Military Review

Combat aircraft. Such an intriguing start

54
In general, this name hides a whole crowd of American twin-engine aircraft, the main purpose of which is to do good to their neighbors. But in their historical We will immediately divide everything into two stages of research, and the DB-7 and A-20, although they are similar in essence, will be different aircraft for us. At least because of the different classification.


So, today's hero is "Douglas" DB-7 "Boston".


Historically, this aircraft was considered a front-line bomber in our country and was mainly used in this role. However, "Boston" could easily be used as a torpedo bomber, night fighter and attack aircraft.

Actually, the plane was originally created as a heavy attack aircraft. Someone Jack Northrop, the owner of the Northrop Corporation, was doing this. It was Northrop who came up with the idea of ​​a twin-engined aircraft.

Combat aircraft. Such an intriguing start

The project called "Model 7" was created by Jack Northrop himself in terms of personal initiative. The lead engineer was Ed Heineman, who would later play his rather big role in the fate of the aircraft.

The aircraft was innovative. A very elegant all-metal monoplane of the classic twin-engine design. Smooth skin, closed cockpits, automatic propellers, controlled upper turret, which had two positions, flight and combat. In flight, the turret was retracted inside the fuselage.


The top of the strangeness at that time was the chassis. Yes, in 1936, many aircraft models had retractable landing gears, but not all of them did this using hydraulics. In addition, the landing gear was not with the usual tail wheel, but with a retractable bow strut.

Two engines "Pratt-Whitney" R-985 "Wasp Junior" with a capacity of 425 hp. and good aerodynamics promised decent performance characteristics. The design maximum speed at a normal flight weight of 4 310 kg was to exceed 400 km / h.

The armament of the new attack aircraft corresponded to the ideas of the 30s. That is, the main "clients" were considered infantry, cavalry, artillery and transport. Therefore, it was planned to hit them with machine-gun fire and small fragmentation bombs. Reservation of the stormtrooper was considered overkill.

The DB-7 was also distinguished from the attack aircraft of that time by the fact that the entire bomb load was located in the bomb bay inside the fuselage. This was very productive as it again improved the aerodynamics of the aircraft. In the world, they mainly used external suspension under the wings, the same Soviet P-5Sh and Italian "Caproni" Ca.307.

The Americans, on the other hand, did not consider the option of hanging large bombs at all. The country's defensive (and it was just that) doctrine somehow did not provide for battles at all, since the United States had only two neighbors, Mexico and Canada, and it was not particularly planned to fight either with the former or with the latter. The war with Canada did not seem to be a real thing at all, and Mexico in any case did not look like a strong adversary due to the difference in technological development.

At one time in the American army of the 30-ies of the last century, the question of the advisability of having in it tanks.

Small arms were, but for an attack aircraft, let's face it, it was not rich. One 7,62mm machine gun firing forward and two defensive machine guns of the same caliber firing backward. One was in the upper retractable turret, the second was in the hatch in the aft fuselage for firing down and back. In the flight position, the retractable tower protruded upward by no more than a third of its height.


The crew consisted of two people.

Almost in parallel, we developed a scout project. It did not have a bomb bay; in its place was an observer's cabin with photographic equipment. The cab floor was made transparent and provided simply excellent visibility down and to the sides.

In 1937, when work on the aircraft was in full swing, the command of the US Air Corps, as the Army military was then called aviation USA, decided on the parameters of the attack aircraft it needed.

It was to be an aircraft that could fly at speeds in excess of 320 km / h for a range of over 1900 km with a bomb load of 1200 lb / 544 kg.

Northrop's plane was quite consistent in terms of speed, but the range and bomb load were small.

Northrop had by that time quit and founded a new company, in which he worked very successfully for many years. Instead, Ed Heineman took over the company and assembled a new team to finalize the Model 7.

And the work began. To begin with, the motors were replaced with stronger R-1830-S3C3-G, with a capacity of 1100 hp. Then they doubled the supply of fuel in the tanks. The bomb load was also doubled, to 908 kg, and a very wide range of ammunition was provided, from one 900 kg bomb to 80 bombs weighing 7,7 kg.


The model of the scout was immediately abandoned, but two models of the attack aircraft were developed, with different options for the bow.

In the first, the bow was made glazed, the navigator was located there (the crew in this case consisted of three people) and four 7,62-mm machine guns in pairs in the side fairings. A panel was made in the glazing for installing a bomb sight.

The second option provided for a crew of two, and in the bow, instead of the navigator, there was a battery of six 7,62-mm machine guns and two 12,7-mm machine guns.

The sections could be easily replaced, the docking connector went along the frame in front of the cockpit canopy.

Defensive armament consisted of two 7,62 mm machine guns; they were located in the retractable upper and lower turrets.


This variant was dubbed the Model 7B and was presented to a War Department committee along with four competitors Bell 9, Martin 167F, Steerman X-100 and North American NA-40.

On October 26, 1938, the first prototype of the Model 7B took off.


During factory tests, the aircraft flew with both nose options. The aircraft showed a speed of more than 480 km / h that was simply excellent for that time, excellent maneuverability for a twin-engine aircraft and very easy and unpleasant piloting.

However, the military department still could not decide which aircraft to purchase. As time went on, the prospects remained dim.

Suddenly, the French became interested in the attack aircraft, who were planning another war in the Germans. The French had enough of their own models, moreover, they had just excellent planes, but clearly did not have enough production capacity to quickly saturate aviation with a sufficient number of planes.

And the French began to explore the possibility of purchasing aircraft from the United States. This was quite logical, because Britain was preparing for the same cut on the one hand, and it was unrealistic to buy something in Germany or Italy. So the United States remained the only partner in this regard.

By the way, the British were doing almost the same thing, studying the American market for the purchase of aircraft.

On January 23, 1939, a not very pleasant event happened. Test pilot Cable took off on a demonstration flight with a passenger - French Air Force captain Maurice Shemidlin. The flight proceeded normally, Cable did various aerobatics, but at one point the right engine stalled, the car fell into a tailspin and began to randomly fall from a rather low altitude of 400 meters.

Cable tried to save the car, but eventually abandoned it at an altitude of 100 meters. The parachute did not have time to open, and the pilot crashed.

But the Frenchman could not get out of the plane and fell with him.

It turned out that this is what saved his life. Shemedlin was found in the wreckage and on a broken keel, as on a stretcher, was taken to an ambulance.

Strange, but this disaster did not stop the French from ordering 100 aircraft. True, they saw the DB-7 not as an attack aircraft, but as a bomber. So, in the opinion of the French side, it was necessary to increase the range, bomb load, and provide for armor protection. Instruments, radio station and machine guns were supposed to be of French models.

The fuselage became narrower and higher, the retractable turret from above disappeared - it was replaced by the usual pivot installation, which in flight position is covered by a lantern. The volume of gas tanks has increased, the size of the bomb bay has also increased. The bomb load was now 800 kg. For the bow, a glazed version was adopted with a navigator's cabin and four fixed machine guns. Two more machine guns defended the rear hemisphere. The machine guns were 1934 mm MAC 7,5. The instruments were also replaced with French metric instruments.

The crew consisted of three people: a pilot, a navigator-bombardier (according to French standards, he was the commander of the plane) and a gunner-radio operator.


An interesting feature was the installation of redundant control and some instruments in the cockpit of the radio operator. As conceived, the shooter could replace the pilot in the event of his failure. The disadvantage of the fuselage design was that in flight, the crew members could not change places if they wanted to.

But there was no logic in giving the shooter the ability to control the plane, there was no logic at all, since he sat with his back to the direction of flight and did not see anything. It would have been smarter to give the navigator the opportunity to control the aircraft, but it turned out to be easier to completely abandon redundant control.

The revision of the Model 7B took only six months. On August 17, 1939, the modernized aircraft, dubbed the DB-7 (Douglas Bomber), took to the skies for the first time. And in October, the French military accepted the first production aircraft from the ordered hundred. When it came to fulfilling contracts, the Americans were also capable of a lot.

The delighted French rushed to order a second batch of 170 vehicles.

In October 1939, when the Second World War had already set fire to Europe, the French ordered another 100 aircraft. These should be aircraft of the DB-7A modification with Wright R-2600-A5B 1600 hp engines, which promised a serious increase in all flight characteristics.


The armament of the new modification was reinforced with two stationary machine guns installed in the tail sections of the engine nacelles. I fired from the bottom of the shooters, and machine guns were fired so that the tracks intersected at some point behind the tail of the aircraft. The idea was to shoot through the dead zone of the tail machine guns behind the empennage.

In total, the French managed to receive 100 aircraft from the first batch and 75 from the second. Not a single aircraft of the new modification DB-7V3 (triple) was delivered to France, although the contract was signed. They just did not have time, France surrendered.

In the Soviet Union, where they closely watched the success of the American aircraft industry, they also wanted to purchase a new aircraft. He interested the chief of the Red Army Air Force, commander Loktionov, with his set of weapons and speed characteristics, which were superior to the newest Soviet bomber SB.


They had to use the well-known company "Amtorg", which performed the functions of the shadow trade representation of the USSR in the United States. Following the first round of negotiations, Douglas agreed to sell 10 aircraft, but in a non-military version, without weapons and military equipment. Our military insisted on ten planes with weapons, plus they wanted to acquire a production license.

On September 29, 1939, Soviet representative Lukashev reported from New York that Douglas had agreed to sell the aircraft in full version, as well as provide a license and provide technical assistance in organizing the production of DB-7s in the Soviet Union.

In parallel with Wright, negotiations were under way for a license for the R-2600 engine. The terms of the treaty had already been agreed, and the adoption of an American aircraft in the Soviet Air Force was a very real thing.

Alas. The war with Finland prevented.

Immediately after the Soviet Union went to war with its neighbor, President Roosevelt declared a "moral embargo" on supplies to the USSR. And this moral embargo has become completely normal. Roosevelt was highly respected in the United States, and therefore American companies began to break the agreements already concluded with our country. We stopped supplying machines, tools, devices. There was no need to even stutter about assistance in the development of purely military products.

The Americans did not regret it. World War II began, and with it began orders for equipment.

But in the USSR, the DB-7 was not forgotten. Despite such a non-optimistic ending.

Meanwhile, the "strange war" was over, the defeated British corps fled across the English Channel, France, Poland, Belgium, Denmark, Holland ceased resistance.

The United States continued to deliver aircraft paid for by France to Casablanca. About 70 of the ordered planes arrived there. They were manned by several squadrons that took part in the hostilities.


But the first use of the DB-7 occurred on May 31, 1940 in the Saint-Quentin area. 12 DB-7B made its first combat mission against German forces deploying to Peronne. The raid was unsuccessful, since the French were met by anti-aircraft fire and German fighters. Three attack aircraft were shot down, but the French also shot down one Bf 3.

Until June 14, the French lost 8 aircraft in sorties. Mostly from anti-aircraft gunners. DB-7s flashed very well, the lack of protected tanks affected. French representatives demanded to install sealed gas tanks and the Americans began to install them. True, these planes did not make it to France.

The bulk of the French Air Force DB-7 flew to Africa. At the time of the surrender of France, not a single operational DB-7 remained there.

There were 95 planes in the African colonies. They were used in the September 1940 raid on Gibraltar, in response to British air attacks on French bases in Algeria. The raid was ineffective. One DB-7 was shot down by a British Hurricane.

And those planes that were paid for, but not delivered, after the surrender of France, were inherited by the British.


By order of the British, the Americans converted the DB-7B to British requirements. The fuel system and hydraulic system were redesigned, armor and sealed tanks appeared, and the amount of fuel was doubled (from 776 to 1491 liters). The armament consisted of the usual 7,69-mm machine guns from "Vickers". The radio operator was generally installed with a Vickers K with disk power.

The British War Department has signed a contract for 300 vehicles. At the same time, the name DB-7 "Boston" appeared in the documents.


But besides the ordered planes, planes ordered by France began to arrive in Britain. Ships with planes turned around and went to the ports of Great Britain. In total, about 200 DB-7, 99 DB-7A and 480 DB-7B3 were forwarded. To these were added 16 DB-7s ordered by Belgium. In general, on the one hand, the British received many good aircraft at their disposal, on the other, it was a very diverse company.

The Belgian vehicles, which were unarmed, were decided to be used as training vehicles. It was on them that British pilots underwent retraining.

Naturally, I had to get used to some of the nuances. For example, in order to give gas, the sector handle on French and Belgian aircraft had to be moved towards oneself. And on American and British planes - on my own. Plus I had to change the instruments that were in the metric scale.

But with surprise, the British found out that the DB-7 was distinguished by excellent handling and visibility, and the three-wheeled chassis greatly simplifies takeoff and landing.
These planes were named "Boston I".

Aircraft from the French order with R-1830-S3C4-G engines were named "Boston II". They also did not want to use them as bombers, they did not like the flight range. They decided to convert these aircraft into night fighters.

And only "Boston III", which went in 1941, series DB-7В and DB-7В3 of the French order, began to be used as bombers. A total of 568 aircraft of the third series were delivered to Great Britain.


The first combat sortie aboard the Bostons was made by the 88th squadron in February 1942. In the same month, its planes were attracted to the search for the German battleships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau and the heavy cruiser Prince Eugen, which were breaking through the English Channel from the French Brest.

One of the crews discovered the ships and dropped their entire bomb supply on them. Didn't reach hits, but as they say, a start was made.

"Bostons" began to attract for strikes against industrial enterprises in Germany. Until 1943, Bostons repeatedly bombed industrial enterprises in France (Matfor) and Holland (Philipps). The Bostons were good at approaching at low altitude and attacking unexpectedly. In order to be able to do this, they began to use bombs with delayed action fuses.


A few words should be said about the alterations that began to be performed already in Britain.

Prior to the advent of the Beaufighter and Mosquito fighters, it was decided to re-equip the Bostons for use as night fighters.

The AI ​​Mk.IV radar was normally located in the bomb bay, a battery of eight 7,69-mm machine guns from the Browning was placed in the bow, the defensive armament was removed, the crew was reduced to 2 people, while the rear gunner began to serve the onboard radar.

The modification was named "Havok". "Bostons I" were designated "Havok Mk I", and "Bostons II" - "Havok Mk II".

The aircraft were painted matte black. Thus, 181 aircraft from the first series were converted.

Boston IIIs were also being converted into night fighters, but not so actively. The composition of the armament was different: instead of machine guns in the nose, a container with four 20-mm Hispano cannons was suspended under the fuselage.


Night fighters based on Boston were used until 1944, when they were replaced everywhere by the Mosquito.

In terms of equipment, the Boston was a very sophisticated aircraft. Each crew member had an oxygen device with a 6 liter cylinder. That is, there was enough oxygen for 3 - 3,5 hours of flight.

Naturally, the crew could communicate with each other using an intercom, but just in case, a cable device was stretched between the pilot and the shooter, with which it was possible to transfer notes. In addition, each crew member also had colored warning lights. With the help of it, it was also possible to transmit information by lighting certain combinations of light bulbs.

The cockpit was not sealed, but was heated by steam heating. The heater was located in the gargrotto; ducts for the supply of hot air went into the cabin from it.

Each plane had a first-aid kit (at the navigator), a manual fire extinguisher (at the gunner) and two packages with an emergency supply of food - above the pilot's seat and on the right in the navigator's cockpit.

And in the end it is worth mentioning one more modification of the "Boston".


After the occupation of Holland, the government moved to London and from there ruled over the colonies, of which the country had a lot. The largest was the Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia. The colony was quite independent, but it was necessary to protect it from the Japanese together.

And 48 DB-7C units were ordered for the East Indies. These aircraft were supposed to fly mainly over the sea, and ships were considered targets. That is, they needed a universal aircraft with a long flight range, which could be used as a bomber, and as an attack aircraft, and as a torpedo bomber.

The Americans were able to place a Mk.XIl torpedo in the bomb bay. True, it protruded slightly outward, so the bomb bay doors had to be removed.

The aircraft also includes emergency equipment with a rescue boat.

Plus, the Dutch asked to make, among other things, options with a crew of three, with a glazed navigator's cockpit, and a normal attack aircraft with a bow, in which it was necessary to install four 20-mm Hispano cannons.

The first aircraft were ready at the end of 1941. Before the outbreak of the war in the Pacific, the Dutch did not manage to receive and assemble a single torpedo bomber. The first torpedo bombers hit after the Japanese captured the island of Java.

The Dutch managed to assemble only one plane, which seems to have made several sorties. All other aircraft went to the Japanese in varying degrees of readiness.

But those planes that were contracted by the Dutch, but did not get to the Pacific Ocean, ended up in the Soviet Union.


But more on that in the next article about "Douglas".

LTH DB-7B

Wingspan, m: 18,69
Length, m: 14,42
Height, m: 4,83
Wing area, м2: 43,20

Weight, kg
- empty aircraft: 7 050
- normal takeoff: 7 560
- normal takeoff: 9 507

Engine: 2 x Wright R-2600-A5B Double Cyclone x 1600 hp
Maximum speed km / h: 530
Cruising speed, km / h: 443
Practical range, km: 1 200
Speed, m / min: 738
Practical ceiling, m: 8 800

Crew, prs: 3

Armament:
- 4 course 7,69 mm machine guns;
- 4 defensive 7,69 mm machine guns;
- up to 900 kg of bombs
Author:
54 comments
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  1. Sling cutter
    Sling cutter April 10 2021 05: 11
    +8
    Here is the article !!! Huge respect to the author! good
    A lot of informative, we are waiting for the next publications.
    1. Fitter65
      Fitter65 April 10 2021 07: 26
      +14
      Quote: Stroporez
      Here is the article !!! Huge respect to the author!

      Yes, this is not an article, but another feuilleton on the topic. Of all the pile of photos that were not signed, as always (18, with the first photo repeated twice), not a single photo of a real Model7B aircraft slipped through, either with the navigator's cockpit or with an unglazed nose section. And the Model 7 outwardly so decently differed from the DB-7 in almost two different aircraft ... If something is in the photo for # 3, the first serial A-20A ... I recommend

      And then reading such pearls
      Meanwhile, the "strange war" was over, the defeated British corps fled across the English Channel, France, Poland, Belgium, Denmark, Holland ceased resistance.
      you start to slow down a little, it turns out that France fell earlier than Poland, Belgium, Denmark and Holland in this light can not be remembered. We have just read how France fell, but in the next paragraph we read
      The United States continued to deliver aircraft paid for by France to Casablanca. ... the first use of the DB-7 occurred on May 31, 1940 in the Saint-Quentin area ...
      What is it like? Maybe, after all, the first combat use of the DB-7 occurred first and only then France fell almost a month later? About how these variants of Havok I differed from Intrader (at first it was called Havok IV), not a word, about "Turbinlight" or R-70, I am already silent at all ...
  2. Avior
    Avior April 10 2021 06: 40
    +9
    Boston under the name A-20 was actively used in the USSR.
    But let's not break the intrigue of the author :)))
    But more on that in the next article about "Douglas".
    1. Walking
      Walking April 10 2021 11: 25
      +13
      Article is a compilation of an article from the Corner of the Sky site, but Roman forgot to indicate this, there are whole paragraphs the same.
      1. smoltish
        smoltish April 13 2021 06: 39
        +1
        The original source is not Corner of the Sky. There are no original articles there. The fact that Roman forgets to indicate the source, you are absolutely right. It is clear that the author is not able to work with archives and uses published articles and books. Not all readers have the opportunity to read all this (and many will not want to read a book of 100 or more pages), so thanks to the author for the work on popularizing the history of aviation. Briefly about a good plane. Maybe he does not write flawlessly, of course, but for the majority it is precisely such articles that make it possible to learn something interesting. And the author, honestly, must indicate the sources.
    2. Fitter65
      Fitter65 April 10 2021 11: 37
      +6
      Quote: Avior
      Boston under the name A-20 was actively used in the USSR.
      But let's not break the intrigue of the author :)))

      Oh really?!! And the B-3? Under the designation A-20 and A-20A, it began to enter service with the US Air Corps in the fall of 1940. But the first aircraft of this type in the Red Army Air Force were just Boston III, or, according to our documents, Boston-3 (B-3) And at the expense of intrigue- ".. do not tell my horseshoes." Well, the author will gallop across Europe, overturn the chronology, post the same photo several times. No options.
  3. Undecim
    Undecim April 10 2021 08: 12
    +3
    Actually, the plane was originally created as a heavy attack aircraft.

    Actually, the aircraft was originally created in 1936 as a bomber and reconnaissance aircraft. And the project began to be redone for an attack aircraft in 1937, when the corresponding USAAC specification appeared.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim April 10 2021 08: 58
      +12
      The project called "Model 7" was created by Jack Northrop himself in terms of personal initiative. The lead engineer was Ed Heineman, who would later play his rather big role in the fate of the aircraft.
      The aircraft was innovative. A very elegant all-metal monoplane of the classic twin-engine design. Smooth skin, closed cockpits, automatic propellers, controlled upper turret, which had two positions, flight and combat. In flight, the turret was retracted inside the fuselage.

      The project was originally named 7A. It was not embodied in metal. And its further development, led by Ed Heinemann, received the designation 7B.
      And with the photos from the author, as always, a disaster.
      The photo, where, logically, there should be a prototype 7B, which took off in October 1938, shows a 20 Douglas A-1941A.
      In fact, the 7B prototype looked like this.
    2. Hagen
      Hagen April 10 2021 09: 31
      +1
      Quote: Undecim
      Actually, the aircraft was originally created in 1936 as a bomber and reconnaissance aircraft.

      A book about the history of creation, etc. of this aircraft literally says the following: "... In March 1936, Jack Northrop, together with Ed Heinemann, began work on a project called" Model 7 ". ....... The aircraft was supposed to be produced in two versions: bomber assault and intelligence .... ".
      1. Undecim
        Undecim April 10 2021 11: 34
        +1
        A book about the history of creation, etc. this plane

        What name has this book?
        1. Hagen
          Hagen April 10 2021 12: 03
          +3
          Quote: Undecim
          What name has this book?

          A series of "war in the air". The first from Fitter65.
          1. Undecim
            Undecim April 10 2021 12: 12
            +3
            I may have phrased the comment somewhat inaccurately, using the term "project", but in the original (Thompson, Scott. Douglas Havoc and Boston: The DB-7 / A-20 Series) it looks like this:
            "It is generally acknowledged that the Model 7 program began in early 1936 under the direction of Jack Northrop with Ed Heinemann acting as chief engineer.
            Preliminary drawings of the Model 7A, presumably done in the spring of 1936 either under the immediate supervision of Heinemann and Northrop, or by themselves, depict a somewhat portly high-wing, twin-engined aircraft with a conventional landing gear. Its main feature was a significant glass-enclosed observation area that extended from below the cockpit to aft of the wing. It also featured a defensive gun position on the upper aft fuselage. "
            That is, Model 7 is the general name of the program within which the aircraft were designed. The first was designated 7A.
        2. Fitter65
          Fitter65 April 10 2021 16: 03
          +1
          Quote: Undecim
          What name has this book?

          And you look at the commentary for number 2, there are pictures of the covers of a couple of books about the history of the creation and life of this aircraft in Russian.
          1. Undecim
            Undecim April 10 2021 16: 34
            +2
            I prefer books in the "American language" about the American plane.
            1. Fitter65
              Fitter65 April 11 2021 02: 17
              +1
              Quote: Undecim
              I prefer books in the "American language" about the American plane.

              Well, there is still such an edition
              You can still do this
              No problem, there is in Polish, and in Czech, if you suddenly don't like American ... hi
              1. Undecim
                Undecim April 11 2021 06: 57
                0
                Thank you, I have everything.
        3. smoltish
          smoltish April 13 2021 06: 41
          +1
          Series of books "War and We" and magazines "War in the Air"
      2. Fitter65
        Fitter65 April 10 2021 11: 48
        +1
        Quote: Hagen
        A book about the history of creation, etc. of this aircraft literally says the following: "... In March 1936, Jack Northrop, together with Ed Heinemann, began work on a project called" Model 7 ".

        In another edition, this moment is described a little differently ... "Northrop began work on a new attack aircraft in March 1936 ..." well, let's just say some variations. or translation costs ...
  4. Mooh
    Mooh April 10 2021 11: 05
    +7
    And what I liked the most about steam heating on the plane. It seems to be garbage against the background of the rest of the blunders, but the imagination played out. Directly I see a cauldron with a pipe and a grimy radio operator throwing up a coal. Natural steampunk turns out.
    1. Fitter65
      Fitter65 April 10 2021 16: 05
      +5
      Quote: MooH
      And what I liked the most about steam heating on the plane.

      Especially considering that the engines were air-cooled, not water-cooled ... one word from RRROM ...
    2. Undecim
      Undecim April 10 2021 22: 46
      +2
      Especially considering that the engines were air cooled
      But the author almost correctly described the heating system. The exhaust gases of the starboard engine heated the water in the steam generator, and the resulting steam heated the air that heated the cockpit. Temperature control was carried out by mixing outdoor and heated air.

      This is from HANDBOOK OF OPERATION AND FLIGHT INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE MODEL A-20A ATTACK BOMBER AIRPLANE.
      1. Mooh
        Mooh April 10 2021 23: 42
        +1
        Live and learn. The question remains, what should be used to construct such a miracle? It seems to me that even the cursed gasoline stove from a Zaporozhets is many times easier and more efficient.
        1. Undecim
          Undecim April 10 2021 23: 53
          +1
          I did not find any complaints from flight and technical personnel about the operation of the heating system in the literature.
          1. Mooh
            Mooh April 11 2021 00: 53
            +1
            This is not a question of quality, but of the excessive complexity and weight of such a system. I do not see any advantages of a steam system over a liquid system, except for the ability to do without a circulation pump. And there are a lot of shortcomings. When working with steam, the system has to rely on more pressure, therefore it is heavier. And also the differences in atmospheric pressure during air operation require either an even more robust design or advanced control automation.
            In general, normal people use electric heating in airplanes, in comparison with any liquid, and even more so steam system, it is obviously lighter, turns on almost instantly and takes up almost no space.
            A very irrational system was used by American designers - heavy, very inertial, requiring periodic maintenance and also traumatic. I understand steam heating on a ship, but on an airplane? I could hardly believe that such a thing happens at all.
            1. Undecim
              Undecim April 11 2021 00: 58
              +2
              It is unlikely that the Douglas company was looking for ways to complicate the design. So there was some reason. I will try to find a design or other information.
              1. Undecim
                Undecim April 11 2021 01: 20
                +1
                Such systems were widely used on aircraft with air-cooled piston engines. Even on passenger (IL-12, IL-14).
                1. Fitter65
                  Fitter65 April 11 2021 02: 46
                  +2
                  Quote: Undecim
                  Such systems were widely used on aircraft with air-cooled piston engines. Even on passenger (IL-12, IL-14).

                  To the heating system on IL-12
                  The heating system provides normal temperature conditions for passengers and crew and consists of two B0-10 gasoline heaters installed in the radio operator's cabin. The degree of warm air supply to the cockpit and the radio operator's cabin is regulated by individual dampers. Warm air enters the passenger cabin through two ducts along the sides in the lower part.
                  BO-10 itself
                  Burning fuel in one circuit heats up the air in the other, heated air into the passenger compartment, combustion products overboard. No water is heated due to its complete absence.
                  Quote: Undecim
                  But the author almost correctly described the heating system. Right Engine Exhaust ...

                  In the description, it is true that the unit was in the gargrotto, but this is most likely translation costs. Yes, they say that the air heats up, as in BO-10, not a word about water ...
                  1. Undecim
                    Undecim April 11 2021 08: 02
                    +1
                    So I was wrong about the IL-12. Regarding the IL-14 from the "Manual ..." Unfortunately, not a single copy contains page 262 with a diagram.
                    1. Mooh
                      Mooh April 11 2021 11: 03
                      +1
                      The document also describes not a steam system, but an air-to-air one. Hot air from the engine through a heat exchanger heats up cold air coming from the atmosphere. Smart, better than liquid, but also quite cumbersome. But this is not a bomber either, it has completely different cabin volumes, and there is not enough space for electric heating of the onboard generation.
                    2. Fitter65
                      Fitter65 April 11 2021 12: 36
                      0
                      IL-14 the same principle AIR-AIR radiator, hot air from the torch heats the air in the radiator (not water, but air), which is supplied to the passenger compartment, hot air from the torch is emitted into the atmosphere, for cooling, the torch is not kindled. just the blower works. outboard cold air cools the air in the radiator, the cooled air from the radiator to the passenger compartment. air from 1 cycle. overboard again. So in heaters A-20 and others just this method was used, without heating any water or other other liquid. , as an option instead of a torch burning in the heater. hot exhaust gases could be used. which heated the air in the AIR radiator, gases overboard, warm air from the radiator to the salon. So steam heating is the result of an incorrect translation.
                      1. Mooh
                        Mooh April 11 2021 13: 14
                        +1
                        Alexander, Viktor Nikolaevich gave the text in English there above. I understand him a little, it is clearly, clearly and unambiguously written there that there was a steam system. Without the link, I myself would not have believed that this is possible.
                  2. Mooh
                    Mooh April 11 2021 11: 11
                    +1
                    And here the stove from the Zaporozhets drove up. It was an interesting time for engineers and designers. One problem could be solved in 5 completely different ways.
                    1. Fitter65
                      Fitter65 April 11 2021 12: 39
                      +1
                      Quote: MooH
                      And here the stove from the Zaporozhets drove up.

                      Yes, such a "stove" was used even before the appearance of Zaporozhets, I mean a minicar laughing
                2. John22
                  John22 April 11 2021 20: 30
                  +1
                  There was no heating on the bombers of the USSR at all.
  5. Reklastik
    Reklastik April 10 2021 13: 31
    +3
    The amount of text. But not quality)))
  6. serg.shishkov2015
    serg.shishkov2015 April 10 2021 14: 22
    +1
    One of my favorite planes! there is a model! In the history of world aviation, I know of two SUCH aircraft! I call them - * LEGO aircraft designer *! You can do whatever you want! This is U-2 and * Boston *! With regard to * Boston * - from R-70 and * Ruff * to * Turbinlight * and * Pandora *!
    1. Fitter65
      Fitter65 April 10 2021 16: 30
      +4
      Quote: serg.shishkov2015
      One of my favorite planes! there is a model

      If it's not a secret whose firm and on what scale? good
      Quote: serg.shishkov2015
      - * LEGO aircraft designer *! You can do whatever you want! This is U-2 and * Boston *! With regard to * Boston * - from R-70 and * Ruff * to * Turbinlight * and * Pandora *!

      Okay, U-2 aside for now, just wondering, what is it about the Pandora project? Well, an airplane with anti-aircraft mines rose and dropped them from a height onto lower flying planes. so this option has been worked out in almost every country since the 20s. The difference, for example, of our version from the English, we have cotton parachutes, the British have silk parachutes. Night fighter? Bristol Blenheim - light bomber, high-altitude bomber, heavy fighter, night fighter, reconnaissance aircraft, LEGO? What's in the USSR-Ruff? So the first samples were at the Research Institute for Pe-2/3. If we compare it with LEGO, it’s still more about Mosquito, he is a bomber, and a heavy fighter, and a night fighter, and a reconnaissance aircraft, and a torpedo bomber, and a training ... only he did not fight under water ... So it turns out that very poorly you know the history of aviation, U-2 (Po-2) - neither as a radar carrier, nor as a night fighter was never used, from the word at all, but there were a number of civilian options - agricultural, sanitary, postal, training, such original modifications like a Rafaelyantsa limousine are even ridiculous to say ... As a combat aircraft, there are only two incarnations - a light night bomber and a communications aircraft, everything ...
      1. serg.shishkov2015
        serg.shishkov2015 April 11 2021 07: 38
        +2
        * Zvezda *, 1/72, made it in the G-1 version with 20 mm cannons, and about LEGO- * Mossi * this is a whole family of factory-made,
        and the two indicated by me were altered, including in combat units! In my U-2 manuscript there are about a hundred modifications along with experimental ones, several sheets, A-20 yesterday looked - 7 sheets, though * clean *, without spaces for future information, a little smaller,
        1. Fitter65
          Fitter65 April 11 2021 08: 07
          +1
          Quote: serg.shishkov2015
          * Zvezda *, 1/72, made it in the G-1 version with 20 mm cannons, and about LEGO- * Mossi * this is a whole family of factory-made,

          A-20 does not appear in the Zvezda catalog, there was A-20Zh laughing the company NOVO (formerly Frog) was produced by the Odessa toy factory, at one time I had such a miracle ...
          Quote: serg.shishkov2015
          and the two indicated by me were altered, including in combat units!

          In combat units, not only the U-2 and A-20 were altered. For example, various field modification kits were used for German aircraft, which were actually LEGO and allowed in the field. equip a specific aircraft for a specific mission. And all these modifications - alterations of the A-20 in the aircraft workshops for the implementation of a specific task are not easy to pull off.
          1. serg.shishkov2015
            serg.shishkov2015 April 11 2021 08: 25
            +1
            I made it about 15 years ago, the packaging has not survived, and in my city in those years it was mainly * Zvezda * that was sold, when we had a specialized store I had already tied up with a stand. was in it once, bought a U-2VS and it was my * swan song * ,,,,
            1. Fitter65
              Fitter65 April 11 2021 08: 42
              +1
              Those who brought out new models, at one time repackaged "Orient Express", "Modelist" and some other office, I don’t remember any more, I left 72 back in 95 ...
              1. serg.shishkov2015
                serg.shishkov2015 April 11 2021 08: 48
                0
                I have aviation in the majority of 1/72, a few, on a different scale, and then there was a period when my roof was blown away by 1/35 by ground vehicles - mainly BTT, there is a ZIS-3 and a German motorcycle and a 120-mm mortar, twice exhibited locally, 4 more submarines, including * Severyanka * (who cast it, I don’t remember, but definitely crooked !!) and * Aurora *
                1. Fitter65
                  Fitter65 April 11 2021 12: 44
                  +1
                  Quote: serg.shishkov2015
                  and then there was a period when my roof was blown away by 1/35 ground vehicles - mainly BTT,

                  It is familiar, the same period was. When the BTT from Dragon appeared with us and it was not expensive, I even bought a SCUD then ... So he occupied a place ... But still he stopped at aviation in the 48th, and he limited himself only to the aviation of the Eastern Front, but here also border, and Soviet reagents. And for everything you need to collect both the place and the time ...
                  1. serg.shishkov2015
                    serg.shishkov2015 April 12 2021 05: 45
                    0
                    I have the most exotic ballista! palington in duplicate, karaballista and arcballista. were active! especially the arkaballista! I almost broke the glass of the sideboard! The standard elastic was quite short - I attached it from the curlers! black in two turns! I made a log from a casting frame - two rooms flew across!
                    1. Fitter65
                      Fitter65 April 12 2021 11: 41
                      0
                      Quote: serg.shishkov2015
                      I have the most exotic ballista!

                      Yes, a hobby is power. laughing good drinks
    2. mr.ZinGer
      mr.ZinGer April 10 2021 21: 30
      0
      A FW190, Ju88, bf110, B-25,
      1. serg.shishkov2015
        serg.shishkov2015 April 11 2021 07: 43
        0
        these are mostly factory modifications and FACTORY field modification kits! We have A-20 and U-2 * adjusted * for specific tasks in combat units! The same conversion of A-20G-1 attack aircraft into bombers with a navigational cockpit in the nose, and there were so many U-2 in the version of piece limousines!
        1. Fitter65
          Fitter65 April 11 2021 09: 12
          +1
          Quote: serg.shishkov2015
          The same conversion of A-20G-1 attack aircraft into bombers with a navigational cockpit in the nose,

          Let's start with the fact that various alterations and modifications were carried out in aircraft workshops and at aircraft factories. For example, the 85th Aviation Workshops carried out the revision in the Northern Fleet. The processing of the bow of the A-20G for the navigator's cockpit was again carried out at factories, for example, No. 81, No. 89. Moreover, the plant number 89 is found much more often than others. So the alteration of the bow of the A-20G is not the fruit of the creativity of regimental enthusiasts, okay, they could still transfer the control of the weapon to one trigger, like on the Aircobra from A.I. Pokryshkin, but equipping a full-fledged navigator's cabin is only through the plant. Again, various "limousines" and other modifications based on the U-2 were also carried out at least in aircraft repair shops. In the regimental workshops, aircraft could be modified according to the bulletins that came from the "top" or other regulatory documents ...
  7. dgonni
    dgonni April 10 2021 14: 57
    +4
    What is true in the article is that the war with the Finans HUGE impeded our engine building in terms of the development of licensed aircrafts!
    According to plans for the end of 39, the series was supposed to be M-63 and M-64. And if the 63rd was brought then the 64th died in prototypes!
    R-2600s were purchased but no license was obtained. As a result, the M-82 was brought to a more or less acceptable state only by the end of 42. M-71 did not go into mass production.
    Well, the reliability of these engines left much to be desired.
    But with amers at least lucky in the sense that they were allies, and yet with the beginning of the war, contacts were resumed and they still shared the best practices with Shvetsov.
    But the French stars and licensed Spanish suises were not very lucky in this regard.
    Therefore, the yaks almost until the end of 44 had weak engines inferior to the Germans. And surviving actually at the expense of weight perfection. That actually didn’t help much.
    And for Illushin 4th, just in fact, there was no more intelligible fuel consumption in terms of weight until the end of the war.
  8. BAI
    BAI April 10 2021 19: 16
    +2
    In the world, they mainly used external suspension under the wings, the same Soviet R-5SH

    It is at least incorrect to compare the aircraft developed in 1929 and 1935.
  9. Taoist
    Taoist April 10 2021 22: 20
    +5
    at the bottom near Gelendzhik lies Boston A 20B - until recently, almost a whole one ... Shot down over Novorossiysk and did not reach the strip just a kilometer. I went down on it ...
  10. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA April 12 2021 16: 03
    +1
    Immediately after the Soviet Union went to war with its neighbor, President Roosevelt declared a "moral embargo" on supplies to the USSR. And this moral embargo has become completely normal. Roosevelt was highly respected in the United States, and therefore American companies began to break the agreements already concluded with our country.

    It's not about respect. The fact is that the violator of the moral embargo suddenly began a period of checks - tax, fire, etc. And also the aforesaid violator flew past government contracts. Which, against the background of the sharp growth of the American army, became fatter and fatter.
  11. exo
    exo April 12 2021 19: 10
    0
    The article provokes discussions. You can pick up a lot of new in them. This is already a lot. So, thanks to the author.
  12. kig
    kig April 19 2021 15: 29
    0
    a certain Jack Northrop, owner of the Northrop Corporation

    Northrop had by then quit and founded a new firm.

    That is, he resigned from the company that belonged to him? The plot is somehow famously twisted.