Military Review

Crimean tornado. How the Crimean and Kazan hordes destroyed Moscow Russia

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Crimean tornado. How the Crimean and Kazan hordes destroyed Moscow Russia
Facial annalistic collection. 1521 year. Invasion of the Crimean Khan Mehmed-Girey


Kazan destiny of Moscow


Kazan Khan Muhammad-Amin (Muhammad-Emin) was formally considered independent, but in fact he was an assistant to the prince of the Russian Tsar Ivan III. In 1487, Moscow Russia organized a large campaign against Kazan and took the capital of the Kazan Khanate. Mohammed-Amin was seated on the Kazan table, and Ivan Vasilievich took the title of Prince of Bulgaria (The struggle of Turkey and Russia for the inheritance of the Golden Horde).

Peaceful relations between Moscow and Kazan contributed to the development of the khanate. Agriculture developed, border lands were settled and developed. Trade grew at a rapid pace. Kazan became a large trade center, a transit point between Moscow Russia and the East. Kasimov merchants played an important role in this trade.

Moscow defended Kazan from the raids of the Siberian Khanate and the Nogai. There were pro-Russian and anti-Russian parties in Kazan. But this division was conditional. Most of the nobles who determined the policy of the khanate, intrigued, cunning and looking for their own benefit. When it was profitable, the Kazan nobility looked towards Moscow. "Druzhba" consisted in avoiding the attacks of the Russian regiments and, with their help, to repel the attacks of the eastern and southern neighbors. But if the opportunity presented itself to raid and loot, then why not?

Therefore, when Ivan III passed away in 1505, Muhammad-Amin revolted. Russian merchants who were within the khanate were killed and captured. The princely ambassadors were arrested. The Kazan people plundered the Nizhny Novgorod posad. In the spring of 1506, the new great sovereign Vasily III Ivanovich sent a host against Kazan, led by his brother Dmitry Uglichsky. The war was unsuccessful. Due to the carelessness of the governor and poor command, the Russian army was defeated. The Russians began to prepare for a new major campaign in 1507. Khan Muhammad-Amin understood that the jokes were over and asked for peace. He again recognized himself as a vassal of Moscow, took the oath. Russian prisoners were released. Muhammad ruled calmly until his death in 1518.


Warriors of the Kazan Khanate. XNUMXth century engraving.

Crimean threat


Unfortunately for Moscow Russia, Muhammad-Amin did not leave behind a male offspring. The closest relatives of the extinct dynasty were the cousins ​​of the last two khans, the Crimean princes, the sons of Khan Mengli-Girey. They considered themselves the heirs of Kazan.

Lithuanian diplomats intensively worked on the Crimean elite. King Sigismund promised to pay an annual tribute. The Crimean horsemen were offered to attack Moscow Russia. Earlier, under Mengli-Girey, Crimea and Moscow were tactical allies against Lithuania. In addition, merchants-slave traders gained a lot of weight in the Crimea. In the Ottoman Empire, the Turks and Tatars were almost not engaged in trade at that time, they were warriors and they considered trade as an unworthy occupation for themselves. The merchants were Greeks, Arabs, Armenians, Jews, Italians, etc. In Crimea, such a highly profitable trade as the slave trade, after the fall of the possessions of Genoa, was seized by the Jewish community. She was associated with communities of tribesmen in Turkey, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean countries. The Jewish community began supplying slaves and female slaves throughout the East.

Perekop became the largest wholesale market, where the slave traders bought up a lot from the soldiers. In the Cafe, live goods were resold and delivered by sea to different countries. The khanate itself was quickly reborn. Previously, simple steppe dwellers lived by cattle breeding, agriculture and gardening. Now the entire economy of the khanate was built only on the capture of people. Without this, the Crimeans could no longer live. The nobility was bathed in luxury. Simple warriors lived from raid to raid, and could not exist without campaigns. Many fell into debt bondage. The courtiers, murzas and viziers depended on the money of the slave traders.

However, due to almost annual raids and campaigns on Lithuanian Rus (Little Russia - Ukraine, Belaya Rus), production has decreased. But Moscow Russia was nearby. The interests of King Sigismund, Crimeans and slave traders in this case coincided. Even during the life of Mengli-Girey, the corrals of the Crimean princes began to disturb the Ryazan, Chernigov and Tula lands. After his death in 1515, his eldest son Mehmed-Girey became khan. The Nogai Horde, weakened by the invasion of the Kazakhs, passed under his arm. Mehmed considered himself the heir of the Golden Horde, behaved arrogantly and arrogantly. He demanded that Vasily III pay tribute, give Sigismund not only Smolensk, but also Bryansk, Starodub, Novgorod-Seversky and Putivl. Mehmed planned to put his younger brother Sahib on the Kazan throne. The Tatar cavalry began to march to the southern Russian regions every year.

Usually such raids were repelled. The border towns had strong fortifications, the steppe inhabitants had long forgotten how to storm the fortresses, and they did not want when they could take easy prey. Russian commanders skillfully acted in the field, intercepted and scattered the Crimean hordes, fought off prisoners. Moscow had to strengthen its southern borders and send additional regiments there. Often, the alliance with the Crimea came out sideways to the Grand Duke of Lithuania and Poland, King Sigismund. The Crimeans, despite the union and the payment of tribute, continued to raid the southern regions of Lithuanian Rus and Poland. If it was not possible to capture it in Russia, the Tatars turned into the possessions of Sigismund.

Moscow at that time had friendly relations with the Porte and more than once complained about the predation of the Crimeans. Sultan Selim and Suleiman, who replaced him, instructed Bakhchisaray to stop raids. But that didn't help. Khan blamed attacks on the "willfulness" of princes and murzas. Once he simply and directly informed the Sultan that if he did not plunder the Wallachian, Lithuanian and Moscow lands, then he and his people would go through the world.

Massacre in Kazan. Battle of the Oka


After the death of Muhammad-Amin, Moscow decided to put its protege on the Kazan table. Vasily Ivanovich had a contender - the Kasimov prince Shah-Ali (Shigalei), a relative of the last khan of the Great Horde, Akhmed. Sovereign Vasily did not want to hear about the Crimean prince Sahib-Girey. The union of the Crimea and Kazan under the rule of the Gireys would become a great threat to Russia. In turn, the Crimean Gireys hated the clan of the Great Horde Khan Akhmed. In 1519, Shah-Ali was elevated to the Kazan throne. He was only 13 years old, so Kazan, in essence, was ruled by the Russian ambassador Fyodor Karpov. His support was the Russian garrison.

Many Kazan Murzas did not like this situation, who recalled the times of Ulu-Muhammad or even Batu with lust. They wanted not a peaceful life, but campaigns and the capture of huge booty. A conspiracy has matured in Kazan. The conspirators contacted the Crimean agents in Kazan. In the spring of 1521, a detachment led by Tsarevich Sahib arrived in Kazan. The Crimeans approached secretly, the conspirators opened the gates for them. The Russian garrison and the pro-Russian party in the city could not offer resistance. In the massacre, 5 thousand Kasimov Tatars from the Shah-Ali guard and 1 thousand Russian archers were killed. The love books of the Russian and Kasimov merchants were defeated. Shah Ali himself, with his personal security, managed to escape to Moscow. Sahib-Girey was declared a Kazan khan.

The situation was very dangerous. Until Moscow came to its senses, the Crimeans and Kazan from both sides invaded Russia. Also at this time, Moscow was at war with Lithuania. In the summer of 1521, Sahib-Girey captured Nizhny Novgorod and ravaged the outskirts of Vladimir. Kazan moved to Moscow. At the same time, the Crimean horde began the invasions. Mehmed-Girey gathered a huge army. Almost the entire Crimean horde rose, the Nogai detachments joined. Sigismund also took part, sent Lithuanian units and Cossacks of Ataman Dashkevich (one of the organizers of the Zaporozhye Army) to the khan.

Grand Duke Vasily Ivanovich was not ready for this turn of events:

"I did not expect any abuse against myself from anywhere, and at that time did not prepare any battle against anyone, while many of his military men were then in their areas without fear."

Hastily assembled shelves were put on the Oka and Ugra. The army was led by the brother of the great sovereign Andrei Staritsky and Dmitry Belskoy. However, the great governors acted extremely unsuccessfully, in "reckless arrogance" they did not listen to the advice of experienced commanders. The regiments were poorly positioned, apparently fighting separately. The high command fled. On July 28, the Tatars reached the Oka and crossed the river near Kolomna. The Russian army was defeated and suffered heavy losses. Many governors fell or were captured. The remnants of the troops took refuge in the cities.

Pogrom of Moscow Russia


The Crimean and Kazan khan united near Kolomna and moved to Moscow. The Grand Duke went to Volokolamsk to gather a new army, recalling the regiments from the Lithuanian direction. He entrusted the defense of the capital to his son-in-law, the brother of the Kazan khan Muhammad-Amin, the baptized Kazan prince Peter Khudai-Kul. On August 1, 1521, the Tatar army went to Moscow. The Crimeans surrounded the city, the khans stopped in the Tsar's village of Vorobyov. The Nikolo-Ugreshsky monastery and the palace of Tsar Vasily III in the village of Ostrov were burned down. Tatars

“Many villages and villages were burned, and the kosher posad was burned. And there are a lot of people and a lot of livestock, leading innumerable. "

Panic broke out in the capital. Moscow was not ready for a siege. There was little gunpowder and food in the city. Therefore, the boyars sent an embassy with rich gifts to the Crimean Khan. The Crimean Khan also did not want to besiege the great city. The walls and ramparts were strong, the militia was numerous. The Tatars have long forgotten how to storm fortresses and did not want high losses. Why risk your lives if you have already captured a huge amount of loot and you can take more?

In the meantime, the Grand Duke will come up with his army, and the matter may end badly. Therefore, Mehmed-Girey was content with gifts and demanded that Vasily recognize himself as his tributary. The negotiations went on for a week. The boyars were given a letter and sealed with grand ducal seals. The Moscow state recognized its dependence on the Crimean Khan and pledged to pay tribute "according to the charter of ancient times," that is, as in the days of the Golden Horde.

Having signed the peace, the brothers-khans moved back to their uluses. However, on the way, Mehmed-Girey decided to rob Ryazan. They did not want to take the fortress, they thought to break into Ryazan a deception. It was announced that the Grand Duke had admitted defeat and peace was signed. The khan called the Ryazan governor, as a servant of his tributary, to his camp. Ivan Khabar Simsky replied that he should get proof of this agreement. Khan sent him a letter received in Moscow as proof. At this time, part of the Tatar captives fled to the city. Crowds of Tatars rushed in pursuit, hoping to take the fortress on the move. The cavalry was driven off with a volley of fortress cannons. Mehmed did not linger at Ryazan. Vasily's regiments were marching towards the city, but in the rear it was restless. In general, they did not take Ryazan, and lost a valuable letter.

But the captive Tatars stole a great many. It is believed that in terms of human losses and destruction of small settlements, the Girayev campaign in 1521 is commensurate with the Batu invasion. Brother-khans boasted that they had taken out 800 thousand prisoners from Russia. The markets of Kafa, Kazan, Astrakhan were overflowing with Russians. The price of slaves fell dramatically, selling in tens and hundreds. The elderly, the weak, the sick and other "non-commodity" were killed, given to children, so that they trained to kill people.

Kazan temporarily freed itself from Russian dependence and again became a threat to Moscow. To secure Kazan forever, Mehmed-Girey asked the Turkish Sultan Suleiman for help. As a result, an agreement was concluded, according to which the Kazan kingdom recognized the supreme power of the Port, and henceforth the Kazan tsars were appointed by the Sultan. That is, the Kazan Khanate received the status of the Crimean Khanate.

The great sovereign Vasily Ivanovich in the same year refused to recognize his dependence on the Crimean Khan. The defense on the southern borders was urgently strengthened. In 1522, they were waiting for a new big campaign of the Crimean Khan, they were preparing, they were pulling up the regiments.


Mehmed-Girey near Moscow. Facial annalistic collection. 1521 year.
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
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  1. Nazar
    Nazar April 20 2021 05: 30
    +19
    Crimean Tatars have not changed much since then, but they don't have the opportunity to "prove themselves" now.
    But in the Great Patriotic War, they showed themselves "in all their glory"
    1. Catfish
      Catfish April 20 2021 05: 45
      +20
      You are right, there was such a thing, and neither we nor they forgot it. From July 1942, police battalions (Schutzmannschaft Bataillonen) were deployed on the basis of the established companies. By November, 8 battalions of the Crimean Tatars were formed (numbers from 147th to 154th).

      1. WHAT IS
        WHAT IS April 20 2021 05: 53
        +19
        Yes, almost all of them went to serve the Germans, the ratio for us and against 20 to 1 was, just like that they were evicted.
        1. Ka-52
          Ka-52 April 20 2021 07: 04
          +10
          Yes, almost all of them went to the Germans to serve, the ratio for us and against 20 to 1

          Several years ago, I came across a study by a Soviet historian (unfortunately I don't remember the name anymore), so according to his data on the ratio of the number of collaborators of a certain ethnicity to the total number of citizens of this ethnicity in the USSR (according to the 1939 census), it is the Crimean Tatars that are leading. Then came the Ukrainians, Belarusians, Russians, Chechens and so on.
          1. Alex013
            Alex013 April 20 2021 18: 26
            0
            Well, what about Russians, Belarusians, Ukrainians - too much (in relation to the total population). Crimean Tatars, Kalmyks, Chechens, Estonians, Latvians ...
            1. Ka-52
              Ka-52 April 21 2021 04: 22
              +2
              Well, about Russians, Belarusians, Ukrainians - too much

              is that this is an overkill what were you guided by? Have you counted or just pointed your finger at the sky? You can check it yourself at your leisure and give the numbers (before writing).
      2. Timofey Charuta
        Timofey Charuta April 20 2021 11: 25
        +3
        I look at these pictures and I remember more than a million Russian Khivi with policemen.


        1. qQQQ
          qQQQ April 21 2021 10: 56
          +2
          Quote: Timofey Charuta
          I look at these pictures and I remember more than a million Russian Khivi with policemen.

          The bulk of the Russians saved their lives from a specific genocide in the camps and at the first opportunity went over to the side of the spacecraft, there are examples of companies and even battalions going over. Not from a good life, the Germans removed them from the Eastern Front. All the same, there is a difference when they went to serve voluntarily and with desire, and when they were forced under pain of death.
      3. the finish
        the finish April 20 2021 22: 18
        +1
        with fez in Turkish style
    2. Ravik
      Ravik April 20 2021 06: 13
      +7
      Quote: Nazar
      But in the Great Patriotic War, they showed themselves "in all their glory"

      And they do not need to be offended by the post-war resettlement - they deserve it!
      PS: There is no punishment without guilt. Captain Zheglov.
      1. Alex_1973
        Alex_1973 April 20 2021 07: 34
        +16
        In essence, resettlement for them was a blessing and salvation, not a punishment. The punishment for them was one, shooting or hanging. All these shortcomings, from the Krymchaks to the forest brothers, they should idolize Stalin because he actually saved them from a well-deserved reprisal. And then Khrushch paskuda rehabilitated them altogether, a ghoul Selyukovsky in an embroidered shirt.
  2. north 2
    north 2 April 20 2021 08: 12
    +8
    one of the crimes of the post-Stalin era was the actual silence about the serving
    the fascists of a significant part of the Tatars, Chechens, Balts, Ukrainians-Westerners, Cossacks, and Russians who became under the banner of Vlasov. And about a significant part of the Lithuanians who destroyed everything
    the Jewish population of pre-war Lithuania was also actually hidden from the general public.
    But if in "Pravda" in "Ogonyok", in the cinema, in school programs, in political studies in the army, the scale and appearance of the traitors who collaborated with the Nazis were widely and often studied, then
    it would be easier for Soviet people to identify the traitors in the person of the Gorbachevs, Yakovlevs, Shevardnadz, Landzbergizov, Dudayevs, Gaidar and in the person of all their liberalism, who is the continuation of the line of traitors during the Second World War and during further into the history of Tsarist Russia
    1. qQQQ
      qQQQ April 21 2021 11: 01
      +1
      Quote: north 2
      one of the crimes of the post-Stalin era was the actual silence about the serving
      the fascists of a significant part of the Tatars, Chechens, Balts, Ukrainians-Westerners, Cossacks, and Russians who became under the banner of Vlasov. And about a significant part of the Lithuanians who destroyed everything
      the Jewish population of pre-war Lithuania was also actually hidden from the general public.

      To this we can add the silence about the role of the socialist countries. camps in cooperation with the Germans. Ideology demanded, what this led to, it is clearly seen that the Czechs, Hungarians and others are sincerely indignant at how in 1968 and 1956 the USSR put things in order there, and if they dipped their muzzles into their own guano, then there would not be many problems.
  3. dgonni
    dgonni April 20 2021 09: 25
    +2
    Samsonov has his own reality again. The main question, why the Tatars went to Moscow, has not been disclosed!
    And they went for one reason! Because of the tribute debt!
    That Vasily, who had escaped, confirmed that he had paid the favor and, on his knee, promised not to be self-willed in the future.
    Well, all the connecting rulers paid tribute to the Tatars until 1700!
  4. Moore
    Moore April 20 2021 12: 03
    +6
    A thousand times the Russian autocrats were right in trying to destroy and eventually covering up this robber's nest, accustomed to live exclusively by robbery, slave trade and slave labor.
    1. Rita Aletdinova 1999
      Rita Aletdinova 1999 April 20 2021 14: 29
      -18%
      Not true! It's a lie! The Tatars, on the contrary, ennobled the territories that they annexed to themselves! They defended their native lands! If our ancestors had not been stopped, then the whole world would have been ours! The whole planet and people would be one and live richly and without needing anything and capitalism would not be allowed! Now all that remains is to cry about the bygone era of universal prosperity and our development! But we are strong! We are ready for the Great Turan under the leadership of our brothers the Turks!
      1. Dym71
        Dym71 April 20 2021 14: 51
        +6
        Quote: Rita Aletdinova 1999
        We are ready for the Great Turan under the leadership of our brothers the Turks!

        Why not yourself?
        Forward, eagles! ... And we are after you. We will stand with our breasts ... behind your backs!

        fellow
      2. Moore
        Moore April 20 2021 17: 29
        +7
        Girl, you are not mistaken forum? If the numbers of your nickname indicate your date of birth, it is still forgivable. Learn some more, then come to Turanit.
      3. gsev
        gsev April 21 2021 22: 56
        +1
        Quote: Rita Aletdinova 1999
        We are ready for the Great Turan under the leadership of our brothers the Turks!

        A friend of mine moved to Turkey. There, when meeting with Turkish nationalist dreamers about the Great Turan, she has to hide her Tatar origin and introduce herself as a Uyghur. Among the Turkish fighters for the Great Turan, Tatars, her words, are considered traitors to Turkey, who live peacefully in Russia instead of emigrating to Turkey. These Turkish nationalists are more respectful of the Circassians, who upon their arrival in Turkey sold their daughters to Turkish harems from starvation, and the young men were sent to serve in the Turkish army. It was the division, which mostly consisted of settlers from the Caucasus, was thrown by Suleiman Pasha into an attack on the Eagle's Nest in the Battle of Shipka. Among the Tatar Muslims, with the news of the disaster of Muslim co-religionists who, after the Caucasian war, went to Turkey in the 19th century, a religious split was even outlined.
  5. depressant
    depressant April 20 2021 12: 13
    +7
    Finally I read the article.
    I didn't know, I didn't know! ...
    What is it?!? Everything inside boiled to a state in which I want to express what comes to mind, but what is bad is what Kostya said about:

    You are right, there was such a thing, and neither we nor they forgot it.


    It must be the same, what cuties! Here, read Samsonov:

    Previously, simple steppe dwellers lived by cattle breeding, agriculture and gardening. Now the entire economy of the khanate was built only on the capture of people. Without this, the Crimeans could no longer live. The nobility was bathed in luxury. Simple warriors lived from raid to raid, and could not exist without campaigns. Many fell into debt bondage. The courtiers, murzas and viziers depended on the money of the slave traders.


    And then they boasted after the campaign against Moscow that 800 thousand Russian people had been driven into slavery. What am I to do with it - with this knowledge? Why are we like this? Why not with fire and sword to the last root? That is why they do not love us, because in no one else's head, except ours, this very thing "not with fire and sword to the last root" can not fit. Why is there such confidence in us that our race will not be interrupted? Is it not because the Russian peasant is only in hindsight and is strong, late mind grows stronger, and it remains to look after the departing train of history, mournfully looking around the countless corpses of his homogeneous people scattered around the area and sagging old grave crosses ...
    And after all, how cleverly the "world progressive community" calculated us, demanding indulgence from us where it is not indulgent and mean. Maybe it's enough to allow yourself to behave under the knots already?
  6. Isolde
    Isolde April 20 2021 12: 36
    -14%
    It seems to me Topvar and the local hackers have gone to Psaki. Russians, not all of course, but many here are still quilted jackets) Their history is only one-sided. If you really understand, then that the Volga Bulgaria, that the Kazan Khanate was developed than the Moscow state. The Russian people were dense. Muscovites often staged raids on the Khanate, how many times did they want to take Kazan? who will say? There are a lot of Russian nationalists sitting here, so to speak, and they just need to get rid of it on the fan. Even if we talk about Ivan, who was the Terrible
    Kazan was completely burnt out together with children, old people and women, forbade Tatars to settle in nearby settlements. So information for thought to local dandelions. In your own eye the logs do not see the Lord Christians))
    1. Isolde
      Isolde April 20 2021 14: 57
      -7
      Ha, what was required to prove) minus) words are not enough to refute the Russian best world TOPVAR) then there is nothing to hait and the rest of the world, the Russians are no better than the Western European invaders who destroyed the aborigines all over the world.
      1. wkat
        wkat April 20 2021 15: 25
        -4
        Do not ruin their chosenness in front of others)
        1. Konstantin Shevchenko
          Konstantin Shevchenko April 20 2021 18: 02
          +2
          "Whose cow would bellow? Yes, her own was silent." Have you heard that? This is about you; ^)
      2. Konstantin Shevchenko
        Konstantin Shevchenko April 20 2021 18: 00
        +4
        I don’t understand, are you writing from the other world? It seems destroyed. Artistic history, do not get hung up.
      3. depressant
        depressant April 20 2021 18: 56
        +6
        Is it weak to look for a log in your own eye? We Russians did not have slavery, but you made us slaves, stole and sold us - there was no?!? Now imagine if it were the other way around, when, in spite of your countless efforts to occupy and the accompanying plunder of our lands, we got stronger and created our own mighty state - if it were the other way around, eh? Imagine how we come and make you slaves? Like?
        But we pressed you to our hearts, made you brothers, forgot about everything ...
        You would never be great, never! And you won't. Because you did not have the main thing - our kindness, our infinite patience for your cute "national peculiarities" like the everyday habit of slave trade - by us! The one who is a mental slave owner who believes this to be a hidden dignity, and you are like that now, no matter how you put on a veil of enlightenment, - he has lagged behind us in civilizational development for millennia. Remember at least the fate of the Ottoman Empire you adore. You will not have a great Turan!
        And isn't there a message from you from Tobolsk with a claim to greatness? How long have you got off the horses? Or dare you raise your voice from Crimea, remnants of bygone historical eras?
        1. wkat
          wkat April 21 2021 00: 40
          +2
          Yes, it was not

          People who did not know it judge serfdom completely wrong, drawing conclusions not from the totality, but from the extreme phenomena that have come down to them, and precisely because they came down because they were unusual. Abuse, tyranny - all this, of course, was, but not at all to the extent that it is customary to represent today. Even then, in times of violence and the suppression of the most basic human rights, being a tyrant was considered bad and the law punished for abuses. And if he did not always punish, then at least he forbade abuses. The life of the serfs was by no means sweet, but it was not terrible to the extent that it is customary to write about it today. It was not terrible, however, only because in those dark times the people did not realize their position, perceiving it as a destiny sent from above, as a kind of inevitable, and therefore almost a natural state. The serf regime was terrible not so much in its episodic phenomena as in its very essence.

          I did not make a reservation, using the expression "serfdom" instead of the accepted "serfdom". The latter refers to the dependence of the peasants on their owners. But not only the peasants were serfs at that time - and all of Russia was in the fortress. Children are with their parents, wives with their husbands, husbands with their bosses, weak for the strong, and strong for those who are even stronger than them. Everyone, almost without exception, shook before someone, depended on someone, although they themselves ruled over someone. The difference between serfs and bars was only in the fact that some lived in luxury and bliss, while others lived in the pen and the poor. But both of them were slaves, although many did not realize this. I remember how at one dinner party a general, a corps commander, who was for the first time in this house, ordered one of the guests, an independent wealthy landowner whom he had never seen before, to leave the table. The general did not like some opinion expressed by this gentleman. And this independent man immediately obediently obeyed.

          The serfdom corrupted Russian society - both the peasant and the landowner - by teaching them to bow only to brute force, to despise law and legality. This regime was based on fear and brutal violence. Slaps and slaps were a common occurrence both on the streets and in houses ... They beat them with rods in stables, in educational institutions, in barracks - everywhere. They beat them with whips and whips in the marketplaces, "across the green street", that is, with "gauntlets," and with sticks they "drove" on parade grounds and arenas. And the blows were given up to twelve thousand. The stick became the main instrument of Russian culture under Nikolai Pavlovich.

          I was born and moved in the circle of the noble, in the circle of the arbiters of the fate of the people, I knew the serfs well. I was nursed by the breast of a serf mother, grew up in the arms of a serf nanny who replaced my deceased mother, from childhood I was surrounded by serf households, and I also know the serf life of the peasants. I have seen joys and tears and oppressors and oppressed. And on everyone, perhaps imperceptibly for themselves, the serfdom imposed its stamp, perverted their soul. There were many satisfied among them, not a single one, not crippled. The serfdom poisoned my childhood too; it lay on my soul with a cast-iron stove. And even now, more than half a century later, I cannot remember him without horror, I cannot help cursing him and not feeling hatred for him.
          1. depressant
            depressant April 21 2021 08: 29
            +7
            Sigh, colleague?)))
            It seems that at one time Nikolai Yegorovich Wrangel was very afraid of being expelled by some general from the table. Well, that was the man, what can you do! Only by quoting him, you did not take into account the fact that it did not occur to any Russian serf, perhaps to some maniac, that, even if not on a legislative basis, but according to popular custom, he could have his slave. There was no such custom! This custom was with you, the carriers of "highly developed steppe civilization." And if you think that the psychology of serfdom has taken root in us, it is in vain. The idea that if we, Russians, were serfs, then we should remain them - this psychology took root by no means in our, Russian, consciousness, not in our heads, she did not take root there, --- she rooted in the archaic consciousness of our small peoples (Russian must be a serf! Russian must be our slave!), took root there and now, sensing favorable political circumstances, brazenly climbed out, relying on the lack of sufficient civilizational signs in each individual carrier. More than one hundred and sixty years have passed, generations have changed, we have thrown out of our heads the memory that we were serfs. And they, small nations? And they still did not understand what was happening. In their primitive minds, formed by the wild customs of two thousand years ago, or even earlier, we must be slaves - their slaves. But not because we were serfs, but because their ancestors once drove our ancestors into slavery. And now they are already surprised: how is this so?!? What do these Russians allow themselves?!? We bring them an advanced civilization based on the custom of driving them, Russians, into slavery, and they are unhappy! They dare to open their mouths and say something there!
            Eh! .. Where would you be, little ones, if the Anglo-Saxons came to you ...
            And they hope! Here, they say, the Anglo-Saxons and Yankees are pressed in their own lairs by Arabs and blacks. These are they, pressed, let them come to us! Let them come to us instead of these friendly Russians! We from them, such, will have what we want, and will have them themselves. But you just do not understand that in the Anglo-Saxons and Yankees, at the sight of you, fresh, not exhausted by the modern type of their civilization, their predatory instincts will immediately wake up, and you will be swallowed with giblets and bones. And the Chinese will swallow you with bones, regurgitate you full and, according to their Chinese folk custom, will spoil you in their garden. And they will say: but they were not here! And despite the cries of some of you, individual survivors, no one in the world will notice your disappearance.
            We have given you everything, you have not taken anything. Because we didn’t leave slave psychology - you didn’t leave it.
          2. gsev
            gsev April 21 2021 23: 04
            -1
            Quote: wkat
            People who did not know it, judge serfdom completely wrong, drawing conclusions not from the totality, but from extreme phenomena,

            There are cool memories of a 19th century Zanzibar princess in which she states that the Arabs treated their slaves much more humanely than was accepted in English society at the time. This lady very reasonably proved the usefulness of flogging slaves. Even now, a caricature in the form of the cover of the Russian-language magazine "Krepostnaya" with a thematic section "After the flogging" is circulating on the Internet. Apparently in the post-communist period, many or only some Russians imagined themselves to be Zanzibar princes and princesses, who were entitled to serfs and slaves.
      4. AK1972
        AK1972 April 21 2021 16: 36
        0
        Quote: Isolde
        The Russians are no better than the Western European invaders who exterminated the aborigines around the world.

        I will say more. Cro-Magnons, who are known to be the ancestors of the Russians, staged a worldwide genocide of the Neanderthals, of which only a few survived, whose descendants are sometimes still found (mainly among the offended Poles and Tatars).
        PS The comment does not apply to adequate Tatars, among whom I have many friends. Unfortunately, I cannot say the same about the Poles. With their adequacy, everything is very sad.
        1. Isolde
          Isolde April 22 2021 09: 10
          -2
          I congratulate you that you have ascribed yourself to the descendants of monkeys. Because they never learned to read, which is very sad) But to be honest, the rest of the people certainly did not originate from monkeys. I also have adequate acquaintances among the Russians)
          1. AK1972
            AK1972 April 22 2021 11: 41
            0
            [quote = Isolde] Because they never learned to read, which is very sad)[/ Quote]
            It is also sad that the word sarcasm is unknown to you, but again it has nothing to do with your nationality.
  7. Rita Aletdinova 1999
    Rita Aletdinova 1999 April 20 2021 14: 22
    -15%
    And everything is in a negative way against the Tatars (What kind of site is this! The Tatar-Mongols brought development, democracy and a high standard of living to the territory of Tartary (the historically correct name of Russia), and here our ancestors are being criticized! we would be better than the USA now!
    1. Konstantin Shevchenko
      Konstantin Shevchenko April 20 2021 18: 06
      +12
      Gosha. The Tatars cut everyone in a row to the left and to the right. They robbed, forced to pay tribute, spoiled girls, sold people into slavery. And they themselves did not want to do anything. These are the good ones!?!?
    2. Oleg
      Oleg April 20 2021 19: 40
      +7
      For Rita
      Madam! And what exactly were "development, democracy and a high standard of living" brought by the Tatar-Mongols to Russia? If possible, briefly and substantively explain (if you can).
      1. No name B
        No name B April 20 2021 22: 01
        +4
        I feel this, madam from my Ukraine, we have probably half of them, if not more. They hide behind a fig leaf of culture, dream of coffee in Paris in embroidered panties for the weekend, have convinced themselves that Russians are dense Asians, and have brought the country to poverty.
    3. ANB
      ANB April 21 2021 01: 12
      +4
      ... And all in a negative way against the Tatars (What kind of site is this! Tatar-Mongols

      I do not see any complaints about the Kazan Tatars. I have a lot of Tatars friends in Kazan and Moscow.
      And you will somehow decide whether your ancestors are Tatars or Mongols.
      And the Turks are definitely no sideways to you.
  8. mpr200
    mpr200 April 21 2021 05: 53
    +6
    800 thousand prisoners? In 1521? Just one fifth of the population? How much then was the Tatar, etc. army? 800 thousand is 2 times more losses of the Red Army near Kiev in 1941. Such tales later about Ivan the Terrible, one Englishman wrote that he also killed more than 800 thousand in Novgorod.
  9. Dzafdet
    Dzafdet April 21 2021 09: 34
    +1
    Quote: Rita Aletdinova 1999
    Not true! It's a lie! The Tatars, on the contrary, ennobled the territories that they annexed to themselves! They defended their native lands! If our ancestors had not been stopped, then the whole world would have been ours! The whole planet and people would be one and live richly and without needing anything and capitalism would not be allowed! Now all that remains is to cry about the bygone era of universal prosperity and our development! But we are strong! We are ready for the Great Turan under the leadership of our brothers the Turks!

    Lady, there were no Tatars until the 18th century. There were TARTARS ... This is from a completely different opera ...