Military Review

Shooting gifts ...

53

Flintlock pistols of Empress Catherine II, a gift to August Poniatowski. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


“For over a decade you have been decorating
Blessed House of Petrov,
Elizabeth imitated
In the Monarch's height of gifts,
Freeing the oppressed
And encouraging the offended,
Tilted the height of heaven
Deliver you from evil fate,
To reign over us
And wipe away the currents of tears for us. "

A solemn ode to Her Imperial Majesty, the Most Blessed Most Sovereign Great Empress Empress Ekaterina Alekseevna, the Autocrat of All Russia, for Her glorious ascent to the All-Russian Imperial Throne on June 28, 1762. In an expression of true joy and loyal zeal, sincere congratulations are brought from the all-subject slave Mikhail Lomonosov.

History weapons. Well, what can you do, it was customary to cajole the rulers with gifts, whom God had granted for what: whoever wrote verses, he flattered with verses, who understood in handcrafts - did something material, beautiful and expensive. How many examples we know of when one European monarch in the Middle Ages gave another expensive armor, the eastern rulers bestowed sabers with ruby ​​handles on each other, the rajahs in India (and the rajams!) Gave elephants, the gift of a valuable sword in Japan turned the enemy into a friend. And it is not surprising that this tradition continued in the days of firearms. And today we will tell you about some examples of such gift weapons. One can say about all these “products”: “the eye sees, but the tooth doesn’t care”, since even those that were made in Russia are very far from it today. But what to do, it just so happened. But we can at least look at them here ...

And since we sent poems about Catherine II as an epigraph, then ... let's start with the gifts of gunshot of her era. Perhaps the most interesting and luxurious gift was a pair of flintlock pistols by Catherine the Great (1729–1796), made in 1786 by the St. Petersburg gunsmith Johan Adolf Greke. They were part of a luxurious set of hunting weapons with ivory butts and stocks, made by him especially for the Empress. This was emphasized by the monogram "E" on the arm guards. The set originally consisted of a pair of pistols and a hunting rifle, and was made in 1786. And just Catherine gave it to her favorite, the last Polish king, Prince Stanislav August Poniatowski (1732-1798), whom she supported both as her lover and ... as the king of Poland (reigned 1763-1795). Interestingly, guns with an ivory stock in Western Europe had generally gone out of fashion by the 36,8th century, but in the last quarter of a century they were in vogue at the Russian court. The length of the pistols is 1986 cm. But where the gun is located is unknown. The pair entered the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York as a gift in XNUMX.

The collection of the Metropolitan Museum also contains a pair of flintlock pistols for Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich (1779-1831). They were made around 1801. These pistols are part of a series of specially designed luxury firearms manufactured by the Tula Arms Factory to be presented to Emperor Alexander I and his three brothers on the occasion of his coronation in 1801. Each of the four siblings received a set of five elaborately decorated hunting rifles, including a smoothbore hunting rifle, a rifled carbine, blunderbuss, and a pair of pistols. This firearm is unique among Tula weapons for its neoclassical design, technical sophistication and intricate characteristic decorations. With this gift, the Tula plant not only paid tribute to its imperial patrons, but also demonstrated the technical experience and virtuoso skill for which it was so famous. No wonder the coat of arms of the Tula plant flaunts on each of these pistols.


Pistols of Grand Duke Constantine. Tula Arms Factory (Russia, Tula, 1712 - present) approx. 1801 Materials: steel, silver, gold, wood. Dimensions: length 38,8 cm; barrel length 23,3 cm; caliber 15 mm; the weight of the pistols is different: one pistol - 821 g; second - 845 Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

These pistols are very exquisitely designed. Their decoration, although abundant, is nevertheless more restrained than that of earlier Rococo samples. Blued or polished steel surfaces, accentuated by delicate gilded and inlaid silver ornaments, which is also typical for Tula products. The silver ornament in the box includes images of trophies and the imperial crown surrounding the owner's gold monogram. The precise processing of the trigger and trigger guard, which is very rare on Tula firearms, once again shows that the manufacture of pistols for the Grand Duke in Tula was taken very seriously. Well, how did they end up in this American museum? Gift - a gift to the museum made by a group of individuals in 2016. In the museum form, they are indicated in the same way as the donor of Catherine II's pistols.


Monogram of Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich

However, many "gunshot gifts" came from overseas and to us. And they entered the Hermitage. But paired with them, and there was a tradition to make several identical gift copies, in order to choose the best one, were preserved at the place of manufacture. And it turned out to be very convenient. Because our museums must be asked for permission to publish their photographs, and this is not only computer, but also paperwork. But in the Metropolitan Museum everything is simple: this is a public domain photo (public property), and, therefore, you can use it. But this is not, and the photo simply does not have a download function. And why shouldn't our museums do this at home too?

Well, as for the "gunshot gifts", then the undisputed leader was none other than Samuel Colt. He gave cheap Colts to newspaper editors who wrote laudatory articles about him, more expensive revolvers to senators and generals, but the most luxurious specimens, sometimes at a cost of $ 400, went to foreign crowned heads to encourage them to order his revolvers in large quantities. Such was, for example, Colt's present gold-encrusted revolver "Marine Model 1851" (serial number 20133) with case and accessories, made around 1853.


"Marine Model 1851". Material: steel, copper alloy, gold, wood (walnut), bone, tin. Dimensions: length 32,9 cm; barrel length 19,1 cm; caliber 9,14 mm; weight 1174, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

This revolver belongs to the rare Colt group of percussion firearms, decorated with abundant engraving, embossed carvings and gold inlaid flush or low relief, and there are only about twenty of them survived. Made at the direction of Samuel Colt (1814-1862) for exhibitions at international fairs and for donations to important officials, as well as heads of foreign and domestic states, including the kings of Sweden and Denmark, and the Tsar of Russia, they served as diplomatic gifts and at the same time demonstrated artistic and technical achievements of his company.


Handle and drum close up

This revolver is one of two gold-encrusted Colts donated by the Robert M. Lee Foundation to the Met in honor of the museum's 150th anniversary. Revolvers are among the most significant additions to the museum's firearms collection in recent decades due to their great rarity, richness of their jewelry and historical significance.

Colt displayed his firearms to the public at international fairs, including the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London and the Exhibition of Industries of All Nations in New York in 1853. Moreover, over the course of his life, Colt, his company, and also his family distributed hundreds of revolvers for advertising purposes. But here's the interesting thing: this revolver does not have a dedication, while many of Colt's more modest presentation revolvers have the recipient's name inscribed on the back of the trigger guard.


Case for this revolver with accessories

Although the original purpose for this revolver has not been recorded, it is traditionally considered to be an addition to the gold-decorated naval revolver stored in the State Hermitage in St. Petersburg, that is, one of three gold-inlaid specimens donated by Samuel Colt to Tsar Nicholas I at the Gatchina Palace October 30, 1854. The serial number of the Metropolitan pistol (No. 20133), and the number for the Hermitage model (No. 20131), besides, both revolvers are decorated in the same style. So we can assume that they are both from the same "series".


"Marine Model 1851". Right view. The frame depicts an Indian shooting a bison with a revolver. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Two other gold-encrusted Colts donated to the Tsar and also kept in the Hermitage include the Dragoon Model III revolver (no. 12407) and the 1849 model pocket revolver (no. 63305). The partner of the Dragoon model is in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum (No. 12406).

The figured inserts of the Metropolitan revolver depict the goddess of freedom, a lion and a mounted Indian shooting a bison with a pistol. Many gold-encrusted Colts are also adorned with patriotic iconography, including the Museum Dragoon revolver, inlaid with the portrait of the first President of the United States, George Washington (1732–1799), and the coat of arms of the United States.

There is a clear European influence in inlay design, which is not surprising since many of the best firearms engravers who worked for Colt and other American arms manufacturers in the latter half of the 1850th century were German immigrants who came to the United States in the XNUMXs following a corresponding training in Germany.

Interestingly, the barrel of the Model 1851 revolver (also known as the "Belt Model") is hand engraved with a scene of the May 16, 1843 battle between the warships of the Texas Republic and Mexico. It was designed by Waterman Lilly Ormsby (1809–1883), a banknote engraver who worked for Colt since at least 1839. In addition to this naval scene, Ormsby designed the equally iconic cavalry battle and stagecoach robbery scene for Colt, which were then factory-engraved on the drums.

By the way, it should be noted that the model 1851 revolver, presented in the same year and produced until 1873, was one of the most popular and successful Colt shock revolvers. It had a .36 caliber, a seven and a half inches barrel and a six-shooter. He was light enough, accurate and reliable, many considered him an ideal personal weapon. It remained one of Colt's most popular models during the Civil War, even after the New Model Belt Revolver and the .1860 Army Colt were introduced in 44.


Colt Dragoon Model 3 (S / N 12406), c. 1853 Material: steel, brass, gold, wood (walnut). Dimensions: length 35,6 cm; barrel length 19,1 cm; caliber 11,2 mm; weight 1224, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Colt's finest decorated revolvers, including this specimen, typically have deeply engraved blued steel surfaces with dense leafy curls with motifs such as human figures, animals, and birds, and invariably the Colt's name, inlaid with gold, flush with the surface. On the most luxurious examples, part of the inlay was done in relief, reminiscent of a sculpture in miniature.


Revolver frame and drum close-up ...

This Dragoon revolver, like its “partner” (donated to Emperor Nicholas I), is considered one of the Colt's masterpieces, which he took with him to Europe in 1854. In the same year, the Crimean War broke out, in which Russia fought with Turkey and its allies, Great Britain and France, with Colt actively selling his weapons to both sides. In November 1854, he presented the Russian Tsar Nicholas I with three gold-encrusted revolvers, one from each pair. Of these, the third Dragoon is now in the collection of the Hermitage in St. Petersburg and has serial number 12407.


Case with accessories for the Colt Dragoon revolver. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

The gift clearly demonstrated the technical and artistic capabilities of the Colt firm, and the patriotic motives in the design once again emphasized its American origin. Indeed, one of the revolvers depicts a portrait of George Washington and the coat of arms of the United States, and a revolver made for the emperor - a view of the Capitol building in Washington.


Pocket revolver Model 1849, inlaid with gold (serial number 63306), approx. 1853 Material: steel, copper alloy, gold, wood (walnut). Dimensions: length 22,1 cm; barrel length 10,2 cm; caliber 7,9 mm; weight 672 g. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

This pocket revolver from 1849 belongs to the rare group of Colt capsule revolvers, richly decorated with engraving, relief carving and gold inlay flush or low relief, of which, as we know, about twenty copies survived.

The serial number of this revolver (No. 63306) follows the number of another gold-decorated revolver (No. 63305) kept in the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Pocket Revolver is one of six famous model 1849 revolvers inlaid with gold. Each of them is decorated with engraved curls, and five pistols are also decorated with gold-encrusted animal figurines. As with other revolvers, the curls on the barrel and barrel are embossed rather than engraved. Therefore, we can say that they proudly rise above the background - a feature that, in addition to the gold trim of the revolvers, distinguishes them from hundreds of presentation weapons with small engravings produced by Colt for ... mass "offerings".


View of the drum with the stagecoach robbery scene!

On the revolver we see the following engraved animals: fox, pheasant, leopard, bear, dog, eagle and wolverine. On the other hand, the cylinder is hand-engraved with the scene of the robbery of the stagecoach, which is found on the factory-made model 1849 pocket revolvers. True, most of the original blued surface has faded, traces of bluing are still visible, especially on the upper planes of the barrel near the muzzle and in the recesses of the cylinder.

The Model 1849 Pocket Revolver was produced until 1872 and was one of Colt's most popular weapons. It is believed that around 300 were produced. Its small size with four-, five- or six-inch barrels made it a very practical self-defense weapon. And the drum scene was essentially an instruction on how to deal with this kind of critical situation, or it suggested doing this kind of "business" yourself.

By the way, it is interesting that although Nicholas I and his family members received revolvers, Colt's efforts were wasted. There was no government order from the emperor to his firm. Its competitor, Smith & Wesson, which for many years became the monopoly manufacturer of revolvers for the Russian imperial army, managed to establish profitable cooperation with Russia, although later.
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  1. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 1 May 2021 06: 03
    +5
    Colt is gorgeous as always ... deadly beauty.
    Ornaments and decorations on military weapons are certainly good for a gift.
    If you rummage through private collections, you can surely see a lot of interesting weapons there ... but not all collectors want to show their arsenal ... oh, sadness.
    Thank you Vyacheslav hi as always, your article piqued my interest in collectible weapons.
    I thought that these were simple pieces of iron, but no, each copy has its own story and is very fascinating ... which is sometimes more interesting than the weapon itself.
  2. Cowbra
    Cowbra 1 May 2021 06: 14
    +3
    By the way, there is an opinion that "in German - tsatzki-pecki, and in Russian - a sandwich." Please note that even
    Flintlock pistols of Empress Catherine II, a gift to August Poniatowski. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

    The ramrod in the lower pistol is favored) It is clear that a couple of pistols with fairy tales were traveling to the subway, but again - there is still a military weapon from which I, fighting or something - so I won't take my eyes off so that I lose the ramrod - so me get so drunk - there is not enough vodka in the world. And this is tsatka.
  3. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 1 May 2021 06: 15
    +5
    One article in the evening, the second in the morning. Just some kind of holiday, thanks to Vyacheslav Olegovich! Thank you.
    Personally, I was impressed by the first pair of pistols. Ivory.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 1 May 2021 11: 09
      +8
      Hello buddy, happy May Day! smile

      Today, they also make gifts to those in power, so modestly and with taste. laughing

      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 1 May 2021 11: 21
        +6
        Class! Modern equipment allows you to put any whims even on a stream!
  4. Fenia04
    Fenia04 1 May 2021 06: 19
    +4
    Nicely done.
    And the multi-barrel "pepper shakers" were also decorated?
    1. kalibr
      1 May 2021 07: 33
      +7
      Quote: Fenia04
      And the multi-barrel "pepper shakers" were also decorated?

      There were also very beautiful ones. But they are not among such gifts.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 1 May 2021 12: 45
        +7
        Vyacheslav, happy May Day, and thanks for the beautiful article! smile good

        And I was amused by this "toy", a kind of aesthetically murderous modesty with taste.
        1. kalibr
          1 May 2021 16: 03
          +3
          Yes, the "toy" is impressive. Happy Easter to you!
        2. vladcub
          vladcub 1 May 2021 20: 06
          +2
          Kostya, what kind of taka is this?
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 1 May 2021 20: 08
            +2
            And fig knows it, accidentally found it on the Internet, but there is zero information about it. Maybe Vic Nick will make it clear somehow, ask him. smile
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 1 May 2021 12: 13
      +7
      There were, of course, but the performance is rather pale in comparison with others.


  5. SERGE ANT
    SERGE ANT 1 May 2021 07: 47
    +12
    Well, ours also knew how to do beautifully. In the collection of the Hermitage there is a revolver made by the Tula master Nikolai Zakhov. In 1854, he presented it to Emperor Nicholas 1, writing on it: "No. 1 Pistol Revolver / American Revolver system with a box and a device, fifty-nine silver rubles. A guarantee for good quality."
    Russian gunsmiths already in the early 60s of the nineteenth century began to make copies of the Colt Navi 1851 revolver. At first, these were full copies, even the markings of American weapons were reproduced. However, later, design features appeared, thanks to which Russian weapons can be distinguished from other manufacturers: the shape and angle of the handle were changed. Another feature of the Russian-made Colt Navy revolvers was the location of the screw heads on the right side of the frame. On American and British weapons, the screw heads were placed with left side.
    1. Cowbra
      Cowbra 1 May 2021 08: 58
      +6
      Quote: SERGE ant
      Well, ours also knew how to do beautifully

      Beauty - is it not necessary - in gold and ivory on top? There is, for example, beauty, almost every man sticks to it - for example, like this?

      Just a knife, so nothing special. Only the eye catches, no?
      1. SERGE ANT
        SERGE ANT 1 May 2021 11: 07
        +10
        Quote: Cowbra
        the eye catches

        There is such a thing. Well, knives in general are a bottomless topic, I personally have always liked the knives of the scouts for their simplicity and functionality, although they were decorated with decoration, like this one.
        For a trip to China
        Premium, but not a souvenir, but quite a military weapon
        1. Cowbra
          Cowbra 1 May 2021 11: 10
          +6
          Quote: SERGE ant
          , I personally have always liked plastun knives for their simplicity and functionality

          drinks
          Pisi - further is a joke)
        2. Richard
          Richard 2 May 2021 00: 22
          +3
          There is such a thing.Well, knives are generally a bottomless topic, I personally have always liked plastun knives for their simplicity and functionality.

          as a rule, the Caucasian Cossack plastuns had daggers
          here is a museum dagger of the "kama" type belonging to Nicholas 2



          And this is the Cossack dagger "Basalay" of his father.

          But its manufacturer is precisely established. This invaluable blade was made by the famous Kumyk bulatniks Bazalayev themselves, as evidenced by the characteristic brand
          1. Cowbra
            Cowbra 2 May 2021 06: 41
            +2
            You just have to be able to work with a kama. it is very so - peculiar. This is what you showed first, and "basalay" is still different, strongly
            1. Richard
              Richard 2 May 2021 17: 38
              +1
              You just have to be able to work with a kama. it is very so - peculiar.

              This is yes. But I don’t write that Nicholas "had exactly a kama. I write -" like a kama ". By the way, the royal dagger is indicated in the museum catalog. And the last emperor wore it only to Circassian. A real" big "Ossetian kama is a weapon true professionals of knife fighting, for example:
              a photo personal guard of Alexander 3 and Maria Feodorovna camera-Cossack Timofei Ksenofontovich Box. Incidentally legendary personality. In Denmark, VU graduates in front of the window with its uniform receive shoulder straps

              here in this photo the size of a real cama is more noticeable
              a photo T.K. The box protects the personal belongings of Empress Maria Feodorovna at the Villa Videre. Denmark. April 1920
              1. Richard
                Richard 2 May 2021 18: 17
                +1
                And the last emperor wore it only for Circassian
                Unlike father Alexander the 3rd passionate hunter and fisherman

                After his death, the blade was bequeathed to his beloved son Michael. Basalai had a chance to fight. During WWI, the owner of the book. Mikhail Alexandrovich commanded at first
                "wild" Caucasian native cavalry division, then the 2nd Cavalry Corps
  6. Undecim
    Undecim 1 May 2021 08: 32
    +6
    it was customary to cajole the rulers with gifts


    Flint-shock hunting rifle. Steel, wood, gold, silver; forging, carving, casting, chasing, bluing, inlay. France, Versailles. 1800 - 1804 Master Nicolas Noel Bute. Tsarskoye Selo Arsenal. It is believed that this is a gift from Napoleon to Alexander I at the conclusion of the Peace of Tilsit in June 1807.


    Flint-percussion pistols (pair). Steel, wood, silver; forging, carving, casting, chasing, engraving, inlay. France, Versailles. OK. 1805 Master Nicolas Noel Bute. Tsarskoye Selo Arsenal. Gift of Napoleon to Alexander I at the conclusion of the Treaty of Tilsit in June 1807.
    Both the gun and the pistols were really made by Nicolas Bute. But there is no documentary evidence of the fact of donation.
    1. SERGE ANT
      SERGE ANT 1 May 2021 09: 31
      +6
      It is possible that all this beauty was donated a little later, because such a gift, which took place seven months later, is reported by the outstanding French historian A. Vandal (1853-1910). According to him, on February 6, 1808, a courier from Paris arrived in St. Petersburg, delivering A.O.L. Callencourt dispatches from the Minister of Foreign Affairs Zh.B.N. Champagne. "At the same time," notes Vandal, "he brought a collection of precious weapons for His Imperial Majesty." The next day, Caulaincourt saw the emperor at the guard post. “A courier has arrived,” the emperor said to him. “I’m sorry that today is Sunday. I’m having dinner with my family, but come tomorrow to dine with me.” Of course, Vandal informs the dates according to the Gregorian calendar: in Russia, which lived according to the Julian calendar, arrival The courier from Paris was dated January 25th. On Monday, January 27, 1808, the chamber-furrier magazine stated that "at the invitation of HIS Highest Majesty of will, the French ambassador Caulaincourt arrived at the Imperial dining table." him on behalf of Your Majesty the weapon. He examined it in detail, every minute admired the delicate work and gracefulness of decoration, he often repeated to me that Your Majesty showered him with courtesies and that he deeply appreciates every sign of Your Majesty's attention, although every courier brings him new ones. "
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 1 May 2021 20: 27
        +3
        The description of the weapon donated later does not match either. The shotgun must be double-barreled.
  7. Alien From
    Alien From 1 May 2021 09: 20
    +3
    What a beauty, just works of art! Thanks to Olegovich! hi and by the way, everyone, Happy May Day drinks
  8. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 1 May 2021 14: 50
    +2
    A gift to Stalin from American "workers" ...

    Colts of Brezhnev .... gift!


    A modest gift to Brezhnev ... M-172 (1944?)
  9. vladcub
    vladcub 1 May 2021 18: 01
    +4
    In Oh, comrades, happy holidays.
    Q. Oh, thanks for the material, but about the epigraph, my sofa thinks that we could find another one.
    I'm not in the subject here, probably there are no images of earlier, before Catherine, gift weapons? How else to explain that V.O showed only Poniatovsky's pistols and Konstantin's pistols?
    1. Richard
      Richard 1 May 2021 18: 45
      +3
      I'm not in the subject here, probably there are no images of earlier, before Catherine, gift weapons?

      Svyatoslav hi
      Immediately, offhand, comes to mind a collection of weapons of Peter 1, numbering 526 items, which is in the storerooms of the Armory Chamber of the Moscow Kremlin ...

      Most of this collection is firearms: 320 different guns and pistols. Most of them - with flint locks, the most advanced at that time, but there are also wick and wheel locks. In addition, it is curious that the main part of the collection is made up of Swedish weapons - the weapon of the main enemy of Russia in the Petrine era. Dutch enough. A separate part of the collection is Russian weapons of the "old", pre-Petrine era, and of the new, modern design. There are Italian, French, English, Danish, as well as Asian - Turkish and Khiva. There is even a Polish magazine (!) Rifle with a flintlock. Here she is:

      The store is located in the butt, where there are two hidden containers - for bullets and for propelling powder charge. A bolt (!) Is mounted in the breech, which is cocked by a lever under the butt. Loading, of course, is government-owned. In addition, a separate container for priming powder is hidden in the breech, from where it is fed using another mechanism - see the lever under the barrel?
      Caliber 10,5 mm. 8 grooves. Barrel length 970 mm, total length 1440 mm.
      Made by master Daniel Lagatz from Danzig. The turn of the XVII-XVIII centuries.
      There are interesting three-barreled pistols, also of Dutch production. The caliber of each barrel is 12 mm. The trunks are smooth and round. Flint locks. End of the XNUMXth century.
      Unfortunately, it is not specified how the shot was fired - from all three barrels at once, or there is a mechanism that allows you to shoot alternately.

      The rest of the collection is cold, bladed and polearms.
      For example, here is a sword with scavengers:


      French product of the Peter's time. The blade is tetrahedral, almost the entire length is diamond-shaped, except for the ricasso, where the scavenger traps are located, which can be opened by pressing a hidden button: there it is flat, rectangular. An elegant example of a small, light court sword with a "secret": total length 1087, blade - 897 mm.
      Unfortunately, there are no data on mass.
      And here is a Turkish broadsword of the "zulfakar" type (with a bifurcated point):

      The blade is Turkish, damask, the hilt is Polish. End of the XNUMXth century. The weapon is symbolized by the famous forked sword of the Prophet Muhammad. The weapon is more symbolic than combat: in the forked part, the points look too thin, they can break off on impact. Although, by the way, just about in the area of ​​the impact point at the forked end there is a jumper.
      The total length is 1130 mm, the blade is 920 mm.
      1. Richard
        Richard 1 May 2021 19: 01
        +4
        Here is another very interesting exhibit from the collection of Peter the personal grenade launcher of the emperor - a hand grenadier mortar presented to him by Tula craftsmen

        Hand mortar in the XNUMXth century occupied an intermediate position between combat rifles and artillery pieces. The presence of a box and a shock-flint lock brings them together with rifles, and the design of the barrel and the use of high-explosive fragmentation grenades when firing - with mortars.
        These were single-shot anti-personnel "grenade launchers" of the 74th century. Mortar Peter I has a short barrel of XNUMX mm caliber. The barrel merges smoothly into a relatively large cylindrical charging chamber. The grenade was equipped with a powder charge, which was ignited through a fire tube. The initiation (ignition) of the powder hinge of the retarder occurred at the time of the shot.

        The mortar stock is made of apple wood and has a wide buttstock with a long neck. A transverse cut is made on the back of the box. The barrel is attached to the stock with a massive iron clip with two pins.
        Shooting could be carried out along a hinged trajectory from a special machine equipped with a cavalry saddle or with support on the ground, the deck of a ship, or direct fire from a support. A halberd could serve as a support, which unfortunately did not survive
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 1 May 2021 20: 29
          +3
          In the old history textbook, I did not study from it (it was before me) I saw a picture: "a priobrazhene (?) Shoots from a mortar"
          1. Richard
            Richard 1 May 2021 20: 41
            +4
            Hand mortars for his grenadiers were borrowed by Peter from the soldiers of the foreign regiment of General Gordon, it was according to their model that Peter uncoiled to release them in Tula. The first of which was presented to him by Tula masters.

            They were led by Peter I into bombardment and artillery companies to protect guns from enemy attacks; were used both for their intended purpose and for shooting with shot. After the death of Peter the Great, they were abolished in the infantry and sent to fortresses, where they served until the end of the XNUMXth century.
      2. depressant
        depressant 1 May 2021 19: 14
        +3
        I often notice in articles not what the authors direct the reader's attention to. For example, like this:
        Well, how did they end up in this American museum? Gift - a gift to the museum made by a group of individuals in 2016. In the museum form, they are indicated in the same way as the donor of Catherine II's pistols.

        And detail? Who are these faces? Why was it not presented to the Hermitage?
        And it’s not because of malice it’s with me, not because of malice, but because of the saving habit of choosing reality on my own, not allowing myself to accept what is offered.
        1. kalibr
          1 May 2021 19: 41
          +5
          And how, let me ask you, can you find out?
          1. depressant
            depressant 1 May 2021 19: 57
            +4
            Vyacheslav Olegovich, dear! )))
            Of course, my remark was not intended to offend you. For some reason, I decided that the donors are known, but for some reason you did not name them. After all, I happened to read literally the following not so long ago:

            Vladimir Potanin allocates quite impressive sums to support art. For 16 years, he gave about 260 million rubles to various museums. Specifically, the Hermitage - 308 million. This includes grants to employees for scientific research.

            Although these are trifles compared to the expenses of Viktor Vekselberg, who a couple of years ago bought a collection of Faberge eggs for 6 billion rubles and organized a museum specially for them in St. Petersburg.

            Alisher Usmanov is also in trend - he supports the Lermontov Estate Museum and the Peterhof Museum-Reserve with rubles.
            1. kalibr
              1 May 2021 20: 06
              +3
              I'm not offended, I just love specifics. And yes - the donors are registered in the MM form, but I remember it somehow incomprehensibly to give them. That is, it would not have given anything. So I didn't give it. I don't like redundant information.
      3. vladcub
        vladcub 1 May 2021 20: 38
        +2
        Dmitry "Richard", as I understand it: "Petrovskaya collection" is not only gift items. Peter was an inquisitive person and could acquire or were acquired for him various types of weapons
        1. Richard
          Richard 1 May 2021 21: 28
          +3
          Peter was an inquisitive person

          Not that word!
          The external beauty of the weapon did not bother him at all, but its functionality ...
          There is a known case when Peter, with a richly decorated damask saber presented to him by the Persian Nadir Shah, ordered to strip the salary and hand it over to the school, and sent the blade as a field team to "study the composition of the onna" to AP Mosolov in Zlatoust.
      4. vladcub
        vladcub 1 May 2021 21: 04
        +2
        "sword with scavengers", somewhere I have already seen it, perhaps on TV: "Culture"?
    2. kalibr
      1 May 2021 19: 39
      +3
      Quote: vladcub
      How else to explain that V.O showed only Poniatovsky's pistols and Konstantin's pistols?

      Svyatoslav, do you know where you can get photos of this "other" weapon? Can you tell me?
      1. depressant
        depressant 1 May 2021 20: 05
        +3
        While Svyatoslav is preparing your answer, I, using his pause, will add to my previous comment.

        It is believed that you are not an oligarch until you bought a couple of famous paintings. Better to have a private collection of some artist. It is an honor to give the values ​​to the people afterwards. Thus, Usmanov spent about 5,7 billion rubles for the collection of Mstislav Rostropovich and Galina Vishnevskaya and donated it to the state.

        In other words, I could assume that the Russian relic was bought out and could be donated to the Russian museum by Russian patrons of the arts.
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 1 May 2021 20: 45
          +3
          Quite a reasonable assumption.
          Several years ago, there was information on TV that Usmanov bought out a collection of Faberge "Easter eggs". And in 19m, somewhere I read that it was a gross forgery and Usmanov gave it as a specialist. But is it true or not?
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 1 May 2021 20: 32
        +1
        If only he knew he said. I can only assume: on the Internet
  10. vladcub
    vladcub 1 May 2021 20: 00
    +2
    "Colt's troubles were wasted" oh, and Colt used to say to the Russians: these goats, he gave chic revolvers. Only the "pocket" ones cost me a tidy sum, and the return is shish. "
    Naturally, the Colt management knew that Smith and Wesson had "crossed their path" and were even more bonding the Russians
    1. kalibr
      1 May 2021 20: 09
      +2
      I once wrote, Vladislav, a whole article that in 1870 the Colt was fiddling with reworked revolvers for cone cartridges that were loaded from the side of the barrel. She could not get around the Smith ... patent, although she tried. And it is clear that in Russia they did not accept a converted revolver. Meaning? And "Smith ..." offered its patent and a very fast recharge, so ours agreed. And “Colt” physically could not do anything for another two years!
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 1 May 2021 20: 17
        +3
        In Oh, I remember about Smith Wesson's patent, article. There was something to read and see.
        And before that, why Colt was not interested in Nicholas 1?
        He was not so dumb as not to appreciate the advantages of a revolver.
        Do you know the reason?
        1. kalibr
          1 May 2021 20: 29
          +2
          Quote: vladcub
          Do you know the reason?

          No, I do not know. But now I thought ... And the thought is this: it was impossible to arm the whole army with them, even the officers. would not be enough for tashki, etiškety ... And then, he seriously thought that in America they eat human flesh. And then all of a sudden this is ... insulting.
          1. depressant
            depressant 1 May 2021 21: 00
            +3
            Hmmm ... Colt is a rapid-fire weapon from which all modern species originate. Imperial arrogance is not otherwise.
            But the humor is that the 45-caliber six-shot revolver of the 1872 model received the unofficial nickname Peacemaker - "Peacemaker"! wassat ))))
  11. vladcub
    vladcub 1 May 2021 20: 52
    +1
    Q. Oh, why did the "Constantine's revolvers" differ in weight? I have always believed that the paired pistols were identical
    1. depressant
      depressant 1 May 2021 21: 34
      +2
      The dueling ones were identical. But the army pistol and the dueling pistol differed in that one was non-threaded, and the other was rifled. There were also differences in the charge, in its weight. Let the experts explain)))
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 1 May 2021 23: 29
      +4
      This is not mass production, but manual work. With such a manufacture and with the same processing accuracy, 24 grams is an insignificant difference. Take a dozen PM and weigh, you will be very surprised.
    3. kalibr
      2 May 2021 07: 10
      +3
      Quote: vladcub
      Q. Oh, why did the "Constantine's revolvers" differ in weight? I have always believed that the paired pistols were identical

      I thought so too. I found out that this is not so. To answer you means to disassemble them to a screw and weigh them. This will show which part has more metal on it. That's all. Handmade what you want. Didn't know how ...
  12. NF68
    NF68 2 May 2021 16: 08
    +2
    Chic products.
  13. ecolog
    ecolog 4 May 2021 02: 09
    0
    weapons are weapons. All these gold-bones ivory mischief
  14. Nikolay Sayenko
    Nikolay Sayenko 21 September 2021 21: 20
    0
    Do we remember that the USSR gave fighters to the French pilots from the Normandie-Niemen fighters? And without any inlay. wink