Military Review

On the financial origins of "great Georgian chauvinism"

28

The separatist's century is short?



Despite the political "divorce", Georgia remains one of the largest financial debtors of Russia in the former Union. Already in 1991-1992, the so-called "technical" loans received by Georgia from the Russian Federation allowed the Georgian authorities to quickly purchase various Soviet weapons: not only in Russia, but also in other countries of the ex-USSR, and in Eastern Europe.

To try to literally destroy Abkhazia and South Ossetia, which de facto separated from Georgia in 1990-1991. At the same time, South Ossetia officially announced its secession from Georgia on March 17, 1991, which became a "weighty" pretext for new cleansing of South Ossetians by Georgian troops.

But the regular military actions of Georgia practically coincide in time with the powerful credit support from Moscow. To be more precise, in the first half of the 90s Georgia received from the Russian Federation twice the amount of credit received, for example, by Armenia and Azerbaijan, and by a third more than Moldova.

It is not surprising in this regard that it was in 1991-1993 that the first incursions of Georgian troops into these regions took place, which were accompanied not only by bloody repressions against the Abkhaz and Ossetians, but also by deportations. Contrary to the prevailing beliefs, the Georgian army during the invasions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia was more than 70% equipped with Soviet and Russian weapons.

It is no less remarkable that the decree of the President of the Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev banning the supply of weapons and dual-use goods to Georgia took place only in January 2009 - that is, four months after the next war between Tbilisi and South Ossetia. But Russian troops saved the republic from destruction ...

As for the purchases of Soviet and Russian weapons, this, according to Georgian sources and the US-British "The Military Balance", continued until 2012, when a personnel reshuffle took place in Russia at the very top. We repeat, the "forbidden" decree of the Russian president was followed only in 2009.

But according to Ruslan Pukhov, director of the Center for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies, made on the Lenta.ru network resource on January 20, 2009, a reasonable

“The decision of the Russian authorities to stop the supply of dual-use products to Georgia, which took place despite the conflict between the two countries. It is no secret that Georgians received a lot from Russia through semi-official channels. For example, "KamAZ", and even other dual-use equipment. "

There are quotas, but no money


According to the Georgian Military Chronicle (Vol. 1, No 1, November 1994), Georgia joined the Tashkent Treaty (May 1992) in the summer of 1992 on the division of conventional arms quotas in Europe, which were due to the former USSR. Already in June-August 1992, Russian troops transferred from this quota a large consignment of weapons to Georgia.

From the former Akhaltsikhe motorized rifle division of the Soviet Army, Georgia received 109 tanks T-55, 164 armored vehicles, 76 artillery systems. Tbilisi and 29 SU-15 fighter-interceptors got it. By the way, already in August 1992, the offensive of the Georgian troops began in Abkhazia ...

The long-term financial and military-technical "replenishment" of Georgia from the Russian Federation was most likely due to the fact that Moscow sought to preserve its military facilities and bases in Vaziani (near Tbilisi), the ports of Batumi, Poti and near the Georgian-Turkish land border (Akhalkalaki ).

On the financial origins of "great Georgian chauvinism"

The Russian Federation also tried to prevent the military-political rapprochement between Georgia and Turkey and NATO in general. But these tasks were never solved. It was also necessary to abandon the project (2002-2004) of "spinning off" Ajaria from Georgia with a Russian base in Batumi.

... But what about Georgia's old debts to Russia?

On January 25, 2005, the finance ministers of the Russian Federation and Georgia, Alexei Kudrin and Zurab Noghaideli, signed an intergovernmental agreement in Moscow on the settlement of Georgian debt to Russia on previously granted loans and debt payments from Georgia.

Let us explain that the total amount of Georgia's debt to Russia as of January 24, 2005 was about $ 158 million, including $ 156,7 million in principal and 1,46 million in interest. Arrears amounted to 46 million. Part of the debt in the amount of 111,8 million was settled before that - by agreement on January 17, 1997, the remaining 44,8 million - by agreement on February 18, 2002.

In connection with the above-mentioned decisions, as well as with the adopted practice of the Paris Club, the agreement of 2005 included in this restructuring arrears and payments on previously unsettled debt. More precisely, the restructuring of debt payments covered an amount of $ 94,4 million.

At the same time, 50% of overdue debts were paid until December 2006 (they were finally paid in 2007). But the remaining 50% and urgent payments for the period from June 1, 2004 to December 31, 2006 - are repaid now, we emphasize, on the most favorable terms: within 23 years with a 6-year grace period!

When servicing the restructured debt, a rate of 4% per annum is applied: if the payment is not made on time, interest is charged on the debt at 4% plus 1,5% per annum. The 2005 agreement also stipulates that the Russian government has the right to sell or use up to 20% of the restructured debt.

The funds can be used to exchange for a share in Georgia's economic projects, primarily in environmental protection. Financial benefits for the country have been prolonged, moreover, on extremely favorable terms for it.

Genocide was not ordered?


As for Tbilisi's policy in the Georgian autonomies, it has always been consistent since the proclamation of Georgia's independence in 1918. Aiming primarily at the assimilation of the Abkhaz and Ossetians.


On "their" maps "Great Georgia" is "United Caucasus"

That is why the creation in the 1920s of the Abkhazian, Adjarian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics and the South Ossetian Autonomous Region was initiated by I.V. Stalin.

As the People's Commissar of the RSFSR for Nationalities and the General Secretary (since 1922) of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), he spoke at the XII Party Congress in 1923 for the "administrative-geographical and political restriction of" Great Georgian chauvinism. " The materials of the congress noted:

“In Georgia, more than 30% of the non-Georgian population: among them Armenians, Abkhazians, Adjarians, Ossetians, Azerbaijanis. But Georgians are at the head everywhere. Among some of the Georgian communists, the idea was born and is still developing - not really reckon with these "small" nationalities: they are, they say, less cultured, less developed.

This is chauvinism, it can turn the small Georgian republic into an arena of squabbles. However, he has already turned it into an arena of squabbles. "

How did Joseph Vissarionovich look into the water ?!

But even in the Stalinist period, relapses of "Great Georgian" xenophobia made themselves felt, and after the death of the leader in 1953, they only grew.

In this regard, the opinion of Georgy Dzhussoev is characteristic: at the beginning of the 60s he was the head of the Ossetian capital Stalinir Regional Executive Committee (since 1962, Staliniri was renamed Tskhinvali), in 1964-1965. - headed the regional council of the South Ossetian Autonomous Okrug, and in 1965-1973 he was the first secretary of the South Ossetian regional committee of the Communist Party of Georgia.

In 1973, two days before November 7, Dzhussoev was dismissed from his post "for incompetent leadership" - it is clear why. According to his memoirs:

“The authorities of the Georgian SSR were afraid of active ties of the RSFSR with South Ossetia and Abkhazia, believing that they would move to the RSFSR to preserve their identity and accelerate socio-economic development. Everything was subjected to "Georgianization", especially in South Ossetia: in 1951, Tbilisi even wanted to abolish the autonomy of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, but the Politburo of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks did not allow this. The Georgian authorities even limited passenger transportation between South Ossetia and North Ossetia, which is part of the RSFSR ”.

In addition, Tbilisi “rejected a project back in 1936 - a railway between North Ossetia and our autonomous region (Alagir-Tskhinval, 155 km: for some reason this project has not yet been implemented ... - Author's note). All who actively condemned such a policy in the autonomies were evicted to Georgia or even arrested. That is, the pre-Soviet line continued with respect to the Ossetians and Abkhazians ”.



PS


With the collapse of the USSR, this policy grew into wars of extermination of the Abkhaz and Ossetians. But the dedication of these peoples in the struggle for sovereignty with the support of Russia led to the creation of the national statehood of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.

A less harsh policy is being pursued in relation to the Adjarians in Georgia.

Firstly, because most of them are Muslims - this is still of great importance in the context of Georgia's relations with Muslim countries, especially with neighboring Turkey.

Secondly, republican autonomy was guaranteed to Adjara under the 1921 Kars Treaty of the RSFSR, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan with Turkey.

Georgia has repeatedly reaffirmed its adherence to this document since 1991.
Author:
Photos used:
novostripmr.com, vestikavkaza.ru, civilnet.am, i.pinimg.com
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  1. Uncle lee
    Uncle lee April 30 2021 15: 18
    +7
    This is chauvinism, it can turn the small Georgian republic into an arena of squabbles
    Joseph Vissarionovich was right, a small flea bites more painfully.
    1. Fitter65
      Fitter65 April 30 2021 15: 30
      +16
      Quote: Uncle Lee
      Joseph Vissarionovich was right

      So after all, the whole trick is that the farther we are from the day of the death of the leader, the more we are convinced that in many ways he was right.
      1. bk316
        bk316 April 30 2021 15: 57
        +8
        the further we are from the day of the death of the leader, the more we are convinced that in many ways he was right.

        I don’t know if I need to leave here. My late grandfather, according to his father's stories, back in the 50s, said that Stalin was MUCH more often right than wrong.
        1. Fitter65
          Fitter65 April 30 2021 16: 03
          +1
          Quote: bk316
          I don’t know if I need to leave here.

          So after all, the globe cannot be stopped in its movement around the sun. So is the running of time. Some pray to Shalamov and Solzhenitsyn, others are preparing to celebrate the Great Victory of the Great Country under the leadership of the Great Stalin over Hitler's Europe ...
      2. antivirus
        antivirus April 30 2021 16: 35
        +3
        the wind of history is blowing more and more and ...
      3. Gerome
        Gerome April 30 2021 20: 40
        -3
        It only remains incomprehensible how the country, allegedly created by such a great and clever Stalin (in the sense that it was Stalin who formed the principles of the state's work) collapsed 38 years after his departure.
        1. Fitter65
          Fitter65 1 May 2021 01: 29
          +1
          Quote: Gerome
          It only remains incomprehensible how the country, allegedly created by such a great and clever Stalin (in the sense that it was Stalin who formed the principles of the state's work) collapsed 38 years after his departure.

          As many as 38 still held out.
    2. xorek
      xorek April 30 2021 17: 53
      +4
      Quote: Uncle Lee
      This is chauvinism, it can turn the small Georgian republic into an arena of squabbles
      Joseph Vissarionovich was right, a small flea bites more painfully.

      Yes, if you read Stalin carefully, there are many things he foresaw and fought as best he could .. Travanuli! He was a real statesman and, as he said, I am a Russian of Georgian nationality .. That is why all liberals of different nationalities hate him with a terrible fear .. They are afraid that he will return, but I feel that after Putin this will come and all these "Putin regime" will be remembered with tears and nostalgia .. Wait for "gentlemen" ..
    3. Ryaruav
      Ryaruav April 30 2021 22: 00
      -1
      Uncle, it was not necessary to make a republic out of dermis as it was not necessary to try to shove Central Asia into socialism from feudalism, they are not enough even for a new time in history
      1. xorek
        xorek 1 May 2021 14: 16
        +1
        Quote: Ryaruav
        Uncle, it was not necessary to make a republic out of dermis as it was not necessary to try to shove Central Asia into socialism from feudalism, they are not enough even for a new time in history

        Well, we did try in the Soviet Union! Asia won the veil, began to study, etc. In fact, they were ripped out of feudalism .. Even outwardly!

        Compare Central Asia during the Tsarist Empire and the Soviet Union ..
        How much did they get there to live in a civilized way there?
        And they were able to bring civilization there and destroy the feudal system !!!! ..
        Alas, it didn’t work with Afgan .. Well, there the Anglo-Saxons rushed in advance and our libers .. And the spirits followed us ..
  2. bk316
    bk316 April 30 2021 15: 23
    +7
    How did Joseph Vissarionovich look into the water ?!
    Why look there somewhere. Everyone who got to know the Georgians better knows their attitude to the Abkhaz, Ossetians, Adjarians and Svans .... They could have been exterminated long ago. And it was not born in the 90s.
    1. Uncle lee
      Uncle lee April 30 2021 15: 32
      +3
      Quote: bk316
      knows their attitude
      They are Nazis! True, they are small, shmakodyavisty ...
      1. bk316
        bk316 April 30 2021 15: 55
        +4
        They are Nazis! True, they are small, shmakodyavisty ...

        Exactly. True, when you find yourself in their midst, the fact that they are small does not make life easier.
  3. knn54
    knn54 April 30 2021 16: 33
    +7
    It's hard for Georgians.
    On the one hand, Stalin divided Georgia into autonomies (from their point of view) to please the Russian (Soviet) great power.
    On the other hand, their OUTSTANDING representative headed the USSR for more than a quarter of a century.
    I can say with confidence that Georgia lived the best of all the republics in the USSR.
    Long-term sponsorship / subsidies (mainly at the expense of the RSFSR) led the country to chauvinism.
    Under Khrushchev, they began to repeat the mistakes of the tsarist government - instead of forcing local officials (not internationalists) to work hard, the Kremlin chose to bribe them with various benefits.
    P.S The first "shadow" people were Georgians.
  4. fiberboard
    fiberboard April 30 2021 16: 37
    +3
    And where are the financial sources of Georgian chauvinism? Here it is only written about loans, which our government distributes left and right to just anyone. Why not tell the author about Georgian criminal groups, about how many markets and enterprises they have seized. Throughout Russia, a cancerous tumor of the Transcaucasian criminals: Armenians, Iizer, Georgians. So they send money home to Transcaucasia.
  5. iouris
    iouris April 30 2021 17: 54
    +3
    Stalin should not only be honored, but also studied his theoretical legacy, build on him. Especially work on national and linguistic issues. Russian "scientists" refer to the Anglo-Saxons.
    For thirty years Moses has been leading the God-bearer people to "civilization" along the man-made intellectual desert. Who is there in front, can you see the darkness at the end of the tunnel?
  6. Artashes
    Artashes April 30 2021 18: 02
    0
    FOR FIBER: about the GEORGIAN "MAFIA" - a lot on the Web (including recently declassified documents of the Soviet period). Last year, this topic was often presented by "Century. Ru" (it is quite possible to find there - everything is there in detail). And - knn54 (Nikolay) is completely right!
  7. xorek
    xorek April 30 2021 18: 03
    0
    Despite the political "divorce", Georgia remains one of the largest financial debtors of Russia in the former Union.

    I also read a lot about the "Georgian mafia" in the leadership of the republic, in times of stagnation
    There such scams were carried out that thieves of the "cotton business" in Uzbekistan, etc. they were just kids compared to this little GRSSR .. angry
    Interestingly, the richer the "former" republics in the USSR lived, the more vicious they are now at us .. The freebie is over!
    Do not do good, you will not get evil ..
  8. tralflot1832
    tralflot1832 April 30 2021 18: 53
    +3
    What was the Poti trawl fleet doing, 1 cargo per state, and all the rest of the cargo on itself for currency. My partner in distribution to them for practice got into practice, he went to sea by accident. The frames did not give directions to the ship. Immediately on the ship we had a political conversation, neither What you can't see and hear. On arrival, what kind of customs, the cavalcade of the black Volga met with the wrong numbers. Everyone left, so they stayed on duty in the fourth week. They caught 2 navigators, the one that he left on board. So he gave them 3 advance payments, Without a list. A week later, the partner received 10 thousand rubles, also without any statement. It's not lying at the age of 25 to have a two-room fully paid cooperative in Murmansk, it's cool. And it's even cooler to get into it without a queue. It cost good money. That's how I lived Georgia in the USSR. Remember the scandal with the Olympic Mercedes of the 80 Olympics, where did they all end up?
  9. Aviator_
    Aviator_ April 30 2021 19: 11
    0
    As for the purchases of Soviet and Russian weapons, this, according to Georgian sources and the US-British "The Military Balance", continued until 2012, when a personnel reshuffle took place in Russia at the very top.

    Has Marshal Taburetkin been removed yet?
  10. rocket757
    rocket757 April 30 2021 19: 45
    +1
    To consider the history of stupidity / betrayal, not someone there, strangers, but here side by side .... not only unpleasant, but also fraught!
    They, those who are nearby, immediately stayed, do not live badly, believe me!
  11. Antagonist
    Antagonist April 30 2021 20: 32
    +1
    How did Joseph Vissarionovich look into the water ?!

    Joseph Vissarionovich was great and wise. It's a pity there are no more politicians of this magnitude ...
  12. Pamir
    Pamir April 30 2021 22: 26
    0
    V. Lenin personally announced and accused I. Stalin and F. Dzerzhinsky's associate, the oppressors of inter-minorities in the Caucasus, "But they are simply deceitful."
    And he turned out to be right in the end according to the results of Stalin's times.
    The rapid disintegration of the Soviet space that took place in 1991 raised many questions about the strength of the Soviet state and the correctness of its national and state form chosen in December 1922. And it is not so easy Putin in one of his last interviews stated that Lenin had laid a time bomb under the Soviet Union. Lenin and Stalin advocated the creation of a single and firm state power and the rallying of all the republics belonging to the union: Stalin emphasized the centralization of state administration and struggle against separatist tendencies, and Lenin viewed nation-building through the prism of the struggle against great-power Russian chauvinism.
    V. Lenin was afraid of Russian supremacy in the creation of a socialist state ...
    And I. Stalin said a toast to the raised glass to the WHOLE WORLD "For the Great Russian People" !!!
    In August 1922, the commission for the preparation of a draft decision on the relationship between the RSFSR and the independent republics approved the draft "autonomization" prepared by Stalin. The project provided for the formal accession of Ukraine, Belarus, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia (later the Transcaucasian Federation) to the RSFSR, the extension of the competence of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR to the corresponding institutions of the republics, the transfer of the conduct of external, military and financial affairs of the RSFSR, and the people's commissariats of justice, education, internal affairs, agriculture, workers 'and peasants' inspection, public health and social security of the republics remained independent.
    This project caused a violent reaction and hostility from Lenin. He began to write to Stalin that there should not be a formal entry of the republics into the RSFSR, but their unification, together with the RSFSR, into the union of the republics of Europe and Asia on equal terms, and there should be an all-Union All-Union Central Executive Committee, to which all republics are subordinate.
  13. Vladimir Vladimirovich Vorontsov
    +1
    ***

    "The sun for Georgia, and has long been rising from the north"

    Edward Shevardnadze

    (April 1971 XXIV Congress of the CPSU).

    -------------------------------------

    ... How, dejected by his crown,

    Such a king, in a certain year,

    I handed Russia my people.

    ---

    And God's grace has come down

    To Georgia! She bloomed

    Since then, in the shadow of their gardens,

    Without fear of enemies

    Beyond friendly bayonets ...

    ---

    M. Yu. Lermontov. Mtsyri.

    ***
  14. Artashes
    Artashes 1 May 2021 23: 22
    +1
    The PRC followed the Stalinist project of "autonomization" - and DIDN'T LOSE, unlike the USSR, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia. Therefore, Stalin's work on the national question is still mandatory for study in the CPC of China ...
  15. Head Physician
    Head Physician 2 May 2021 19: 49
    0
    The biggest fascism is in Russia. The genocide of our own people is evident. I don’t answer the cackling servants of the oligarchy, don’t work
    1. Pamir
      Pamir 2 May 2021 21: 28
      0
      Develop your thought.
    2. Comrade Kim
      Comrade Kim 4 May 2021 15: 11
      0
      And there is. They live with their eyes wide shut and scream about Russian nationalism when the father protects the child from the migrant rapist. Forbid Easter greetings (HSE):

      https://t.me/mnogonazi/5943?single

      Sects are created:
      https://t.me/mnogonazi/5938?single

      Handsome Russophile:

      https://t.me/mnogonazi/5910