Military Review

"Stones of Destiny"

49

The replica of the stone of destiny, Scone palace


In previous articles ("Stories with a Stone"и Mysteries of the megaliths) we talked about menhirs, dolmens and cromlechs. It was also told about the myths and legends of the peoples of different countries associated with such stones. In this article, we will talk about stones that were believed to have the gift of prophecy, or could serve as "arbiters" in the dispute between claimants to the throne. They were called "ophites", "serpentine stones", or "stones of fate."

According to Pliny, the "serpent stones" when electing kings were asked for advice in India and Persia. The Scandinavian historians Wormius and Olaus Magnus also testify that on the advice of an oracle who spoke through “these huge boulders raised by the colossal power of the (ancient) giants", The first kings of Scandinavia were elected.

The stone from which Arthur, the legendary leader of the British tribes, the hero of the famous cycle of Celtic legends and traditions processed by Chrétien de Trois, Robert de Boron, Wolfram von Eschenbach, Thomas Malory and some other authors, can be considered a "serpent" can be considered a stone. "Allowing" to extract the blade, the stone "recognized" Arthur as worthy of the royal throne.

"Stones of Destiny"
Arthur pulls out a sword from a stone, medieval miniature

This sword was described in the article "Stories with a Stone".

Scottish Destiny Stone


The real-life Scottish Stone of Destiny (the Coronation Stone of Scotland, the Skone Stone), which since 847 served as the coronation throne of the kings of this country and was located in the Skon (Skun) Abbey, also belongs to the "serpent stones". The Scots believed that in biblical times he was the base of the famous "Jacob's ladder." According to the Book of Genesis of the Old Testament, Jacob, who spent the night in the wilderness, put one of the stones as a headboard:

“And I saw in a dream: here is a ladder on the earth, and its top touches the sky; and now the Angels of God ascend and descend on it. "

In the morning he “put it (stone) as a monument; and poured oil on top of it", and said:

"This stone, which I have set as a monument, will be the house of God."
(Genesis 28)

But a rectangular piece of sandstone 27 inches long, 17 wide, 11 high, and weighing about 400 pounds (over 152 kg) is certainly not a good choice for a headboard.

According to another legend, this stone was brought from Ireland by the first Scottish king Fergus.

There is also a legend that the Stone of Destiny was brought with him by the baptist of Scotland, Saint Colombo, who allegedly used it as an altar.

However, studies have shown that this block of sandstone was mined near Scone.

It is believed that this stone was originally a relic of the Gaelic kingdom of Dal Riada.


Dal Riada

It was on its territory that the Irishman Colombo (Columbus) preached Christianity. And after the unification of the Gaelic lands and the kingdom of the Picts, Scotland appeared.

One way or another, it is known that at first the Stone of Destiny was in the Dunadd fortress, but in 847, King Kenneth I, who united the tribes of the Gaels and Pictish tribes, moved it to Skon (and the stone was also called Skonsky). Since that time, chroniclers have recorded the tradition of sitting on this stone during the coronation, which was observed by 9 kings of Scotland. According to legend, the Stone of Destiny confirmed the right of the pretender to the throne with some sounds. It is said that he "shouted" when the "real king" sat on him. And he was silent if the applicant was not worthy of the throne, or was an impostor at all.

The Scottish Stone of Fate fell silent forever after the English king Edward I Plantagenet defeated the Scottish army at the Battle of Dunbar (April 27, 1296).


King Edward I (also known by the nicknames "Long-Legs" and "Hammer of the Scots") and his wife, Eleanor. Early XNUMXth century miniature

Then the Scottish king John I Balliol, who 4 years before had been elected monarch through the mediation and arbitration of Edward I, was also captured by the British. Please note: the Scots did not rely on the Stone of Destiny then. Although, it would seem, what is simpler: put the applicants on it in turn and wait for the joyful cry of this megalith.


John Balliol. In this picture of 1562, deprived of the throne and died in France, John I is depicted with an empty inverted coat of arms and a broken scepter.

By order of Edward I, the Scottish Coronation Stone was brought to London in 1296. And in 1301 it was placed under the throne seat in Westminster Cathedral - this is how the "King Edward Chair" appeared.


Edward I was also "famous" for the expulsion of Jews from England in 1290. He also entered history graceful deception of the Welsh, to whom he promised that the Prince of Wales would be “a local native who does not know a word of English". Then he ordered to carry out his son, who was born the day before in Wales (in the castle of Carnarvon) and did not know how to speak yet.


Thomas Girtin, Caernarvon Castle, north Wales, XNUMXth century engraving

Since then, the heirs of the English (and then - British) throne have been called "Prince of Wales." It was this first "Welsh prince" - Edward Carnarvonsky who initiated the tradition of being crowned on the "chair" of his father.

In 1328, England and Scotland signed the Northampton Peace Treaty, one of the clauses of which obliged the British to return the Stone of Destiny. However, the British remembered the ancient prophecy: “Where this stone lies, there is the King of Scots"- and changed their minds.

The power of tradition was so great that the convinced Republican Oliver Cromwell, at the ceremony of his confirmation as Lord Protector, wished to sit on the chair with the Stone of Destiny.

The Scots did not submit. For centuries, uprisings broke out in Scotland, but luck always turned out to be on the side of the British. Many Scots were inclined to attribute their defeats to the loss of the most important relic of their kingdom. Scottish nationalists remembered the Stone of Fate stolen by the British in the twentieth century. Moreover, it was in 1950 that four students managed to do what for many centuries the numerous Scottish armies had failed.

On the night of December 25, 1950, three people entered Westminster Cathedral - Ian Hamilton (who came up with the idea of ​​stealing the stone), Gavin Vernon and Alan Stewart. The only girl in this group, Kay Matheson, remained in the car. The British guarded the cathedral simply outrageously: no one even heard how the young people with the help of a crowbar twisted the Stone of Destiny from under the chair, which split into two parts. When Hamilton brought the first piece to the car, a policeman appeared, who paid attention only to the kisses of Ian and Kay (the girl got her bearings in time) and made them a remark about the inadmissibility of indecent behavior in a public place. After that, the girl left, delivering her part of the Stone to friends who lived in the vicinity of Birmingham. Hamilton and Vernon, with another part of the relic, headed in the opposite direction from Scotland - to Kent. Here they left this piece of stone in the forest. Later, both fragments were brought to Scotland.


Morning December 26, 1950: "King Edward's Chair" without the Skonsky Stone

The kidnapping of the Stone of Destiny became known only the next day. The royal court was shocked, the British were shocked and depressed, and Scotland was jubilant.

King George VI was seriously ill, and everyone knew that he would not live long. George had no male heirs, and many spoke of a bad omen on the eve of the coronation of his daughter Elizabeth.

Scotland Yard and the British special services were ordered to find the thieves of the Stone at any cost and as soon as possible. And it seemed that young amateurs did not have the slightest chance, but they had accomplices literally at every step. The "magic" words "Scottish Stone of Destiny", spoken in certain circles, opened doors and wallets for them. Without spending a penny, they changed their hairstyles, clothes and cars. Random people who met on their way, not limited to one-time help, gave them the addresses of their friends and relatives. Perhaps no organized criminal group and no intelligence service in the world could do more for them than ordinary Scots. In Glasgow, bricklayer Robert Gray sealed the fragments of a megalith free with cement mortar. After that, the Stone was hidden in an abandoned tavern.

Police detectives and intelligence officers never managed to find either Stone or his abductors. But they themselves reported his new whereabouts. This was done because already in Scotland the opinion began to form that the Coronation Stone was lost forever. Therefore, on April 11, 1951, the relic was transported to the ruins of the ancient Abroth Abbey, where in 1320 the declaration of independence of Scotland was signed. Here the Skonsky stone was found by the police. After that, the kidnappers were also arrested.


Police officers inspect the found Stone of Destiny

The trial of the kidnappers and their volunteers never took place. Both the royal family and the government understood that a conviction could lead to riots in Scotland. It was decided that the public interest required an end to the criminal prosecution of the participants in this case.

The "King Edward Chair" was used again at the coronation of Elizabeth II on June 2, 1953.


Queen Elizabeth II on the chair of Edward

It is curious that rumors began to spread in Scotland that the kidnappers had returned to the authorities not a real, but a fake stone. The real one is supposedly still kept in a secluded place. Moreover, the true king of Scotland has already been crowned on it.

And on November 30, 1998 (the day of St. Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland), the Stone of Destiny nevertheless returned to its homeland: the restored parliament of Scotland achieved its return.


Return of the Stone of Destiny to Edinburgh

The Scottish Coronation Stone is currently kept in Edinburgh Cathedral.


Royal Regalia of Scotland and the Stone of Destiny

And in Skona Abbey you can now see a copy of the relic:


Replica of the Stone of Destiny, Skone Abbey, Scotland

At the same time, the British set a condition that they would take the Skonsky stone "on loan" for the coronation ceremonies of new monarchs. Given the age of Elizabeth II, we may soon see this show featuring an ancient Scottish stone.

By the way, the kidnapping of the Stone of Destiny is told in the film by Charles Martin Smith. And the creators of the series "Highlander" attributed his abduction to the "immortal" Duncan Macleod.

Lia Fail: The Talking Stone of Ireland


The Irish also had their own "Stone of Destiny". This is Lia Fail ("light stone, stone of knowledge, stone of fertility"), standing on Tara - the hill of consecration of kings.


The Lia Fail (Stone of Destiny), County Meath, Ireland

It was in honor of this hill that the Irishman O'Hara, Scarlett's father (the heroes of the novel "Gone with the Wind"), named his farm.


Tara Hill, County Meath, Ireland

Tradition connects him with some ancient people Tuatha De Dananna, who allegedly once brought this stone from the northern islands. It is not known when the tradition to bring the king to him arose, but it was observed until the turn of the 116th-123th centuries. new era. The contenders for the throne sat on a stone or put their feet on it, Leah Fail roaring his "approval". But one day the stone did not recognize the candidate as king, who was patronized by the famous Irish hero Cuchulainn. He struck Leah File with a sword and the offended stone fell silent for many years - until another Irish hero, Conn of the Hundred Battles, accidentally stepped on it. This happened either in 31, or in XNUMX AD. And on the holiday of the end of the harvest - Samhain (Samhain - "The end of summer", October XNUMX), the kings arranged here holidays with pagan sacrifices. But Christian priests cursed this place and forbade them to come here. However, people have always remembered Lia Fail, and now tourists often come to it. And the pagan Samhain initiated the pseudo-Christian holiday of Halloween.


Samhuinn fire festival, 2019
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  1. Korsar4
    Korsar4 April 25 2021 04: 48
    +2
    A broken stone will not be able to scream loudly.

    I wonder if our snakes, like Scarapea, are related to snake stones?
    Or are they self-sufficient?
    1. Aaron Zawi
      Aaron Zawi April 25 2021 05: 27
      +6
      Great article. Thank.
    2. Phil77
      Phil77 April 25 2021 08: 49
      +4
      Good morning Sergey!
      And what can you say about the Shatur Shushmor?


      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 April 25 2021 08: 58
        +3
        Good morning, Seryozha!

        But he was not. Although I love Meschera very much, and from time to time I go there.
        There are certainly enough snakes in Meshchera.
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 April 25 2021 09: 03
          +3
          This I mean that according to some versions in those parts there was a pagan hoard of the ancient god Ur, and this stone / presumably! / Was ritual.
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 April 25 2021 09: 13
            +3
            Surely there were.

            "They were born in the forest, they prayed to the stumps."
        2. Phil77
          Phil77 April 25 2021 09: 09
          +3
          It is not far from the village of Shatur, alas, abandoned.
          1. Richard
            Richard April 25 2021 14: 23
            +4
            The defeated and forgotten gods, who once made up the densely populated Slavic pantheon, did not disappear without a trace.
            "If you are looking for him, look around (s)."
            Who knows, maybe in this dusty boulder that lies now by the road, a thousand years ago they saw the "cattle god" Veles, and Perun was once thrown into the neighboring swamp.
  2. Free wind
    Free wind April 25 2021 06: 32
    +6
    Interesting . Given Elizabeth's age, isn't she immortal by any chance? laughing
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 April 25 2021 07: 13
      +3
      Not. Maybe there was someone third after Ahasuerus and Duncan MacLeod, but not among the acting characters.
    2. Ingvar 72
      Ingvar 72 April 25 2021 07: 19
      +1
      Modern technologies of rejuvenation using transplantology. request
      It is rumored that stem cells from newborns are being used.
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar April 25 2021 08: 54
        +3
        Gossip. This does not contribute to "rejuvenation". Moreover, it is not very safe to carry out such procedures at her age, even with stem cell transplantation to young people of 30 years old, the immune system is preliminarily killed, preventing the rejection of a foreign element by the body.
        1. Ingvar 72
          Ingvar 72 April 25 2021 09: 02
          0
          Are you a scientist to make such strong claims?
          Rockefeller's heart was transplanted 6 times, for sure not all donors accidentally lost their lives. And immunity is not killed, but a drug that prevents rejection is administered, which must be taken constantly.
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar April 25 2021 09: 22
            +6
            laughing
            No, but organized in Israel / Germany over the past 20 years a couple of dozen transplants for Russians / Ukrainians for malignant blood diseases hi
            What does a heart transplant have to do with stem cells?
            First, the immune system is killed (with radiotherapy / medications), then the transplant is done, and then the medicine is given against rejection
            1. Ingvar 72
              Ingvar 72 April 25 2021 11: 45
              -2
              Quote: Krasnodar
              What does a heart transplant have to do with stem cells?

              I talked about rejuvenation in general, through transplantation and stem cells. See first comment.
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar April 25 2021 12: 43
                +8
                Nonsense is rejuvenation in general. Not a single fact of rejuvenation has been described in the medical literature.
                1. Ingvar 72
                  Ingvar 72 April 25 2021 12: 59
                  +1
                  There is not medicine for everyone.
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar April 25 2021 13: 04
                    +7
                    I do just this - the average check is 30 thousand US dollars laughing
                    And there were a lot of requests for rejuvenation - the Israelis and Germans consider it nonsense, the Swiss picked it up, but university clinics do not do this, and serious Austrians do too. Therefore... request
      2. bk0010
        bk0010 April 25 2021 13: 06
        +4
        Quote: Ingvar 72
        Modern technologies of rejuvenation using transplantology. request
        It is rumored that stem cells from newborns are being used.
        It is fraught. Remember, there was a period when many "stars" died in Russia at an early age for various reasons (Turchinsky, for example, or Friske)? It is said that before they died, they all used these technologies.
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar April 25 2021 13: 57
          +7
          There is a clinic in Moscow that offered me cooperation on these cells - but not rejuvenation, such as helped to treat some diseases, incl. Gastrointestinal tract (ulcerative colitis and other benign). I was afraid to contact them, to be honest.
    3. VLR
      April 25 2021 10: 14
      +9
      Yes, Charles is not to be envied: 72 years old - and everything is "pryntsy", and not "beautiful" for a long time. Perhaps there were some plans, programs in my head (the degree of influence of the British monarchs on politics and the economy is traditionally underestimated, but it is enormous. Thatcher complained in her memoirs that her grandmother Lisa constantly "put her on the carpet" and scolded her like a housemaid , and "more socialism" demanded). And now health is not the same, I want more peace. And it is not a fact that he will ascend the throne at all. Perhaps the throne will be handed over to his son William.
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 April 25 2021 15: 31
        +3
        Valery, let the English break their heads about this.
    4. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 25 2021 17: 03
      +5

      Ottozh! The blood of Christian babies!
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich April 25 2021 07: 21
    +4
    the British used the stone of fate in vain, it did not bring them good luck: from the huge empire, where the sun did not set, there was an island
    1. VLR
      April 25 2021 10: 59
      +10
      The British Empire collapsed, but at the same time, Queen Elizabeth personally quite officially, in addition to Great Britain, is the head of 15 more states. That is, if tomorrow the abolition of the monarchy in Great Britain is announced, she and her court will quietly move to Ottawa or Canberra. Also New Zealand, Jamaica, Bahamas, Barbados, etc.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich April 25 2021 12: 43
        +2
        Quote: VlR
        The British Empire collapsed, but at the same time, Queen Elizabeth personally quite officially, in addition to Great Britain, is the head of 15 more states. That is, if tomorrow the abolition of the monarchy in Great Britain is announced, she and her court will quietly move to Ottawa or Canberra. More New Zealand, Jamaica, Bahamas, Barbados

        you never know where migrant can safely move-her and
        The United States will accept, and the Netherlands and Sweden will not refuse her.

        And here is the stone with her split, and he possesses a unique gift: he is supposedly capable of distinguishing a true monarch from a false monarch (if this happens, the stone will split). So, may those mentioned by you and think ...
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave April 25 2021 17: 45
          +6
          he is able, ostensibly, to distinguish a true monarch from a false monarch
          Do you suggest experimenting in Russia?
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 April 25 2021 18: 45
            +3
            A frying pan?

            The rite of anointing to the kingdom ceased to exist.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave April 25 2021 18: 53
              +3
              Not. Accept a pebble from the Scots, for the next elections of the PRF, plant it in the CEC ..
              Not the fact that we will return the pebble, but this is Russia, "one broke, the other backed" ....
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 April 25 2021 19: 38
                +4
                Why can't you find your own stone?
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 25 2021 19: 42
                  +3
                  No, I can't find it ... More than a thousand years ago they searched, didn't find, they had to call the Varangians.
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 April 25 2021 19: 52
                    +3
                    And we are still calling. We only choose - from the West or from the East.
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave April 25 2021 17: 59
        +4
        Suddenly it became interesting: does she even have a document confirming her identity?
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 April 25 2021 18: 43
          +5
          Easily. In "Formula of Love" Bronevoy talked about many "ancient" passports.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave April 25 2021 18: 47
            +4
            Hmm? We need to reconsider. I remember about edible metal, about "if the doctor is full" - too, but about passports - no
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 April 25 2021 18: 52
              +4
              “We had a clerk in the district. In the patchport, the year of birth was indicated with only one number. Ink, rogue, saved.
              Him to prison. And they didn’t remake the patchport. A document, after all ”(c).
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave April 25 2021 19: 01
                +3
                "The documents must be stamped.
                Where is the seal on your tail? "(C)
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 April 25 2021 19: 41
                  +2
                  “Immediately hands reached out for the seal,
                  Immediately he began to stomp his feet and scream ”(c).
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave April 25 2021 19: 45
                    +3
                    "Brought out the sick,
                    Hands behind his back!
                    And they threw it in a big way,
                    The black funnel "(C)
                    1. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 April 25 2021 19: 53
                      +3
                      “Moved there - I'm on this one.
                      Moved here - I'm on that ”(c).
  4. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 April 25 2021 15: 27
    +4
    Valery, good afternoon. Thank you for the interesting material about the stones of fate.
    "The stone of fate confirmed with some sounds" from here and "Hogward's talking hat" (remember: "Harry Potter")?
  5. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 April 25 2021 15: 49
    +4
    Probably, I will offend the Scots, but King John 1 Balliol was captured because he did not sit on a stone. If he sat down and the stone confirmed it, perhaps Edward did not break them?
    Valery, I say thank you in advance on behalf of my friends. Tomorrow we will read
  6. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave April 25 2021 17: 04
    +2
    Thank you, Valery!
    Very exciting!
  7. Shahno
    Shahno April 25 2021 18: 47
    +4
    By the way ... About stones and other magical things.
    I have a hobby, recently they found bone remains (phalanx of a finger, tibia) in an integral layer of the 3rd century AD ... Under a spiritual school in the former capital of Judea. Personally, I'm a pancake, I still don't sleep well with my wife.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 25 2021 20: 32
      +1
      I still terribly apologize for the intimate question: do you sleep normally separately?
      1. Shahno
        Shahno April 26 2021 17: 58
        +2
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        I still terribly apologize for the intimate question: do you sleep normally separately?

        It's kind of off topic.
        We are not sleeping separately yet.
        But my brain eats up at times. It's time to bury these "relics of the maxima" ... And so we found each other on this basis of archeology. Only she is a little superstitious ..
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave April 26 2021 18: 18
          +2
          Of course, the joke was on the verge of a foul, but I'm glad you weren't offended! hi
          And so we found each other on this basis of archeology.
          It's great!
          Only she is a little superstitious ..
          Do not believe how in St. Petersburg, when buying a "secondary housing", people are esoteric roof goes! wassat
  8. Catfish
    Catfish April 25 2021 22: 04
    +2
    Thank you Valery for the interesting story. good

    I just don't understand why it is necessary to carry these stones back and forth, there is zero sense from them.

    "... I am what I am, and would be the same if the most chaste star twinkled over my cradle ..." (c)
    It's the same with stones and everything else. request
  9. faterdom
    faterdom April 25 2021 23: 16
    0
    Edward I was also "famous" for the expulsion of Jews from England in 1290. And he also went down in history by gracefully deceiving the Welsh, to whom he promised that the prince of Wales would be "a native who does not know a word of English." Then he ordered to carry out his son, who was born the day before in Wales (in the castle of Carnarvon) and did not know how to speak yet.

    I did not tolerate deception competitors in the craft - I drove them away.
    A little later, a coordinated all-European dispossession of the Templars also happened.