Military Review

Export of ships from the times of the USSR

31
Export of ships from the times of the USSR

The export of Soviet ships can be divided into several groups - the sale of ships already in use by the USSR Navy, the sale of new ships of projects developed for our fleet (slightly modified versions with weakened characteristics), and the sale of ships of export projects (there were some). It must be said here that the export of high-tech weapons (and warships undoubtedly are) is a very profitable business and allows you to partially recoup the costs of your ships. In addition, they tie the buyer to you for years and decades. These are repairs, upgrades, and purchases of spare parts and ammunition, but ...


But for the USSR, the peculiarity was that our economy was rigidly tied to politics. And the atmosphere of the Cold War interfered with trade. It is clear that NATO was extremely disapproving of attempts by countries in its sphere of influence to buy Soviet weapons. In addition, there was a socialist camp, where the ships went either on debt or completely free of charge. However, on credit it was also free. In this case, the vast majority of these debts were eventually written off. It is important. This must be taken into account. Simply because, unlike the trade in ships, their free distribution and the same free service were unprofitable, although they had some political benefits.

Cruiser and destroyers



For all history of the Soviet fleet, one cruiser was handed over to the customer - "Ordzhonikidze" of project 68-bis.

This happened in 1962, when Indonesia was actively fighting with the Netherlands for the western part of the island of Guinea. In Indonesian, the island is called Irian, and the cruiser received the same name.

The ship, intended for service in the North, was transferred without modernization for service in the tropics, which predetermined its fate: within a year, the Indonesians rendered the ship unusable. The USSR carried out ongoing repairs, but by 1965 the ship was again incapable of combat. And after the military coup, he was completely sucked and turned into a floating prison. In 1970, the cruiser was sold to Taiwan for dismantling for metal. There is no way to talk about any commercial success. The ships were transferred on credit without first payment. Although the Indonesians did not really need the cruiser. Despite the legend of his battle with Malay ships, third world countries could not afford to operate a combat vehicle of such complexity, except as a floating prison.

The destroyers were more fun. They (especially in the artillery version) were distributed a lot and willingly. If we take on projects:

1K: one transferred to Bulgaria in 30.
2bis: Egypt got six, Indonesia got eight, Poland got two.
3: one transferred to Poland.

As a result - 18 artillery destroyers, transferred either on credit or to the allies. This was not done for the sake of income: pure politics and strengthening of their own defense capabilities in the case of the Warsaw Pact countries. Although there were no special losses either - morally obsolete ships of the USSR Navy, by and large not needed, were transferred.

Separately, it is worth taking out the BOD of project 61 ME, built for the Indian Navy, in the amount of five units in the period from 1976 to 1987. It was a purely commercial project. And quite successful. India had a choice - it chose the modernized old Soviet project (the first BOD project 61 entered service in 1962). And four of them, although in auxiliary roles, are still serving. Relatively small ships turned out to be very successful and the Indians came to the court.

Another BOD project 61 was transferred to Poland.

Submarines



The Indians liked Soviet weapons. And, in addition to ordinary ships, they became tenants of the Soviet nuclear submarine of Project 670 "Skat".

The K-43, commissioned in 1967, was leased to India in 1988 for three years. The Indians were pleased. They wanted to extend the lease, but new thinking and publicity at their peak thwarted their plans. According to the recollections of Soviet specialists, dust particles were not blown off the ship, and the basing conditions were simply luxurious. Upon arrival home, the boat was immediately written off, again - within the framework of that very new thinking ...

With diesel ones it was easier: we distributed and sold them a lot and willingly. Again, if about built from scratch, then these are projects I641 and I641K: eight ships were bought by India, six - Libya, three - Cuba. The latter is free, or rather, on credit. But the Indians and Libyans bought in earnest and for money. Two more 641 used ones were transferred to Poland.

Project 877 Halibuts were also actively built for sale: two for the Warsaw Pact countries (Poland and Romania), eight for India, two for the Algerian Navy, and three for the Iranian Navy.

As a result, in Soviet times, 32 diesel submarines were laid down and built specifically for foreign customers. If you remove the five units transferred to the allies, you still get a solid figure, which, using the example of Project 877 and its modifications, manifested itself in the post-Soviet times: these ships were bought by a lot of people and quite willingly.

As for the distribution of used, then to whom they just did not distribute:

1. Project 96 (aka "Malyutki", aka "Revenge"): Bulgaria - one, Egypt - one, China - four, Poland - six. As a result, 12 boats out of 53, all - to the allies, that is, for free. On the other hand, the pre-war project should be considered as a serious warship - it did not come out in the mid-50s, and so it served the interests of the Motherland.

2. Project 613. The most numerous Soviet project (215 ships) and the most popular. Four units went to Albania (making up the core of its Navy and becoming the only serious warships in its history), two - Bulgaria, ten - Egypt, twelve - Indonesia, four - North Korea, four - Poland, three - Syria. Besides, twenty-one boats were built under license by China ... Even without licensed ones - 39 ships. These projects were purely political, but nevertheless.

3. Project 629 - one licensed in China. On our, as it turned out, head. Still, selling ships - carriers of ballistic missiles was not the most reasonable decision, especially in light of further relations with China.

4. Project 633. Improved boats of project 613, we have built 20 of them, in China under license - 92 units. Although we distributed ours actively: two to Algeria, four to Bulgaria, six to Egypt and three to Syria. The boat for developing countries turned out to be successful, although for the Soviet Navy it quickly became obsolete.

To summarize, the Soviet submarines brought perhaps the greatest commercial success for the Soviet shipbuilding. Moreover, this success could have been much greater, if not for political considerations and the primacy of ideology over economics.

Frigates and corvettes



There were no official frigates in the USSR.

There were TFR. But Project 1159 is frigates from all points of view. Moreover, the frigates are unique. This is the only project created specifically for export. Russian "Jaguars" were built from 1973 to 1986 in the amount of 14 units. Of these, three went to the GDR, one to Bulgaria, and three to Cuba. Three were bought by Algeria, two by Libya and two by Yugoslavia. The ships served their countries for a long time and quite successfully. Still, a frigate with a displacement of 1705 tons, carrying 2X2 anti-ship missiles P-20, 1X2 SAM Osa-M and 2x2 AK-726, at that time, a very successful and budget option.

Of the ships of Soviet projects, the "fifty kopecks" of project 50 were popular, two of which were bought by the Finns, eight were handed over to the Indonesians, four to the GDR, and three to Bulgaria. The frigates of Project 159 were also willingly taken: ten new ones were ordered by the Indians in the 60s (159AE), two by the Syrians, two by the Ethiopians, and five used ones were transferred to Vietnam.

The RTOs (corvettes) 1234E also went well: Algeria and India bought three each, and Libya four. It is possible to write for a long time about the "kids" of the IPC projects 122-b and 201: in which countries they just did not end up ... Soviet corvettes ended up in South Yemen, and in Mozambique, and in Iraq.

In general, light surface ships were more popular than the same destroyers for purely pragmatic reasons: "if you want to ruin the state, give it a cruiser." So countries that are not of the first rank preferred something simpler and cheaper: what was not in the United States, and we had.

And if in general, Soviet ships became the backbone of the navies of India, Algeria, Libya, Iraq, Vietnam. Launched the navies of China, Egypt, Syria and the DPRK. And the list is far from complete. Another question is that it was often heard, and not always rationally.

As a result, in addition to the cost of the ships themselves, they had to provide their own specialists and pay for repair and operation. This is, not to mention those moments when the states, having received a mountain of equipment worth hundreds of millions of dollars, waved their hand at us and “chose freedom” without repaying debts. This is Indonesia in 1965, and Egypt, and Somalia ... But nevertheless, there were commercial transactions, the market was staked out. No wonder our shipbuilding in the 90s - early 2000s survived due to export. And mainly to those countries where Soviet ships have already been "tasted". We know how to build.

If only to be able to sell, without slipping into ideology, as in Soviet times, or naked commerce, as in the post-Soviet period.
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  1. Installer
    Installer April 20 2021 18: 16
    +2
    In principle, we did everything right, the transfer for political purposes is also a contribution to the country's defense capability.
    And commerce in those days did not play a big role.
    1. Blacksmith 55
      Blacksmith 55 April 20 2021 18: 30
      +5
      Transferred to the same Poland, but now what?
      For the "occupation" is now demanded.
      Russia has many such "friends" who want to get something for free.
      1. vadim dok
        vadim dok April 21 2021 14: 38
        +2
        And how many ships Poland built for the USSR YOU don’t think?
        1. Blacksmith 55
          Blacksmith 55 April 21 2021 14: 43
          +2
          They built for a fee.
          The article says about what was transferred free of charge. That's what the conversation is about.
    2. Mitroha
      Mitroha 30 May 2021 19: 49
      0
      I agree. Author, have you heard the expression, "petty baby"? I am glad that there were few of them in the leadership of our country. It is necessary to separate the interests of the country and the interests of the wallet, it seems to me ...
  2. faterdom
    faterdom April 20 2021 18: 32
    +3
    Curious, thanks.
    I heard somewhere about how Khrushchev "helped" Indonesia; he donated ships of the Arctic seas to the equator. Indonesians were bogged down in them and could not find air conditioning in any way.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka April 20 2021 19: 57
      +4
      Quote: faterdom
      Indonesians were bogged down in them and could not find air conditioning in any way.

      For free and sweet vinegar! laughing
      1. Undecim
        Undecim April 20 2021 20: 21
        +5
        I had to be in Indonesia. With all my imagination, I cannot imagine a cruiser with an Indonesian crew.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka April 20 2021 20: 53
          +2
          Quote: Undecim
          I had to be in Indonesia. With all my imagination, I cannot imagine a cruiser with an Indonesian crew.

          Viktor Nikolaevich, you can't argue against facts here. Indonesia had a cruiser, for better or worse, the question is open.
          1. Undecim
            Undecim April 20 2021 21: 12
            -2
            I don't mind they had a cruiser. They even have seals. But I can't imagine an artillery cruiser with a purely Indonesian crew.
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka April 21 2021 04: 04
              +2
              It could be sarcastic that the Indonesians first drove our cruiser into prison, and then into scrap metal. ..., but there are quite a few similar examples behind the enlightened European nations.
  3. Undecim
    Undecim April 20 2021 19: 39
    +8
    Export of ships from the times of the USSR

    Export is the sale of goods and services. It is the sale. The selling party is the exporting state.
    And the transfer "for free use" is not an export. This is military aid provided by the donor state.
    And the author did not say the most successful export deal of the USSR for the sale of warships. This was the delivery of 17 Project 613 submarines, a cruiser, a destroyer, a patrol boat and several tankers to the United States! In 1989, these ships were given to Pepsi in exchange for the supply of raw materials and equipment for the production of Pepsi-Cola.
    The company sold its warships for scrap and leased the tankers.
    1. Mooh
      Mooh April 20 2021 20: 04
      +1
      these ships were given to Pepsi in exchange for supplies of raw materials and equipment

      Fuck! I knew about Pepsi for vodka, but I heard about Pepsi for ships for the first time.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim April 20 2021 20: 11
        +7
        Yes, Donald Kendall joked that PepsiCo is disarming the USSR faster than President Bush.
        1. Jager
          Jager April 20 2021 20: 24
          +1
          It was necessary to brew Gorby in one of the submarines and send it to the USA. On their own. On the oars. A shame... angry
          1. Undecim
            Undecim April 20 2021 20: 27
            +1
            So all the ships were in a state of scrap metal. They removed everything of value from them, down to the screws.
            1. WHAT IS
              WHAT IS April 20 2021 20: 44
              +9
              Then what is it
              Quote: Undecim
              And the most successful export deal of the USSR for the sale of warships

              Say so then - it was a barter of scrap metal for Pepsi products, not the export of warships. The article on the export of operating warships is actually.
    2. Serg65
      Serg65 April 21 2021 10: 04
      +7
      Quote: Undecim
      And the author did not say the most successful export deal of the USSR for the sale of warships.

      It was barter!
      And here is the beginning of this barter ..
  4. Sergey Sfiedu
    Sergey Sfiedu April 20 2021 21: 44
    +2
    Addition - the DPRK fleet includes "4 Soviet submarines of project 613, 23 Chinese and Soviet submarines of project 033 (project 633)" (VIKI). They write that a submarine with three missile silos will be built on the basis of the Project 633 submarine in the DPRK.
  5. Comrade
    Comrade April 21 2021 04: 33
    0
    The ship, intended for service in the North, was transferred without modernization for service in the tropics, which predetermined its fate: within a year, the Indonesians rendered the ship unusable.

    There is information that the cruiser was not "transferred", but sold... In December 1960, General Nasution traveled to Moscow, as a result, he was able to conclude with the government of the Soviet Union an arms sale and purchase agreement in the amount of 2,5 billion US dollars on long-term payment terms.
    On January 11, 1961, the Central Design Bureau No. 17 received the task to develop measures for the modernization of the cruiser for the upcoming service of the latter in tropical conditions. Introductory - operation of the ship at +40 ° C, humidity 95% and water temperature +30 ° C.
    However, representatives of the Indonesian Navy, who visited the city of Baltiysk, said that the financial situation of their country does not allow paying the cost of such modernization. As a result, the "modernization" boiled down to the installation of a more powerful diesel generator set to power additional ship fans.
    In November 1962, a surfaced submarine collided with a cruiser, the engine was damaged on the boat, and the cruiser had three boilers out of six.

    1. Serg65
      Serg65 April 21 2021 10: 05
      +2
      Quote: Comrade
      There is information that the cruiser was not "handed over" but sold.

      He was actually sold.
  6. Pavel57
    Pavel57 April 21 2021 09: 45
    +1
    The Cubans quickly removed their 1159 frigates from the fleet. One was flooded to the delight of the divers. )))
    1. Serg65
      Serg65 April 21 2021 13: 48
      +4
      Quote: Pavel57
      The Cubans quickly removed their 1159 frigates from the fleet.

      As far as I know, they served for 15 years, and the "Mariel" was even seen in Sridizemka while taking fuel from Ivan Bubnov.

      He is between Leningrad and Bubnov
  7. Serg65
    Serg65 April 21 2021 09: 59
    +5
    The ship, intended for service in the North, was transferred without modernization for service in the tropics.

    The Indonesians themselves refused to modernize, considering the high price for these works. at the Shipyard named after Ordzhonikidze limited themselves to installing additional ventilation.
    USSR carried out ongoing repairs

    Warranty repairs took place in Vladivostok .... upon arrival of the cr. Irian, the Pacific Fleet's sanitary and epidemiological service spent two weeks in the sweat of his brow poisoning Indonesian rats and cockroaches.
    30bis: six received Egypt

    The merciless one was returned to the USSR and survived until 1994 under the name PKZ-36.
    Still, a frigate with a displacement of 1705 tons, carrying 2X2 anti-ship missiles P-20, 1X2 SAM Osa-M and 2x2 AK-726, at that time, a very successful and budget option.

    I'll correct it a little ... 2 Yugoslavian frigates and 3 Algerian frigates carried four single-container launchers of P-20 anti-ship missiles aimed at the stern, while 2 Libyan frigates carried 2 paired launchers for P-20M missiles, located side by side near the bow superstructure.
    1. Sasha Minakov
      Sasha Minakov April 25 2021 12: 17
      0
      Thanks for the detailed answer!
  8. xomaNN
    xomaNN April 21 2021 11: 06
    +2
    Of course, when a businessman (former furniture maker) ser (d) yukov became the head of the Moscow region wassat he hurt badly. BUT, when under the USSR, ships were handed out "for so", especially to those who in words only "followed the path of socialism", is that any better ??. If the buyers did not have money, then coconuts-bananas -..., etc. could be on the half-empty Soviet market of consumer goods. take from them
    1. ecolog
      ecolog 27 May 2021 01: 23
      0
      most likely it was. there were enough Indian clothes in those days.
  9. andybuts
    andybuts 5 May 2021 22: 44
    0
    If only I could also sell without slipping into ideology, as in Soviet times.

    If the USSR put commercial interests at the forefront, then it would not have been the USSR, but was an ordinary capital country, and then what was the point at all in confrontation with the United States ... And if it were usually a capital country, then beautiful Russia, which we lost in 1917, then, most likely, it would be a backward peripheral country with an agrarian or raw material economy, like the old empire or the current federation. And then there would be no export of ships, since military shipbuilding is a high-tech industry that the agrarian or resource-based economy cannot handle.
    1. ecolog
      ecolog 27 May 2021 01: 35
      0
      there was no point in bumping into ideological altruism either. In the late USSR, they finally forgot the fact that despite all the internationalism, without the Russians, the country is dead. They were carried away by feeding the national outskirts, nurturing national cadres and the intelligentsia. We missed the rotation of management personnel in the national. republics. Yes, a lot more. That's decades of research. But in the current capitalist realities, it is naive to count on this. There will be only defamation and lies.
      It is painful and bitter to realize that such a grandiose undertaking was so ineptly merged. It is even more bitter that he was present at this, although he was a teenager, but did not understand anything and did not do anything to interfere. to realize this catastrophe - the collapse of the USSR on a planetary scale is yet to come.
  10. ecolog
    ecolog 27 May 2021 01: 17
    0
    the summary is strange. where should I keep my way? into commerce or ideology? The modern Russian Federation has no ideology, alas.
  11. Gunther
    Gunther 17 June 2021 04: 21
    0
    Quote: Author
    BOD project 61 ME, built for the Indian Navy, in the amount of five units in the period from 1976 to 1987. It was a purely commercial project.

    it would be nice, in my opinion, for Putin to study this article - then he wouldn't be talking nonsense about the USSR, about "galoshes".