Military Review

"Battle" at Caransebes. How the Austrian army contrived to defeat itself

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"Battle" at Caransebes. How the Austrian army contrived to defeat itself
Emperor Joseph II with his generals. I. Brand


Austro-Turkish War


The Austrians and Turks fought for centuries for domination in Hungary and in the northern part of the Balkan Peninsula. The wars of the 1699th century were successful for Vienna. According to the Karlovytsky Peace Treaty of 1718, the vast lands of Hungary, Slavonia, Transylvania and Croatia were transferred to Austria. Under the terms of the Peace of Pozharevatsky in XNUMX, the Austrians received Northern Serbia with Belgrade, Northern Bosnia and other lands.

In the 1737th century, Austria and Russia began to coordinate their actions against Turkey. Austro-Turkish wars of 1739–1788 and 1790–1735 were interconnected with the Russian-Turkish wars of 1739-1787 and 1791-1735. The Russians and Austrians acted as allies. War of 1739-1739 was unsuccessful for Austria. At first, the Austrians were able to occupy part of Bosnia, Serbia and Wallachia, but in XNUMX they suffered a heavy defeat near Belgrade and were forced to give up not only the occupied areas, but also Banat and Northern Serbia with Belgrade.

The Vienna court sought to continue the offensive in the Balkans, using the strengthening of Russia and the consistent weakening of the Sublime Port. The Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Archduke of Austria and King of Hungary Joseph II concluded an anti-Turkish alliance with the Russian Empress Catherine II. After Petersburg rejected Istanbul's ultimatum demanding the withdrawal of troops from the Crimea, transferring Georgia to Turkey and granting the right to check all Russian ships sailing through the straits, in August 1787 the Porta declared war on Russia. In early 1788, Emperor Joseph II declared war on the Ottoman Empire.

More precisely the fire of enemy artillery, only the fire of its


The Austrian command, led by the archduke himself, gathered a large army of 100. It included Austrian Germans, Serbs, Croats, Hungarians, Romanians, Italians, etc. In addition, the country was hit by an epidemic at that time. Many soldiers were in the infirmaries.

The imperial troops reached the city of Caransebes, which was located on Romanian territory. On the evening of September 17, 1787, a cavalry detachment advancing in the vanguard crossed the Timis River. The hussars did not find the enemy. But they met a gypsy camp. They bought several barrels of alcohol from them. Exuberant fun began.

While the cavalrymen were resting, an infantry company came out to them. The Marines offered to share the drinks. The tipsy cavalrymen refused to share. In the course of the squabble that began, someone opened "friendly" fire. It is worth noting that even in the modern era, despite the development of military technologies, a significant number of soldiers die from friendly fire. So, during the Iraqi campaign ("Desert Storm"), the Americans lost in this way every fifth soldier.

The night skirmish of drunken soldiers grew into a common tragedy. Some of the soldiers fled from their opponents. There were shouts: "Turks!" The army, which was in the middle of the night march, was in panic. Everyone believed that the enemy was threatening them, and the battle had already begun. The regiments began to shoot at each other, mistaking their own for the enemy. The situation was aggravated by the fact of the multinationality of the troops. The Slavs did not understand the orders of the German officers. Slavonian border guards, irregular troops from the Slavs who lived on the border (like our Cossacks), were mistaken for the Ottoman cavalry. Some of the officers ordered the artillery to open fire on their cavalry. It seemed to many that the enemy cavalry was already inside the battle formations.

Thus, the night march turned into a "battle" due to management errors and a number of misunderstandings. The army took the fight and fought with itself, then the demoralized crowds fled. In the general confusion, the army nearly lost its emperor. Joseph tried to stop the panic, but was thrown from his horse and fell into a ditch. By morning, the army scattered.

Aftermath


Two days later, the Ottoman army led by the vizier Yusuf Pasha came to Karansebesh. The Turks did not find the enemy, but they found wounded and killed, abandoned supplies. The Ottomans easily took Caransebes.

The Austrians lost about 2 thousand people killed, wounded and captured. Some of the soldiers fled. Obviously, this shameful failure allowed the Austrians to mobilize. In 1789, the Austrian corps under the command of the Prince of Coburg helped Alexander Suvorov defeat the Ottomans in the battles of Focsani and Rymnik. Then Field Marshal Ernst Laudon drove the enemy out of Banat and recaptured Belgrade, Craiova. Coburgsky's troops entered Bucharest. In 1790, the Austrians launched an offensive on the territory of modern Romania.

However, in February 1790, Emperor Joseph II died. Vienna was concerned about the revolution in France and sought to concentrate attention and forces on a new front. Also, Prussia, behind which England stood, pressed on Vienna. Therefore, the new emperor Leopold II decided to make peace with Turkey.

An armistice was signed in September 1790. In August 1791, the Treaty of Sistov was signed. Vienna returned almost all the occupied territories to the Ottomans, having received only the fortress of Orsovo.
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
25 comments
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  1. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. April 28 2021 04: 44
    +1
    The Turks laughed when they learned how the Austrian army went to war ... unrestrained drunkenness does not lead to good.
    The gypsies had to be rewarded to the Turks for a successfully carried out sabotage operation to decompose the Austrian Zoldaten.
  2. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I April 28 2021 04: 52
    +1
    "Beat your own so that strangers are afraid"? request
    1. Lech from Android.
      Lech from Android. April 28 2021 05: 08
      0
      They will get drunk, they will beat them, how many times have I seen a drunken youngster get drunk and begin to tear his shirt on his chest, it doesn't take much to provoke them into a fight.
  3. north 2
    north 2 April 28 2021 06: 08
    +11
    the legend of the Battle of Caransebs is an outright falsification. Yes, there was an occasional night panic during the march of the Austrian army to take up new positions. The confusion and panic from this, and not the booze, led to the fact that the Austrians considered their own people as Turks and the regiments began to shoot at each other. Even Emperor Joseph himself could not stop it. And this falsification about drinking was invented by the American historian Paul Bernhardt, a master of such matters. And he presented this "history" without any references to any sources and archival documents. So to present soldiers' tales about drunkenness, which never happened, as a significant historical event, is useless. However, this bike can be useful for educating soldiers and officers, they say, look, this is what drunkenness can lead to in the service. ..
    1. Lech from Android.
      Lech from Android. April 28 2021 06: 16
      -8
      Do you have links to archives for this story?
      Bring them on ... your bike versus the author's bike ... smile
      1. Marine engineer
        Marine engineer April 28 2021 07: 15
        +1
        All the details of this battle are set out in the songs of the gypsies))
        "Hey coachman (hussar), drive to the camp ..."
      2. north 2
        north 2 April 28 2021 08: 32
        +5
        Quote: Lech from Android.
        Do you have links to archives for this story?
        Bring them on ... your bike versus the author's bike ... smile

        Please, "History of the 18th century" by Friedrich Schlosser, in fact a contemporary of events. And the "Biography of Joseph II" by Paul Bernard in 1960, in fact our contemporary, who presented for the first time this soldier's tale about drunkenness as a historical-military event. And Schlosser does not have a word about this, they say, drunkenness. Of course, the "Austrian Military Journal" issued in 1831 would have raised a terrible noise if Schlosser had lied. But since no one has heard anything about the claims of the "Austrian Military Journal" against Schlosser, then we must believe Schlosser, who showed these events as panic from the confusion between the Austrian regiments. And the story about drinking was multiplied and replicated by the American Bernard only two hundred years after
        of how the events were shown by their actual contemporary Schlosser.
  4. Cartalon
    Cartalon April 28 2021 06: 15
    +4
    The funny thing about this battle is that there is no evidence that it took place.
    1. Lech from Android.
      Lech from Android. April 28 2021 06: 25
      -9
      And refute the opposite, prove with documents that it was not.
      1. Cartalon
        Cartalon April 28 2021 06: 44
        +8
        There are no documents about the events of which there were no, and they are not about this battle.
        1. Lech from Android.
          Lech from Android. April 28 2021 06: 55
          -5
          Well, since there are no documents according to your statement, then everyone is free to state their own version of events. hi And to believe it or not is a private matter for doubting and believing comrades.
          1. Cartalon
            Cartalon April 28 2021 07: 39
            +9
            Baron Munchausen fully agrees with you
      2. Senior seaman
        Senior seaman April 28 2021 09: 39
        +3
        If something exists, its existence can be proven. If something does not exist, then it is impossible to prove or disprove the existence of it.
  5. Olgovich
    Olgovich April 28 2021 07: 13
    +3
    The imperial troops reached the city of Caransebes, which was located on Romanian territory


    recourse Then there was no Romania, before its formation, even more than half a century ...
    1. Lech from Android.
      Lech from Android. April 28 2021 07: 20
      -3
      But the gypsies were ... smile
  6. Undecim
    Undecim April 28 2021 07: 47
    +17
    Do you have links to archives for this story?
    Bring them on ... your bike versus the author's bike ..

    The author did not even write his own story, he copied and pasted it from Wikipedia, not really straining to rewrite it.
    Historians know two sources in which this incident is mentioned, I emphasize - an incident, not a battle.
    The first is "Geschichte Josephs des Zweiten".

    Second - Real-Zeitung auf das Jahr 1788, p. 727

    No other sources, neither Austrian nor Turkish, have yet been found.
    Both sources are online and anyone can be sure that we are talking about an incident on the march and about the loss of 150 people.
    And the "battle" described by the author was invented by the current Internet fake-sets to the delight of readers from Android.
    1. Lech from Android.
      Lech from Android. April 28 2021 08: 02
      +1
      Well, here's at least one serious comment ... thanks for the links provided to the reader from Android. hi
      1. Richard
        Richard April 28 2021 15: 48
        +8
        The author did not even write his own story, he copied and pasted it from Wikipedia, not really straining to rewrite it.

        Yes, Vika just burns in this matter smile
        Here, for example, is a killer phrase from Wikipedia, which, to Samsonov's credit, he ignored:
        "During this campaign, the Austrians basically tried to drink wine, not raw water, since they lost more than one thousand killed, wounded and sick from malaria."

        How interesting is it, killed and wounded? Malaria injured? And from diarrhea (the scourge of all the armies of those times), following the logic of the Krivorukov nedovikipedist, there are also wounded - by shots?
        1. Richard
          Richard April 28 2021 16: 00
          +9
          Adjutant of Joseph II, trampled to death by horses

          He didn't have a last name - is he just an extra? He had to be from a good family, others were simply not taken, but this unfortunate adjutant remains unnamed.
          In fact, the personal adjutant of Joseph II in 1787-89. was Prince Philip von Liechtenstein, brother of the ruling prince of Liechtenstein, "killed to death" by Vika in this episode, but somehow supernaturally managed to live until 1802. lol
        2. Alf
          Alf April 28 2021 19: 52
          +1
          Quote: Richard
          How interesting is it, killed and wounded? Malaria injured?

          They finished off their own so that they would not suffer. laughing
  7. Maks1995
    Maks1995 April 28 2021 09: 19
    +5
    er ... There were already articles here and on other sites recently. And in more detail.

    What's that again?


    Undecim thanks!
  8. parusnik
    parusnik April 28 2021 18: 05
    +4
    In 1789, the Austrian corps under the command of the Prince of Coburg helped Alexander Suvorov
    "A strong Turkish army was concentrating in Focsani, preparing a strike against the Austrians, and Coburg asked the Russians for reinforcements. Suvorov asked for Repnin; he evasively replied that he did not prevent Suvorov from undertaking an operation, but gave him six days for it, and demanded to leave part of the troops in Byrlad for cover and insists on a preliminary written agreement with the Prince of Coburg. Then Suvorov reported that in pursuance of the general Potemkin directive "not to tolerate the enemy flocks ahead of him." Byr-Lada. The march was exceptionally fast. In 16 hours we covered 28 versts, separating from the Austrian camp. " K. Osipov A. V. Suvorov
    Under Rymnik, the situation was the same. So Coburgsky helped Suvorov defeat the Turks. laughing
  9. Alf
    Alf April 28 2021 19: 51
    -1
    Historical facts prove that friendly fire is always the most accurate.
  10. Basarev
    Basarev April 28 2021 21: 32
    0
    Before foolishly getting involved in a war, it was necessary to engage in discipline and coordination of troops, logistics, communications and medicine. But this is a very boring job, it is much more fun to thump and fire on your own.
  11. faterdom
    faterdom April 29 2021 00: 43
    0
    I think why the Germans put gypsies in the last place in their racial theory ...
    And with them, it turns out, glorious battles are associated.