of a workable missile defense system on one of the parties ... became one of the main factors that all this time cooled hotheads until the very idea of ​​an atomic war turned into a kind of abstraction. "


Launch of a Soviet missile defense system. Photo: RIA News

Interlude


This interlude is needed to make readers understand what was at stake in the late 1950s, when the missile defense race was just beginning.

It was an order of magnitude easier for the Americans: both psychologically and economically - they threw a bone in the form of a couple of billions to the largest corporations, watched how they fought and fought for it for a couple of years, chose the best system based on the results of the massacre and put it into service. The money spent by the United States was repaid by the fact that hundreds of by-products resulting from the race were put into commercial circulation and began to be sold around the world. Own costs are almost zero - efficiency is almost 100%, repeat the required number of times.

In the USSR, everything was absolutely different.

The design bureau and research institute fought in the same way for the attention of the party, but at stake was either great fame, orders, honor and full support until the end of their days, streets named in your honor, and so on - or the loss of everything: reputation, position, money, awards, work, and possibly freedom. As a result, the heat of competition was not just monstrous - it was thermonuclear. For missile defense was not spared anything at all - no resources, astronomical amounts of money (awards for development reached tens of thousands of rubles unimaginable by the standards of the USSR), orders, titles and awards. People burned out, dying from heart attacks and strokes at the age of 40-50, trying to literally gnaw at competing developments with their teeth and push their own.

Unique and forgotten: the birth of the Soviet missile defense
Footage from the chronicle of test launches of the Soviet V-1000 - the first full-fledged anti-missile in the world (from the book by V. Korovin, Rocket "Fakel". M., MKB "Fakel", 2003)

It is necessary to take into account the complete dimness of the party officials, transferring the battle from the field of intelligence to the field of the ability to press, push, lick, disgrace, and brought up all the worst human qualities. Moreover, this led to the fact that, as a result of the titanic battles of ministries and party bureaucrats for money and stars, the country was generally left without a more or less effective missile defense system. More precisely, without computers that could provide it.

And it was precisely in these millstones that the unfortunate magnificent M-9/10 computer Kartseva, and the Almaz project, and other developments, which will be discussed below, fell. We will quote Yu.V. Revich again:

«History the creation of missile defense was indeed quite dramatic in terms of personal relationships: it was the creation of missile defense among all the significant projects of the Soviet era that suffered the most from the never-ending war of departmental and personal interests. In this, missile defense has far surpassed not only the relatively peaceful in this respect atomic project, but also the rocket and space program, where there were also plenty of conflicts. It probably affected the fact that, unlike the science-intensive nuclear and missile industries, missile defense missions never succumbed to a clear formulation so that once and for all choose the optimal path of development and steadily follow it. In the global setting (“to protect the territory of the country from any means of nuclear attack”), the task turned out to be unsolvable, and for partial solutions there were many competing paths, each of which pulled for a separate program at the state level. In the face of threats, the analysis of which required fundamental technical knowledge, the military was also often at a loss and could not formulate clear requirements for the most complex systems created in a state of time trouble. As a result, the program was slowed down, ugly and nowhere leading parallel projects appeared, funds, time and resources were scattered and flowed into the sand. "

All this was superimposed on the fact that at the beginning of its creation, even those who were sensibly versed in missile technology had no idea how a potential missile defense system would work. For example, VN Chelomey, the general designer of launch vehicles (and also not weakly fighting for his projects with Korolev), proposed the "Taran" system. According to his "expert" (in the field of missile defense, he was an excellent designer of missiles), all American missiles were supposed to fly to the USSR in a relatively narrow corridor near the North Pole. In this regard, he simply proposed to block this corridor with his UR-100 ballistic missiles carrying a multi-megaton thermonuclear charge.

The absurdity of the idea was probably understood by all competent people, but Khrushchev's son Sergei Nikitich worked for Chelomey, and Khrushchev was very fond of simple and understandable solutions. The only new object in the system was to be a multichannel radar TsSO-S developed by A. L. Mints (a man who played a significant role in the death of the A-35 project and all the computers involved, but more on that later). Academician MV Keldysh calculated that to destroy 100 Minuteman warheads (one megaton each), it would be necessary to arrange nuclear illumination from the simultaneous explosion of 200 UR-100 anti-missile missiles, 10 megatons each. However, at the end of 1964, Khrushchev was removed, and the development of this madness ended by itself.

After such an introduction, it becomes clear that missile defense is an extremely important thing and its development (especially in the USSR) was a daunting task. In this series of articles, we will focus on perhaps the most important component of it - invaluable targeting computers, without which all other elements - radars and missiles - are a useless heap of scrap metal. And anyhow, what kind of computer will not suit us - including general purpose. We need a specialized, powerful machine for solving specific problems. And with computers, even ordinary ones, at the end of the 1950s in the USSR, everything was rather sad. To outline the bridgehead, we will continue talking about this in the next articles of our cycle.

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  1. Victor Tsenin
    Victor Tsenin 12 May 2021 18: 15
    +7
    Very interesting, I look forward to continuing. The statement that there is no missile defense system of the Russian Federation, in fact, is somewhat incomprehensible, while there is an A-135 and an A-235 on the way, coupled with the approaching S-500. But, I think, the thought will be revealed in the following articles, in general, in impatience)
    1. lucul
      lucul 12 May 2021 19: 14
      0
      The statement is somewhat incomprehensible that the missile defense system of the Russian Federation, in fact, is not.


      )))
    2. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 13 May 2021 03: 16
      +10
      Quote: Victor Tsenin
      Very interesting, I look forward to continuing.

      Is it necessary, is it a continuation? The author's level of analytics and knowledge was revealed almost immediately:
      It is necessary to take into account the complete dimness of the party officials, transferring the battle from the field of intelligence to the area of ​​the ability to press, push, lick, disgrace, and brought up all the worst human qualities.
      1. Victor Tsenin
        Victor Tsenin 13 May 2021 03: 37
        +1
        You know, even the devil has a right to be heard. I think you, as I saw in the article news and the continuation will not hurt)
        1. Vladimir_2U
          Vladimir_2U 13 May 2021 03: 40
          +6
          Quote: Victor Tsenin
          I think you, as I saw in the article news and the continuation will not hurt)
          Well, if the phrases a la "Ogonyok" of the early 90s are news, then yes, news.
          1. Victor Tsenin
            Victor Tsenin 13 May 2021 08: 57
            +1
            Well, no, still not to that extent) There are both wise thoughts of technical intelligence and interesting technical facts, it is necessary to let the author reveal the topic.
            1. Vladimir_2U
              Vladimir_2U 13 May 2021 09: 30
              +2
              Quote: Victor Tsenin
              There are both wise thoughts of technical intelligence and interesting technical facts, it is necessary to let the author reveal the topic.

              Specifically, in this part of the article, there is neither one nor the other!
              1. Victor Tsenin
                Victor Tsenin 13 May 2021 10: 10
                +4
                I am sorry that you did not see Revici's interesting opinion, tank prices, or other interesting points. It's too early for the protest stage.
                1. Vladimir_2U
                  Vladimir_2U 13 May 2021 10: 14
                  +1
                  Neither news, nor even more wise thoughts are attracted by this.
                  I am sorry that you do not understand this.
                  1. Victor Tsenin
                    Victor Tsenin 13 May 2021 10: 26
                    0
                    Now I understand, don't be sorry.
      2. DIM (a)
        DIM (a) 17 May 2021 22: 56
        +1
        Vladimir, I absolutely agree with you, if you blot out fabrications, reasoning and assumptions ... there remains ... a couple of short paragraphs. (
        Remembers Yu.V. Revich, a researcher at the Federal State Unitary Enterprise OKB OT RAS, later a journalist

        what kind of expert is it not clear? Considering that "FGUP" is mentioned, it worked already in the 2000s ... how sideways it is with developments in the 50s ...
        bickering of American companies is the norm, and Soviet design bureaus are something vile ...
        in general, for such a text that something useful from the information is 10% and this is a stretch.
        if you compare something with something by price, you need to unfold the picture more fully, some scraps are not connected ...
    3. Ilya_Nsk
      Ilya_Nsk 13 May 2021 10: 44
      +1
      for a missile defense system to be useful, there must be more A-series missiles than warheads (not missiles, but warheads, which have their own targets and may already be separated by the time of interception). And how many of them? YES and ABM protects, in my opinion, only Moscow ...
      1. Victor Tsenin
        Victor Tsenin 13 May 2021 10: 51
        0
        Well, everyone knows, they wrote everything correctly. However, there is missile defense, albeit local, but complete. There is even nothing to broadcast about warheads, because as they say, dark times await, God forbid.
  2. paul3390
    paul3390 12 May 2021 18: 17
    +19
    And with computers, even ordinary ones, at the end of the 1950s in the USSR, everything was rather sad


    Yah???

    5E261, 5E261 / 2, 5E262, 5E265, 5E265 / 6, 5E266 - control, air defense, see CVK and S-300 [1]
    5E89 - MNII 1, SVM Course - Ya. A. Khetagurov (TsMNII-1), 1959 [2]
    9V51 (9V51B) - a two-address specialized digital computer based on ferrite-transistor cells, working with numbers presented in the form with a fixed point, which has been used since the mid-1960s to calculate the calculated data for the launch of R-17 8K14 and 8K14-1 missiles missile system 9K72 "Elbrus"
    Aragats
    AS-6 - interface equipment, see BESM-6
    BESM: BESM-1, BESM-2, BESM-3, BESM-3M, BESM-4, BESM-4M, BESM-6
    Spring and Snow
    Diana, Diana-2 - control machines in real-time control systems, 1955 [3]
    Dnipro, Dnipro-2
    KVM-1 - NIIUVM
    Kiev
    Ray [4]
    M: M-1, M-2, M-3 (VNIIEM, Boris Kagan and Vladimir Dolkart, development into Minsk and Hrazdan series machines), M-3M, M-4, M-5, M-7, M-9 , M-10, M-13, M-20, M-40, M-50, M-100, M-220, M-220A, M-222, M-400, M-5000 lt: M5000, M- 6000, M-7000
    MARS
    Minsk: Minsk-1, Minsk-2, Minsk-22, Minsk-32
    Minsk-222 - multi-machine complex
    MIR: MIR-1, MIR-2, MIR-3

    MN-10M

    MN (nonlinear models) [5]: MN-2, MN-3, MN-4, MN-5, MN-7, MN-7M, MN-8, MN-9, MN-10, MN-10M, MN -11, MN-14 [1], MN-14-1, MN-14-2, MN-17, MN-17M, MN-18
    MESM
    MPPI-1 [6]
    Nairi: Nairi-1, Nairi-K, Nairi-M, Nairi-S, Nairi-2, Nairi-3, Nairi-4, Nairi-34
    Promin
    Hrazdan, Hrazdan-2, Hrazdan-3
    RVM-1, relay, development 1954-1957, operation until 1965, developer NI Bessonov [7]
    Ruta-110
    Setun, Setun-70
    SPD-9000 - data preparation system [8]
    Spectrum-4, lamp, 1959, air defense system
    Arrow
    Bowstring - NIIAA, N. Ya. Matyukhin, Minsk, Air Defense, 1960
    UM: UM-1NKh - civilian version; UM1 - control computer for submarines, developed by F.G. Staros and I.V. Berg
    Ural: URAL-1, URAL-2, URAL-3, URAL-4, URAL-11, URAL-14, URAL-16
    MCVM "MEPhI"
    TSUM-1
    TsEM-1 and TsEM-2 [9]
    EBT Neva 501
    EMU (electronic simulators): EMU-1, EMU-2, EMU-3, EMU-4, EMU-5, EMU-6, EMU-8, EMU-8a, EMU-10
    1. Avior
      Avior 12 May 2021 19: 15
      +6
      sorry, in your list the word "computer" is interpreted in a very broad sense.
      It lists not only digital computers, but also analog ones, ABM, for example, the MN series. I even managed to work with MH-7 in my early student years. We set the odds in it with a sharpened coin :)
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 12 May 2021 19: 43
        +6
        When testing the first prototype missile defense in the early 60s, the RAM (as they were then called) was 48 kb. Everything else was done by analog computers.
      2. paul3390
        paul3390 12 May 2021 20: 42
        +4
        Well - we're not talking about smartphones or laptops, are we? And about what the USSR could be adapted for military needs, in particular - air defense. At that time - and analog to the place fell.
        1. Avior
          Avior 12 May 2021 22: 00
          +2
          unlikely
          The family name is an abbreviation of the words “nonlinear model”.

          Most analog machines of the MN series are designed to solve Cauchy problems for ordinary differential equations.

          I don't really know how? This is not a computer in the modern sense of the word.
          1. Ilya_Nsk
            Ilya_Nsk 13 May 2021 10: 50
            +1
            And I remember her, in our techie there was and was a dissonant subject MMND - mathematical machines of continuous action, later renamed "analog computers". At the laboratories, we solved the problem of anti-aircraft artillery fire at an aircraft and something else, but even in the process of study (early 80s), their futility became clear to us, as, incidentally, to the authorities, and in the tests we were not much "beaten". ..
    2. Virus-free crown
      Virus-free crown 12 May 2021 19: 18
      0
      Quote: paul3390
      And with computers, even ordinary ones, at the end of the 1950s in the USSR, everything was rather sad


      Yah???


      The author wanted to say not about quality - but about quantity hi
      Almost all the computers you listed occupied (if you count on a circle) buildings comparable to 3-4-5 + room apartments - this is for a start))) therefore it was at that time that the heyday of analog computers began (and ended) (and in vain, before so far, according to some parameters in certain areas, analog computers are "plugged in" digital computers)
      1. paul3390
        paul3390 12 May 2021 20: 40
        +6
        Duc - at that time it was the same in the West ..
    3. Serg koma
      Serg koma 13 May 2021 18: 22
      +2
      Quote: paul3390
      Yah???
      drinks
      The author meant Pentium 100. Don't you understand laughing
      The author is especially touched when it comes to 1967-1973
      Recalls Yu.V. Revich, Researcher, FGUP OKB OT RAS

      For reference :
      Yu.V. Revich was born in Moscow in 1953, In 1976 graduated from the Moscow Institute of Fine Chemical Technology
      After the institute he worked at the Department of Processes and Apparatuses and at the Computing Center of the Institute (at the Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics under the guidance of Professor A.V. Netushil), studied computer programming "MIR-2"
      1980-1984 - employee of the ACS department of the Ministry of Medical Industry
      Since 1984, an employee (later - head of the metrology department) of the Experimental Design Bureau of Oceanological Technology of the Institute of Oceanology of the USSR Academy of Sciences (in 1991 it became an independent Federal State Unitary Enterprise OKB OT RAS
      And now about "the unfortunate magnificent computer M-9/10 Kartseva" from the words of MOST (and not according to the "recollections" of a schoolboy-student) M. A. Kartsev:
      “In 1967 we came out with a rather daring project for the M-9 computer complex. It was in the year of the 50th anniversary of the October Revolution, therefore the computer complex was called "October". For the USSR Ministry of Instrument, where we were then, this project turned out to be too much (outside the tasks of this ministry). We were told: go to V. D. Kalmykov (Minister of Radio Industry of the USSR), since you are working for him. The M-9 project remained unfulfilled. But in 1969, the development of the M-10 began, the first model of which appeared in 1973. For a number of years this machine was the most powerful in the Soviet Union and now continues to be produced and operated. The M-10 has managed to obtain unique scientific results, especially in the field of physics ”.
      The numerical link of the M-9 project - the M-10 machine - has been mass-produced since 1974 by the Zagorsk Electromechanical Plant. Its development was awarded the USSR State Prize in Science and Technology.


      Look in the second series of the multi-part ("in the next articles of our cycle") epic " titanic battles of ministries and party bureaucrats for money and stars":
      development of A.L. Mints (a man who played a significant role in death project A-35 and all involved computer

      trying literally gnaw competing developments and push their own.

      EPILOGUE:
      The absurdity of the idea was probably understood by all competent people.
  3. A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 12 May 2021 18: 18
    +7
    Greetings to the new author!
    With an initiative!
    Pah-pah. In order not to jinx it. hi
  4. mark1
    mark1 12 May 2021 18: 30
    +4
    An essay with inferences is all its own ...
  5. Virus-free crown
    Virus-free crown 12 May 2021 19: 13
    -1
    I look forward to continuing, keep it up !!! good
  6. BISMARCK94
    BISMARCK94 12 May 2021 19: 19
    +2
    The computer era began before WWII, and the war only accelerated its development. The USSR, of course, was then not up to computers, while the Germans, Amers and the British already had working models. So the lag is understandable. After the war, they began to catch up.
    1. Blackmokona
      Blackmokona 12 May 2021 20: 00
      +2
      But it did not work to catch up, as a result, the surrender was formalized in the form of a series of the EU copying Western developments with a constant delay, which eventually resulted in the impossibility of copying due to the rapid growth in the complexity of production.
      The problem was, again, in a huge zoo of completely incompatible machines and software, general secrecy, the struggle of collectives and other problems.
      1. paul3390
        paul3390 13 May 2021 15: 17
        +2
        In fact - the bourgeoisie had exactly the same discord and the zoo in those years. Each company riveted computers to its own standards. But the decision to stop their development and total copying of Western ones is one of the most mysterious in the history of the USSR. It clearly shows how high the enemies of the people had already climbed in those years, and they stopped shooting them. For such a decision is just outright sabotage.
        1. Blackmokona
          Blackmokona 13 May 2021 15: 48
          -1
          Only at the same time this happened with them in capitalism and the number of firms was rapidly declining, the strong ate the weak, the very weak died in batches. As a result, we quickly came to the current state. In the Soviet system, this does not happen, strong teams do not devour the weak, and the very weak can exist for an extremely long time.
          1. paul3390
            paul3390 13 May 2021 16: 16
            +1
            Comrade Stalin also wrote that profitability under the Soviet system should be assessed on the scale of the country, and not of an individual enterprise. For unprofitable according to all the bourgeois canons - can bring huge benefits to the rest of the economy. The amount of money earned is one of the most idiotic criteria for the need for an office for the state.
            1. Blackmokona
              Blackmokona 13 May 2021 18: 56
              0
              So how would you rate the profitability across the country? Too many third-party factors will drown any attempt in information noise
              1. paul3390
                paul3390 13 May 2021 20: 53
                +1
                Surprisingly, under Comrade Stalin they somehow managed to do it. And how! And our komputer times ...
                1. Blackmokona
                  Blackmokona 14 May 2021 08: 14
                  0
                  They didn’t manage to. Political slogans were one thing, but the state plan worked with the usual profitability, it counted rubles.
  7. Gust
    Gust 12 May 2021 19: 55
    +5
    And they did not lag behind until the mid-60s. Then, failure ... So the author pulls his version by the ears, the union collapsed precisely because of this.
  8. The comment was deleted.
  9. Turist1996
    Turist1996 12 May 2021 20: 47
    +2
    Among other things, the author is clearly not aware of any production processes in mechanical engineering, or in the processes of developing engineering solutions, or in the nearest history.
    For him, from the standpoint of 2021, everything is obvious ..
    Well, great, Alexey, predict, since everything is obvious to you, who will build a nuclear power unit in the Czech Republic at the Dukovany NPP? And yet - when?
    An error of 2-3 years is acceptable.
  10. Falcon5555
    Falcon5555 12 May 2021 23: 11
    +3
    It was an order of magnitude easier for the Americans: both psychologically and economically - they threw a bone in the form of a couple of billions to the largest corporations, watched how they fought and fought for it for a couple of years, chose the best system based on the results of the massacre and put it into service.

    What is this, a joke? What did they put there? If we are talking about the last century?
    ... the country was generally left without an effective missile defense system. More precisely, without computers that could provide it.
    Yes? .. Either - without missile defense (which is), then - without computers ... If the author disputes the effectiveness, then this is bold - it is hardly known to anyone at all.
  11. bk316
    bk316 12 May 2021 23: 16
    +6
    Let's wait for the rest of the article, but the beginning is not very good.
    For example.
    What does Duga have to do with it? "Duga" is part of the early warning system.
    And the early warning system is distantly related to missile defense.
    The early warning missile system does not know how to issue target designations for missile defense.
    The cost of an early warning missile system can be attributed to the Strategic Missile Forces as well as to the missile defense system, but that would also be wrong.
    SPRN is an independent system.
  12. Alien From
    Alien From 12 May 2021 23: 57
    +1
    The comparison is not correct. This is for the author.
  13. Usher
    Usher 13 May 2021 01: 35
    +6
    Reading is even disgusting
    It was an order of magnitude easier for the Americans: both psychologically and economically - they threw a bone in the form of a couple of billions to the largest corporations, watched how they fought and fought for it for a couple of years, chose the best system based on the results of the massacre and put it into service. The money spent by the United States was repaid by the fact that hundreds of by-products resulting from the race were put into commercial circulation and began to be sold around the world. Own costs are almost zero - efficiency is almost 100%, repeat the required number of times.

    In the USSR, everything was absolutely different.

    The design bureau and research institute fought in the same way for the attention of the party, but at stake was either great fame, orders, honor and full support until the end of their days, streets named after you, and so on - or the loss of everything: reputation, position, money , awards, work, and possibly freedom. As a result, the heat of competition was not just monstrous - it was thermonuclear. For missile defense was spared nothing at all - no resources, astronomical amounts of money (awards for development reached tens of thousands of rubles unimaginable by the standards of the USSR), orders, titles and awards. People burned out, dying from heart attacks and strokes at the age of 40-50, trying to literally gnaw at competing developments with their teeth and push their own.


    The author knows better yeah. Has the USA recaptured the money? Can private companies that lost tried to recapture. Not the United States. These are two different things. And apparently in the US everyone worked slowly, from 8 to 6? Have you ever worked in such enterprises?

    And can you give an example, that in those days in the USSR someone was imprisoned for failures specifically in the missile defense or military-industrial complex? For negligence and sabotage, but not for losing the competition. What are you coming up with here?

    It is necessary to take into account the complete dimness of the party officials, transferring the battle from the field of intelligence to the field of the ability to press, push, lick, disgrace, and brought up all the worst human qualities
    And in the United States, they are all white and fluffy, and did they practice lobbying in the USSR? The OVERTON window in action!

    A custom article that is brainwashing under the guise of technical topics. IMHO.
    1. ccsr
      ccsr 13 May 2021 17: 20
      +1
      Quote: Usher
      A custom article that is brainwashing under the guise of technical topics. IMHO.

      It seemed to me that way too - the author simply has a poor idea of ​​how real issues were at that time with the missile defense of the capital, that's why he often bears nonsense.
      I will not refute some of his speculations, but let me remind you that the missile defense system in the early sixties was developed only for Moscow, and mainly against American missiles in Turkey. That is why one of the first missile defense systems appeared in the south of the Moscow region, but it was mothballed in the middle of the sixties and subsequently transferred to a completely different structure.
      There was no talk of any ballistic missile attacks over the North Pole at all - a nuclear charge (special warhead) was created for our missiles of the Moscow Air Defense District, and that was all. Subsequently, when a new missile defense system was created for Moscow in accordance with an agreement with the Americans, its facilities were located north of the capital, because the real blow was supposed to come from the North Pole.
      About how the author estimates the cost of serial tank equipment without taking into account the cost of development, I will not talk at all, but I consider this pearl just an unsubstantiated lie:
      As a result, it was the missile defense system (which never really worked out) that absorbed more money than the nuclear missile and space programs combined!

      At least not a single figure of the cost of developing this system was given by the author, which means that he is not aware of how the matter was settled in reality.
  14. Usher
    Usher 13 May 2021 01: 37
    +4
    When Reagan announced the initiation of the Star Wars program, which was supposed to become an absolute shield against Soviet missiles, it was tantamount to announcing that the next round against a barely alive and almost not standing boxer would come straight from the tin, Mike Tyson. It turned out that it didn’t matter that the SDI program had failed (and it could not have failed) - by the early 1980s, the USSR was monstrously exhausted, and 80% of this exhaustion arose precisely thanks to the missile defense race.

    As a result, even the rumor that the new American system would surpass everything we had finally broke the spirit of the Politburo. Nobody objected to the beginning of perestroika. Everyone understood that either that way, or in another year or two, the USSR would collapse by itself already without any Gorbachev. The Cold War was lost, the United States won. Thanks to hundreds of times better money management and skillful bluffing. It was a conflict of attrition. The first world economic systems and armchair scientists - and the USSR broke down earlier.

    What a wild crap !!!! ???
    1. The comment was deleted.
  15. Usher
    Usher 13 May 2021 01: 40
    +6
    (More than 600 million rubles were killed for the project of three over-the-horizon radars "Duga" - an amount that could have been used to build more than one tank army!)
    What does the early warning system have to do with it? The early warning system exists to detect the FACT of launching missiles in our direction in order to strike back, and not shoot them down. The author wrote the catchy headline "UNIQUE" to attract people, and then he poured a bucket of slops on the USSR and laundered the USA.
    1. fuffi
      fuffi 13 May 2021 13: 15
      +2
      Well, the smell of the article is familiar. Powdered with figures of the cost of tanks, which for some became a revelation and served as a "new look".
  16. Pavel57
    Pavel57 13 May 2021 02: 34
    +2
    The topic is interesting. Perfect missile defense. as well as air defense is impossible to build. Therefore, one must always bear in mind the counter or the "dead hand" answer, and this is also money and the absence of a full guarantee. It means we still need to add a bluff. The Americans did it masterfully.
  17. Conjurer
    Conjurer 13 May 2021 13: 00
    +1
    In fact, the author has not decided what is closer to him - technology or politics. In terms of technology, one water, in politics - a bucket of slops in the USSR. So what is the problem he wants to solve with this series of articles?
  18. Virus-free crown
    Virus-free crown 13 May 2021 16: 35
    +1
    In order not to write dozens of comments for comments - I'll tell you straight soldier

    1. The author is a GOOD MAN !!! Keep it up!!! good
    2. I myself am a specialist in air defense and missile defense in the technical part - I agree that there was a lot of good from the "party and government" in defending the country - but it is impossible to deny the facts when our achievements of young specialists were really strangled
  19. KSVK
    KSVK 13 May 2021 22: 41
    +1
    Sorry, Author, but if you follow your logic:
    One tank army consisted of approximately 1250 tanks. As a result, in 1987 prices (and the Duga radar station was developed from 1975 to 1985 and was put into operation at about the same time), the cost of the project could be used to build 2 full-fledged tank armies from T-72 or one from T-80 ...

    Can you imagine how much this money can be used to produce Kalashnikov assault rifles and ammunition for them? And if you estimate how many people died from the use of tanks, and how many from the use of "Kalash", then give me the answer that the AK will be out of competition. Think about it. what
    And about:
    by the early 1980s, the USSR was monstrously exhausted, and 80% of this exhaustion was due to the missile defense race.

    This is, excuse me, complete nonsense.
    The USSR ended at the moment when it was decided to purchase high-tech products and consumer goods in the West in exchange for the supply of raw materials.
    PS However, not much has changed since then.
    IMHO Russia has no other choice but a complete refusal to import. In addition to importing raw materials, and perhaps some food products.
    What is most interesting, in Russia there is practically EVERYTHING for complete self-isolation. But these are all pipe dreams. Not under the current government.