Military Review

Theme "B-90". Projects of promising bombers from the Sukhoi Design Bureau

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Theme "B-90". Projects of promising bombers from the Sukhoi Design Bureau

The appearance of the T-60 aircraft is the version of the Air International magazine. There is a clear similarity with the T-4MS


In the late seventies, work began in our country on the promising project "Bomber-90" or "B-90". According to its results, in the nineties, a promising aircraft capable of replacing existing samples should have entered service with the Air Force. During the work on this topic, the OKB im. Sukhoi developed a number of projects, but none of them was even brought to the test.

Modernization or replacement


At the end of the seventies, the Sukhoi Design Bureau was working on a project for the Su-24BM aircraft. It provided for a deep modernization of the existing front-line bomber with a radical restructuring and a sharp increase in tactical and technical characteristics. In particular, it was planned to transfer the car to the category of medium-range bombers. In parallel, in specialized scientific organizations, a reserve was created for further work on a promising machine with the code "B-90".

At that time in the ministry aviation industry and design bureaus were heated debates about the ways of further development of the bomber direction. Some responsible persons suggested continuing the process of improving the Su-24 and expanding its tasks by increasing the characteristics, while others insisted on developing a completely new project. The main supporter of the abandonment of the "old" aircraft was the chief designer of the Sukhoi Design Bureau (later general) and the deputy minister of the aviation industry M.P. Simonov.

At the turn of the decade, M.P. Simonov proposed a new approach to the creation of aviation technology. Taking into account the experience of work on the T-10 fighter, it was proposed to transfer the preliminary development of new machines to TsAGI. In the future, the Institute's developments were to go to design bureaus for further design.


Diagram of a two-pipe engine. 1 - fan blades; 2 - fan stands; 3 - throttle valves of the second circuit; 4 - maximum bypass; 5 - minimum bypass. Graphics Testpilot.ru

The first project implemented according to this principle was to be "Bomber-90". In 1979-80. TsAGI carried out the necessary research, and in 1981 the Sukhoi Design Bureau received working materials for further development. The project was accepted for development and received the internal designation T-60. The new project has diverted some resources from the existing Su-24BM, and its development has slowed down.

The first project


Unfortunately, not too much is known about the T-60 project. The bulk of the data on it, including the final look, has not yet been published. At the same time, the general features and main disadvantages of the proposed design are known. For example, a very harsh criticism of the project is found in the memoirs of O.S. Samoilovich - Deputy M.P. Simonov. He called the key innovations of the project absurd.

The T-60 bomber has been in development since 1981; N.S. was appointed chief designer. Chernyakov, moderator - V.F. Marov. In the course of working out the general appearance of the aircraft, TsAGI specialists started from the existing T-4MS project. The airframe and some other units were almost completely borrowed from this aircraft. At the same time, fundamentally new solutions were proposed.

The T-60 aircraft was supposed to retain the variable sweep wing. At the same time, in certain modes, the rotary consoles had to go under the load-bearing fuselage, improving aerodynamics. The power plant was proposed to be formed from the so-called turbojet engines. two-pipe scheme, worked out in the OKB P.A. Kolesov. Such an engine already existed and was tested on the bench. Two motors were supposed to provide a total thrust of 57 tons.


Modern reconstruction of the appearance of the T-60S. Militaryrussia.ru graphics

It soon became clear that the removal of the consoles under the fuselage, at least, was difficult due to the deformation of the structures in flight. Unusual twin-tube engines required the tail section of the aircraft to be redesigned with a loss of performance. In addition, gross errors were identified in the scientific data on model purges.

With the letter "C"


In 1982-83. a new stage of tests in a wind tunnel took place, which showed the correctness of the opponents of the project. In its original form, the T-60 had a lot of shortcomings that deprived it of prospects. However, under pressure from supporters of the project, the Minaviaprom did not stop work. As a result, a new version of the bomber appeared, designated the T-60S. O.S. was appointed chief designer. Samoilovich.

In the project with the letter "C", the problematic solutions of the previous development were abandoned. Now it was proposed to build a long-range single-mode supersonic bomber capable of carrying cruise missiles. How the T-60S saw its creators is unknown; there are only some information and estimates.

According to some reports, it was proposed to build an aircraft of the "duck" scheme with a forward horizontal tail. A twin nacelle with a turbojet engine R-79 or more advanced products was placed at the base of the keel, on the upper surface of the aircraft. A bomber up to 40 m long could have a maximum take-off weight of approx. 85 tons and carry up to 20 tons of payload. According to calculations, the theoretical maximum flight range (probably with refueling in the air) reached 11 thousand km.


Alleged projections of the aircraft "54". Graphics Alternathistory.com

For the T-60S, it was proposed to develop a fundamentally new sighting and navigation system. A variety of electronic warfare and reconnaissance means could also be used. The armament was supposed to consist of 4-6 cruise missiles placed on a drum installation inside the fuselage or on an external sling.

In parallel with the development of the T-60S, the development of the Su-24BM continued. Despite a certain difference in the calculated characteristics, the two projects actually competed with each other. Nevertheless, the Su-24BM was losing in such a struggle, and for its victory new solutions were required. So, from a certain time in this project, a fixed wing and equipment from the T-60S were used, which gave an increase in characteristics. However, this did not help, and by the mid-eighties, work on the radical modernization of the Su-24 stopped.

New developments


In the mid-eighties, personnel reshuffles took place at the Sukhoi Design Bureau, and these processes influenced the work on the B-90 theme. A new team of designers began to rework the existing T-60S project. The updated long-range bomber received the designation "54", although in some sources such a project was still called the T-60S. In the future, such a machine could replace the existing Tu-22M3 long-range bombers.

According to known data, Project 54 continued the ideology of its predecessor. It was a supersonic missile-carrying bomber with reduced visibility, designed to strike targets at long range. In the late eighties, a new PrNK B004 "Predator" was developed for such an aircraft. Subsequently, the devices of this complex were used in new projects.


An attempt to reconstruct the appearance of "54S". Graphics Paralay.com

It is known that since the mid-eighties, some work has been carried out at the Novosibirsk aircraft plant to prepare the future production of experimental and serial equipment. However, this period was no longer conducive to the successful completion of new complex projects - the real future of the project was in doubt. Work on "54" continued until 1992 and was stopped by a presidential decree. It was a gesture of goodwill, demonstrating the peaceful intentions of the new Russia.

However, already in 1993-94. development of the 54C bomber began. He was supposed to keep some of the features of the base "54", but use new engines and on-board equipment. Perhaps the issue of stealth was being worked out more thoroughly. The exact appearance of this car has not yet been revealed, and the known drawings are of unofficial origin and may not correspond to reality.

The design of the 54S bomber stopped at the end of the nineties. The Russian Air Force adopted a new plan for the development of long-range aviation, in which there was no room for the purchase of new equipment. The existing Tu-22M3 was proposed to be repaired and modernized, and the development of a replacement for them was canceled.

Without desired results


Thus, the B-90 theme and a number of projects that had been developed over a long period of time did not give the desired results. The first version of the bomber had a number of fatal flaws, the second did not progress beyond prototyping for organizational reasons, and the last two projects were developed at a not very good time.


Another "fantasy on the theme". Graphics Alternathistory.com

As a result, the Bomber-90 program did not allow the Air Force to be re-equipped within the planned timeframe. Moreover, it did not give direct results at all. In the nineties and in the following decades, our army had to use only existing bombers of various models. The replacement for them appeared with a great delay.

The failure of the B-90 theme can be attributed to several main factors. First of all, this is a lack of agreement among responsible persons: disputes hindered the development of a clear and clear program and its further implementation. The new way of organizing the interaction between TsAGI and the Design Bureau did not justify itself from the very beginning, which made it necessary to develop a second version of the project. Finally, problems in the early stages of the B-90 program led to delays in work, and relatively successful projects appeared too late, when their implementation proved impossible.

However, "Bomber-90" cannot be considered a completely useless program. It allowed to gain the necessary organizational, scientific and technical experience. In addition, new technologies and components have emerged from the late bomber designs. They were used in the creation of the Su-34 front-line bomber and, possibly, other modern projects.
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  1. NF68
    NF68 April 16 2021 18: 04
    0
    Guests from the future.
    1. PROXOR
      PROXOR April 23 2021 15: 12
      +1
      Failed future.
  2. OgnennyiKotik
    OgnennyiKotik April 16 2021 18: 22
    +2
    Interesting, advanced projects, all in line with current trends. In Runet, laughing and laughing at stealth, although their more developed compatriots (most probably already former) just created "stealth" aircraft.
    1. bayard
      bayard April 17 2021 03: 40
      +6
      The projects are really very interesting, but it's still difficult to call them "stealth" in full. They are exactly that aircraft with reduced RCS. In addition, there is no collapse of the keels on them, and this has a great effect on visibility.
      And I would very much like to see something similar in the near future, but (of course) without a variable sweep wing, with a collapse of the keels and in the weight category 60 - 75 tons. This could be a machine with second stage engines from the Su-57, with a glider based on the Su -34, but larger, with air intakes from the Su-57 (since the engines from it), with the possibility of internal suspension of weapons. Such machines would be very useful as MRA aircraft and as a long-range middle class bomber - as a replacement for the Tu-22M3.
  3. The comment was deleted.
  4. PilotS37
    PilotS37 April 16 2021 18: 28
    +2
    ... a very harsh criticism of the project is found in the memoirs of O.S. Samoilovich - Deputy M.P. Simonova

    Oleg Sergeevich turned over in his grave! Simonov survived him from the "Firm" shortly after he became General. And in his first visit to Sukhoi M.P. rather he himself was subordinate to Samoilovich than vice versa.
  5. knn54
    knn54 April 16 2021 18: 29
    -2
    And how many unrealized projects Bartini had. "Thanks" to Khrushchev and Tupolev., The last part of them was realized in the form of Tu-144 / T-4.
    1. PilotS37
      PilotS37 April 16 2021 18: 43
      +3
      Quote: knn54
      And how many unrealized projects Bartini had. "Thanks" to Khrushchev and Tupolev., The last part of them was realized in the form of Tu-144 / T-4.

      T-4 is Sukhoi! Tupolev had nothing to do with him. Bartini, I'm afraid, too.
      If the Tu-144 and T-4 are attributed to Bartini, then the Concorde should also be attributed to him.
      But on the Su-57, some of Robert Ludwigovich's ideas were really implemented ... (I'm not sure, but very similar!)
      1. bayard
        bayard April 17 2021 03: 53
        +3
        Quote: PilotS37
        T-4 is Sukhoi! Tupolev had nothing to do with him.

        By a dry decision, the Central Committee was ordered to give the developments on the T-4 to Tupolev, for work on the Tu-144. So the design bureaus are different, but their glider is very similar. And Tupolev was really very jealous of Sukhoi in his desire to deal with bombers ...
        Quote: PilotS37
        Bartini, I'm afraid, too.

        But Bartini is directly related to both machines (and not only), because the delta wing has a large sweep and a break along the leading edge, just called the "Bartini wing", and he calculated it even during the Second World War. It was in 1943, if memory had not changed, that he calculated the design of a supersonic bomber airframe for a speed of 2M. And his developments in the design environment were known and successfully borrowed.
        1. PilotS37
          PilotS37 April 19 2021 15: 36
          0
          Quote: bayard
          By a dry decision, the Central Committee was ordered to give the developments on the T-4 to Tupolev, for work on the Tu-144.

          Aren't you confusing? It was Myasishchev who was ordered to give Tupolev the work on the aircraft, which eventually became known as the Tu-160.
          1. bayard
            bayard April 19 2021 19: 41
            0
            Sorry, but you are beguiled. I wrote about the Tu-144, the chief designer of which was Tupolev's son. Look at the Tu-144 glider and compare with the T-4. Work on the first passenger supersonic was under special control in the Central Committee - a matter of prestige. So they told Sukhoi to share the best practices so as not to lag behind the Concorde.
            And the competition for the future multi-mode Tu-160 was attended not only by Myasishchev and Tupolev, but also by Sukhoi. All three design bureaus offered a similar layout and appearance - an integrated circuit, a variable sweep wing, spaced engine nacelles for two engines each.
            Therefore, the task was given to Tupolev, respecting his experience and taking into account that he already had the Kazan aircraft plant at his disposal (they built the Tu-22M2 \ M3, on which it was supposed to build the Tu-160. TsAGI was given to Myasishchev, but all the developments of him and Sukhoi ordered to give to Tupolev.
            Sukhoi's refusal was motivated by the fact that his design bureau was already overloaded with work on the Su-24M, Su-25 and Su-27. So as not to spray construction personnel and delay projects.
            1. The comment was deleted.
  6. PilotS37
    PilotS37 April 16 2021 18: 33
    +2
    The T-60 bomber has been in development since 1981; N.S. was appointed chief designer. Chernyakov

    Discrepancy's! In 1981 Simonov was still deputy. Minister, became General only in 1983.
    So it was not his idea ...
  7. PilotS37
    PilotS37 April 16 2021 18: 36
    +2
    The T-60 aircraft was supposed to retain the variable sweep wing. At the same time, in certain modes, the rotary consoles had to go under the load-bearing fuselage, improving aerodynamics.

    And then ...
    Modern reconstruction of the appearance of the T-60S. Militaryrussia.ru graphics

    There is no variable wing geometry in this picture!
    And on the T-60 - as he intended in reality - it is not at all similar.
  8. PilotS37
    PilotS37 April 16 2021 18: 53
    +2
    In the mid-eighties, personnel reshuffles took place at the Sukhoi Design Bureau, and these processes influenced the work on the B-90 theme. A new team of designers began to rework the existing T-60S project.

    To listen to you, dear author, this is how the design bureau was dispersed. In fact, Samoilovich and Marov left (perhaps someone else whom I did not know), but NS continued to lead the "theme". Chernyakov. Yes, and the "team of designers" who worked on the T-60, as a whole, survived, at least until the early 1990s.
  9. Pavel57
    Pavel57 April 16 2021 19: 06
    +1
    Samoilovich tried to implement this project later at the Mikoyan Design Bureau.
    The SU-24BM was a tit in her hands, but her hands were full of holes.
  10. PilotS37
    PilotS37 April 16 2021 19: 17
    +3
    The failure of the B-90 theme can be attributed to several main factors. First of all, this is a lack of agreement among responsible persons: disputes hindered the development of a clear and clear program and its further implementation. The new way of organizing the interaction between TsAGI and the Design Bureau did not justify itself from the very beginning, which made it necessary to develop a second version of the project. Finally, problems in the early stages of the B-90 program led to delays in work, and relatively successful projects appeared too late, when their implementation proved impossible.

    There were two main reasons:
    1. Collapse of the Union: in the 1990s, government funding of the aviation industry (as well as other defense and non-defense industries) practically ceased - here even less problematic projects were rooted to the spot.
    2. M.P. Simonov... His design credo was very colorfully expressed in one May song: "We will soon build a large plane - its shape at once ... (will surprise)". I doubt that "MP" knew her (he did not study at MAI), but he tirelessly translated these "golden" words into practice. And the T-60 became just such an aircraft - "its shape was supposed to be all ... (surprise)" ... Naturally, nothing came of it.
    But Simonov also had undoubted merits:
    1. He saved the Top Ten. If not for his decisiveness in 1983, we would not have the "Su-27 Family" now.
    2. Transformation of the "Design Bureau" into a full-fledged aircraft building holding with its own factories and their income... It started with export sales ... Su-26. Then the Su-27 was sold to China, and then more and more new contracts began to appear ...
    3. Simonov did not "gobble up" this money! The Sukhoi Design Bureau was able to survive the "dashing 90s" relatively painlessly and even release a new aircraft - the Su-30. And then things went uphill. Although, of course, not all of Sukhoi's new projects are equally successful and problem-free, other “firms” cannot boast of this today.
  11. Old26
    Old26 April 16 2021 21: 04
    +3
    Quote: knn54
    And how many unrealized projects Bartini had. "Thanks" to Khrushchev and Tupolev., The last part of them was realized in the form of Tu-144 / T-4.

    There were enough unrealized projects for everyone. Both Bartini and Tupolev. About 20 years ago, in a bookstore, I came across a book dedicated to KB MiG (unfortunately I don't remember the exact name and the author). Among other things, there are about a dozen photos of the MIG-29, but not the final configuration, but the options that were developed in the design bureau. I saw exactly the same drawings in the 80s of a friend who worked in the aviation industry
  12. yehat2
    yehat2 April 19 2021 11: 55
    -1
    in the 80s, something similar to the T60 flew over cities in silhouette at subsonic speeds with an escort of 2 fighters, and this thing had very good maneuverability.
    I cannot clearly explain what it was, because I still cannot tie it closely enough to any known project.
    the aircraft most of all resembled modern giant transport aircraft, but had completely different wings, more characteristic of supersonic bombers.
  13. PPV
    PPV April 24 2021 00: 55
    0
    There are too many mistakes and inaccuracies.
    You need to write about what you know ...
  14. Obsidan
    Obsidan 19 May 2021 23: 20
    0
    Looks great
  15. Eug
    Eug 25 May 2021 07: 27
    +1
    You need to understand what types it will inherit and what tasks it will perform. As for me, it would be worth giving it the following main functions - a long-range bomber and a missile carrier (including a naval one) to replace the Tu-22Mh (including in the electronic warfare version) and - a long-range interceptor (to replace the MiG-31) ... I see it as a "twin-engine" Tu-160 with a takeoff weight of 55-65 tons, an internal weapon compartment and the possibility of long-term loitering in the air. What I cannot understand is the "wing-mounted" arrangement of the engines on the projects.
    1. Gardener91
      Gardener91 28 May 2021 19: 50
      0
      Quote: Eug
      You need to understand what types it will inherit and what tasks it will perform.

      All modern machines are developed as universal platforms with a subsequent target groundwork for each type of videoconferencing. I think so...
      1. Eug
        Eug 28 May 2021 20: 04
        +1
        Well, if so. This would be correct from all points of view.
  16. Gardener91
    Gardener91 28 May 2021 19: 44
    0
    [iUnusual twin-tube engines required the tail section of the aircraft to be redesigned with a loss of performance. ] [/ i] Strange, is it really impossible to place the two-pipe layout of the power plant horizontally? At the same time, I see some advantages.