Military Review

Mortar "Karl". German "club" for the Brest Fortress

87

600-mm mortar "Karl" and a carrier of shells on the chassis tank Pz.Kpwf. IV Ausf. E, photo: waralbum.ru


The biggest guns in stories... With the coming to power of Hitler in 1933, work on the creation of new types of weapons and military equipment intensified in Germany. The militarization of the country continued at an increasing pace, while the Germans managed to achieve success in almost all areas. They were also very noticeable in artillery, where the German design school was especially strong and relied on the rich experience and legacy of the First World War.

The experience of the First World War dictated the construction of super-powerful artillery systems that could be effectively used against long-term enemy fortifications or especially fortified positions. Fortunately, the targets for the new guns were, for example, the French line of the Maginot fortifications. Combat experience told the Germans that monstrous weapons were effective against fortresses and forts. A living confirmation of this was the famous "Big Bertha".

Creation of the self-propelled 600-mm mortar "Karl"


The creation of new super-large-caliber artillery systems in Germany was thought of in the mid-1930s. In 1934, the Armaments Directorate of the Ground Forces sent to German enterprises the terms of reference for the creation of guns capable of hitting protected objects with concrete walls up to 9 meters thick with a single projectile.

Already in 1935, the Rheinmetall-Borzig company developed a project for a 600-mm mortar. It was assumed that this artillery system would be able to launch shells weighing two tons at a distance of four kilometers. Systematic work on the project began in 1936. And the following year, the military were able to appreciate all the achievements of German designers.


The design of the new artillery installation was carried out under the direct supervision of General of the Artillery Karl Becker. He oversaw the project from the military side and made several valuable comments and suggestions during development. It was in honor of this officer that the 600-mm self-propelled mortar, which at the plant was simply designated Gerät 040 (product 040), received the semi-official name "Karl". This name is firmly entrenched in the installation throughout post-war historiography.

In total, the German concern Rheinmetall-Borzig has assembled seven self-propelled mortars. Six of them took part in the hostilities. Since they were all truly piece goods, each of them received its own name:

I - "Adam" (Adam), later renamed to "Baldur" (German Baldur);
II - "Eva" (Eva), later renamed to "Wotan" (Wotan);
III - "One" (Odin);
IV - "Thor";
V - "Loki" (Loki);
VI - "Qiu" (Ziu);
VII - "Fenrir" - a prototype that did not take part in hostilities.

The 600mm Karl mortar, which could have been used against French and Belgian fortifications, was late for the invasion of France. The French army and the British expeditionary force were defeated quickly enough, and the Maginot Line itself did not play any significant role, failing to protect France from defeat.

The first installation was presented to the German military only at the beginning of July 1940. At the same time, the full delivery of the 600-mm self-propelled mortar "Adam" took place only on February 25, 1941. The Wehrmacht received the sixth installation "Qiu" on July 1, 1941. And the seventh mortar "Fenrir" was ready only in 1942. On it, German engineers worked out the option of installing a new 540-mm gun.

Technical features of mortars "Karl"


The main feature of the Karl mortars was a self-propelled carriage on a tracked chassis. Mortars could move and maneuver independently, reaching speeds of up to 10 km / h. At the same time, they had an extremely limited power reserve. They were to be transported to their location by rail on specially created interconnected five-axle platforms.


Transportation of mortar "Karl" on railway platforms

Transportation by road on paved roads on special heavy trailers was also possible. For this, the mortar could be disassembled into four component parts.

The tracked undercarriage of the self-propelled mortar received a hydromechanical transmission and consisted of 11 small-diameter road wheels and five support rollers, a front drive wheel and a rear sloth on each side. The colossus weighing 126 tons was set in motion by an in-line 12-cylinder liquid-cooled diesel engine Daimler-Benz 507. Engine power of 750 hp. from. was enough to provide the artillery mount with a speed of up to 10 km / h.

The dimensions of the installation were also striking. The length of the self-propelled mortar was 11,37 meters, width - 3,16 meters, height - 4,78 meters. The mortar crew consisted of 16 people. At the same time, the hull armor was symbolic and was bulletproof and splinterproof - up to 10 mm.

The artillery part of the installation was represented by a 600-mm rifled mortar with a barrel length of 8,44 caliber. The mortar was installed on a special machine in the middle of the hull. The barrel of the mortar was monoblock. The lifting mechanisms provided maximum vertical guidance up to +70 degrees, the horizontal guidance angle without turning the body was 4 degrees. The rate of fire of the mortar was small - about one shot every 10 minutes.

Mortar "Karl". German "club" for the Brest Fortress
600-mm concrete shell "Karla" in Warsaw, August 1944

For this mortar, the Germans prepared three types of shells: a high-explosive weight of 1250 kg (of which 460 kg were explosives) and two concrete-piercing ones: light and heavy, weighing 1700 and 2170 kg, respectively (the mass of explosives was 280 and 348 kg).

A concrete-piercing shell weighing more than two tons could hit targets at a distance of up to 4,5 km, a high-explosive shell - at a distance of up to 6,5 km. A heavy concrete-piercing shell with a maximum flight speed of 220 m / s provided penetration of up to 3,5 meters of reinforced concrete or steel plates 450 mm thick.

Combat debut of 600 mm mortars near Brest


The combat debut of German super-powerful artillery systems, which were late by the time the operation began against France, took place on June 22, 1941, during the assault on the Brest Fortress. For the campaign against the USSR, the Germans allocated two batteries of the 833th artillery battalion of special power created before the war. The 1st battery, consisting of mortars "Adam" and "Eve" and 60 shells for them, was transferred to the 17th Army of Army Group "South". And the 2nd battery of the 833th division arrived in Terespol.

Near Brest were mortars "Thor" and "Odin" and 36 shells for them. The "Center" group planned to use them during an attack in the area of ​​the Brest Fortress. It is noteworthy that the 1st battery in the 17th army fired only 4 shells. After that, the mortars were simply taken out from the front. The report of the commander of the 4th corps on June 23 indicated that there was no longer a need for the further use of 600-mm mortars. At the same time, technical difficulties arose during their operation.


Self-propelled mortar "One" is preparing to fire in the area of ​​the Brest Fortress, photo: waralbum.ru

At the same time, mortars operating against the fortifications of the Brest Fortress used up almost all the ammunition. They opened fire, together with the entire artillery group of German forces concentrated in the area, in the early morning of 22 June. At the same time, on the first day of the war, mortars made only 7 shots. Self-propelled mortar "Thor" fired three shells, the fourth shot failed, difficulties arose. Mortar "One" fired 4 rounds at the fortifications, the fifth was not produced due to a defect in ammunition.

Until the evening of June 22, both mortars stood with shells jammed in the breeches, it was not possible to discharge them.

At the same time, the effectiveness of their fire on that day was very conditional, but it made a strong impression on all eyewitnesses. Shells "Karlov" left after explosions craters with a diameter of 30 meters and a depth of up to 10 meters. At the same time, a cloud of sand and dust rose into the sky to a height of 170 meters.

Despite the monstrous explosions, after the capture of the fortress, the Germans found that there were no direct hits at the concrete fortifications at all. In the first fire raid, the mortars fired four rounds at the bunker located on the Western Island. It was a pillbox next to the casemated reduit, which housed the district school of border troops drivers. At the same time, there was no one in the field filling positions and bunkers on the Western Island at the time of the shelling.

At the same time, already on June 22, one hit of the "Karl" shell was recorded in the building of the 9th frontier post on the Central Island. The shell hit the wing where the families of the border guards lived. These artillery monsters have certainly reaped their bloody harvest. Everyone who found themselves near the explosions of the shells of these mortars could only sympathize.


Remains of the semi-tower near the Terespolskie gates destroyed by the hit of the "Karl" mortar, photo from the author's archive

Despite the fact that the Germans did not record direct hits on the pillboxes located on the territory of the fortress, the Karlov shells hit ordinary buildings and fortifications. So already on June 23, a direct hit of a 600-mm projectile into the half-tower of the Citadel near the Terespol Gate was recorded. The Karl shell destroyed the half-tower almost to the ground, its ruins can be seen even today. At the same time, this hit destroyed the center of defense of the Soviet troops in the area of ​​the Terespol Gate.

In just 22, 23 and 24 June "Karls" fired 31 shells at the fortress, after that there were five shells left, three of which could not be used for shooting. As the subsequent inspection of the fortress showed, two of the shells that fell on its territory did not explode. In general, the effectiveness of the artillery system was highly appreciated by the Germans. The report sent to Berlin noted the high efficiency of the guns.

Not falling into the relatively small pillboxes, 600-mm shells destroyed buildings and fortifications of the 455th century fortress. The defenders of the fortress felt the explosions of these shells on themselves, even while in the basements. As the platoon commander of the XNUMXth Infantry Regiment Alexander Makhnach later recalled, the Karlov strikes shook the basements of the regiment's barracks:

"From the blast wave, people were bleeding from their ears and nose, their mouths could not be closed."

Mortar "Karl" near Warsaw during the shooting, photo: waralbum.ru

The shelling of the Brest Fortress became for the Karl mortars, perhaps, the main event of the entire Second World War. Although later they were used during the siege of Sevastopol, and in August 1944, during the suppression of the Warsaw Uprising.

We can only bow to the waist to the defenders of the Brest Fortress, who held the defense under the fire of these monstrous Wehrmacht artillery "clubs" in the terrible June 1941.

The fate of self-propelled mortars


Only one installation "Karl", captured by the troops of the Red Army, has survived to this day. Residents of Russia and guests of our country can see this self-propelled mortar in the exposition of the armored museum in Kubinka. At the same time, it is not known for certain which installation was captured by the Soviet troops. For many years it was believed that it was "Ziu", but during the restoration work in Kubinka, the inscription "Adam" was found under a layer of paint. It was this proper name that was left on the mortar, which is now in the Moscow region.

Mortar "Thor" in the summer of 1944 was badly damaged during an air raid. Later, the remnants of the self-propelled mortar were captured by the Allied troops. In early 1945, German soldiers themselves blew up mortars "Wotan" (formerly "Eva") and "Loki", later their remnants were captured by the US army.


600-mm self-propelled mortar "Karl" in Kubinka

The Americans also got the experimental installation "Fenrir". They managed to test the mortar at the Aberdeen Proving Ground, but after that, for some reason, they were not transferred to the museum, but sent for scrap. Moreover, the exhibit was truly rare.

Another mortar "One" was also blown up by the German crew due to the impossibility of evacuation.

One of the mortars, as we noted above, was captured in its entirety on April 20, 1945 by Soviet troops in the area of ​​the city of Jüterbog.

The fate of another installation remains unknown.
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  1. apro
    apro April 15 2021 04: 50
    -7
    The gloomy Teutonic genius ... and now the urapatriots will come running and explain that the speed is not the same, and the maneuverability is useless, and in general, one spit to destroy.
    The creation of powerful artillery systems is a German horse to solve the problem of breaking through the defensive structures of the enemy, significantly reducing the loss of its own troops when performing tasks, and the capabilities of the industry and scientific potential were enough for this.
    1. Uncle lee
      Uncle lee April 15 2021 05: 55
      +10
      Quote: apro
      Gloomy Teutonic genius.

      They succeeded in killing people ...
      1. apro
        apro April 15 2021 06: 34
        -9
        Quote: Uncle Lee
        They succeeded in killing people ...

        I did not understand your idea ... if the German armed forces successfully coped with the armed forces of their opponents, surpassing them both technically and organizationally, then in your opinion the Germans are to blame, and not the armed forces of their opponents sitting on the budget. them funds.
        1. Synoid
          Synoid April 15 2021 11: 22
          0
          Quote from the article "At the same time, already on June 22, one hit of a Karl shell in the building of the 9th frontier post on the Central Island was recorded. The shell hit the wing where the families of border guards lived. These artillery monsters certainly gathered their bloody harvest. who found themselves near the bursts of shells of these mortars, one could only sympathize. "
          Those. accuracy was very low, a weapon of genocide and for psychological effect.
          1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
            Paragraph Epitafievich Y. April 15 2021 12: 12
            +1
            Quote: Synoid
            weapon of genocide

            Some nonsense ... What other genocide? Did Karl shoot shells with OV or anthrax spores? He killed fewer people than Kar. 98. Which one is a "weapon of genocide"?
            Quote: Synoid
            and for psychological effect.

            Yes. And Karl succeeded in this.
        2. Incvizitor
          Incvizitor April 17 2021 00: 06
          0
          Did you cope? Under them, all the "opponents" themselves lay down the whole west supported them, they just marched there without straining.
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. April 15 2021 08: 38
      +3
      Quote: apro
      to solve the problem of breaking through defensive structures against the enemy

      and how many they broke through the fortifications with these monsters? In Sevastopol, perhaps. Halder is right - a work of art, but completely useless.
      1. apro
        apro April 15 2021 09: 07
        -4
        Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        and how many they broke through the fortifications with these monsters?

        The paragraph was enough. There was enough foolishness.
        Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Halder is right

        It was he about another gun, he said. About doru.zhd sistemy.tam and more material costs than exhaust.
        Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        In the Sevastopol

        Sevastopol fell not so much from artillery, but thanks to the begging of the naval and army authorities. At the most crucial moment, problems arose with the bk.
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. April 15 2021 09: 22
          -1
          Quote: apro
          enough is enough foolishness.

          how much is "enough"? In Brest, Thor was useless, it was a field test. In Lviv, there are only four shots without any effect. In Warsaw, Prudential almost brought down? What's the point? So it remains that the most effective use of the Thor was at Sevastopol.
          Quote: apro
          He said that about another gun

          Yes, to the same extent, this can be attributed to the Karlov family.
          Quote: apro
          about doru.zhd sistemy.tam yes material costs more than exhaust.

          So Karla in terms of logistics and service staff is also not a gift.
          Quote: apro
          Sevastopol fell somewhat from artillery

          Of course. But Thor still silenced the 30th battery, spending 172 concrete-piercing and 25 high-explosive ones. With a high percentage of non-breaks.
          1. Bormanxnumx
            Bormanxnumx April 15 2021 10: 46
            +1
            Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
            In Warsaw, Prudential almost brought down? What's the point?

            He was not particularly going to collapse) The hit turned out to be more effective than effective.


            At the same time, the building received several hundred more hits from smaller-caliber shells.
        2. vladcub
          vladcub April 15 2021 13: 52
          0
          There is a lot of turbidity about the lack of BC. In Sevastopol in the underground storage there were huge stocks of various ammunition. Once upon a time, back in his youth, somewhere in the spring and summer of 1942, there was an acute shortage of shells for field artillery, and there were also deficient shells in the warehouse.
          In 2019, there was a D / F on TV about the defense of Sevastopol and there they gave examples when the Germans successfully used RDG, they first of all corrected air and artillery strikes on ships delivering reinforcements, and killed liaison officers. These groups enjoyed the support of residency and traitors.
          There is no doubt about the fact that there were RDGs. There were cases of betrayal or wild stupidity. As they used to say: "stupidity is worse than stealing"
          1. apro
            apro April 15 2021 13: 59
            0
            Quote: vladcub
            As they used to say: "stupidity is worse than stealing

            They also evacuated a part of the bk to Poti, then they tried to take it back with durd.
            1. vladcub
              vladcub April 15 2021 16: 42
              0
              Yes, the head-headed leaders - the trouble is still the same
    3. Sling cutter
      Sling cutter April 15 2021 08: 48
      +5
      Honestly, "Karl", when you see him live in the museum, is really amazing!
      1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. April 15 2021 09: 28
        +3
        Quote: Stroporez
        Honestly, "Karl", when you see him live in the museum, is really amazing!

        This is yes. Quite. soldier
        1. Sling cutter
          Sling cutter April 15 2021 09: 34
          +5
          Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          This is yes. Quite.

          I have always wondered if the booms did not bounce off the roar when the service was fired? belay
          1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
            Paragraph Epitafievich Y. April 15 2021 10: 25
            +4
            Quote: Stroporez
            I have always wondered if the booms did not bounce off the roar when the service was fired?

            )) I remembered for some reason the good old "Under Siege", when the hero Tommy Lee Jones was concussed after the main gunshot))
      2. Alien From
        Alien From April 15 2021 18: 19
        +2
        I agree, it looks something!
        1. Sling cutter
          Sling cutter April 15 2021 19: 35
          +3
          Quote: Alien From
          I agree, it looks something!

          Yeah, something majestic, looking more like an architectural structure than a combat "cannon", although they spat with "blanks" both in Leningrad and Sevastopol.
          As far as I remember, Sailboat has an article or comments about the counter-battalion fight against heavy fascist artillery.
    4. vladcub
      vladcub April 15 2021 13: 23
      0
      "destroy one spit" if that were the case, they would probably be gouged.
      By the way, a question to the author: near Sevastopol or Leningrad, why not
      tried to serve with artillery?
      1. Helmet
        Helmet April 15 2021 15: 53
        +1
        from near Sevastopol there is a photo of the destroyed ammunition transporter (the author did not show it). so actually tried. but there is a big BUT. Karl - mortars with an appropriate firing trajectory. in Sevastopol, there were no mortars from the PA and Black Sea Fleet at all. thus, with the correct placement on the terrain from cannons or howitzers, it is useless to hammer. there will be either flights or undershoots
        1. vladcub
          vladcub April 15 2021 16: 12
          0
          "Destroyed ammunition transporter" is news to me. I knew that Manstein was using a super-powerful weapon near Sevastopol. I read somewhere that this fucking "Karla", by the way, who exactly was there: "One" or "Thor", was covered by: 2 field art batteries. But that it was possible to destroy his transporter? This is also a great achievement: there were few such shells and the industry did not kiss their mass production.
    5. smart ass
      smart ass April 16 2021 15: 47
      0
      This is how much conventional artillery could be riveted
      1. apro
        apro April 16 2021 15: 51
        -1
        Quote: Clever man
        This is how much conventional artillery could be riveted

        Some can afford and return. The funds were sufficient.
  2. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I April 15 2021 05: 10
    +3
    As far as I remember, the "sounding" of the 600 mm caliber was conditional! In fact, the calibers were somewhat different ... I don't remember exactly. in which direction was the "change"; but for memory I can name the caliber of 614 mm (I met these values ​​once ...) ... Considering that the 540-mm mortars had an actual caliber of 538 mm; then 600-mm mortars could have an actual caliber of 598 mm ... there is also such a "version"! By the way, the Brest Fortress was not the only one on the "list" ... "Karl" mortars visited both Crimea and Warsaw ...
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. April 15 2021 09: 30
      -2
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      Mortars "Karl" have visited both Crimea and Warsaw ...

      but did not reach Paris ...))
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. April 15 2021 09: 40
      -1
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      As far as I remember, the "sounding" of the 600 mm caliber was conditional! In fact, the calibers were somewhat different ...

      615mm?
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I April 15 2021 10: 11
        +1
        Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        615mm?

        Yes, most likely 615 mm ...!
    3. vladcub
      vladcub April 15 2021 13: 27
      0
      About Crimea and Warsaw this is unambiguous.
      This has already been discussed: "Big Bertha".
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I April 15 2021 14: 15
        0
        What about Big Bertha? request The 420-mm mortar "Big Bertha" was used by the Germans in WW1 ... after WW1, all the guns, except for two exported by the Americans, were destroyed!
  3. Grossvater
    Grossvater April 15 2021 06: 10
    .
    A classic example of preparation for the last war.
    And further. Why the heck do krakozyabla self-propelled, if its one horseradish must either be carried on a piece of iron, or disassembled to collect? In general, once again, God did not give horns to the vigorous cow.
    1. Flashpoint
      Flashpoint April 15 2021 06: 48
      +4
      Quote: Grossvater
      A classic example of preparation for the last war.
      And further. Why the heck do krakozyabla self-propelled, if its one horseradish must either be carried on a piece of iron, or disassembled to collect? In general, once again, God did not give horns to the vigorous cow.

      And how to deliver it to the position? Every time to disassemble or move such a colossus by a tug from a couple of meters away?
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. April 15 2021 10: 15
      0
      Quote: Grossvater
      Why the heck do krakozyabla self-propelled, if its one hell must either be carried on a piece of iron, or disassembled to collect?

      Near Sevastopol, by the way, the "krakozyably" from the place of unloading from the railway to the OP moved out on their own (this is about 4 km). They walked at night, the aviation carried out sound masking. But in general, of course, it was made self-propelled for limited maneuvering.
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I April 15 2021 13: 19
        +1
        Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        But in general, of course, it was made self-propelled for limited maneuvering.

        You are right ... in fact, this "wunderwaffle" is not a self-propelled, but a self-propelled weapon! Such were, for example, the French 194-mm GPF systems in WW1!
        1. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I April 15 2021 14: 18
          +1
          Long distance transportation ...
  4. Catfish
    Catfish April 15 2021 06: 35
    +10
    Thanks to Sergey, a good article, but it was possible to write in more detail about Crimea and Warsaw.
    Loading the mortar.

    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. April 15 2021 09: 00
      +1
      Quote: Sea Cat
      but about Crimea and Warsaw it was possible to write in more detail

      I agree. Thor's work near Sevastopol was, perhaps, more effective than in Brest. This, I think, is the most striking episode in the biography of all six "Karls". But still, to suppress the 30th Thor battery, it took 172 concrete breaks and 25 FS (despite the fact that, as they say, 40% of the shells did not explode). HZ, how much is it in Reichsmarks)
      1. Helmet
        Helmet April 15 2021 16: 01
        +3
        at the same time, why was it necessary to gouge out of this miracle on 30ke is absolutely not clear. at the time of its "gouging" the Germans came close to the positions of the battery. guns 30k at this moment could not interfere with them, because:
        1) did not have the opportunity to shoot with a hinged trajectory, i.e. the Germans were in the dead zone;
        2) correction posts 30k were already absent, tk. the area where they were located was occupied by the Germans, and without corps, the battery could only fire in style (discharge towards the enemy. "
        1. Curt
          Curt April 16 2021 00: 00
          0
          As for me, such wunderwaffe were needed for the Germans more for propaganda / confidence in their technological power / in themselves than for real combat effectiveness. Well, the moral satisfaction of the media, the Fuerrer and ordinary Germans costs money.
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. April 15 2021 09: 45
      +3
      Battery structure:
  5. Cartalon
    Cartalon April 15 2021 06: 38
    +5
    During both world wars, in general, did you meet targets for which the caliber of 280-305mm would not be enough?
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA April 15 2021 11: 50
      +3
      Quote: Cartalon
      During both world wars, in general, did you meet targets for which the caliber of 280-305mm would not be enough?

      Forts of Koenigsberg. Even in Soviet times, they wrote that Br-5 and 12 "howitzers were ineffective against the fortifications of the fortress. However, it is not surprising - Yakovlev described the modernization of German forts. EMNIP, resistance to 11" shells was the standard at the end of the XNUMXth century.
      1. Cartalon
        Cartalon April 15 2021 12: 55
        0
        Isaev has a different point of view on this matter.
        1. Andy
          Andy April 15 2021 13: 58
          +1
          however, the forts were taken by assault groups. there are practically no breakouts. (fifth fort)
          1. Cartalon
            Cartalon April 15 2021 14: 03
            0
            And from what they were fired at, are there studies of hits / damage?
            They took it by storm, and not according to the principles of WWI, when it was necessary to fire before destruction, the assault groups passed thanks to the fact that the artillery suppressed the fire of the forts.
            1. Andy
              Andy April 15 2021 14: 07
              +1
              280mm. I did not collect material with a specialist. just had a guided tour. showed craters from shells and two penetrations.
              1. Cartalon
                Cartalon April 15 2021 14: 25
                0
                So the penetrations would have shelled him for a week, the fort would have been demolished.
            2. Andy
              Andy April 15 2021 14: 11
              0
              from the top of the fort, artillery and mortars could also suppress. but the fort itself remained operational. it was not possible to destroy the casemates for the penetration of assault groups by artillery
            3. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA April 15 2021 15: 07
              +1
              Quote: Cartalon
              And from what they were fired at, are there studies of hits / damage?

              ... Fort No. 5 of the northern bypass of the fortress was fired on from April 3 by six 280-mm guns of the 245th division of special power. 360 shells were expended, the gunners achieved 86 hits. However, with the start of the offensive on April 6, an attempt to take the fort by storm was unsuccessful. As a result, the 5th Infantry Division of the second echelon of the corps was entrusted with the assault on Fort No. 126. Only after a 16-hour stubborn battle by 5.30 on April 8, the garrison of the 5th fort was destroyed.

              The main task of the fort is not only to provide the infantry with protected firing positions, but also to keep this infantry until the start of the assault on the fort. That is why infantry shelters on forts often have even better protection than casemates and caponiers. And the task of the besieging artillery is to defeat these particular shelters.
              Fort No. 5, despite the shelling, completed the task - the garrison retained its combat capability. But the Br-5 was not enough to knock out the garrison of the fort.
      2. Cartalon
        Cartalon April 15 2021 12: 59
        0
        As for the standards, I'm afraid it meant that some fortifications were supposed to hold one hit from a mortar of the 70s of the 19th century, but a Skoda 305mm mortar is a completely different matter.
    2. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I April 15 2021 14: 30
      +1
      Quote: Cartalon
      During both world wars, in general, did you meet targets for which the caliber of 280-305mm would not be enough?

      WW1: The 420-mm mortar "Big Bertha" achieved a stunning success during the assault on the Belgian Fort Launsen, whose concrete monolith exploded and fell to pieces after a direct hit of a concrete shell in its powder magazine. After that, shells detonated in some of the fort's towers. [The concrete used in the construction of the Belgian forts was of poor quality, was not reinforced with rolled steel and was laid using an outdated multi-layer technology, where each layer had a different composition and had different physical qualities. Such concrete fell to pieces under the influence of direct hits from 420-mm shells from German mortars.
      However, when, in February 1916, the Berts faced the more modern fortifications of Verdun, where monolithic reinforced concrete was used in the construction of the casemates, it turned out that their fire is not so effective against reinforced concrete.!
      1. Cartalon
        Cartalon April 15 2021 14: 43
        0
        Of course, I can confuse something, but Verdun was older than Maubeuge with which there were no problems, it will be necessary to dig into these siege affairs.
  6. Vadim Ananyin
    Vadim Ananyin April 15 2021 07: 15
    0
    It was hard for the border guards in Brest, and indeed for those who fell under the shells of these monsters.
  7. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. April 15 2021 08: 21
    +2
    capable of hitting protected objects with concrete walls up to 9 meters thick with one projectile.

    Wall 9 meters thick ??? This is no longer a wall, but some kind of monolithic structure. The Germans, of course, are maniacs, but punching nine-meter walls artillery shell is too much even for them.
  8. Blacksmith 55
    Blacksmith 55 April 15 2021 08: 23
    0
    I hope there will be a continuation of articles on the largest edges.
    I advise the author to describe Gerald Bull's "space" cannon. They fired at a height of up to 180 km.
    Naturally, the projectile could not become an artificial satellite, but the height is impressive.
  9. Aleksandr97
    Aleksandr97 April 15 2021 08: 55
    0
    Thanks for the interesting article, we look forward to a possible continuation on the use of these monsters in Sevastopol. The occasional use of mortars confirms the existence of requirements for specific conditions for this, namely: the absence of counter-battery opposition from the enemy and guaranteed air cover. Specific tool for specific conditions!
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. April 15 2021 09: 37
      +1
      Quote: Aleksandr97
      and guaranteed air cover.

      What for? Anti-aircraft cover then. It was not part of the Karlov state.
      Quote: Aleksandr97
      lack of counter-battery opposition of the enemy

      Judging by the post-war memoirs, Aleksandrov spotted Thor and Odin and even, they say, covered them with an OP with a volley. But the Germans do not confirm.
      1. Helmet
        Helmet April 15 2021 16: 16
        +1
        Isaev's book contains a photo of a broken ammunition transporter near Sevastopol, but Alexander may have nothing to do with this
  10. Constanty
    Constanty April 15 2021 09: 17
    +5
    Photo with caption:
    600-mm concrete shell "Karla" in Warsaw, August 1944

    depicts a shell that hit the dance cafe "Adria" on August 18, 1944 at 8 Monyushki Street.

    According to numerous reports, a piece of paper was found inside it with text in Czech with the following information: "This projectile will not explode."
    The explosives recovered from shell a were handed over to the rebel grenade launcher at ul. Baudouin 2. An unexploded bomb filled the rebel grenades - sidolówki. "


    Who knows, maybe the defects in ammunition in 1941 during the siege of the Brest Fortress were the result of sabotage or poor control at Czech factories.
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. April 15 2021 09: 54
      +2
      Sevastopol. The report of the commander of the engineering battalion on the equipment of the OP for s.Art.Abt. 833. 18.04.1942:
      - selected 3 positions in the Mamashay area: 400 m. east of the height 151, 2,5 km. east of altitude 151 and 1,5 km. south of height 156. The dimensions of each firing position are 15 m long, 10 m wide, 3 m deep. In the 833th heavy art. the division does not have the number of people necessary to equip firing positions. For the equipment of 3 firing positions, it is required to take out about 1500 cubic meters. soil, labor costs are about 7000 man-hours. Due to the peculiarities of the terrain, only 80 to 100 people are able to carry out excavation work. The work should be carried out only at night at a distance of this 1-1,5 km. From the front line. In this case, it will take 90 days to complete all the work. If the length of the firing positions is reduced and the number of excavators involved is doubled, then the period can be reduced to 60 days.

      - for the production of work, the following equipment is required 150 heavy crowbars, 150 shovels or spikes, three heavy compressors with jackhammers, about 700 kg. explosives, 1000 explosive charges, 500 m. fuse cord, 25 wheelbarrows. The work can be carried out by 120 people from the 4th company of the 22nd sapper battalion (22nd PD), who have experience in construction and earthwork in the area.

      - to speed up the work, it is desirable to attract people who were used in the construction of the facility in the region of Bakhchisarai (firing position of "DORA"). In this case, it would be possible to complete the preparation of firing positions in 14 days.
      1. Constanty
        Constanty April 15 2021 09: 58
        +3
        It turns out that "Karli" could be used in practice, only in the event of a prolonged static blockade, due to lengthy and expensive work - such as the blockade of Leningrad or, perhaps, Sevastopol.
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. April 15 2021 10: 08
          +2
          Quote: Constanty
          It turns out that "Karli" could be used in practice, only in the event of a prolonged static blockade, due to lengthy and expensive work - such as the blockade of Leningrad or, perhaps, Sevastopol.

          I think yes, absolutely. In the absence of counter-battery weapons and enemy aircraft. OP Karlov were moved almost close to the front line. The conditions, frankly, should be the era of the Punic Wars ... say, the siege of Syracuse))
        2. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA April 15 2021 12: 47
          +4
          Quote: Constanty
          It turns out that "Karli" could be used in practice, only in the event of a prolonged static blockade, due to lengthy and expensive work - such as the blockade of Leningrad or, perhaps, Sevastopol.

          Near Leningrad, "Karla" could only be used in the first year. Then both sides went deep into the jungle of counter-battery and counter-counter-battery warfare and the accompanying AIR: sound reconnaissance, stereo photography with a base of several kilometers, narrow-spectrum photography (fixing a salvo in the SMU), etc., etc.
          And with the firing range of "Karl" - even mortars are dangerous for him. smile
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. April 15 2021 09: 58
      +4
      Karl's unexploded shell against the background of the 30th battery's armored towers. Sevastopol.
    3. qQQQ
      qQQQ April 15 2021 10: 50
      -2
      Quote: Constanty
      Who knows, maybe the defects in ammunition in 1941 during the siege of the Brest Fortress were the result of sabotage or poor control at Czech factories.

      Why's that? Throughout the war, the Czechs selflessly worked for the Reich, based on the share of industrial production in Czechoslovakia, we can safely rank them among Germany's allies.
      1. Constanty
        Constanty April 15 2021 11: 20
        +1
        Why did it happen?


        According to numerous reports, inside it was found a piece of paper with text in Czech with the following information: “This projectile will not explode ".
      2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. April 15 2021 12: 00
        +1
        Quote: qqqq
        you can safely rank them among the allies of Germany.

        What, nafig, "allies" ?? They were part of the Reich. The Reichskommissariat Ukraine was also an ally, or what?
        1. qQQQ
          qQQQ April 15 2021 16: 39
          0
          Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          What, nafig, "allies" ?? They were part of the Reich

          And what does this change in the fact of the selfless labor of the Czechs for the good of the Reich?
          1. Constanty
            Constanty April 15 2021 17: 03
            +1
            An ally does this of his own free will, an employee in the conquered territories does it with the use of force or threat. This is the difference
            1. qQQQ
              qQQQ April 16 2021 08: 43
              0
              Quote: Constanty
              An ally does this of his own free will, an employee in the conquered territories does it with the use of force or threat. This is the difference

              That's right, the difference is also in quantity and quality, and here the Czechs were very diligent.
    4. vladcub
      vladcub April 15 2021 17: 00
      +2
      There were cases of sabotage. It seems that an aerial bomb was dropped on Leningrad, and instead of a detonator there was a German-Russian dictionary. Somewhere infa flashed that instead of the detonator they found a bag of sand.
      Cases of sabotage were not frequent, but they did happen. Mueller's "daddy" had grasping employees and they made sure that there was no sabotage
  11. Constanty
    Constanty April 15 2021 09: 29
    +4
    600-mm mortar "Karl" and a carrier of shells on the chassis of the Pz.Kpwf tank. IV Ausf. E, photo: waralbum.ru


    This ammunition carrier is Munitionsschlepper für Karl-Gerät. Each of them could only carry four rounds in a special container at the rear of the fuselage. Ausf D, E and F versions were converted into shell carriers. Each mortar was assigned two Munitionsschlepper für Karl-Gerät
  12. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. April 15 2021 12: 41
    +3
    But this is either Adam or Eve, judging by the chassis:

    Mortars could move and maneuver independently, reaching speeds of up to 10 km / h.
    Only Adam and Eve. They had an eight-wheel chassis with rubber bands. The remaining 4 Karla had an 11-roller undercarriage with steel rollers without tires, "accelerated" only up to 6 km / h.

    The colossus weighing 126 tons was set in motion by an in-line 12-cylinder liquid-cooled diesel engine Daimler-Benz 507. Engine power of 750 hp. from. was enough

    no, there were only diesel engines on Odin and Thor. And their power was not 750, it seems, but 580 horses.
    At a flow rate of 120 l / h, the diesel Karl's cruising range was 60 km.
    The other 4 Karlovs had a gasoline MB-503 of the same power as a diesel. He ate 175 liters of gasoline per hour and the estimated power reserve was 42 km.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub April 15 2021 17: 13
      +1
      10 kilometers per hour for such a colossus is very good. In fact, these 60 km were enough to independently reach the firing position. Otherwise, it would be "fun" for them to pull such a "fool"
  13. Operator
    Operator April 15 2021 13: 12
    -5
    It takes a lot of time and effort to deploy such artillery monsters as the 600-mm "Karl" to combat positions directly on the Soviet border to the East and, moreover, to deploy such artillery monsters as the XNUMX-mm Karl. In this connection, this event alone was an excellent unmasking sign of imminent aggression against the USSR, and not some kind of fake preparation for the invasion of the British Isles.

    With 100% probability, the agent and aviation intelligence of the Belorussian district uncovered the pre-war deployment of "Karl" a few kilometers from the Brest Fortress and reported it upstairs, but in this case, no adequate actions by Stalin followed.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA April 15 2021 15: 19
      +1
      Quote: Operator
      With 100% probability, the agent and aviation intelligence of the Belorussian district uncovered the pre-war deployment of "Karl" a few kilometers from the Brest Fortress and reported it upstairs, but in this case, no adequate actions by Stalin followed.

      So late it was already to react - "Thor" and "Odin" arrived in Terespol four and two days before the start of the war.
      The first train with mortars arrived at the unloading station on the evening of 18 June. The first mortar was assembled on the night of June 19-20, 1941. The second mortar was unloaded on the night of June 20-21. Both mortars took up positions south of Terespol.

      According to the plan, they were generally supposed to arrive 48 hours in advance:
      The unloading of the guns was to be carried out at the Terespol station, assembly directly on the railroad tracks. Moreover, the unloading and assembly had to be done unnoticed by Russian observers (towers on the other side of the Bug), making it overnight. The equipment necessary for the "Karlov" could be unloaded in Biala Podlaska (where capital platforms existed), then covertly transferred to a firing position. Time of arrival of cranes and mortars in Terespol, and the rest of the units in Biala Podlaska: X - 48 hours.
      1. Operator
        Operator April 15 2021 15: 55
        0
        Two to four days is what is needed to withdraw troops to field positions and bring them to full combat readiness.
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA April 15 2021 17: 43
          +1
          Quote: Operator
          Two to four days is what is needed to withdraw troops to field positions and bring them to full combat readiness.

          Peacetime state divisions? Oh well... smile
          Look, in Dubno, the Germans got the 529th BM battle - because there was no thrust for its B-4 in the regiment.
          1. Operator
            Operator April 15 2021 19: 56
            -1
            And to hell with it, from 529th - the main divisions should be brought to positions (of any state): in battle formations they are much more useful.
            1. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA April 16 2021 11: 26
              +1
              Quote: Operator
              And to hell with it, from 529th - the main divisions should be brought to positions (of any state): in battle formations they are much more useful.

              Uh-huh ... to hell with her with artillery - the main thing is to put the soldiers in the trenches.
              But without their own artillery, our infantry will be buried in the trenches with impunity by the enemy's artillery - as was the case with Captain Kim's battalion. We have a peacetime thrust to the artillery regiment - to the battalion. Even if they pull out something, then without maneuvering our guns right on the firing line in the end will cover it. And I'm not even talking about ensuring the supply of ammunition at the expense of wartime by the states of the peacetime rear.
              1. Operator
                Operator April 16 2021 11: 43
                +1
                Come on, give you a nightmare - in reality, the Germans buried the Red Army soldiers who were not taken out into the field right in the barracks (including in the Brest Fortress). Therefore, the Red Army men in the trenches would be much more useless.

                The same is with the Soviet artillery - in the field positions it would certainly have been covered by the enemy, but before that it would have been able to shoot the n-th number of shells at the enemy. And in the artillery park, artillery is just a trophy with all the unused ammunition.

                PS Why are you trying to challenge the obvious things? laughing
  14. CastroRuiz
    CastroRuiz April 19 2021 11: 55
    -1
    Kak ne kruti, no eto moshch.
    Do takoy dazhe na korabliyakh nedobralis. :)
  15. Synoid
    Synoid 4 May 2021 11: 20
    -1
    Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Quote: Synoid
    weapon of genocide

    Some nonsense ... What other genocide? Did Karl shoot shells with OV or anthrax spores? He killed fewer people than Kar. 98. Which one is a "weapon of genocide"?
    Quote: Synoid
    and for psychological effect.

    Yes. And Karl succeeded in this.

    Isn't targeted fire on urban areas not genocide? Germans, Anglo-Saxons in this pro - the extermination of civilians.
    1. Baron pardus
      Baron pardus 8 July 2021 18: 37
      0
      Tricky question. Which is more dangerous - a soldier in a trench, or a worker in a factory supplying this soldier with ammunition and weapons? Which is more dangerous, a soldier in a trench or a farmer who feeds this soldier?
      The question is, which is more dangerous - a soldier in a trench or a railroad worker who provides this soldier with mobility, brings up ammunition, equipment and food?
      Only in the last few decades have there been means of destroying the plant, without burning the whole city together with this plant to hell. For example, the same Tomahawks. Or there Elbrus. (SCUD-D).
      And what are the Anglo-Saxons doing? Well Duc, the Czechs did the same in the USSR. Forgot?. "Father was killed by evil Czechs." Hungarians, Romanians, Poles, not Anglo-Saxons at all, remind you how they behave? How the Poles sewed the captured Red Army men in the stomach of a live cat, to see "who dies before" ... The Ukrainians are also not Anglo-Saxons, but they were marked by such bestial cruelty that their SS were shot for excessive cruelty to the civilian population and to the prisoners. (Look for the surnames yourself). And the fact that the same Bandera were doing with the Russians after the war, especially in small villages - well, here "Saw" is resting.
      Can you explain the difference? The difference is in command. It has been proven more than once. That, with only commanders, the army passes through the city and does not pick a single apple. Under other commanders of the SAME ARMY, from the city "not a single house was looted, not a single girl who was not raped" remains from the city.
  16. llsamsonll
    llsamsonll 24 June 2021 08: 02
    0

    A very interesting video about KARL.
  17. Baron pardus
    Baron pardus 8 July 2021 18: 21
    +1
    So, without grunting.
    a) Mortar cannot fire 6 times in a row. This is definitely a problem.
    b) The range of the mortar is 5 km. That is, it is vulnerable to counter-battery firing. Even the Zis 3, being far from being a super gun, using PMV ammunition (like the American 75mm) shoots further.
    c) It is interesting to compare the cost of a mortar and how many bombers could be cut with this money.
    I assure you that the 1500kg OF bomb will do just as much. EMNIP Ju-87 took 1500-1800kg bombs in overload, there was even a special "paw" that threw the bomb away from the diving aircraft.

    It would just be interesting to calculate. How much did one cannon cost, and how much J88 and J87 could be cut with the same money. And at the same time calculate how much it cost to train the servants of such a gun, against the training of several pilots.
    Only then will it be possible to say whether to make such a gun or not.
  18. Synoid
    Synoid 10 July 2021 05: 24
    0
    Н
    Quote: Baron Pardus
    Tricky question. Which is more dangerous - a soldier in a trench, or a worker in a factory supplying this soldier with ammunition and weapons? Which is more dangerous, a soldier in a trench or a farmer who feeds this soldier?
    The question is, which is more dangerous - a soldier in a trench or a railroad worker who provides this soldier with mobility, brings up ammunition, equipment and food?
    Only in the last few decades have there been means of destroying the plant, without burning the whole city together with this plant to hell. For example, the same Tomahawks. Or there Elbrus. (SCUD-D).
    And what are the Anglo-Saxons doing? Well Duc, the Czechs did the same in the USSR. Forgot?. "Father was killed by evil Czechs." Hungarians, Romanians, Poles, not Anglo-Saxons at all, remind you how they behave? How the Poles sewed the captured Red Army men in the stomach of a live cat, to see "who dies before" ... The Ukrainians are also not Anglo-Saxons, but they were marked by such bestial cruelty that their SS were shot for excessive cruelty to the civilian population and to the prisoners. (Look for the surnames yourself). And the fact that the same Bandera were doing with the Russians after the war, especially in small villages - well, here "Saw" is resting.
    Can you explain the difference? The difference is in command. It has been proven more than once. That, with only commanders, the army passes through the city and does not pick a single apple. Under other commanders of the SAME ARMY, from the city "not a single house was looted, not a single girl who was not raped" remains from the city.

    Many letters, but one water. do you justify the killing of civilians? According to your logic, the concentration camps should have been bombed, not liberated - after all, they were sewing shoes, etc.
    I only agree that the forest brothers, Nazis (Germans then, Jews now), ONU, Anglo-Saxons, Japanese, USA - one field of berries and led / are carrying out genocide of civilians around the world.