Facial annalistic collection. 1521 year. Invasion of the Crimean Khan Mehmed-Girey
Kazan destiny of Moscow
Kazan Khan Muhammad-Amin (Muhammad-Emin) was formally considered independent, but in fact he was an assistant to the prince of the Russian Tsar Ivan III. In 1487, Moscow Russia organized a large campaign against Kazan and took the capital of the Kazan Khanate. Mohammed-Amin was seated on the Kazan table, and Ivan Vasilievich took the title of Prince of Bulgaria (The struggle of Turkey and Russia for the inheritance of the Golden Horde).
Peaceful relations between Moscow and Kazan contributed to the development of the khanate. Agriculture developed, border lands were settled and developed. Trade grew at a rapid pace. Kazan became a large trade center, a transit point between Moscow Russia and the East. Kasimov merchants played an important role in this trade.
Moscow defended Kazan from the raids of the Siberian Khanate and the Nogai. There were pro-Russian and anti-Russian parties in Kazan. But this division was conditional. Most of the nobles who determined the policy of the khanate, intrigued, cunning and looking for their own benefit. When it was profitable, the Kazan nobility looked towards Moscow. "Druzhba" consisted in avoiding the attacks of the Russian regiments and, with their help, to repel the attacks of the eastern and southern neighbors. But if the opportunity presented itself to raid and loot, then why not?
Therefore, when Ivan III passed away in 1505, Muhammad-Amin revolted. Russian merchants who were within the khanate were killed and captured. The princely ambassadors were arrested. The Kazan people plundered the Nizhny Novgorod posad. In the spring of 1506, the new great sovereign Vasily III Ivanovich sent a host against Kazan, led by his brother Dmitry Uglichsky. The war was unsuccessful. Due to the carelessness of the governor and poor command, the Russian army was defeated. The Russians began to prepare for a new major campaign in 1507. Khan Muhammad-Amin understood that the jokes were over and asked for peace. He again recognized himself as a vassal of Moscow, took the oath. Russian prisoners were released. Muhammad ruled calmly until his death in 1518.
Warriors of the Kazan Khanate. XNUMXth century engraving.
Unfortunately for Moscow Russia, Muhammad-Amin did not leave behind a male offspring. The closest relatives of the extinct dynasty were the cousins of the last two khans, the Crimean princes, the sons of Khan Mengli-Girey. They considered themselves the heirs of Kazan.
Lithuanian diplomats intensively worked on the Crimean elite. King Sigismund promised to pay an annual tribute. The Crimean horsemen were offered to attack Moscow Russia. Earlier, under Mengli-Girey, Crimea and Moscow were tactical allies against Lithuania. In addition, merchants-slave traders gained a lot of weight in the Crimea. In the Ottoman Empire, the Turks and Tatars were almost not engaged in trade at that time, they were warriors and they considered trade as an unworthy occupation for themselves. The merchants were Greeks, Arabs, Armenians, Jews, Italians, etc. In Crimea, such a highly profitable trade as the slave trade, after the fall of the possessions of Genoa, was seized by the Jewish community. She was associated with communities of tribesmen in Turkey, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean countries. The Jewish community began supplying slaves and female slaves throughout the East.
Perekop became the largest wholesale market, where the slave traders bought up a lot from the soldiers. In the Cafe, live goods were resold and delivered by sea to different countries. The khanate itself was quickly reborn. Previously, simple steppe dwellers lived by cattle breeding, agriculture and gardening. Now the entire economy of the khanate was built only on the capture of people. Without this, the Crimeans could no longer live. The nobility was bathed in luxury. Simple warriors lived from raid to raid, and could not exist without campaigns. Many fell into debt bondage. The courtiers, murzas and viziers depended on the money of the slave traders.
However, due to almost annual raids and campaigns on Lithuanian Rus (Little Russia - Ukraine, Belaya Rus), production has decreased. But Moscow Russia was nearby. The interests of King Sigismund, Crimeans and slave traders in this case coincided. Even during the life of Mengli-Girey, the corrals of the Crimean princes began to disturb the Ryazan, Chernigov and Tula lands. After his death in 1515, his eldest son Mehmed-Girey became khan. The Nogai Horde, weakened by the invasion of the Kazakhs, passed under his arm. Mehmed considered himself the heir of the Golden Horde, behaved arrogantly and arrogantly. He demanded that Vasily III pay tribute, give Sigismund not only Smolensk, but also Bryansk, Starodub, Novgorod-Seversky and Putivl. Mehmed planned to put his younger brother Sahib on the Kazan throne. The Tatar cavalry began to march to the southern Russian regions every year.
Usually such raids were repelled. The border towns had strong fortifications, the steppe inhabitants had long forgotten how to storm the fortresses, and they did not want when they could take easy prey. Russian commanders skillfully acted in the field, intercepted and scattered the Crimean hordes, fought off prisoners. Moscow had to strengthen its southern borders and send additional regiments there. Often, the alliance with the Crimea came out sideways to the Grand Duke of Lithuania and Poland, King Sigismund. The Crimeans, despite the union and the payment of tribute, continued to raid the southern regions of Lithuanian Rus and Poland. If it was not possible to capture it in Russia, the Tatars turned into the possessions of Sigismund.
Moscow at that time had friendly relations with the Porte and more than once complained about the predation of the Crimeans. Sultan Selim and Suleiman, who replaced him, instructed Bakhchisaray to stop raids. But that didn't help. Khan blamed attacks on the "willfulness" of princes and murzas. Once he simply and directly informed the Sultan that if he did not plunder the Wallachian, Lithuanian and Moscow lands, then he and his people would go through the world.
Massacre in Kazan. Battle of the Oka
After the death of Muhammad-Amin, Moscow decided to put its protege on the Kazan table. Vasily Ivanovich had a contender - the Kasimov prince Shah-Ali (Shigalei), a relative of the last khan of the Great Horde, Akhmed. Sovereign Vasily did not want to hear about the Crimean prince Sahib-Girey. The union of the Crimea and Kazan under the rule of the Gireys would become a great threat to Russia. In turn, the Crimean Gireys hated the clan of the Great Horde Khan Akhmed. In 1519, Shah-Ali was elevated to the Kazan throne. He was only 13 years old, so Kazan, in essence, was ruled by the Russian ambassador Fyodor Karpov. His support was the Russian garrison.
Many Kazan Murzas did not like this situation, who recalled the times of Ulu-Muhammad or even Batu with lust. They wanted not a peaceful life, but campaigns and the capture of huge booty. A conspiracy has matured in Kazan. The conspirators contacted the Crimean agents in Kazan. In the spring of 1521, a detachment led by Tsarevich Sahib arrived in Kazan. The Crimeans approached secretly, the conspirators opened the gates for them. The Russian garrison and the pro-Russian party in the city could not offer resistance. In the massacre, 5 thousand Kasimov Tatars from the Shah-Ali guard and 1 thousand Russian archers were killed. The love books of the Russian and Kasimov merchants were defeated. Shah Ali himself, with his personal security, managed to escape to Moscow. Sahib-Girey was declared a Kazan khan.
The situation was very dangerous. Until Moscow came to its senses, the Crimeans and Kazan from both sides invaded Russia. Also at this time, Moscow was at war with Lithuania. In the summer of 1521, Sahib-Girey captured Nizhny Novgorod and ravaged the outskirts of Vladimir. Kazan moved to Moscow. At the same time, the Crimean horde began the invasions. Mehmed-Girey gathered a huge army. Almost the entire Crimean horde rose, the Nogai detachments joined. Sigismund also took part, sent Lithuanian units and Cossacks of Ataman Dashkevich (one of the organizers of the Zaporozhye Army) to the khan.
Grand Duke Vasily Ivanovich was not ready for this turn of events:
"I did not expect any abuse against myself from anywhere, and at that time did not prepare any battle against anyone, while many of his military men were then in their areas without fear."
Hastily assembled shelves were put on the Oka and Ugra. The army was led by the brother of the great sovereign Andrei Staritsky and Dmitry Belskoy. However, the great governors acted extremely unsuccessfully, in "reckless arrogance" they did not listen to the advice of experienced commanders. The regiments were poorly positioned, apparently fighting separately. The high command fled. On July 28, the Tatars reached the Oka and crossed the river near Kolomna. The Russian army was defeated and suffered heavy losses. Many governors fell or were captured. The remnants of the troops took refuge in the cities.
Pogrom of Moscow Russia
The Crimean and Kazan khan united near Kolomna and moved to Moscow. The Grand Duke went to Volokolamsk to gather a new army, recalling the regiments from the Lithuanian direction. He entrusted the defense of the capital to his son-in-law, the brother of the Kazan khan Muhammad-Amin, the baptized Kazan prince Peter Khudai-Kul. On August 1, 1521, the Tatar army went to Moscow. The Crimeans surrounded the city, the khans stopped in the Tsar's village of Vorobyov. The Nikolo-Ugreshsky monastery and the palace of Tsar Vasily III in the village of Ostrov were burned down. Tatars
“Many villages and villages were burned, and the kosher posad was burned. And there are a lot of people and a lot of livestock, leading innumerable. "
Panic broke out in the capital. Moscow was not ready for a siege. There was little gunpowder and food in the city. Therefore, the boyars sent an embassy with rich gifts to the Crimean Khan. The Crimean Khan also did not want to besiege the great city. The walls and ramparts were strong, the militia was numerous. The Tatars have long forgotten how to storm fortresses and did not want high losses. Why risk your lives if you have already captured a huge amount of loot and you can take more?
In the meantime, the Grand Duke will come up with his army, and the matter may end badly. Therefore, Mehmed-Girey was content with gifts and demanded that Vasily recognize himself as his tributary. The negotiations went on for a week. The boyars were given a letter and sealed with grand ducal seals. The Moscow state recognized its dependence on the Crimean Khan and pledged to pay tribute "according to the charter of ancient times," that is, as in the days of the Golden Horde.
Having signed the peace, the brothers-khans moved back to their uluses. However, on the way, Mehmed-Girey decided to rob Ryazan. They did not want to take the fortress, they thought to break into Ryazan a deception. It was announced that the Grand Duke had admitted defeat and peace was signed. The khan called the Ryazan governor, as a servant of his tributary, to his camp. Ivan Khabar Simsky replied that he should get proof of this agreement. Khan sent him a letter received in Moscow as proof. At this time, part of the Tatar captives fled to the city. Crowds of Tatars rushed in pursuit, hoping to take the fortress on the move. The cavalry was driven off with a volley of fortress cannons. Mehmed did not linger at Ryazan. Vasily's regiments were marching towards the city, but in the rear it was restless. In general, they did not take Ryazan, and lost a valuable letter.
But the captive Tatars stole a great many. It is believed that in terms of human losses and destruction of small settlements, the Girayev campaign in 1521 is commensurate with the Batu invasion. Brother-khans boasted that they had taken out 800 thousand prisoners from Russia. The markets of Kafa, Kazan, Astrakhan were overflowing with Russians. The price of slaves fell dramatically, selling in tens and hundreds. The elderly, the weak, the sick and other "non-commodity" were killed, given to children, so that they trained to kill people.
Kazan temporarily freed itself from Russian dependence and again became a threat to Moscow. To secure Kazan forever, Mehmed-Girey asked the Turkish Sultan Suleiman for help. As a result, an agreement was concluded, according to which the Kazan kingdom recognized the supreme power of the Port, and henceforth the Kazan tsars were appointed by the Sultan. That is, the Kazan Khanate received the status of the Crimean Khanate.
The great sovereign Vasily Ivanovich in the same year refused to recognize his dependence on the Crimean Khan. The defense on the southern borders was urgently strengthened. In 1522, they were waiting for a new big campaign of the Crimean Khan, they were preparing, they were pulling up the regiments.
Mehmed-Girey near Moscow. Facial annalistic collection. 1521 year.