Military Review

The Holy Grail and the Knights of the Round Table

124

History about the Grail is a classic example of the adaptation of pagan legends to the new Christian realities. Its sources and basis were the apocryphal "Gospel of Nicodemus" (Gnostic) and the Celtic legend about the island of the blessed Avalon. For Christian authors, Avalon has become a dwelling place for souls who did not deserve hellish torment, but turned out to be unworthy of paradise. In some novels of the Breton cycle, the knights are looking for the castle where the Grail is kept. Most often, this relic is represented by the cup from which Christ and the apostles drank during the Last Supper. In the same bowl, according to legend, Joseph of Arimathea collected the blood of the crucified Christ. But in one of the novels, the Grail is called a stone, we will talk about this a little later.


Holy Grail Castles


Chrétien de Trois told his first readers about the Grail - in the unfinished novel "Perceval or the Story of the Grail." In the prologue, this author says that he found the story of the Grail in a book that Philippe, Count of Flanders, gave him for a time. And says he tried to retell in verse

"The best of the tales told at the royal court."

In "Perceval" de Trois, the castle of the "fisherman king" has no name, and Wolfram von Eschenbach in "Parzival" called it Munsalvesh ("My salvation"). In the opera of the same name, Wagner changed the name of the castle to Monsalvat ("Mountain of Salvation") and placed it in the Pyrenees. Perhaps some of you remember the lines of M. Voloshin:

"Autumn wanders the parks of Versailles,
The whole sunset glow is embraced ...
I dream about the Grail knights
On the harsh rocks of Monsalvat. "

And in the "Vulgate" (an anonymous cycle of 5 knightly novels) the place where the Grail is kept is the castle Corbenic or Corbin - from the Welsh Caerbannog ("Mountain fortress").

The Holy Grail and the Knights of the Round Table

"The Virgin with the Grail at Corbin Castle." Illustration by Arthur Rackham

In knightly novels, the Grail fortress bears little resemblance to the medieval castles of Europe. According to many researchers, the description of its interior design is much more like the banquet hall of the Irish kings, or even the underground dwellings of the Seeds, described in Cormac's Journey, Brikren's Feast, the legend of Saint Collen's visit to the castle of Gwynne, son of Nudd.

Some in Nazi Germany seem to have identified Monsalvat with one of the Catalan mountain monasteries.

On October 23, 1940, in the southern French city of Hendaye, located on the border with Spain, a meeting between Adolf Hitler and Francisco Franco took place. And Heinrich Himmler, who accompanied Hitler that day, suddenly found himself in the Benedictine monastery of Santa Maria de Montserrat, which is located in the mountains about 50 km from Barcelona (the famous sculpture of the "Black Madonna" is kept here).


Himmler to Montserrat

To the monk Andreu Ripol, who because of his knowledge of German became his “guide”, Himmler said:

"We all know the Holy Grail is here."


Modern Montserrat, photo by the author

Some sources say that Munsalves Castle belongs to the Cathars. On this basis, the German archaeologist Otto Rahn identified it with the Albigensian castle of Montsegur, captured and destroyed by the crusaders on March 16, 1244. There is a legend that shortly before the fall of this castle, four perfect Cathars managed to leave Montsegur through a secret passage, taking with them the main relics, among which the Grail could be. Ran stated this hypothesis in the book "The Crusade Against the Grail".

This work interested Heinrich Himmler himself, who invited Rahn to join the SS and ordered the financing of his search for the Grail in the vicinity of Montsegur. Nothing like the Grail Ran could be found. And he could hardly find the Grail. The fact is that this particular relic was not of particular value to the Cathars. The Albigensians considered Christ to be an angel in the form of a man. Therefore, they did not believe in the death of Jesus on the cross, or in the resurrection that followed. And, accordingly, they did not believe that his blood could be collected in some kind of bowl.

Wolfram von Eschenbach in the novel "Parzival" calls the Templars the keepers of the Grail. Some believe that the last Grand Master of this order, Jacques de Molay, never revealed the location of the Grail to the executioners of the French King Philip IV.

The Mystery of the Grail


The word graal (variant - greal) in translation from Old French means a goblet or a bowl. Many believe that it comes from the Latin gradalis, which in turn was formed once from the Greek word krater, which was called a vessel with a wide neck, intended for mixing wine with water. Some believe that the Celts who heard about the Grail could identify it with the magic cauldron of the people of the children of the goddess Danu, or with the dish of the legendary King Ridderch, from which no one left hungry.

By the way, other treasures of the Danu people were the spear, which was later identified with the spear of Longinus, and the sword, which is considered the prototype of Excalibur.

In the novel by Chrétien de Trois, the word "graal" (graal) is still written with a small letter, in those days it could mean a flat plate on which fish was usually served (recall that Perceval saw a relic in the castle of the "fisherman king"). The virgin carried him with both hands, and instead of a fish, there were communion wafers on the platter. With this graal:

“Gold was made of pure,
In addition, generous and rich
It is strewn with a scattering of stones. "

Agree, it is difficult to imagine such an expensive cup on the table of the half-poor apostles. However, de Trois did not even imagine this, the cup of the Eucharist of Christ and the Apostles was called the Grail later. The main attention of Perseval, the hero of de Troyes' novel, is not yet attracted by the Grail, but by the bleeding spear, which later became associated with the spear of the centurion Longinus. However, it was the Grail that thrilled the readers of this novel. And this was the beginning of the formation of one of the greatest legends in the history of mankind. Continuation of the novel de Troyes tried to write Vauchier de Denin, Pseudo-Voshier (Pseudo-Gaultier), Gerbert and Manessier.

With the cup of the Last Supper, in which Joseph of Arimathea later collected the blood of Christ, Robert de Boron identified the Grail (in the "Novel on the History of the Grail"). The Grail symbolized the highest moral perfection, but brought very tangible benefits. He healed the sick and prolonged life. Eschenbach writes:

“There is no such patient who, in front of this stone, would not receive a guarantee of avoiding death for the entire week after the day he saw it. Whoever sees it stops aging ... This stone gives a person such power that his bones and flesh immediately find their youth again. It is called the Grail. "

The Grail also gave any food:

“The finest drinks and food the aroma of which has ever spread in this world. In addition, the stone provides various game for its keepers "

(Eschenbach).

In the other place:

“One hundred pages were ordered to appear with respect to the Grail and collect bread, which they then carried away, wrapped in white napkins. They told me, and I repeat to you, that at the Grail the companions found all the dishes they could wish for, ready to be eaten. "

Eschenbach's Grail, which he called "the stone that fell from heaven" and "the most coveted stone", is very similar to the philosopher's stone. This author says about him:

"The source of the brightest joys,
He is the root, he is the sprout,
Paradise gift, excess of earthly bliss,
The embodiment of perfection ”.

In addition, Eschenbach states:

“The grail is so heavy
That none of the sinful people
Do not raise it forever. "

But in all other sources, the Grail is a cup or goblet. Even R. Wagner, who wrote an opera based on Eschenbach's novel, "corrected the mistake" by making the Grail a cup.


Parzival at the Gran Teatre del Liceu, Barcelona

But there is a version according to which the word "Grail" comes from the Latin gradual, which meant only a collection of liturgical texts.

Michael Baigent, Richard Lee and Henry Lincoln in the book "The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail" suggested that San Graal should be read as sang real - "royal blood" of the descendants of Jesus Christ and Mary Magdalene (which supposedly were "Lazy kings" of Mervingi). This rather delusional and, of course, offensive to Christians version became widely known thanks to Brown's book "The Da Vinci Code" and the film of the same name.

Quest for the Grail


Knights who dared to look for the Grail went literally “there, I don't know where”: not only could no one say exactly where exactly to look for the same Munsalves (Monsalvat), but this castle was also invisible. Eschenbach writes:

“To get into this castle,
Neither diligence nor power is needed,
Neither luck nor mighty mind, -
Only fate prepared a case. "

Eschenbach also claimed that Munsalvesh was guarded by the Templars (recall that this order was founded in 1119):

“The valiant knights live in the castle of Munsalves, where they guard the Grail. These are the Templars who often go to distant lands in search of adventure ... Everything they feed on comes to them from the precious stone (Grail). "

And since no one knew exactly what the Grail looked like, you can add that they were going to find "I don't know what." The Grail itself was supposed to appear worthy.


Evrard d'Espenque. "The Knights of the Round Table and the Vision of the Holy Grail" 1475 This event took place on the day the young Galahad (son of Lancelot) appeared to the court of Arthur, who was destined to find the Grail.

In addition, along the way, the knights, "who lived a righteous life and possessed great valor," found "branches of the sacred grass, which was the sign of the Holy Grail."
Generally:

"Only the pure are given contemplation
The eternally joyful Grail ".

(N. Gumilyov).

Sir Lancelot of the Lake, the greatest of the knights, saw the Grail as many as two times, but he was not worthy of it, since he performed his feats not to glorify the Lord, but in the name of his Beautiful Lady - Queen Guinevere.


Aubrey Beardsley. Queen guenever


Lancelot at the Chapel of the Holy Grail by Edward Coley Burne-Jones, 1870

And the story of Lancelot ended very sadly: after the death of Arthur, he went crazy, and his beloved Guinevere went to the monastery.

Lancelot's son Galahad, his nephew Sir Bors and Percival (in German novels - Parzival) were worthy to see the Grail.


The Reaching of the Grail by Sir Galahad, accompanied by Sir Bors and Sir Perceval, XNUMXth century tapestry


Sir galahad and holy grail

And only in the little-known German novel "The Crown" it is stated that Sir Gawain was able to see the Grail.

Galahad became the keeper of the relic. After his death, the Grail was taken to heaven by angels. According to another version, Galahad was taken to heaven by the angels alive - along with the Grail.

And in the Germanic novel by Wolfram von Eschenbach, the guardian of the Grail was Parzival (Percival), whom the author also declared the head of the Knights Templar.


Some researchers believe that the prototype of Percival was the Celtic hero Peridor ab Efrav, who, according to legend, freed the earth from many monsters. It is also believed that one of the sources of the story of Percival could have been the legend of another Irish hero, Finn McCumhile.

According to British tradition, the Grail was not taken to heaven, but was buried in Glastonbury Abbey. Joseph of Arimathea allegedly buried him on one of the hills, where thorns grew out of the staff, which he stuck into the ground. The plant that was thought to be Joseph's thorns was indeed of Middle Eastern origin. Apparently, his seedling was brought from Palestine by one of the crusaders or pilgrims.


Glastonbury blackthorn

In the 2010th century, this tree was cut down by Cromwell's soldiers, but gave new shoots. However, in December XNUMX, it was again cut down by some vandals. Some priests commented on this news in the spirit that people in general and the British in particular are no longer worthy of such a valuable relic, and therefore it was taken from them.

In Glastonbury Abbey there is also the Chalice Well spring, the water of which is colored red due to its high iron content. According to the same legend, it originates from the grail's burial place.


"Well of the Chalice"

In 1906, near this source Wellesley Tudor Pole found a glass bowl, which was almost declared the Grail. However, it turned out that many years ago a certain John Goodchild brought this vessel from Italy and left it here as a gift to the local Celtic goddess.

"The Grail"


Do you want to see the Grail? Well, or at least an artifact that the Catholic Church carefully acknowledges as the "most likely Grail." In 2015, I discovered it in Valencia Cathedral. The construction of the cathedral began in 1262 on the site of a destroyed mosque, which, in turn, was erected on the foundations of the Roman temple of Diana. This cathedral was built in different architectural styles: from the side of the Iron Gate - Italian Baroque, where the Apostolic Gate is Gothic, and the facade of the Palace Gate is a Romanesque style.


Cathedral of Saint Mary, Valencia, Apostolic Gate

The Grail is kept in the Santo Caliz chapel, which can be accessed through the Iron (main) gate - from the side of the Queen's Square.


Cathedral of Saint Mary, Valencia, Iron Gate

After entering the cathedral, you need to turn right.

Grail in Valencia Cathedral:



Please note: Only a bowl made of oriental carnelian with a diameter of 9,5 cm, a depth of 5,5 cm and a height of 7 cm is considered the grail. Do not pay attention to the medieval stand (with an Arabic inscription).

Professor of the University of Zaragoza, Antonio Beltran Martinez, dated the cup to 100-50 BC. BC e. Even if he is right, this, of course, does not mean that it was this cup that was once at the Last Supper on the table of Christ and the apostles. But in 1959, Pope John XXIII promised an indulgence to everyone who made a pilgrimage to Valencia and prayed near this relic, which he called the "Holy Chalice."

Divine services with her were performed by two popes who visited Valencia. John Paul II, when celebrating Mass on November 8, 1982, did not dare to call this cup the Grail. Pope Benedict XVI on July 8, 2006 turned out to be more courageous and nevertheless uttered the word "Grail".


Benedict XVI in Valencia

Tradition claims that this cup came to Spain in the 711rd century during the reign of Pope Sixtus II with a monk who is now known as Saint Loresco (Lawrence), and until XNUMX was kept in the cathedral of the city of Huesca. Then she took refuge from the Moors in one of the Pyrenean caves. The bowl returned to Huescu at the end of the XNUMXth century and was already in the monastery of San Juan de da Peña.

Now we turn from legends to history and see the first message about this artifact in an absolutely reliable source: in 1399, the monks of the monastery of San Juan de la Peña made a deal with King Martin of Aragon, giving him the relic in exchange for a golden cup. The supposed Grail was kept in the royal palace in Zaragoza, then it was transported to Barcelona, ​​and in 1437 King Alfonso of Aragon transferred it to the Cathedral of Valencia to pay off his debts. At this time, the cup was already revered by everyone as the Grail. In the inventory of the cathedral, it was designated as

"Chalice, in which the Lord Jesus consecrated wine to blood at the Supper on Great Thursday."

Evidence of the veneration of this relic is the fresco by Juan de Juanes "The Last Supper" (Prado Museum), painted in 1562: the "Valencian Grail" on it stands on a table in front of Christ.


Juan de Juanes. Last Supper, detail

To recognize the Valencian Cup as the Grail or not, everyone decides for himself - it's a matter of faith.

Several other cities also claim the Grail. In New York, for example, you can see the so-called "Antioch chalice", found in the Ottoman Empire (in Syria) in 1908.


Chalice of antioch

This is a silver bowl, enclosed in a gilded shell. Research has shown that the inner bowl was created in the first half of the 1950th century and is a Byzantine oil lamp used in worship. Since XNUMX, it has been in the Cloisters Museum (a branch of the New York Metropolitan Museum).

The Genoese bowl, which is kept in the Museum of Church Treasures at the Cathedral of San Lorenzo, was brought to this city after the First Crusade by a certain Guglielm Embriako - in 1101.


Genoese bowl

It is made of green glass, an ancient product (made in Mesopotamia in the pre-Islamic period), but it is still less than 2000 years old. This bowl was damaged when it became a trophy of Napoleon Bonaparte - during transportation to Paris and back.
The goblet of dona Urraki (daughter of King Leon Fernando I) was made from two agate bowls in the XNUMXnd-XNUMXrd centuries. n. e. Since the XNUMXth century, it has been kept in the Basilica of San Isidoro in León.


Bowl of Donja Urraki

According to legend, in 1054 this cup was presented to King Fernando by the emir of Denia (an Islamic state in the territory of the present province of Valencia), and it came to Denia from Egypt.

Another contender for the title of Grail is the Lycurgus Cup: a glass vessel 165 mm high and 132 mm in diameter, probably made in the XNUMXth century in Alexandria. On its walls is depicted the death of the Thracian king Lycurgus, who was strangled with vines for insulting Dionysus. You can see the cup in the British Museum. Apparently, it was considered a grail because, depending on the lighting, it changes color from green (in the shade) to red.


Lycurgus Cup under different lighting

In this photo you can see the Agate Bowl from the Imperial Treasury of the Hoffburg Palace (Vienna).


Hoffburg Palace Agate Bowl

This is a solid stone dish created in the XNUMXth century in Byzantium. Under certain lighting, patterns are visible on it, reminiscent of the word "Christ", written in Latin and Greek letters.

And this is the bowl of Nanteos, kept in the National Library of Wales.


Nanteos Cup

Healing properties are attributed to her. On the cup of Christ and the apostles, it is, perhaps, more similar than any other. This is a fragment of a wooden bowl made from an elm tree in the 1879th century. Previously, it was believed that it was made of the cross on which Christ was crucified. Rumors that this is the Grail appeared after XNUMX.

Concluding this series of articles, it should be said that the knights' novels, written under the influence of Celtic legends, gave the knights of medieval Europe, albeit unattainable, but an ideal to which they should strive. Of course, real, non-book feudal lords were always very far from the heroes of the books they read. But it was just as difficult to call many members of the CPSU real communists. And just as far from true Christians, most of those people who wear a cross on their chests and periodically go to church to light a candle there. Not to mention those who donate part of the money they stole for the construction or repair of the church, hoping to hide the flaws and stains of their souls from God behind the gilding of church domes and icon frames.

Knights who were uncritical about the plots of the novels they read and who relied too much on their notions of honor were usually very short lives. A striking example is the fate of Viscount Raimond Roger Trencavel. This young man was one of the most noble, wealthy and powerful lords of Europe, but at the same time - an idealist. In July 1209, shocked by the atrocities committed by the crusaders in the Albigensian city of Béziers, he ordered to notify his subjects:

“I propose a city, a roof, bread and my sword to all who pursue, who are left without a city, a roof or without bread.”

Many unfortunate people then came to Carcassonne, and on August 1, the crusaders also appeared. After 12 days of siege, the naive 24-year-old viscount tried to negotiate with his knight brothers, was treacherously captured and three months later died of hunger and disease in the dungeon of the castle of Komtal, which had recently belonged to him.


Raimond Roger Trencavel, Viscount of Beziers and Carcassonne. Monument in the city of Burlaz (department of Tarn), France

However, as we have already said, the novels of the Breton cycle nevertheless formed stable ideas about the ideals of chivalry and therefore softened morals at least a little.
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  1. Korsar4
    Korsar4 April 17 2021 05: 24
    +12
    Yet let Monsalvat be invisible.
    The legend is so glorious that one does not want to see the dispute of tourist routes for "its true finding" at all.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka April 17 2021 06: 22
      +12
      Hello, Sergey!
      Valery's article, as always, turned out to be amazing, what-what, and the topic of philosophical reasoning through the prism of literary sources with illustrations from films is the author's brand!
      So it remains to agree with you and wish the "slaves of the pen" not to hesitate to storm the theme of the Grail !!!
      How selfish I am, good morning everyone!
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 April 17 2021 06: 36
        +6
        Hello Vladislav!

        I like this look. I can't say that I didn't get caught in my childhood.
        From student years.
        1. depressant
          depressant April 17 2021 08: 19
          +8
          Good morning, colleagues!
          The article fills the soul with a touchingly painful touch of the sublime, the mind - with the understanding that the path to truth is endless, and the vile organism - with fear of the complexity of the path. But one must go, for the sublime escapes the touch and, assuming changeable forms, persistently, like a hypnotist, demands: "Catch me!" Here you go)))
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 April 17 2021 08: 31
            +6
            Good morning, Lyudmila Yakovlevna!

            “Someone spends half his life,
            To reach the sources ... "(c)

            Each person reads in his own way. And he extracts his own.
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 April 17 2021 09: 12
              +5
              Good morning Sergey!
              * Thawed patches, bunches .... *, this is the last one, isn't it?
              1. depressant
                depressant April 17 2021 09: 46
                +12
                What are you talking about, Seryozha? ))))
                I saw the theme of the Grail, and Spielberg's film Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade immediately came to mind. The most important episode seemed to be where Harrison Ford chooses a bowl correctly from the proposed variety - a simple one)))
                1. Phil77
                  Phil77 April 17 2021 10: 20
                  +7
                  Greetings Lyudmila Yakovlevna! This is actually about the poem. I looked in and saw the last of our Sergei's poetry. So I decided to clarify, but apparently he is already on his way to work. Bad luck. recourse
                  1. depressant
                    depressant April 17 2021 11: 13
                    +5
                    Sergey will return to the topic - do not hesitate)))
                    Judging by the fact that his comment was the first, the topic covered him.
                    1. Phil77
                      Phil77 April 17 2021 11: 18
                      +5
                      Poet and philosopher. Writing thought-provoking comments. But with a good sense of humor. bully
                2. Phil77
                  Phil77 April 17 2021 10: 26
                  +7
                  And in my memory, Dan is our Brown, although Indy has a place to be. laughing
                3. depressant
                  depressant April 17 2021 10: 44
                  +5
                  But still I had to compare some dates. The Gospel of Nicodemus (just like that - with two "m", which is not important) appeared in the IV century AD. It also mentions a cup, into which either the soldier collected the blood of Jesus, or Jesus ate or drank from it. Many centuries have passed, and no one attached particular importance to this subject. I mean the secular society.
                  And then, at the onset of the new millennium, something happens, and the novels of the Breton cycle (1170 - 1190) appear.
                  At the same time, in the XII century, the teachings of Kabbalah appeared, considering a person as a vessel filled with dirt, but it should be filled with the Divine light of truth.
                  And a little later, already in the XIII century, the Holy Grail appears in the novels of the Vulgate cycle, approximately 1215 - 1236.
                  Interesting coincidences, isn't it? What was the impetus? And who stimulated whom to take off in thought - the Kabbalists of the novelists, or vice versa?
              2. Korsar4
                Korsar4 April 17 2021 11: 50
                +2
                Yes. And now there is no trace of the snow.
        2. Richard
          Richard April 17 2021 11: 17
          +8
          where the Holy Grail can be hidden

          Good morning friends
          How not to recall Mangup - an ancient fortress city in the Crimea, the capital of the Byzantine state of Feadoro. According to one of the legends, a vessel is hidden within its walls, which was brought here before the fall of Constantinople.
          The principality was formed from that part of the former Byzantine possessions in the Crimea, which did not come under the rule of Genoa. Theodoro's relations with the Golden Horde rulers were peaceful, but the principality waged constant wars with the Genoese, especially after the construction of the trading port Avlita (Inkerman) by the Feodorites, which became a serious competitor to Kaffa and struck a blow to the economy of the Genoese colonies in Crimea. What the Genoese could not allow, and now, in the 14th century, the Genoese attacked Theodoro, and the principality was in serious danger. Among other things, the Genoese Catholics demanded that the Theodorites give them the mysterious "Golden
          Chalice-Cradle ", promising to end the war. The golden cradle and the golden anvil were the most revered symbols of the principality of Theodoro and were depicted on the state flag, in state and religious symbols on countless frescoes in cave temples depicting a child in a bowl surrounded by angels and saints.
          Some researchers, comparing the numerous versions and legends that have come down to us about the Crimean Golden Cradle, the remains of paintings on cave temples, as well as liturgy and legends about the Holy Grail, find common features with them, from which they conclude that the Golden Cradle can be an analogue without a trace the disappeared grail.
          Who just looked for the Grail in the caves of Mangup. And the Turks, after the fall of the fortress and G. Potemkin, and the special expedition of Prof. Medyntsev, directed by Alexander III, and the expedition of A. Barchenko, sent to Mangup by F. Dzerzhinsky 3-1926.
          In December 1941, under the Ahnenerbe, Himmler created the Einsatzgruppen D, which was led by SS Gruppenführer and Police Lieutenant General Otto Ohlendorf, known by the nickname “Grail Knight” given to him by Heinrich Himmler. Einsatzgruppe employees thoroughly searched the old kenassas and mosques, the mausoleum of Tokhtamysh's daughter Janike-khanum, the Chufut-kale and Mangupa caves, the ruins of temples and mountain fortresses. For his work in the search for the Holy Grail, Ohlendorf received the Iron Cross of the first degree from Hitler. Both archaeologists and competent authorities have been searching thoroughly since the Soviet era. As a rule, the work of most of these expeditions is not advertised.
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 April 17 2021 11: 34
            +4
            They searched thoroughly, but ... did not find it.
            Good morning Dmitry!
            As always, an interesting comment. good
          2. Korsar4
            Korsar4 April 17 2021 11: 57
            +5
            Some of the names are pleasing to the ear.
            And the Bakhchisarai region is a separate world in the Crimea.
      2. Alien From
        Alien From April 17 2021 13: 39
        +6
        Have a nice day too! I join, the article is excellent!
        1. depressant
          depressant April 17 2021 20: 28
          +2
          That was given to everyone: where is the Grail ?! Yes, wherever the Grail is hidden))))
          The very fact of the actualization of the bowl, as if emerging from the dark ages, is important. Fear of the arrival of the new millennium, a kind of Millennium of those times (remember how they expected their own, and some were seriously afraid); or the need for another unifying idea under the rule of the crown through reliance on religion; the need of religion itself for fresh non-apocryphal ideas capable of engaging the minds and thus influencing the population - everything intertwined, and the Grail was remembered. But mainly not as a source of material wealth such as food and drink - this is in the view of dark commoners, but as a symbol of chivalrous communion with God among the cultural strata of the population, therefore, a generator of spiritual ideas that invigorate a stagnant society, which was implemented.
          Where is he? Somewhere)))
          Even the basement vaults of the Vatican are under suspicion.
  2. Free wind
    Free wind April 17 2021 05: 57
    +5
    The article is interesting. An interesting legend, it appeared in the Middle Ages, there were already writers in the fantasy style. The fact that the guard poked the executioners with a spear is unlikely. As they write, usually the executed, in any way, were left to rot, for fear of punishment. Think of the gallows, with the inability to remove the body. Severed heads. for months strung on spears. Was Hitler and his entourage mystically minded rams looking for magical items, as they are trying to show everywhere. No, definitely not.
    1. VLR
      April 17 2021 06: 18
      +12
      Quite right: Hitler did not believe in mysticism, he considered the same astrology a pseudoscience, in which only the degrading Anglo-Saxons and the French believe. But the British tried to predict the behavior of the Fuhrer by horoscopes. The Nazis cynically exploited this weakness of the British and their Western allies by printing slightly edited quatrains of Nostradamus, as well as officially and unofficially distributing magazines and brochures with convenient horoscopes. I wrote about this in one of the articles of the series "Forces and Signs of Destiny": the chapter "Great Warriors of Hybrid War" of the article "Prophets of Our Day: Positive and Negative Experience of State Use". I will not retell it.
      But Himmler had a quirk on mysticism. He quite seriously considered himself the new incarnation of Emperor Henry the Bird-catcher, for example.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 April 17 2021 06: 38
        +4
        Do you think you didn’t believe it? There was different information about this.
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave April 17 2021 07: 33
        +9
        He quite seriously considered himself the new incarnation of Emperor Henry the Bird-catcher, for example.
        Apparently, after Operation Weserubung ...
        Thank you, Valery!
      3. Catfish
        Catfish April 17 2021 19: 09
        +6
        Good evening, Valery. hi
        ... Hitler did not believe in mysticism, he considered the same astrology a pseudoscience,

        I read something exactly the opposite about Adolf, besides, besides all other magicians, there was also Hitler's "personal" Chief Astrologer Erich Jan Hanussen. And Hitler demanded predictions and help from astrologers to achieve their goals.
        After coming to power, as soon as the Fuhrer received what he wanted from the masters of occult sciences, he immediately sharply limited any of their public activities. He even ordered Himmler to immediately close all popular publications in this direction. Why? Hardly because he did not believe the predictions. One continuous mysticism. smile
        1. VLR
          April 17 2021 19: 16
          +5
          Karl Ernst Kraft, who was called Hitler's personal astrologer, actually wrote false astrological forecasts for the British and edited the quatrains of Nostradamus in the right direction. After Hess's flight to Britain. Kraft and over 600 other astrologers were arrested. And on June 24, 1941, astrology and other occult "sciences" were banned in the Third Reich. All books containing "mystical texts", Tarot cards, "magic mirrors", "balls of predictions" and other attributes of fortune-tellers and fortune-tellers were confiscated.
          Kraft died in Buchenwald on January 8, 1945.
          In the Reich on the occult, Himmler "went crazy". Hitler is not.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish April 17 2021 19: 37
            +4
            And on June 24, 1941, astrology and other occult "sciences" were banned in the Third Reich.

            This is true, but Himmler continued to use it to the fullest, why did Adolf not forbid him to do this?
            1. Sling cutter
              Sling cutter April 17 2021 19: 48
              +3
              Quote: Sea Cat
              This is true, but Himmler continued to use it to the fullest, why did Adolf not forbid him to do this?

              Greetings, friend! hi drinks But really "Ahnenerbe" or "Legacy of the ancestors" continued its activities until surrender and the big question is whether it ceased its activities after the war or did it move to the Center. and South. America recourse
              There is also a theory about Antarctica, and who all the same defeated the squadron of Admiral Byrd in 1947? wink
              1. Catfish
                Catfish April 17 2021 20: 23
                +4
                Hi Landing! drinks

                Well, it's hard to talk seriously about Byrd's expedition, flying saucers and New Swabia, so much time has passed, and today at least something was already known.
                And all the rumors were sucked from Berg's very first interview on his return, where he warned of the danger of American attacks by planes flying at high speed through either of the two poles. He said, and off we go, everyone in the Texas and Montana regions suddenly began to see flying saucers en masse. laughing
                1. Sling cutter
                  Sling cutter April 17 2021 20: 45
                  +2
                  Quote: Sea Cat
                  Well, it's hard to talk seriously about Byrd's expedition, flying saucers and New Swabia,

                  One minute, the squadron-convoy-expedition, was pretty much battered by someone, but by whom?) By the way, who did all the archives and developments of "Ahnenerbe" come to? .Ved, FA, jet aircraft, blood substitutes, prototypes of "plates" and so on. and so on., as well as the massive appearance of German submarines off the coast of the South. America .. and who and what were they transporting? here is the question. wink
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish April 17 2021 21: 06
                    +3
                    ... the squadron-convoy-expedition, was pretty battered by someone,

                    There is not a single photograph of damaged ships, there is not a single real photo of these "plates", although there were a lot of correspondents there, and many of the crews had personal cameras and cine cameras.
                    Due to the difficult ice and weather situation, two aircraft were lost, but the crews were safely rescued. If the losses were in the hundreds, as some "historians" write, then they would not have been able to conceal them, the hi would have gone to heaven, this is America.
                    Out of several thousand people, only one or two people, out of several thousand, told about the attack and the plates! Moreover, if the report on the results of the expedition was classified, then the personnel of the ships did not give a "nondisclosure" subscription.
                    There was no "mass" appearance of Doenitz submarines near Antarctica, and off the coast of South America they hunted for ships of the Allies, as well as off the coast of Africa, and in the Pacific Ocean too. If Antarctica had boats, it was only meteorological reconnaissance, and even then only a few.
                    As for the rest - yes, in "Ahnenerbe" a lot of interesting research was carried out in various aspects, this is true.
                    1. Sling cutter
                      Sling cutter April 17 2021 21: 40
                      +3
                      Quote: Sea Cat
                      There is not a single photograph of damaged ships, there is not a single real photo of these "plates", although there was a bunch of

                      But what about this: The losses of the Americans amounted to the sunken destroyer Murdoch, about ten fighters and several hundred dead sailors? Schwabenland "under the command of an experienced pilot, polar explorer Captain Alfred Ritscher. Arriving at the shores of Queen Maud Land in January 211, which had previously been declared their possession by the Norwegians, the expedition began systematic photographing of the area using two Dornier seaplanes on board. Within a month, the Mühliga-Hoffmann mountains, the Schirmacher Oasis, and other geographical objects were discovered. The territory was surveyed, no less than a lot, amounted to 1938 square meters. km. (almost half the area of ​​Germany).
                      But what about our 5th fleet and whaling flotilla or Novolazarevskaya station with a monument to our pilot Chilingarov with the date of 1947?
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish April 17 2021 21: 59
                        +1
                        The losses of the Americans were the sunken destroyer Murdoch, about ten fighters and several hundred dead mate

                        For the sake of interest, look at the payroll of the American fleet for the 47th year and find the destroyer "Murdoch", how he served, where he fought, etc.
                        As for the planes and hundreds of dead, I already wrote about this.
                        And look on the map where the Germans were and where the Yankees worked.

                        As for ours, I don't really believe these bikes, but as for Chilingerov, polar pilots died both in the Arctic and in Antarctica, from the very beginning of their exploration from the air, the "saucers" had nothing to do with it.
                        No, I understand, the legend is beautiful, but so many years have passed and something has certainly surfaced, either for them or for us, if there was something to “emerge”.
                        I'm also a romantic, but only up to a certain limit. smile
                      2. Sling cutter
                        Sling cutter April 17 2021 22: 16
                        +3
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        mantic, but only up to a certain limit.

                        Without romance, life is bad yes drinks You can think what you want, but in a completely sober state of mind, exactly three times in the presence of respectable witnesses, you saw inexplicable, from the point of view of common sense, heavenly collisions, consisting of unidentified phenomena-apparatuses that changed trajectories regardless of the current physical teachings. yes drinks
                      3. Catfish
                        Catfish April 17 2021 23: 29
                        +3
                        She's boring without romance. drinks
                        One night, in Chersonesos, we were spending midnight with our girls from the expedition, and someone noticed in the direction of Balaklava, high in the sky, a dim red light. The light did not move, but hung completely motionless in the sky. The whole crowd rushed to the highest point of the Nikolaev battery, but they could not see anything. So the fire hung in the sky, until we crawled over the tents, there were more interesting activities than looking at UFOs. The next day, when the TCB was stuffing the air into the vehicles, my friend, Warrant Officer Valento, explained that this was the signal fire of a naval balloon, with which the antenna was pulled out to communicate with submarines on a long voyage. Such is the UFO, you know. wink
                  2. Undecim
                    Undecim April 17 2021 22: 03
                    +3
                    sunken destroyer Murdoch
                    There was no such destroyer in Task Force 68 at all.
                  3. Sling cutter
                    Sling cutter April 17 2021 22: 34
                    +3
                    Quote: Undecim
                    sunken destroyer Murdoch
                    There was no such destroyer in Task Force 68 at all.

                    Colleague! hi drinks When there is no definite mother of her tical theory, people go into ren.tv and from here such Atlantis grow up that we could not dream of in school dreams.
                    But there are some facts. Was there a presence of germany in Antarctica? It was! Was there a presence of the USSR? Yes! All this is classified to this day, incl. data on the whaling fleet of the USSR in the southern latitudes. fellow
                  4. Gato
                    Gato April 18 2021 01: 11
                    -1
                    Damn Russians ... and in Antarctica they won again
                    (C) - US Secretary of State D.Birns, was retired ahead of schedule after the High Jump expedition. repeat
                  5. Undecim
                    Undecim April 18 2021 06: 56
                    +3
                    Byrnes resigned in January 1947, a month and a half before the end of the Highjump expedition, when the expedition had just reached Antarctica. The reason for the resignation is a disagreement with Truman.
                  6. Gato
                    Gato April 18 2021 07: 46
                    -1
                    The reason for the resignation is a disagreement with Truman.

                    You state this so categorically, as if you were an eyewitness. And where did you get the idea that Byrnes resigned in January 1947?
                  7. Undecim
                    Undecim April 18 2021 07: 59
                    0
                    And where did you get the idea that Byrnes resigned in January 1947?

                    All the best. It is not recommended to feed the trolls.
                  8. Phil77
                    Phil77 April 18 2021 09: 41
                    +1
                    Good morning!
            2. Undecim
              Undecim April 18 2021 07: 16
              +4
              Was there a presence of germany in Antarctica? It was!

              There were three German Antarctic Expeditions, in 1901, 1911 and 1938. There was not a single base.
              For comparison, the Americans conducted seven expeditions from 1928 to 1956, the British from 1898 to 1958 eleven.
              All this is classified to this day, incl. data on the whaling fleet of the USSR in the southern latitudes

              This is all "classified" only in "Speed-info". Even the network is not classified.
          2. Catfish
            Catfish April 17 2021 23: 20
            +4
            Quite right! I was not too lazy, I studied the list of all US destroyers for the entire existence of the country - there is no destroyer with such a name in the list AT ALL.
          3. Sling cutter
            Sling cutter April 18 2021 08: 49
            +5
            Quote: Sea Cat
            Quite right! I was not too lazy, I studied the list of all US destroyers for the entire existence of the country - there is no destroyer with such a name in the list AT ALL.

            Imagine, yesterday I also began to look for references, but in the official. sources it is not request The error went out repeat
          4. Catfish
            Catfish April 18 2021 08: 58
            +4
            Yes, this is not a mistake, but a banal duck. There was no such ship and no one drowned it, and they did not fight with anyone there. laughing
          5. Sling cutter
            Sling cutter April 18 2021 09: 08
            +4
            laughing But how convincingly this event is described in various memories wassat Today I'll dig, maybe there weren't such people either laughing Here is a ready-made topic for the article.
          6. Catfish
            Catfish April 18 2021 09: 24
            +4
            In! And I just wanted to advise you to collect material and print an article. Indeed, the theme is indeed!
          7. Phil77
            Phil77 April 18 2021 09: 53
            +6
            Good morning Konstantin!
            What's the topic? Hoax. One of many. Here's an example of another.


            Not the first and, I'm sure, not the last. wink
          8. Catfish
            Catfish April 18 2021 10: 13
            +4
            Hello Seryozha! smile
            Of course, I heard this baidu, the Yankees seem to have even made a film. Nonsense, of course. But the TOPIC here is also very interesting, because the Byrd expedition was still, and the chatter about New Swabia does not subside to this day.
          9. Phil77
            Phil77 April 18 2021 10: 17
            +3
            Probably. Even the name can tell. laughing * Historical hoaxes and our attitude towards them *. * The Holy Grail * can also be attributed to them. You can believe, or you can ... vice versa. bully
          10. Catfish
            Catfish April 18 2021 10: 22
            +4
            I meant a feature film, I saw something in the early nineties. As for the "Chalice", I don't know how the pastor performed by Banionis said: "All people believe in something. Some believe that God exists, others believe that there is no God. Both are unprovable." from)
            Here I am as this pastor. laughing
          11. Phil77
            Phil77 April 18 2021 10: 25
            +5
            Ah, * Philadelphia Experiment *? There were even two of them! 1984,2012. Rare dregs.
          12. Catfish
            Catfish April 18 2021 10: 36
            +4
            Yeah, outdone the twin towers. laughing
        2. Sling cutter
          Sling cutter April 18 2021 10: 30
          +5
          Quote: Sea Cat
          I meant a feature film, I saw something in the early nineties.

          There was also the film "Operation Philadelphia". Also a theme)
        3. Korsar4
          Korsar4 April 18 2021 19: 39
          +1
          Are there many parishioners?
        4. Catfish
          Catfish April 19 2021 14: 40
          +2
          Probably many times, this pastor paid for the Volga with only ruble bills.
        5. Korsar4
          Korsar4 April 19 2021 17: 38
          +2
          Everything is clear with the pastor.
          With the author-forumchanin - the generator of the idea is a question.
        6. Catfish
          Catfish April 19 2021 17: 57
          +1
          To Sergei? So ask him this question. smile
        7. Korsar4
          Korsar4 April 19 2021 18: 46
          +2
          And who wanted to adopt the pastor's ideas?
        8. Catfish
          Catfish April 19 2021 19: 03
          +1
          And he has not ideas, but a purely practical approach. And in everyday life and in philosophy.
        9. Phil77
          Phil77 April 19 2021 19: 09
          +2
          Hello my friend!
          I AM CONFUSED in your answers-questions !!!! Help! laughing
        10. Catfish
          Catfish April 19 2021 19: 53
          +2
          Yes, I myself do not always understand Seryoga. smile

          Hello, buddy! drinks
  3. Sling cutter
    Sling cutter April 18 2021 10: 31
    +5
    Quote: Phil77
    . Even the name can tell. * Historical hoaxes and our relationship to them *.

    Greetings! And what could be taken together)
  4. Phil77
    Phil77 April 18 2021 10: 34
    +5
    Good morning!
    It will not work, alas. I am very critical of my level of knowledge. recourse
  5. Sling cutter
    Sling cutter April 18 2021 10: 40
    +4
    Quote: Phil77
    Good morning!
    It will not work, alas. I am very critical of my level of knowledge.

    So I sometimes doubt my own, we will replenish nothing, what are our years drinks
  6. Undecim
    Undecim April 18 2021 12: 48
    +2
    because Bird's expedition was

    Byrd's expeditions were four: 1928-1930, 1933-1935, 1939-1941 and 1946-1947. Bird is still a fruit. From 1926 to 1996, he was considered the world's first pilot to fly over the North Pole. And in 1996, they checked his flight diary and found out that he wiped something there.
  7. Sling cutter
    Sling cutter April 18 2021 10: 33
    +5
    Quote: Sea Cat
    And I just wanted to advise you to collect material and print an article. Indeed, the theme is indeed!

    You can stir up the whole topic of articles)) 0 There is not enough time for everything, if only we could combine efforts. good drinks
  8. Catfish
    Catfish April 18 2021 10: 35
    +5
    No, brother, I'm old and lazy, and you guys have cards in your hands. smile drinks
  9. Sling cutter
    Sling cutter April 18 2021 10: 48
    +5
    Quote: Sea Cat
    No, brother, I'm old and lazy, and you guys have cards in your hands

    Yeah, how to spread the pictures of seductive, so not old drinks laughing
  10. Catfish
    Catfish April 18 2021 10: 54
    +6
    "Love has no age". smile And what is the male PPR, if the conversation about women does not come, topic4, if I am not mistaken. laughing
  11. Sling cutter
    Sling cutter April 18 2021 11: 13
    +5
    Quote: Sea Cat
    "Love has no age". And what is the male PPR, if the conversation about women does not come, topic4, if I am not mistaken.

    The topic is good and neutral laughing drinks
  12. Catfish
    Catfish April 18 2021 11: 19
    +5
    There are no neutral topics, Kolka will show up and immediately accuse me of distributing pornography. laughing laughing drinks
  13. Sling cutter
    Sling cutter April 18 2021 12: 19
    +6
    Quote: Sea Cat
    There are no neutral topics, Kolka will show up and immediately accuse me of distributing pornography.

    Is he a fighter for morality? laughing
  14. Catfish
    Catfish April 18 2021 12: 30
    +3
    No, he's a big fan himself, but it's better to cross the spotlights on me, then I have a reputation. Yes, all this jokes, we are all normal men, you know. But I already have a reputation as an inveterate womanizer, although look at what our other married women are posting. laughing
  15. Sling cutter
    Sling cutter April 18 2021 12: 36
    +6
    Quote: Sea Cat
    Yes, all this jokes, we are all normal men, you know. But I already have a reputation as an inveterate womanizer, although look what our other married women are posting

    Love for women is generally the engine of progress and the path to self-improvement. In my youth, I even had a theory about the fallopian structure of the world, only to expound it here is somehow dumb laughing drinks
  16. Catfish
    Catfish April 18 2021 12: 48
    +4
    the theory was about the fallopian structure of the world

    Colossally !!! good laughing drinks
  17. Sling cutter
    Sling cutter April 18 2021 12: 54
    +6
    Quote: Sea Cat
    Colossally !!!

    For the sake of truth, it must be said that this theory aroused keen interest and wide support among people of the opposite sex. good laughing laughing laughing
  18. Catfish
    Catfish April 18 2021 13: 04
    +3
    It would be strange if it were the other way around. Well, as far as I know the beautiful half of humanity. laughing drinks
  19. Sling cutter
    Sling cutter April 18 2021 13: 22
    +5
    Quote: Sea Cat
    Well, as far as I know the beautiful half of humanity.

    I agree!!! Thorns and Roses !!! good drinks
  • VLR
    April 17 2021 20: 01
    +5
    Himmler worked through the structures of the SS under his control. Hitler did not climb on the principle: "whatever the child is amused" - if the organization works effectively, there is no need to interfere.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish April 17 2021 20: 17
      +3
      ... if the organization is effective ...


      It means that there was some effect, it was not the same concentration camps.
    2. Sling cutter
      Sling cutter April 17 2021 20: 51
      +5
      Quote: VlR
      Himmler worked through the structures of the SS under his control. Hitler did not climb on the principle: "whatever the child is amused" - if the organization works effectively, there is no need to interfere.

      Kamrad! hi drinks What does it mean not climb? And who is Himmler without Hitler? It is difficult now to assert how much Adolf was a mystic and occultist, but the fact that without his participation the formation of SS troops took place .... well .... not ice.
  • Olgovich
    Olgovich April 17 2021 07: 02
    +8
    Is there a complete list of dozens of "genuine" Grail (which, as it were, one)?
  • Van 16
    Van 16 April 17 2021 07: 09
    +12
    "Concluding this series of articles"

    It's even a pity, everything was very interesting ..
    1. VLR
      April 17 2021 07: 15
      +14
      This is not quite the end: in the next article "Stories with a Stone" we will also talk (among other things) about Broceliande, the Lady of the Lake and King Arthur - such a kind of afterword to the cycle. It turned out, it seems to me, very interesting.
      1. Van 16
        Van 16 April 17 2021 07: 49
        +11
        I will wait.
        Valery, this is all really, really, please accept my gratitude and success to you!
        1. WHAT IS
          WHAT IS April 17 2021 09: 49
          +11
          Thanks for the interesting series of articles!
      2. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 April 17 2021 12: 20
        +4
        Valery, you have a very good cycle and I would not mind continuing
      3. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku April 18 2021 03: 30
        +3
        This is not quite the end: in the next article "Stories with a Stone" we will also talk (among other things) about Broceliande, the Lady of the Lake and King Arthur - such a kind of afterword to the cycle.

        And the mysterious Grail
        Together we will be able to find.
        If the spirit is oppressed by morality -
        So we must put an end to her!

        (Count von Krolock, the musical "Ball of the Vampires").
        Valery, can you tell us about the mysterious detective of the Grail - Otto Rahn? Troubled life, troubled death ... drinks
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 April 18 2021 10: 21
          +2
          Hello Nikolay! Well, what * is the Holy Grail * without Montsegur ?! laughing
      4. Sling cutter
        Sling cutter April 18 2021 08: 51
        +5
        Quote: VlR
        It turned out, it seems to me, very interesting.

        Yes, thanks, the cycle turned out to be very interesting.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 April 17 2021 09: 44
    +5
    Valery, good health to you. You have a very good job. Unfortunately I don't have time now
  • Bolt cutter
    Bolt cutter April 17 2021 10: 07
    +7
    However, in December 2010, it was again cut down by some vandals.
    Glastonbury Blackthorn was felled in 2019 by a landowner - when he was refused permission to build on the site. Officially, he was a danger yes ... Before that, neo-pagans had repeatedly attempted to attack the tree. But its offshoots were planted elsewhere in the Wearyall Hill site in 1951, so the heathens have plenty to do.
    https://www.somersetlive.co.uk/news/somerset-news/glastonburys-famous-holy-thorn-removed-2917463
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 April 17 2021 10: 31
      +8
      I welcome you Alexey!
      Is it okay if I add a photo to your comment? hi

      1. Bolt cutter
        Bolt cutter April 17 2021 10: 38
        +6
        Good morning! This is exactly the same clone from 1951, according to the plate. What remains of the original is what is in the photo above, and the scene is different there. Obviously neopagans will not get close to the clone.
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 April 17 2021 10: 40
          +6
          They will just get there. laughing
          1. Bolt cutter
            Bolt cutter April 17 2021 10: 52
            +3
            They will just get there.
            As I imagine the pagans of senior school age at night with a two-handed saw .. Immediately uncomfortable fellow
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 April 17 2021 11: 01
              +4
              Two-handed saw? Anachronism. laughing These * uncles * * senior school age * will come.
              wink
              1. Bolt cutter
                Bolt cutter April 17 2021 11: 06
                +3
                It will not fail there No. - on the sound all the cops will sit down - they have nothing to do there anyway. And in Glasto it is very quiet, only pensioners live there.
              2. vladcub
                vladcub April 17 2021 13: 36
                +2
                Sergey, what is this stuffed animal with a chainsaw?
                1. Phil77
                  Phil77 April 17 2021 14: 02
                  +3
                  This is from the horror movie * The Texas Chainsaw Massacre *, one of the episodes. To be honest, it is frankly an * amateur *.
                  But the film about which I have already written to you, be sure to watch it, Svyatoslav! If you have not watched it, then you will get great pleasure.
            2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka April 17 2021 11: 05
              +6
              They haven't caught the Skripals' cat yet, and cats tend to multiply quickly !!! laughing

              Skripal's cat and the national pride of Britain! hi
              1. Bolt cutter
                Bolt cutter April 17 2021 11: 08
                +5
                Skripal's cat and the national pride of Britain!
                So the Skripals cat, like in Valhalla, catches immortal mice and the elite Whiskas eats.
                1. Phil77
                  Phil77 April 17 2021 11: 14
                  +4
                  My * nobleman * only twitches convulsively from the current * Whiskas *. But I actually do not insist. wink
                  1. Bolt cutter
                    Bolt cutter April 17 2021 11: 37
                    +5
                    On his hungry ration. A friend's cat was just eating caviar (pike).
                2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                  Kote Pan Kokhanka April 17 2021 12: 06
                  +4
                  Quote: Bolt Cutter
                  So the Skripals cat, like in Valhalla, catches immortal mice and the elite Whiskas eats.

                  They wrote that there were two of them. One was never disposed of.
                  So that ...
                  1. Bolt cutter
                    Bolt cutter April 17 2021 12: 09
                    +4
                    So
                    The clonocot attack is imminent wassat ?
                    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                      Kote Pan Kokhanka April 17 2021 12: 50
                      +4
                      Quote: Bolt Cutter
                      So
                      The clonocot attack is imminent wassat ?

                      Naturally! Already started !!!
                      The plot for "Horror is all the Russians are to blame."
                      A noble corner of Wales, with manicured lawns and plush houses. A wrought-iron porch, an oak door and an old gray-haired lady of noble blood with a monocle. Opposite is her no less noble ash-colored cat with a gold medal on the collar and ten red, striped, plebeian disheveled kittens. The lady, with a trembling hand, brings the monocle to her eyes and begins to count the addition out loud in a cracked voice. Then he drops the monocle and says "Sophie, how could you ...?" At this time, the largest of the "saffron milk caps" hardly climbs the last step and puddles a puddle in the shape of Russia on the door mat. The old woman faints after uttering so that she could hear her pussycat "Russians are coming" !!! laughing
                      1. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter April 17 2021 13: 04
                        +4
                        A noble corner of Wales
                        Why Wales? Here it is synonymous with semi-wild boondocks.
                      2. Gato
                        Gato April 17 2021 20: 07
                        +3
                        It is believed that the Grail is the primus of the Hippo cat. Or vice versa lol
                      3. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                        Kote Pan Kokhanka April 17 2021 20: 45
                        +3
                        Quote: Gato
                        It is believed that the Grail is the primus of the Hippo cat. Or vice versa lol

                        This is a test !!! I'm afraid to imagine that the cat used Woland instead of a cocoon and a tray of sand in the lair!
                      4. Gato
                        Gato April 18 2021 00: 49
                        +2
                        Every joke has a certain amount of joke. It would seem, what is the connection between the Grail and Bulgakov's cat Behemoth? And it is, if you remember who Bulgakov brought out the cat's partner in violation of disgrace - Koroviev:
                        - This knight once joked unsuccessfully, - Woland answered, turning his face to Margarita, - his pun, which he composed, talking about light and darkness, was not very good. And after that the knight had to sew a little more and longer than he expected "

                        And here's the joke:
                        During the siege of Toulouse by the crusaders, their leader, Count Simon de Montfort, was killed (a stone from a stone-throwing machine hit him in the head). The defenders of the city greeted this news with stormy joy. Troubadour Guillaume of Tudel, author of Song of the Albigensian Crusade, described it this way:
                        A totz cels de la vila, car en Symos moric,
                        Venc aitals aventura que l'escurs esclarzic.
                        (On everyone in the city, since Simon died,
                        Happiness was reduced so that light was created out of darkness.)

                        So much for your "unfortunate pun on light and dark." Why "unsuccessful"? Yes, because it was precisely because of the disagreement with the Christian Church over light and darkness (good and evil) that the Provencal Cathars were destroyed!
                      5. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                        Kote Pan Kokhanka April 18 2021 04: 36
                        +1
                        I am afraid that the Cathars had no chance of avoiding war for one reason, they had money and they showered them! The rest is darkness, light and views on faith are all "decay". However, later proved by the fourth and test campaign. You have gold, then we are going to you.
        2. vladcub
          vladcub April 17 2021 13: 31
          +3
          Namesake, where is it found: "lumberjack cats"? I have never met such people.
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka April 18 2021 04: 31
            +2
            Quote: vladcub
            Namesake, where is it found: "lumberjack cats"? I have never met such people.

            Also where are these beauties! Red cats in a conservative apartment!

            The case when a cute cat will fix everything!
            1. vladcub
              vladcub April 18 2021 07: 05
              +1
              Canned cats?
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka April 18 2021 12: 30
                0
                Quote: vladcub
                Canned cats?

                Vlad is ironing the arrows, the cat is preparing for the first March !!! laughing
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 April 17 2021 12: 03
    +5
    As far as I understand, this is a hawthorn. But you can't tell from the photo for sure.
    1. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter April 17 2021 12: 08
      +5
      this is a hawthorn
      Crataegus monogyna, I mean boyar, right. In England he is safe - local drunks drink cider.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 April 17 2021 12: 17
        +5
        Yes, and here he pleases blackbirds and waxwings.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 April 17 2021 12: 52
    +2
    "everything they feed on comes from a precious stone" - analogue of "self-assembled tablecloths"
    1. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter April 17 2021 13: 03
      +5
      Freebie dreams seem to unite cultures and ethnicities.
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 April 17 2021 18: 19
        +2
        Would you refuse? I will not refuse 100%
  • Undecim
    Undecim April 17 2021 13: 03
    +3
    Most often, this relic is represented by the cup from which Christ and the apostles drank during the Last Supper. In the same bowl, according to legend, Joseph of Arimathea collected the blood of the crucified Christ. But in one of the novels, the Grail is called a stone, we will talk about this a little later.
    Approximately the first hundred years since the appearance of Perceval, le Conte du Graal, the Miraculous Grail that the knights were looking for and the Sacred Cup, in which Joseph of Arimathea collected the blood of Christ, are different objects.
    The Miraculous Grail was represented in various works by a bowl, a dish, a stone, possessed magical abilities, gave happiness, eternal youth and endless abundance. Guarded the Miraculous Grail of the Fisher King.
    And only Robert de Boron, already at the end of the XNUMXth or the beginning of the XNUMXth century, in the "Novel of Joseph of Arimathea" connected the Miraculous Grail and the Holy Chalice, and in the future the knights are already looking for the Holy Grail.
  • vladcub
    vladcub April 17 2021 13: 25
    +5
    Valery, your illustrations and materials are gorgeous. There is something to see and not just to see, but to admire.