Military Review

Defense of Liepaja

37
Warriors of the 67th Infantry Division
Soldiers of the 67th Rifle Division in the exercise.


Liepaja (Libava), already in the Middle Ages famous for its trade port, which did not freeze even in the most severe winters, in the years preceding the war, became the third largest city in Latvia (population 57 thousand in 1935).

On the sea


In 1940, it became the forward base of the Baltic fleet THE USSR. Initially, a large naval force with a cruiser, destroyers and submarines was concentrated in a small port, and a large amount of military materials were in warehouses.

However, as the threat from Nazi Germany grew, the Soviet command realized the vulnerability of the port, which was brought almost to the border with Germany. Liepaja is located about 90 km from Klaipeda (Memel). And thus, the forces located there, in the event of a surprise attack, were exposed to the blows of the German aviation, fleet and ground forces.

The defense of the base was being prepared from the very moment of the annexation of Latvia to the USSR. But it was too short a time for the restoration of the neglected military port and the construction of a system of permanent fortifications, first of all, permanent coastal artillery batteries of large caliber.

Nevertheless, from the side of the sea, the defense of Liepaja was quite strong. Taking into account the fact that surface and submarine ships of the Baltic Fleet were supposed to participate in it, two coastal batteries of 130 mm guns and four batteries of smaller caliber guns, two batteries of railway guns and the 43rd separate aviation squadron of the Baltic Fleet Air Force, which was armed with 40 flying boats MBR-2.

The defense plan also provided for the setting of minefields on the approaches to the base. For air defense, a fighter aviation regiment was located near the city, and in the base itself - 6 batteries of anti-aircraft guns.

And about. The base commander, Captain First Rank Mikhail Klevensky, had a separate infantry battalion, machine-gun company, railroad and fire-fighting company. In case of war, the cadets of the naval air defense school located in Liepaja obeyed him. On the land side, the basis of Liepaja's defense was to be made up of the units of the 67th Infantry Division from the 8th Army.

However, the task of the division under the command of Major General Nikolai Dedaev was to defend not only Liepaja, but also a large, almost 200-kilometer stretch of coast, along which its parts were scattered. However, in the pre-war years, the land defense of Liepaja was not given much importance due to the ingrained idea of ​​the power of the Soviet armed forces, which would not allow such a deep penetration of enemy troops into the territory of the Soviet Union. Accordingly, there was not even a thought about the need to organize a strong defense and the one-man command of its command.

The base commander was directly subordinate to the command of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, and the commander of the 67th division - to the command of the 8th Army and the front command. In practice, commanders at all levels of the military hierarchy worked closely with each other. But nevertheless, the division of responsibility in wartime did not contribute to the concentration of all forces and means to achieve the primary goals in a specific combat situation. The base commander and division commander received orders from their superiors and carried them out independently. Although in many cases, with a single command, the same goals could be achieved with fewer forces and means.

The attack of Hitler's Germany on the Soviet Union for the defenders of Liepaja did not become sudden, thanks to the measures taken earlier to increase combat readiness. The first German air strikes on the morning of June 22 found the defenders of the base at firing positions. Under anti-aircraft fire from batteries and ships, the planes were unable to drop bombs aimingly. And the destruction was insignificant.

Soon after the first air raid, four submarines left the base - M-79, M-81, M-83 и A-3 - with the task to take positions on the approaches to Liepaja. At the same time a minesweeper "Fugas" began laying a minefield 10 miles from Liepaja. In total, this ship delivered 206 mines over several exits to the sea.

Hitler's soldiers during the fighting
Hitler's soldiers during the fighting at the bridge over the canal.

On the land


The situation on land was much worse.

At the start of the war, the 67th division had not yet had time to bring itself into full combat readiness. Meanwhile, the 291st Infantry Division of Lieutenant General Kurt Herzog from the 18th Army of Colonel General Georg von Kühler began its offensive on the Memel - Liepaja direction.

Having crossed the state border of the USSR, the division broke through the defenses of the border troops and, without significant resistance, moved in the direction of Liepaja. In the afternoon of June 22, German units reached the Barta River, which flows 17 km south of Liepaja. There they were stopped by units of the 67th division, but not for long. Since after an unsuccessful attempt to force the river on the move in the area north of Nitsa, the Germans regrouped further east, where they crossed the river without encountering resistance. At this time, 6 submarines and 8 ships left the port of Liepaja and headed to Ventspils and Ust-Dvinsk.

Meanwhile, soldiers, sailors and civilians hastily set up defensive lines around Liepaja, primarily by digging trenches and preparing machine-gun points. To strengthen the land defense, Captain Klevensky allocated all free units of sailors to the 67th division, including the crews of the ships being repaired. Also, coastal and anti-aircraft batteries were deployed to provide fire support for ground units. And they came under the command of the 67th division.

The defense was strengthened by detachments of volunteers from among the civilian population that arrived at the disposal of the 67th Division. So already on the first day of the war, all Soviet forces in the Liepaja area were practically under the command of General Dedaev, although this was not provided for by defense plans, but turned out by itself in the current situation.

The Nazis on the streets of Liepaja
The Nazis on the streets of Liepaja.

By the evening of the first day of the war, German troops managed to cut off the railway connection between Liepaja and Riga. And then they attempted to take the city by attack from the east. The attack was repulsed in a fleeting battle, in which the coastal batteries supported the Soviet troops with their fire.

Over the next two days, the Germans, with the support of aviation, repeatedly tried to break into the city, but all their attacks were repulsed. Nevertheless, the situation worsened with each passing hour. Coastal batteries were not always able to support the forward detachments with their fire, since their positions were not prepared for firing at targets on land, and they themselves were under attack from the air.

Soviet aviation suffered huge losses on the first day of the war, and the surviving aircraft were forced to leave the destroyed airfield near Liepaja and relocate closer to Riga. Also, flying boats of the 43rd squadron were relocated to Riga, since their base on Lake Durbes was within the reach of enemy fire.

Even worse, on June 24, German troops bypassed Liepaja from the north and completely surrounded it from land. The defenders of the base were cut off from the 8th army, which could not come to their aid, as it itself was rolling back under the onslaught of the enemy to Riga. The situation at sea also worsened, as German submarines began to mine the approaches to the base, and two of them began to hunt for Soviet ships. From 10 to 12 torpedo boats of the 3rd flotilla appeared in the Liepaja area.

The critical moment in the defense of Liepaja came on June 25, when the Germans pulled heavy artillery to the city, and under its fire they managed to cut through the ledges in the Soviet defense. There was a threat of seizure of the naval base and the shipyard. The defenders began to undermine depots with mines, ammunition and fuel in order to prevent them from falling into the hands of the enemy. At the same time, the destroyer was blown up. "Lenin".

It is generally accepted that the decision was made by the commander "Lenin", Lieutenant-Commander Yuri Afanasyev. But the fact that together with Lenin the submarines were blown up M-71, M-76, C-1, "Ronis" и "Spidola", who did not obey Afanasyev in any way, indicates that the order for the self-flooding of the ships could have come from Captain Klevensky.

The equipment and mechanisms of the shipyard were also undermined. By that time, all patrol boats left Liepaja, the minesweeper "Fugas" and the sub C-3... Only 5 torpedo boats and 10 transport ships remained in the base.

Worse fate was with the submarine C-3... Under the command of Lieutenant Commander Nikolai Kostromichev, she went to sea alone, although the ship was damaged and unable to dive. Meanwhile, at sea, abeam the Uzhava lighthouse, German torpedo boats were patrolling. An unequal battle ensued. An hour and a half C-3 repelled the attacks of a superior enemy with the fire of two guns of caliber 100 and 45 mm. She even managed to dodge several torpedoes with skillful maneuvers, but two of them still hit the target. The explosions tore the submarine's hull in three parts. Who knows, maybe the tragedy could have been avoided if C-3 went to sea, accompanied by patrol boats.

Assault


The next day, June 26, the Germans began to storm the city.

With the support of artillery, tanks and planes they managed to break into the streets of Liepaja. Bloody street fighting continued throughout the day. The commander of the 67th division, Dedaev, was killed in the battles. And although the Germans failed to take neither the city nor the base, the position of the defenders was already hopeless.

Therefore, on the evening of June 26, it was decided to break out of the encirclement with the remnants of forces. The task was not easy. All roads were already cut, and the waterways were not suitable for the evacuation of personnel and property due to lack of time and vehicles.

On the night of June 26-27, the last remaining ships, boats and other floating craft, overcrowded with evacuees, left the port. The boats were the last to leave the base CT-17 и CT-47 with the headquarters of the base. On the high seas, they were attacked by 6 torpedo boats.

Died in an unequal battle CT-17. But CT-47 managed to pick up the survivors and get to the Gulf of Riga. Some detachments of soldiers, sailors and militias were forced to stay in Liepaja to cover the breakthrough. Some of them managed to withstand the continuous onslaught of the enemy, break out of the encirclement and join forces with the 8th Army or start a partisan struggle in the forests of Latvia. Scattered groups continued to resist for another five days in different parts of the city.

Liepaja became the first Soviet naval base captured by Nazi troops.

Her defense left much to be desired. But in the current situation, it was carried out competently and with great dedication by soldiers, sailors and militias. The base turned out to be, in principle, not prepared for defense from the land side. And it was from this direction that the blow came already on the first day of the war.

Nevertheless, on the line of hastily dug trenches, the defenders managed to hold out for five days in battles with a superior enemy, and then evacuate part of the forces by sea. Moreover, until July 1, they managed to prevent the advance of an entire German division in small groups.

Despite the fact that the Liepaja legend remains, as it were, in the shadow of the epic of the Brest Fortress, historians Alexei Isaev and Sergei Buldygin consider it an underestimated local success of the Red Army.

In any case, the defense of Liepaja was not in vain. And her experience was later useful in the defense of other naval bases.

Sources and literature:
N.K. Kuznetsov. In the fleets, combat alert... Military Publishing, 1971.
V.I.Savchenko. Seven fiery days of Liepaja... Zinatne, 1985.
A.V. Isaev. Another 1941. From the border to Leningrad... Eksmo, Yauza, 2011.
A.V. Isaev. Border battle 1941. First battle of the Great Patriotic War... Yauza, 2020.
S. B. Buldygin. Defense of Liepaja... Gangut, 2012.


Продолжение следует ...
Author:
Photos used:
V.I.Savchenko. "Seven fiery days of Liepaja". Riga, 1985.
37 comments
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  1. vladcub
    vladcub April 26 2021 18: 42
    +9
    Once I watched the h.f .: "The City under Lipami" about these events.
    He was still a kid and hanged himself that some "radishes" from Maxim, wanted to shoot in our backs. I didn’t know about all kinds of nationalists then.
    The author, what was the fate of: Klevinsky? Did any of the city's defenders live to see victory?
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Paul Neumann
      April 26 2021 18: 55
      +18
      Klevensky was put on trial and sentenced to imprisonment for surrendering the base and destroying the ships. For 8 years, if my memory serves me right. But he served only a few months, after which he was amnestied with the removal of a criminal record and sent to the active fleet in secondary positions. He died in 1954.
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins April 26 2021 19: 07
        +4
        Thanks for the interesting article.
      2. vladcub
        vladcub April 26 2021 20: 52
        +6
        Let's just say: a person without guilt is guilty
    3. Richard
      Richard April 26 2021 20: 22
      +11
      What would be clearer - a map of the defense of Liepaja in 1941.
    4. SERGE ANT
      SERGE ANT April 26 2021 20: 34
      +14
      Quote: vladcub

      He was also a kid and hanged himself that some "radishes" from Maxim wanted to shoot in our backs.

      There was no such thing. Liepaja is the place where during the war the first armed detachments of the civilian population appeared in the country, who fought alongside the troops of the Red Army against the regular troops of the Germans. By 28.06.1941/28/29, the military forces basically escaped the encirclement, but the struggle against the invaders continued. On June XNUMX-XNUMX, it manifested itself in street battles, with practically no leading centers, almost all of the leaders died. The fighting took on a focal character and the main role in them was played by the civilian population with the participation of military personnel who, for various reasons, could not get out of the encirclement.

      The Germans noted in a report dated 29.06.1941/7/20 at XNUMX:XNUMX: "The city center in battles, mainly against armed civilians, workers have been captured, in the southern part of the city they are still resisting." The fighting in homes and in the streets was fought with extreme ferocity. In a number of places, the Nazis offered to surrender through loudspeakers. In response - shots. The Nazis' newspaper wrote: “The struggle flares up from all sides - the struggle between the troops and the civilians. We must turn the cannons on the city again. Turn a flourishing city into ruins. " And they did it. A German journalist wrote: “Anti-tank guns, flamethrowers, and heavy machine guns are being put into action. Residents capable of carrying weapons take part in battles. Fires. Until everything is destroyed, the Bolsheviks do not surrender. These fierce street fighting surpasses anything we've seen so far. The corpses of soldiers and armed residents are everywhere. ”From the Wehrmacht newspaper Die Front about the battles in Libau:“ ... the Reds hold the city with all possible
      means. From the side of Old Liepaja, German troops are fired upon by the communists dressed in civilian clothes. In the rear, they shoot from windows, roofs, cellars: the Bolsheviks are hiding there. In the street
      The communists seem to feel great in battles. "
    5. Ulrih
      Ulrih April 26 2021 22: 04
      .
      Quote: vladcub
      He was still a kid and hanged himself that some "radishes" from Maxim, wanted to shoot in our backs. I didn’t know about all kinds of nationalists then.

      Well, yes, it's so hard to believe that there are people in other countries who love their country.
    6. Konnick
      Konnick April 27 2021 02: 30
      +1
      Once I watched the film: "The City near Lipami" about these events
      .
      The film very accurately conveyed those events, because the screenwriter was S. Smirnov and after writing the book "Brest Fortress", he wrote about the defense of Liepaja, but did not have time to finish.
      1. vladcub
        vladcub April 27 2021 12: 25
        0
        Have you watched this movie too?
        1. Konnick
          Konnick April 27 2021 13: 05
          0
          I watched it for a long time.
  2. SERGE ANT
    SERGE ANT April 26 2021 18: 51
    +18
    An unequal battle ensued. For an hour and a half, the C-3 repelled the attacks of the superior enemy with the fire of two 100 and 45 mm guns. She even managed to dodge several torpedoes with skillful maneuvers, but two of them still hit the target. The explosions tore the submarine's hull in three parts.
    According to the Kriegsmarine documents, that night, the S-35 and S-60 boats patrolled the Soviet coastline three miles from land. At 02:33 the Germans noticed a shadow on the left side, which they identified as an enemy submarine. It was S-3. Ten minutes later they approached the submarine up to 300-400 meters and attacked it with the last torpedoes, but could not hit the submarine. Even at the beginning of the battle, the boat's 100-mm gun was out of order, so the S-3 "Had to fight off the Germans only" forty-five. "After the torpedo attack, the German ships began to fire on the submarine from automatic cannons. The fire advantage was on their side, since it was difficult for the Soviet sailors to shoot from a single gun at the rapidly maneuvering torpedo boats. And they fired almost point-blank, flying past the submarine and thrusting shells into it. However, despite heavy losses, the crew of the Soviet submarine did not surrender. As the commander of the S-60 boat Wupperman wrote, "the enemy responded with fire from a 40 mm gun (rear), numerous small-caliber machine guns and rifles." Taking advantage of a short respite, Kostromichev unsuccessfully tried to break away from the Germans. Their boats went on the attack again. Now grenades were flying in the direction of the S-3 cabin, and the Germans dropped depth charges near the submarine. She was still walking at high speed, they were still shooting from her, but she was doomed. The submariners began to leave the ship, jumping into the water. With a successful throw, the Germans managed to throw a grenade right into the wheelhouse. The explosion killed Kostromichev, a fire started on the boat. The shooting from her stopped. The blow that ended this fight was delivered by the S-60 boat. At 03:39, he dropped a depth charge at the stern of the S-3. Having received a hole, the damaged submarine slowly sank. Thus ended this tragic battle, which inscribed the name "S-3" in the chronicle of the exploits of the Baltic sailors of the Great Patriotic War. About 80 people died on the boat, including Captain 3rd Rank Marine and Lieutenant Commander Kostromichev. The body of the latter was washed ashore by the sea on the island of Sarem, where he was buried.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub April 26 2021 20: 58
      +3
      Apparently, none of the boat's crew escaped?
    2. Pravodel
      Pravodel April 28 2021 11: 02
      +1
      Everlasting memory!!!
  3. Richard
    Richard April 26 2021 18: 57
    +9
    In 1940 it became the forward base of the Baltic Fleet of the USSR. Initially, a large naval force with a cruiser, destroyers and submarines was concentrated in a small port.

    This refers to the cruiser "Kirov"

    By the way, it was based on Liepaja even after the Second World War until 1958
    1. Richard
      Richard April 26 2021 19: 22
      +12
      Port of Liepaja pre-war photo



      Here is a rather interesting pre-war photo of the seaplane in the port of Lubav

      This is not German aviation, but the aviation of bourgeois Latvia inherited by the USSR in 1940. Swastika in a white circle, this is a sign of Latvian aviation before 1940
      1. vladcub
        vladcub April 27 2021 13: 10
        +2
        "pre-war photo seaplane in the port of Lubava" you have a "ochepatka": "Libava", a city, and Lyubava, a typewriter, were produced under license from Robotron
        Thanks for the pictures
        1. Richard
          Richard April 27 2021 13: 15
          +1
          Thanks for the amendment.
          1. vladcub
            vladcub April 27 2021 13: 19
            +2
            It's my pleasure. I do it myself, but sometimes the auto-editor "gets clever"
            1. Richard
              Richard April 27 2021 13: 24
              +1
              auto editor is "clever"

              No, I just described myself here
  4. Richard
    Richard April 26 2021 19: 51
    +9
    At the same time, the minesweeper "Fugas" began laying a minefield 10 miles from Liepaja. In total, this ship delivered 206 mines over several exits to the sea.

    Here it is necessary to clarify - not a minesweeper with the name "Fugas", but a minesweeper "T-204" of project 53 "Fugas"
    a photo"T-204"

    On June 21, he arrived from Ventspils to the Tosmare plant to repair cars. With one serviceable vehicle, repelling enemy airstrikes, withstanding a torpedo attack from a submarine, for several exits to the sea, the T-204 managed to deliver 206 mines, which killed the German minesweeper M-3134 and the submarine hunter UJ-113 in early July.
    At the end of the defense, the faulty T-204 managed to safely break through from besieged Liepaja to Ventspils.
  5. Richard
    Richard April 26 2021 20: 17
    +9
    There was a threat of seizure of the naval base and the shipyard. The defenders began to undermine depots with mines, ammunition and fuel in order to prevent them from falling into the hands of the enemy. At the same time, the destroyer "Lenin" was blown up.

    a photo blown up and sunken destroyer "Lenin"
  6. SERGE ANT
    SERGE ANT April 26 2021 20: 23
    +12
    The last boats to leave the base were KT-17 and KT-47 boats with the headquarters of the base. KT-17 was killed in an unequal battle.
    Torpedo boat No. 17, on which the commander of the Klevensky base with the headquarters was, broke through to the island of Saaremaa, and No. 47 was badly damaged and abandoned by the crew. The last ship "Vieniba" left Liepaja, accompanied by TKA No. 27, 37 and 67. The enemy aircraft sunk "Vieniba" (about 800 people, only 25 were saved) and TKA No. 27.
  7. mr.ZinGer
    mr.ZinGer April 26 2021 20: 53
    +2
    "Some of them managed to withstand the continuous onslaught of the enemy, break out of the encirclement and join forces with the 8th Army or start a partisan struggle in the forests of Latvia."
    About the partisan war in the forests of Latvia, are you serious?
    1. vladcub
      vladcub April 26 2021 21: 04
      +3
      Partisans as such in the Baltics, I don't remember. For the sake of truth, there were not numerous underground groups operating there.
  8. Constanty
    Constanty April 26 2021 21: 51
    +4
    the Soviet command realized the vulnerability of the port, which was brought almost to the border with Germany. Liepaja is located about 90 km from Klaipeda (Memel). And thus, the forces located there, in the event of a surprise attack, were exposed to the attacks of the German aviation, fleet and ground forces.


    ... However, in the pre-war years, the land defense of Liepaja was not given much importance due to the ingrained idea of ​​the power of the Soviet armed forces, which would not allow such a deep penetration of enemy troops into the territory of the Soviet Union. Accordingly, there was not even a thought about the need to organize a strong defense and the one-man command of its command.


    The author must decide, because these two fragments contradict each other somewhat.

    Taking into account the number of ships, including non-working and in service in Libau at the time of the start of the war, an attack by Germany was unlikely, rather such a large force at a base near the border suggests a different course of hostilities. ...
    1. Paul Neumann
      April 27 2021 14: 04
      +2
      Yes, to my shame and regret, I overlooked.
      The point, you see, is that ... I am here publishing, so to speak, "introductory fragments" of a larger text that I am preparing for a book publication. Having selected the fragments for the Military Review, I did not keep track of the integrity of the logic. In fact, I am writing about how a naval base was first set up in Liepaja, and then ships and property were evacuated from there - all in one year, which means with inevitable costs.
      I will try to be more attentive for the future.
  9. Konnick
    Konnick April 27 2021 02: 39
    +3
    General Dedayev the day before the start of the war withdrew his division from the barracks and dispersed it around the city. The barracks were bombed in the morning by the first bombing raid. For some, the war turned out not to be sudden, but someone left the planes for show at the airfields.
  10. aybolyt678
    aybolyt678 April 27 2021 09: 22
    +2
    What kind of machine gun does the Nazi have in the second photo in the foreground from below? similar to our PPSh
    1. Konnick
      Konnick April 27 2021 09: 53
      +3
      What kind of machine gun does the Nazi have in the second photo in the foreground from below? similar to our PPSh

      PPD-40, the border guards were armed and the Germans immediately appreciated our submachine guns and used them, especially in urban battles.
    2. Catfish
      Catfish April 27 2021 14: 45
      +3
      And at first I did not pay attention. Colleague Konnick (Nikolay) has already answered your question, it remains only to add a little.


      PPD-40.
      TECH SPECS
      Caliber: 7,62 × 25
      Weapon length: 788 mm
      Barrel length: 267 mm
      Weight unloaded: 3,6 kg.
      Rate of Shooting: 800 fps / min
      Magazine capacity: 71 rounds

      And the Germans really respected our weapons. They even had the official name of the trophy PPD - Maschinenpistole 715 (r)
  11. dgonni
    dgonni April 27 2021 10: 47
    +2
    Well, the commander of the base and Svyatov led the blowing up of the ships being repaired on Afanpsiev.
    Although, according to the memoirs, Lenin could give a move and calmly leave for Tallig.
  12. tarakan
    tarakan April 27 2021 11: 29
    +4
    I live in Liepaja and unfortunately I see that no one needs our port.
    1. Aleksandr97
      Aleksandr97 April 27 2021 12: 15
      +2
      When Riga becomes a regional city, only then the port of Liepaja will have a future !!!
      1. alsoclean
        alsoclean April 27 2021 21: 33
        +1
        Until there is cargo through the ports of Riga, Ventspils, Liepaja, it’s not even funny to talk about the future. And there will be no cargo because there is no transit. Well, further down the list ...
    2. alsoclean
      alsoclean April 27 2021 21: 36
      +1
      Not only. The Tosmare plant is not needed. Liepājas Metalurgs is not needed. Do not need anything....
  13. Constanty
    Constanty 25 June 2021 10: 09
    0
    On the night of June 26-27, the last remaining ships, boats and other floating craft, overcrowded with evacuees, left the port. The last boats to leave the base were KT-17 and KT-47 with the headquarters of the base. On the high seas, they were attacked by 6 torpedo boats.


    The research I've done suggests they weren't the last ones to leave the database.




    It is believed that the decision was made by the commander of the "Lenin", Lieutenant Commander Yuri Afanasyev. But the fact that, together with Lenin, the submarines M-71, M-76, S-1, Ronis and Spidola, which did not obey Afanasyev in any way, were blown up, indicates that the order to submerge the ships could have come from Captain Klevensky.

  14. Constanty
    Constanty 25 June 2021 10: 43
    0
    Fate was worse with the S-3 submarine. Under the command of Lieutenant Commander Nikolai Kostromichev, she went to sea alone, although the ship was damaged and unable to dive. Meanwhile, at sea, abeam the Uzhava lighthouse, German torpedo boats were patrolling. An unequal battle ensued. For an hour and a half, the C-3 repelled the attacks of the superior enemy with the fire of two guns of caliber 100 and 45 mm. She even managed to dodge several torpedoes with skillful maneuvers, but two of them still hit the target. The explosions tore the hull of the submarine in three parts.


    The Soviet submarine defended itself from the attackers for a long time and successfully.
    He managed to dodge the torpedoes fired in his direction and fire at the enemy from 102-mm and 45-mm guns. The battle lasted until 04.40, until the C-3 lost all the gunners and almost all the officers.
    Then the Soviet commander decided to try to throw the ship ashore. The intention did not succeed, because the pursuers, looking at the silence of the submarine's artillery, boldly approached its surroundings and threw depth charges to set to a minimum depth. As a result of a series of explosions, the S-3 hull split into three parts.
    (VI Dmitrev 1973, Submariners Attack, Moscow) sharply and somewhat differently described: “There was a fire on the ship. Two torpedoes. fired at by enemy speeders from close range, they tore the hull in three. The Nazis fired machine guns at the defenseless survivors trying to grab the floating wreckage of the sinking ship. Looking death straight in the face, the submarines sang the Internationale. S-3 died without removing the Soviet military flag. ”The author concludes that all the people of S-3 were killed. In fact, the Germans lifted 20 shipwrecked people from the water and sent them to POW camps. Among them were members of the crews of submarines S-1, M-71 and M-80, while none of the 47 S-3 crews and shipyard workers survived ...