Military Review

Volunteers - submariners of the Spanish War

32
Volunteers - submariners of the Spanish War

After the outbreak of the Civil War, the Spanish Republican fleet found itself in a difficult situation - having in its composition a sufficient number of ships, it lost most of the officers who supported Franco. And this personnel gap was closed by Soviet specialists - pilots, tankers, sailors ... It is especially worth highlighting the submariners - having received not quite high-quality materiel, crews prone to anarchy and an undeveloped basing system, they, of course, did not perform feats, but they did not drop the honor of the Russian fleet.


All the same, it's worth starting with the materiel - by the time the Soviet submariners arrived, the Republicans had two types of submarines - "B" and "C". The former were poorly combat-ready and needed medium repairs, while the latter, built between 1923 and 1928, had to bear the brunt of the war. The boats were not bad in terms of purely paper characteristics, the Germans helped in their design, but the quality of the Spanish construction, multiplied by stable torpedoes that did not fire, spoiled the whole thing, and there were only four of them. For more than a year they were commanded by Soviet commanders, under Spanish names, of course. They were to become famous in the Great Patriotic War in four years.

Luis Martinez (Ivan Burmistrov)



Received the C6 submarine in February 1936. The son of a trade agent, a participant in the Civil War in the ChON units, he joined the fleet in 1923, after a party school, by 1934 he became assistant commander of the L-4 of the Black Sea Fleet. From there he went to war. His first ship was damaged aviation enemy, and in June Burmistrov became the commander of the same type "C1", which attacked the Francoist cruiser "Admiral Server" in the Gijon area. It was not possible to achieve hits, since the Italian torpedoes did not stay on course and did not explode on impact. Then Burmistrov climbed to periscope depth and went on the attack on the cruiser, forcing him to retreat. Then there was "C4" and repairs in France, with a breakthrough back through Gibraltar, completely controlled by the Francoists (two attempts of torpedo attacks during the breakthrough failed due to a technical malfunction), participation in mail flights from Valencia to Barcelona and return home already a Hero of the Soviet Union. Captain of the first rank Ivan Burmistrov received a submarine brigade, during the war years he was engaged in the evacuation of Crimean cities, participated in the preparation and landing during the Kerch-Feodosia landing operation, was wounded. Then there were a number of logistical positions, resignation and death in 1962 at the age of 59. Alas, the injury interrupted the career of a capable submariner and a man of considerable personal courage.

Sergio Leon (Sergey Lisin)



One of the best submariners of the Soviet fleet, a Saratov soldier, he entered the fleet in the Komsomol recruitment only in 1931, and in the command staff - in 1936, after graduating from the V.M. Frunze. First, service in the Baltic, then the Northern Fleet. Lisin was sent to Spain only in 1938, where he became an assistant commander on the C4 and C2 alternately. There were no feats, there was routine combat work - bombing, maneuvering, hiking ... Routine, capable of exhausting anyone, but the school is good.

Lisin's glory was in front, and she came to him along with his first ship - the submarine "C-7" of the Baltic Fleet, which he took upon completion, and the crew of which he personally formed. The boat could have died on June 24, 1941, when two German TKA first gave our call signs, and then attacked the boat with torpedoes and cannon-machine gun fire. An urgent dive saved me. Lisin settled with the Germans at the end of October, when his boat entered Narva Bay and fired at the railway station and the plant on the shore, firing about a hundred shells.

Real glory came to Leon in 1942 - on July 9 the convoy was attacked, the Swedish transport "Margareta" was sunk, on July 11 - the Swedish transport "Luleå" with a load of ore for Germany, on July 19 - the German transport "Ellen Larsen" was damaged by artillery fire, was forced to throw stranded, 30 July - transport "Kate" sunk, 5 August - Finnish transport, sunk by artillery fire, was added to the account. Home "S-7" returned after running out of supplies. Balance - 4 sunk and one damaged transport, all in convoys, all with security counterattacks. This is not Marinesco with his "attack of the century", this is Lisin with two minefield breakthroughs, aircraft and TFR attacks, and courage beyond the realm of possibility. But the next campaign was unlucky - on October 21, 1942, the S-7 was torpedoed by a Finnish submarine, following on the surface. Four submariners who were on the bridge survived, among them Lisin.

In captivity, he behaved with dignity, without giving away any secrets:

"As an interrogated, he was the most difficult one who visited us during the whole war ... We called him Kettunen (from Kettu -" fox "), which was the translation of his surname into Finnish and reflected his character traits."

After the war - commander of the submarine division in Port Arthur. Hero of the Soviet Union, as he learned about in captivity. He lived until 1992. The Finnish submariner was instantly promoted for the sinking of the S-7, and Sergei Prokofievich himself was considered the most important prisoner in Finland. If it happened differently, and Sergio Leon could go far, but ...

Don Severino de Moreno (Nikolay Egypko)



Nikolaev locksmith at a shipyard was sent by the Komsomol to the fleet and from 1931 in the command staff. He became famous back in 1936, commanding the submarine "Shch-117" of the Pacific Fleet. His ship spent a forty-day voyage, of which 340 hours under water, he is also a pioneer of ice navigation in the Pacific Ocean. The entire crew was awarded orders. In the summer of 1937, he arrived in Spain, where he took the boat "C6", on account of his attack on the Franco cruiser, the export of valuables from Santander under the fire of the phalangists, according to some sources - the sinking of the canboat.

Then there was "C2", which Egyptko ... hijacked. The boat was being repaired in France, the government was preparing its internment, on the ship itself there were attempts to sabotage and bribe the crew by the Francoists, the anarchists constantly sabotaged the work ... a conditionally serviceable ship with a dubious crew. Homeland appreciated - appreciated the Star of the Hero and the rank of captain of the first rank. Then there was the command of submarine brigades in the Black Sea and the Baltic, the Soviet-Finnish and the Great Patriotic War. He took part in the Tallinn passage on the S-5 submarine, was thrown overboard by a mine explosion and was rescued by a torpedo boat. From October 1941 - in England, aboard the battleship "Duke of York" participated in escorting the convoy "PQ-17". He retired as vice admiral, died in 1985.

Juan Valdez (Vladimir Egorov)


A typical biography - a Komsomol member from Dnepropetrovsk, far from the sea, received a ticket to the navy, then - a naval school, swimming at the personal request of the young commander, and Spain, where Yegorov in 1938 received "C2". The boat took part in postal campaigns to Barcelona and military exits of the fleet. The young commander gained invaluable experience, which he realized already in the Soviet fleet, having received command of the 17th submarine division of the Baltic Fleet. He met the war as the commander of the 4th division, Tributs characterized him:

"Alive as mercury" always had "fresh thoughts" and after careful weighing ... he boldly applied them in practice. Some of his colleagues sneered at him. There were many lazy thoughts in the headquarters, and Yegorov reasonably took the risk. As head of the combat training department of the fleet headquarters, I was convinced that organizational work did not prevent Egorov from improving his knowledge weapons and to deepen general education. "

He defended the idea of ​​"packs of wolves", a breakthrough of 3-4 submarines from the Gulf of Finland and joint actions off the coast of the enemy, which the Germans successfully used during the war, and which we could not establish. Captain of the second rank Yegorov went on a campaign on "Shch-317" on June 9, 1942. On this voyage, our boat sank the Finnish transport "Argo" on June 16, seriously damaged the Danish transport "Orion" - on 19.06, sank the Swedish transport "Ada Gorton" - on 22.06, and on 8.07 sank the German transport "Otto Cords". The boat with all the crew died on the last line of the German minefield on July 18, 1942, just hours before returning home. The fleet lost a brilliant practitioner and theorist, whose career was launched by Spain.

Murato Carlos (Kuzmin German)



Muscovite, Komsomol recruitment, in command personnel since 1932, miner, first in the Black Sea Fleet, then in the Pacific Fleet. He went to war as the commander of the M-21 of the Pacific Fleet. He spent six months in Spain, commanding C1 and C4 there. Nothing particularly heroic, like others, did not do, but in those conditions and with that materiel and people no one would have done it, but received invaluable experience. Further the Black Sea Fleet and the command of submarine divisions. German Yulievich died in 1942 on board the "Shch-212" on a Romanian minefield.

But why?


I think the answer to the question is obvious, in addition to helping the Republicans, our fleet received commanders with combat experience, received what is usually paid for in blood and iron, and received it for free. And it is not the fault of our five young commanders that they did not do more - the main thing is that the experience gained and the best practices were not lost, but went to the benefit of the fleet. And forgetting that for many the war did not begin in 1941, but in 1937, is also not worth it, it was there that the first stones were laid in the building of the future Victory.
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  1. Richard
    Richard 11 May 2021 06: 16
    +10
    The Spanish were commissioners on the boats. Soviet citizens served as commanders of pl. Only Lisin was the second commander (segundo comandante), i.e. spk in our way. And the commanders also had Soviet civilian translators, they were awarded the rank of Spanish lieutenant (teniente de navio). Among our submariner translators, Anatoly Gurevich and Semyon Gankin are known. The first later became illegal and became famous for the failure of the "Red Chapel", the second apparently died in the Patriotic War. Also mentioned is Ramon Valdes, a Yugoslav communist and submariner. According to Spanish sources, his real name is Vokshin. So its Yugoslavianness has yet to be verified. I don’t know about the army, but there were definitely no commissars from the "international" on the Spanish boats.
    1. ccsr
      ccsr 13 May 2021 16: 54
      0
      Quote: Richard
      ... Among our submariner translators, Anatoly Gurevich and Semyon Gankin are known. The first subsequently became illegal and became famous for the failure of the "Red Chapel", the second apparently died in the Patriotic War.

      Do not mislead people - Gurevich-Kent is indeed a renowned illegal GRU, who was slandered by an intelligence resident, accusing him of a failure of his station, and which was later refuted after Gurevich had served his sentence.
      Due to the interagency rivalry between the Soviet military intelligence and the foreign intelligence of the NKVD, the Kent resident was accused of uncommitted crimes, as a result of which he spent almost 13 years in Soviet camps. It was only in July 1991 that he was fully rehabilitated, although the unprecedented feats he accomplished have not yet been deservedly appreciated. He was not presented with awards for heroic activity during the war in Spain, during the war with Nazi Germany.

      The failure of the "Red Chapel" was not connected with Gurevich - the German counterintelligence managed to capture the cipher radio operator, who did not manage to destroy all the ciphers, which led to the opening of some radiograms, on the basis of which they began to calculate the agents of the Soviet intelligence.
      1. Richard
        Richard 13 May 2021 20: 44
        0
        A very good addition
  2. Richard
    Richard 11 May 2021 06: 18
    +8
    Egyptko points out in his memoirs that Burmistrov and he were first awarded the BKZ order for Spain, then "at the request of the Spanish government" they were awarded the title of Hero.
  3. Richard
    Richard 11 May 2021 06: 22
    +10
    I will list all Soviet submariners of Republican Spain by name.
    Burmistrov (Martinez) commanded S-1, S-6, S-4
    Grachev (Garcia) S-1, S-4
    Egyptko (Morena) С-6, С-2
    Egorov (Valdes) S-2
    Kuzmin (Murato) P-4, P-1
    Lisin (Leon) SPK S-4
    Their Spanish "male" surnames are indicated in parentheses. All, except Lisin, were boat commanders. Lisin held the position of "Segundo Comandante", i.e. senior assistant to the boat commander Kuzmin.
    The adjutant translators for our commanders on the Spanish boats were:
    Vokshin, a Yugoslav communist (Valdes) at Burmistrov at C-6 and Egyptko at C-2.
    Gurevich (Gonzalez) at Burmistrov at C-4
    Gankin at C-4 near Kuzmin
    I have come across a mention that Yegorov (Valdes) knew the language. Unless he was confused with the Yugoslav Vokshin, who was also Valdes. It is not known how Burmistrov did without knowing the language at C-1. Probably the Spaniards provided him with their "interpreter".
    1. SERGE ANT
      SERGE ANT 11 May 2021 12: 12
      +10
      Quote: Richard
      It is not known how Burmistrov did without knowing the language

      Our Soviet submarine commanders had to have a minimum stock of Spanish words, sufficient to be able to give the necessary urgent command. And the translators were supposed to help the commanders in this. From the memoirs of Egyptko - "The Russian commander kept up with everywhere, showed, demanded, did it himself, without fear of dirt or heavy things, taught and patiently explained. Because of his lack of knowledge of the Spanish language, he showed impatience when working with a translator, using a small stock of words known to him. , mostly he made explanations with gestures, facial expressions, pointing directly to the details in question. No, he was not at all like our Spanish officers, - Spanish sailors who had previously served under the command of I.A. Burmistrova. "The legendary submariner, the first to become the commander of a lead boat in Spain, and the first to receive the title of Hero in the Soviet Navy.
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 May 2021 17: 52
      +6
      Someone who cannot be envied is the Soviet military experts-submariners. Worn out old boats, crews with dubious qualifications, vague deployment plans, language barriers and other delights. Although the Germans were forced to maintain the strictest incognito, at least Grosse and Freivald had brand new “sevens” and German teams ...
  4. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 11 May 2021 06: 32
    +4
    Thanks to the author - as a land person, I discovered a new, little-known page about the Spanish Civil War.
    1. Blacksmith 55
      Blacksmith 55 11 May 2021 08: 34
      +5
      Good morning .
      Indeed, we only heard about the war in Spain as a land war.
      This is new to me, I have never heard or read about it. Thank you .
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 May 2021 10: 09
      +6
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      as a land man, I discovered a new, little-known page about the Spanish Civil War.

      Paradoxical as it may seem, it is precisely the illogical and spontaneous naval battles, which is typical of civil strife, that add fascination to the sea part of the Spanish Civil War. Here, in Shakespeare's way, everything is fine - tragicomic, betrayal, espionage, courage, cowardice, sabotage and other adventure attributes. Take the aforementioned light cruiser "Almirante Server" - after all, it did not immediately become Franco. The mutiny caught him in dry dock at the shipyard in El Ferrol. The commander remained loyal to the government, tried to take the cruiser out of the dock, but the Francoists did not allow the dock to be flooded and take the fuel. And then the cruiser opened fire from the dry dock. With a deceptive message allegedly from the headquarters of the fleet, the rebels forced Server to crumble the fire and captured the cruiser. The commander and most of the team were shot.
      In general - a song.
  5. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 May 2021 08: 26
    +6
    The boats were not bad in terms of purely paper characteristics, the Germans helped in their design
    And how could the Germans "help" the Spaniards in designing boats, the prototypes of which were the American Hollands?
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 11 May 2021 11: 17
      +3
      And how could the Germans "help" the Spaniards in designing boats, the prototypes of which were the American Hollands?
      Designed by the Spaniards themselves. Actually, this is an enlarged type B submarine.
      Vickers specialists helped in the construction.
      1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 May 2021 11: 21
        +3
        Quote: Undecim
        Designed by the Spaniards themselves. Actually, this is an enlarged type B submarine.
        Vickers specialists helped in the construction.

        So I am about the same. B and C are essentially holland 105f. What have the Germans got to do with it?
  6. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 11 May 2021 08: 26
    +4
    An interesting note. It would be nice to continue the cycle - tankers, aviators. I read that at the beginning of our assistance to the Republicans (1936) there was a problem with long-distance communication of our ships, the first samples of ship radio stations were worked out during the delivery of goods to Spain.
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 May 2021 10: 39
      +4
      Quote: Aviator_
      An interesting note.

      The topic is interesting - yes. And the "note" is rather scanty, to be honest. But thanks to the author for refraining from exposing the stupid myth about Spanish gold, allegedly taken by Egyptian in a submarine to Kronstadt. Madame Frolova would definitely make a stand on this bike if she (God forbid !!!) had been brought in to dirty such a good topic with her pubertal writings.
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 11 May 2021 16: 10
      +2
      If I'm not mistaken, Shpakovsky already had about tankers.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 11 May 2021 19: 09
        +1
        I would like it on a more serious level.
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 May 2021 19: 12
          +1
          Quote: Aviator_
          I would like it on a more serious level.

          I do not think that the level of the author of this essay is "serious".
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 11 May 2021 19: 14
            +1
            Essenizers have a hard job.
  7. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 May 2021 09: 27
    +5
    Received the C6 submarine in February 1936.

    Cool. And how a Soviet officer could become the commander of a Spanish boat BEFORE July mutiny and division of the fleet ??
  8. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 May 2021 10: 30
    +3
    according to some sources - the sinking of the canboat.

    Yes, it seems, Egyptko torpedoed the Franco destroyer No. 7 in early September 37, when it was shelling Gijon.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 11 May 2021 11: 45
      +2
      Yes, it seems, Egyptko torpedoed the Franco destroyer No. 7 in early September 37, when it was shelling Gijon.

      There were no gunboats or numbered destroyers in the Franco fleet. No 7 was the only torpedo boat Clase T-1.
      In his own handwritten article for the magazine REVISTA DE HISTORIA NAVAL, Egyptko himself does not mention the gunboat, destroyer, or gold.
      In a torpedo attack on the minelayer, Jupiter went out in October 1937 Burmistrov, commanding the C-6. Of the two torpedoes fired, one left in an unknown direction, the other drowned immediately upon exiting the torpedo tube.
      The article can be read here - http://www.aglutinaeditores.com/media/resources/public/66/66b3/66b39ccd649f45d69644aec4872bdf49.pdf
      1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 May 2021 12: 19
        +2
        Quote: Undecim
        There were no gunboats or numbered destroyers in the Franco fleet. No 7 was the only torpedo boat Clase T-1.

        well, it's a question of terminology, I guess. The Spaniards bought five second-hand Type Ss from the Germans, who, in fact, called lunch a torpedera.
        In addition, they all bore proper names (like the Italian MASs later). But torpederos type No. 1 is not very similar, as it seems to me, to the classic TK.
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 11 May 2021 12: 32
          +2
          And this is not a classic TC. At the heart of the projects are the French of the XIX century. Then the classic torpedo boat was not yet formed.
          1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
            Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 May 2021 12: 48
            +3
            Why then call this ship a "torpedo boat"?
            Quote: Undecim
            At the heart of the projects are the French of the XIX century.

            good, but the same type of destroyers RIF, built in the same France, we do not call the same torpedo boats.
        2. Undecim
          Undecim 11 May 2021 12: 45
          +3
          But I was wrong about the gunboats. There were five units.
          1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
            Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 May 2021 13: 00
            +3
            Quote: Undecim
            But I was wrong about the gunboats. There were five units.

            by the beginning of the war - 6 large and 10 small, according to Ivanov ("The Spanish Navy" Magazine "Naval Historical Review" No. 1 1997)
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 11 May 2021 13: 15
              +2
              I meant the Franco fleet. As for the terminology, then it really needs to be clarified, since the Spanish buques torpederos in Russian-language sources appear as numbered destroyers.
              And torpedo boats in our classical sense are pequeños buques torpederos - a small torpedo boat.
              In English, the same is true - torpedo boat and motor torpedo craft.
              1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 May 2021 13: 37
                +2
                Quote: Undecim
                As for the terminology, it really needs to be clarified, since the Spanish buques torpederos appear in Russian-language sources as numbered destroyers.

                Well, fair enough, I think. The French cyclone is the destroyer)
  9. Catfish
    Catfish 11 May 2021 17: 13
    +4
    An interesting article, and the comments are even more interesting.
  10. Slavutich
    Slavutich 11 May 2021 17: 36
    +3
    Excellent article, thank you!
  11. xomaNN
    xomaNN 12 May 2021 18: 29
    0
    A very vivid example of what a civil war is (which is historically recognized by the whole world). Two parts of the population of one country are at war. Some are helped by volunteers from the USSR and the inter-brigades. On the other hand, Italians and Germans howl for the Francoists. Incl. aviation - legion "Condor".
    But in today's Ukraine, in exactly the same situation, they do not want to admit that since 2014 there is also a civil war in the Donbass. And from both sides - also "assistants". For the DPR - "Russian volunteers", for the Armed Forces of Ukraine - "NATO instructors" and in good faith "the basics" from all over the world Nazis hi