Military Review

Pocket pistols and revolvers

39
Pocket pistols and revolvers
Three-barreled and three-shot pistol "Marston", released in the USA in 1864, caliber .22. The rarest of the Marstons. Only about 300 pieces were made. The barrels located one above the other are tilted down for loading. Factory engraved brass frame and walnut handle


“The revolver, thrown by Dunya and flying off to the door, suddenly caught his eye. He picked it up and examined it. It was a small, pocket-sized three-hit revolver, an old device; it still has two charges and one primer. You could shoot once. He thought, put the revolver in his pocket, took his hat and left. "
"Crime and Punishment". Fedor Dostoevsky

History firearms weapons. An interesting design is described in the novel by Dostoevsky - a three-stroke revolver (!) For three primers, and therefore for three barrels. And what? So, there were such or is it an invention of the author? No, there were such "revolvers", only it would be more correct to call this weapon a pistol, because the main feature of a revolver was a rotating drum, and there was only one barrel.


Ethan Allen pistol, circa 1835, .28 caliber: Allen's patent; engraved frame; Walnut grip with oval "German middle" overlays. Manufacturing: Grafton, Massachusetts. Photo courtesy of Alain Daubresse

In the previous article dedicated to the "Queen Anne pistols", we have already talked about the appearance of this specific weapon. But ... how did it develop afterwards? Today we will just talk about this, and, of course, look at certain samples of pistols "for the pocket."


Another interesting example of a pistol from the Ethan Allen company. Photo courtesy of Alain Daubresse

To begin with, after the invention of capsule caps, pocket pistols simply experienced a rebirth, and their popularity increased even more. The fact is that due to the design and operation of the flintlock, its trigger had to protrude quite significantly above the box-shaped receiver and, accordingly, could easily catch on the lining of the pocket.

The capsule lock did not have such a drawback. Its trigger could easily be made self-cocking and worn with a primer put on the brand tube. In this form, and even with a folded trigger, such a pistol had a "streamlined shape". There was simply nothing to cling to the lining of the pockets, and if so, since such a convenient and "modern" weapon appeared, why not buy it?


Single-shot pistol with a lower trigger position. By B. Bosworth, Warren, Rhode Island, circa 1850s Caliber .31 caliber, barrel length 8 inches, part octagonal, part round, with brass front sight. The brass frame of the pistol has a steel trigger and trigger. Photo courtesy of Alain Daubresse

However, the capsule literally untied the designers' hands, so that, through their efforts, completely unusual samples began to appear not with the upper, but with the lower location of the brand tube and, accordingly, the trigger hitting it. The barrel was also unscrewed with a special wrench, which allowed the bullet to be inserted into the barrel "with an emphasis" and provided the pistol with a strong fight.

Long barrel - the fight is stronger and the accuracy of the fire is higher. This is how "long-barreled pocket pistols" appeared, which also had the location of the trigger and the hose from the bottom, which was convenient, since there was simply nothing to hook such a pistol to the lining.

Interestingly, some of these pistols received the original shape of the handle, most of all similar to the handle of a cane. By the way, they were often combined with a cane. Conveniently, of course ... You walk so-so, leaning on the "stick" late in the evening, exercising before going to bed, and on you - r-a-az, and the robber attacks. And you - take a pistol out of a cane and - bang at close range, and there is no robber, and you calmly go for a walk on! However, there were also special shooting canes, a very original device, and we will also tell you about them someday!


H.J. Hale pistol, Bristol, Connecticut and Worcester, Massachusetts. Around the 1850s Caliber .28, 6-inch octagonal, partially round barrel, with copper or brass front sight. Photo courtesy of Alain Daubresse



Hale even began to produce headsets from two of these pistols, with a full set of accessories. Moreover, if desired, they could serve as dueling ones - why not? Mahogany body with brass carrying handle, lock and two latches; brown velvet liner, combined copper / brass powder flask, bullet, ramrod and shock capsule tin. Photo courtesy of Alain Daubresse


Well, as always, as soon as single-shot pistols of this type appeared, gunsmith designers took care of the creation of multiple-shot weapons. In particular, the American company Marston has created a three-barreled and three-shot pistol with a rotary toggle switch, by turning the trigger against the corresponding .22 caliber cartridge. Photo courtesy of Alain Daubresse


The barrel block was locked with a swivel top plate. Photo courtesy of Alain Daubresse


The plate turned, and the barrels for loading were folded down. Photo courtesy of Alain Daubresse


The plate turned and the barrels were folded down for loading. Photo courtesy of Alain Daubresse


Marston also produced capsule perboxes. Turning the barrel block - shot, turning - shot. In this case, all the capsules were covered from external influences. Photo courtesy of Alain Daubresse


Three trunks - good! And four is even better! Pistol "Cohn and S. Marston", J. Cohn and S.V. Marston, New York. Around the 1850s Caliber .28 caliber, rotating barrel block with pairwise barrels, and with a brass front sight on each pair of barrels; Patent 1851. Silver-plated brass frame; ring trigger; lacquered walnut grip cheeks. Photo courtesy of Alain Daubresse

In 1883, French gunsmith and inventor Jacques Turbio received a patent for a strange-looking pocket weapon in which cartridges were located radially inside a disc called "Le Protector".


"Protector" - US patent

The device resembled a wrist expander. The disc with the barrel contained another disc-magazine with a radial arrangement of cartridges. The trigger was inside this disk-store, and as soon as the shooter squeezed the spring of the firing device with the back of his hand, he hit the cartridge primer. That is, by acting with a brush and squeezing and unclenching the spring, it was possible to quickly empty the entire store, while the barrel itself passed between the fingers.


The original model of the French "Protector". Photo courtesy of Alain Daubresse

The pistol was produced in France until the mid-90s of the XIX century, in 1892 the license for its production was bought by the Americans. Due to legal disputes that arose, the American Protectors were produced in very small numbers. American-made pistols were called Chicago Palm Pistol or Chicago Palm Protector.


Cartridges 6 and 8 mm for "Protector". Photo courtesy of Alain Daubresse

The French versions came in two calibers: 6 and 8 mm, with 40 mm barrels for the smaller caliber and 45 for the larger. Accordingly, the first model had a magazine for 10 rounds, and the second for 7.


American model "Projector" with the mark "CHICAGO FIRE ARMS CO CHICAGO ILL" in .32 caliber. Photo courtesy of Alain Daubresse


Her device. Photo courtesy of Alain Daubresse

Pocket in the middle of the XNUMXth century were not only pistols, but also revolvers. For example, they included the Massachusetts Arms Company revolvers, which were a pocket version of the Wesson & Levitt revolver.


Revolver "Massachusetts Arms Company" 1850-1851 release. About 1000 samples of .31 caliber with a 6-charge drum were produced. Photo courtesy of Alain Daubresse


Same model, but with mother-of-pearl grip. Photo courtesy of Alain Daubresse

To simplify the revolver as much as possible and make it as small as possible, its creators decided not to use primers for ignition, but used the original system according to Maynard's patent, in which a piston tape was used to ignite the charges in the drum, similar to the tape for children's toy pistols, but, of course , incomparably higher power.


The revolver was very easy to disassemble ... Photo courtesy of Alain Daubresse

The tape with the capsules was laid in a slot on the body of the revolver and fed to the hose by pressing the trigger. Accordingly, the drum, turning, stood against it with a hole through which the flame from the capsule reached the charge. The trigger guard was gilded, the grip cheeks were mother-of-pearl.


Mainard's "store" device. Photo courtesy of Alain Daubresse

However, larger models of this revolver were also produced. But they were capsule. The mechanism is the same, self-cocking.


Capsule revolver of the Massachusetts Arms Company. Photo courtesy of Alain Daubresse


That's how he figured it out ... Photo courtesy of Alain Daubresse


And this is his drum. Already with capsule sockets. Photo courtesy of Alain Daubresse

As you can see, those who wanted at that time to shove a pistol in their pockets or carry it in a lady's muff had a rich selection of the most varied models ... "pocket weapons".
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  1. Thrifty
    Thrifty 10 May 2021 05: 04
    +3
    As always, very interesting, thanks to the author! hi I am interested in the question, why do many models of pistols have a hexagonal part of the barrel? After all, there is more metal, compared to a completely round barrel, which means that such a pistol is heavier, and less practical because of the extra weight!
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 May 2021 07: 18
      +2
      Quote: Thrifty
      such a pistol is heavier, and less practical because of the extra weight!

      Given the single-shot nature of most of these samples, it is possible to fight off a robber like this with a baton or brass knuckles.
    2. kalibr
      10 May 2021 07: 41
      +4
      Quote: Thrifty
      because of the excess weight!

      In-oh-from! Inattentively you read the articles of the cycle! The barrels of such pistols ... were unscrewed. For loading. For this and the edge. And there was a hex wrench! Otherwise, it was possible to charge them, but the fight was worse!
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 10 May 2021 12: 10
        +6
        Vyacheslav, hello and thanks for the beautiful article. good

        Inspired by her and the accompanying comments, I got the nerve and decided to post my own children's scribbles. Do not judge strictly. All of this is copied from a weapons catalog, which an electrician friend of mine found in a trash heap in the courtyard of the Metropol Hotel. He asked, you bastard, for him as much as 25 rubles, and where did a sixteen-year-old boy get that kind of money, at least he gave it to be redrawn for a week.
        There, only one cannon is knocked out of the common taschenpistole galaxy. smile
        1. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 10 May 2021 13: 50
          +4
          Good afternoon Konstantin, you have high-quality drawings. I have on my shelf: Small Arms Beetle and there are similar drawings
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 10 May 2021 13: 53
            +4
            I painted all this long before the Beetle's books appeared on sale. If there were books, he himself would not suffer at night.
            And the draftsman Zhuk is wonderful, it’s a pity I didn’t have a chance to meet him, but somehow he talked to his son in our museum.
            1. Astra wild2
              Astra wild2 10 May 2021 14: 17
              +2
              I agree with you: he is a wonderful draftsman: at Vyacheslav Olegovich I compare photographs with his drawings and amazing accuracy
        2. kalibr
          10 May 2021 17: 52
          +2
          How well you draw !!!
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 10 May 2021 18: 13
            +1
            Thank you. If with love, everything is fine and it comes out like your articles, for example. drinks
    3. Mikhail3
      Mikhail3 11 May 2021 09: 31
      0
      I am interested in the question, why do many models of pistols have a hexagonal part of the barrel?
      Due to the technology of pipe production. More precisely, due to the lack of one for gun barrels. The pipes of that time were ugly expensive, and at the same time they had very low strength. So a more or less round steel bar was taken, a tape or plate was wrapped around it, connected by forge welding into a single tube. And then, to give strength, this pipe was forged many times. Forging a hexagon with a hammer is immeasurably easier than a round tube, and the ribs added strength to the then low-grade steel.
      The twisting of the barrel has absolutely nothing to do with it. To do this, you can make a much less material-intensive solution.
      By the way, a good article, it was pleasant to read.
  2. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 10 May 2021 05: 43
    +5
    If before that Vyacheslav Olegovich described weapons as elegant, beautiful, practically, works of art, then the samples from today's article are more like samopals made from scraps of water pipes!)) laughing
    But, all the same, it is interesting!
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 May 2021 07: 26
      +2
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      If before that Vyacheslav Olegovich described weapons as elegant, beautiful, practically, works of art, then the samples from today's article are more like samopals made from scraps of water pipes!)) laughing
      But, all the same, it is interesting!

      Hi Igor, there is no friend for taste and color. Although, to be honest, the single-barreled options also seemed to me like wax.
      Although I really liked the multi-barreled perbox just for lovers of the first iron horses with a pedal drive! It seems there is protection from the dog tribe, but try it! laughing

      Do not run away and will not shoot. Raise your legs and grab your ass, you will save your butt - grab your heel !!!
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 10 May 2021 14: 19
        +2
        "there is protection from the dog tribe" I do not see it
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 May 2021 14: 43
          +1
          Quote: Astra wild2
          "there is protection from the dog tribe" I do not see it

          I am mocking Dear Vera about the "cycle paths" and "pepperboxes", which were intended, among other things, to fight stray dogs.


  3. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 10 May 2021 07: 22
    +3
    ABOUT! It turns out that not only I was interested in "Dunya's revolver"! As soon as I read Dostoevsky in my "childhood", then from that time on I often wondered: what is this three-shot revolver? I did not think that it could be a pistol, not a revolver, because I was scrupulous in this regard: a revolver is a revolver, not a pistol .... a pistol is a pistol and cannot be a revolver in any way! Thanks to the Author! Even though in old age, enlightenment and tranquility came! hi
    And the "pocket" (or "ladies") ghans were often quite beautiful!


    Walter

    Vesta

    1. kalibr
      10 May 2021 07: 54
      +5
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      ABOUT! It turns out that not only I was interested in "Dunya's revolver"!

      And then ?! I couldn't sleep ...
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 10 May 2021 12: 06
      +2
      Nikolaevich, "Vesta" like "Walter", somewhere in the area of ​​22 caliber. Shoot from them only point-blank
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 10 May 2021 12: 09
        +1
        Duc ... "ladies"! repeat
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 10 May 2021 15: 07
          +2
          Here, here are the benefits from him, that from a goat of milk.
          God bite me, if its cost did not exceed that is equal to: "Browning" 6,35. Do you remember before: "baby"? Another "baby" of Joseph.
          Sauer, Walter PPK.
          Small, but more practical than "Vesta", she doesn't even have a fly!
      2. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 10 May 2021 15: 04
        +2
        Quote: vladcub
        "Vesta" like "Walter", somewhere in the 22-gauge area. Shoot from them only point-blank

        Actually, these pistols were produced in calibers 6,35 mm (.25) and 7,65 mm (somewhere .302) ...
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 10 May 2021 15: 14
          +1
          Basically 22 or 25 is not a fork difference
        2. Catfish
          Catfish 10 May 2021 18: 32
          +2
          Hello Vladimir. hi

          In my childhood I had Walter 9 model, 6, 35 mm., But there were no cartridges for him. We wanted to convert it to 22LR, but did not have time. Kind people knocked on my parents, there was a scandal about the fact that "your bandit was hanging around with a pistol" and his father took him to the police. So he left, it's a pity. request



          This is exactly the same number, of course, I don't even remember.
    3. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 10 May 2021 14: 09
      +2
      Nikolayevich, I understand: a revolver "-rotating", and why is a pistol called a revolver? Dostoevsky, Arkady Gaidar called the Mauser pistol a revolver.
      Do you remember in the story: "School" ?: When they wanted to disarm him in his class: "Hand over your revolver to the police ..... Fedka told me, I once showed him"
      At Ostrovsky: "How the steel was tempered", when Korchagin stole a pistol from an Austrian officer, and then hid
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 10 May 2021 15: 16
        +1
        Korchagin slammed the Mannlicher pistol 1905 from the officer, apparently

        And the confusion in the names of the pistol and revolver has been going on for a long time and still ... especially, in literature! It should be borne in mind that the period when revolvers "prevailed" lasted for more than one decade ... the people are already accustomed to this "definition"! Just as at the "dawn" of the appearance of revolvers, they were often called pistols ...
    4. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 10 May 2021 14: 12
      +1
      I like Vesta: beautiful and small. Probably 3-4 rounds will fit?
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 10 May 2021 15: 05
        +1
        Quote: Astra wild2
        Probably 3-4 rounds will fit?

        6 rounds ...
        1. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 11 May 2021 17: 51
          +1
          And he is so small
          1. Nikolaevich I
            Nikolaevich I 11 May 2021 23: 35
            0
            Well, in such cases they say: "Small, but remote ..."! wink
  4. Avior
    Avior 10 May 2021 08: 48
    +3
    Pocket three-shot silent pistol chambered for Hoteev with electric actuation
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 10 May 2021 09: 05
      +2
      You’re going to fall ... electric! I myself have a "personal" scheme of an "electric" single-barreled pistol on the principle of "Roman candle"! Can shoot cartridges (charges) sequentially, and maybe all in one turn to lower! Only "lyricism" and no "electronics"! Specially invented, as a homemade product, focused on "non-factory" performance!
      1. Avior
        Avior 10 May 2021 09: 32
        +2
        in this pistol, they achieved the maximum noiselessness of the shot, so they replaced the mechanical trigger with an electric one
        1. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 10 May 2021 16: 45
          0
          Well, in my scheme there was no noiselessness (such a task was not set ...); but the "USM", it turns out, is also electric!
    2. kalibr
      10 May 2021 09: 31
      +4
      Oh my 1980 design. It's nice that at least someone got it down to metal!
  5. vladcub
    vladcub 10 May 2021 11: 54
    +2
    Q. Oh, again I have some interesting ones in store for us: "shooters".
    Drew attention to: Bosfort pistol with a lower trigger position. I had no idea what they were ..
  6. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 10 May 2021 13: 43
    0
    Colleagues, Vyacheslav Olegovich, good afternoon.
    I was tempted by the name "pocket pistols and revolvers" and dropped in.
    If the pistol is "Ethan Allen" or "Bosworth" pocket, then what is not pocket?
  7. Catfish
    Catfish 10 May 2021 13: 50
    +1

    However, larger models of this revolver were also produced. But they were capsule. The mechanism is the same, self-cocking.


    Somehow he does not pull on self-cocking - there is no free play at the trigger.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 10 May 2021 14: 21
      +1
      Somehow he does not pull on self-cocking - there is no free play at the trigger.


      And so?
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 10 May 2021 14: 22
        +1
        And this is a different trunk and another matter. smile
  8. Fat
    Fat 28 May 2021 12: 22
    0
    Great article. Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich.