Military Review

Artillery of Napoleon's Great Army

46
Artillery of Napoleon's Great Army
Artillery under fire... Painting by Eugene Laliepvre. In the Napoleonic era, artillery became the main striking force of the French army and acquired an unprecedented prestige.


Napoleon Bonaparte used to say that great battles are won by artillery. Being an artilleryman by training, he attached particular importance to the maintenance of this kind of troops at a high level. If, under the old regime, artillery was recognized as something worse than infantry and cavalry, and in seniority they were considered after 62 infantry regiments (but before the 63rd and subsequent ones), then during Napoleon's reign this order not only changed in the reverse order, but a separate imperial artillery corps.

In the first half of the 1667th century, French artillery was superior to all others, thanks to the fact that France was the first to standardize artillery pieces. The standardization was carried out by General Jean Florent de Vallière (1759-4), who introduced a unified classification system for guns, dividing them into categories from 24 to XNUMX-pounder. The disadvantage of this system was that the guns were strong, but at the same time heavy, which means they were clumsy and clumsy in battle, on the march and in service.

The Seven Years' War proved the superiority of the Austrian artillery, where light 3-, 6- and 12-pounder guns were introduced, as well as light mortars. Other countries followed Austria, especially Prussia.

The loss of France's superiority in artillery persuaded the Minister of War, Etienne-François de Choiseul, to carry out a new reform of this type of troops. He entrusted this task to General Jean Baptiste Vacket de Griboval (1715-1789), who served in Austria in 1756-1762 and had the opportunity to familiarize himself with the Austrian artillery system. Although the conservative military, and especially the son of de Vallière, tried to impede his reform, Choiseul's patronage allowed Griboval to radically change French artillery starting in 1776.

Griboval's system


These changes, known as the "Griboval system", meant a complete standardization of not only the guns, but the entire artillery fleet. Not only the guns themselves were unified, but also their carriages, limbers, charging boxes, ammunition and tools. Since then, it was possible, for example, to replace broken gun wheels with wheels from limbers or charging boxes, or even from quartermaster carts.

Another merit of Griboval was that he reduced the gap between the caliber of the gun and the caliber of the nucleus, which up to that time could reach half an inch. With a reduced clearance, the kernels adhered more tightly to the barrel bore, there was no need to hammer wads into the barrel. And above all, it was possible to reduce the charge of gunpowder, while maintaining the firing range. This, in turn, made it possible to cast guns with thinner barrels, and thus lighter. For example, Griboval's 12-pounder cannon has become half the weight of a similar Vallière cannon.

Griboval also divided artillery into four main types: field, siege, garrison and coastal. Guns over 12 pounds were credited to the last three. Thus, field artillery acquired a pronounced character of light artillery.

On the basis of the royal decree (ordinance) of November 3, 1776, the artillery consisted of 7 foot regiments, 6 mine companies and 9 working companies. Each regiment had two battalions of gunners and sappers, consisting of two so-called "brigades". The first brigade of such a battalion consisted of four companies of gunners and one company of sappers. Each company, according to wartime states, consisted of 71 soldiers.

Although the mine companies were part of the artillery units, they formed a separate corps. Mineral companies numbered 82 soldiers each and were stationed in Verdun. Worker companies were assigned to the royal arsenals. Each of them consisted of 71 soldiers. All French artillery was commanded by the first inspector general (general of artillery).

The artillery regiments bore the names of the cities in which they were formed, although by 1789 they could have changed their location to completely different places. The seniority of the regiments was as follows: Strasbourg, Oxon (located in Metz), Tulle (in La Fera), Besancon (in Oxon), Grenoble (in Valence), La Fere (in Douai), Metz (in Besançon).

In 1791, the organization of the artillery was changed. First of all, by a decree of April 1, the old names of the regiments were canceled, which received serial numbers: La Fere - 1st, Metz - 2st, Besancon - 3st, Grenoble - 4st, Strasbourg - 5st, Oxon - 6st, Tulle - 7th.

Mineral companies were also numbered: Catalan - 1st, Ryuzhi - 2st, Conyon - 3st, Barberen - 4st, Bouville - 5st, Chazelle - 6th. As well as working companies: Neisemon - 1st, Guerin the elder - 2st, Rostan - 3st, Guerin the Younger - 4st, Croyer - 5st, Peweren - 6st, Dubusson - 7st, Gure - 8st, Dufour - 9th. A new, 10th working company was also formed.

Each of the seven regiments of foot artillery consisted of two battalions of 10 companies, numbering 55 gunners. The states of the wartime companies were increased by a decree of September 20, 1791 by 20 people, that is, by 400 people in the regiment. On the other hand, the staff of miners and workers' companies decreased - now they totaled 63 and 55 people, respectively. The post of the first inspector general of artillery was also abolished.

Thus, the artillery corps consisted of 8442 soldiers and officers in 7 regiments, as well as 409 miners and 590 workers in 10 companies.

Increased prestige of artillery


Then, on April 29, 1792, a decree was issued on the formation of a new type of troops - nine companies of horse artillery with 76 soldiers each. In the same year, on June 1, the 1st and 2nd foot artillery regiments received two companies of horse artillery, and the remaining regiments received one company each. That is, horse artillery has not yet been allocated to a separate branch of the army.

Starting from 1791-1792, the importance and prestige of artillery in the French army increased. This was the only branch of the army that was hardly affected by the desertions and betrayal of the royal officers, which became more frequent in June 1791 under the influence of Louis XVI's attempt to flee to Varennes.

Artillery, a purely technical branch of the army, had far fewer nobles than the infantry and cavalry. Therefore, the artillery retained a high level of combat capability and played a decisive role in the defeat of the Prussian army, which went to Paris in 1792. It can even be said that it was the endurance of the gunners in the Battle of Valmy that decided the outcome of the battle, in which poorly trained regiments, formed from hastily trained volunteers, were not always able to repel the bayonet attacks of the Prussians and withstand the fire of Prussian artillery.

It was as a result of the brilliant resilience of the artillerymen, as well as the growing threat to the borders of the Republic, that in 1792-1793 the artillery corps was increased to 8 foot and 9 cavalry regiments. Horse artillery regiments were assigned to the following garrisons: 1st in Toulouse, 2nd in Strasbourg, 3rd in Douai, 4th in Metz, 5th in Grenoble, 6th in Metz , The 7th in Toulouse, the 8th in Douai, the 9th in Besançon. In 1796, the number of horse artillery was reduced to eight regiments.

Artillery was further developed in 1796. Now it numbered eight foot and eight cavalry regiments, and the number of working companies increased to twelve. Mineral and sapper companies were excluded from artillery and transferred to the engineering troops. And instead of them, a new corps of pontooners was formed - so far only as part of one battalion, located in Strasbourg.

In 1803, in connection with the preparations for the war with England, another reorganization was carried out. Eight foot regiments remained, and the number of cavalry was reduced to six. Instead, the number of workers' companies increased to fifteen, and the number of pontoon battalions to two. A new branch of troops emerged - eight battalions of artillery transports.

The next reorganization of the already imperial artillery corps began in 1804. Then 100 coastal defense gunners were formed, recruited from among veterans whose age or state of health did not allow them to serve in linear units. The same role was played by companies of stationary gunners (sedentaires), located on coastal islands such as If, Noirmoutier, Aix, Oleron, Re, etc. Gradually, due to the increase in the coastline of France, the number of coastal defense companies reached 145, and stationary - 33. In addition, 25 veteran companies were located in fortresses.

In the same 1804 the number of working companies increased to sixteen, and in 1812 there were already nineteen. The number of artillery train battalions was increased to twenty-two. Three companies of gunsmiths also appeared to repair weapons and equipment. Four companies were added in 1806, and five more in 1809.

This organization of artillery was preserved throughout all the Napoleonic wars, only that in 1809 a supply company was added to 22 line artillery companies in each regiment, and in 1814 the number of line companies increased to 28.

The post of the first inspector general, as already mentioned, was abolished shortly after the death of Griboval. Only Bonaparte brought him back to the time of the Consulate, appointing François Marie d'Aboville as the first inspector general. His successors were successively Auguste Frédéric Louis Marmont (1801–1804), Nicolas Sonji de Courbon (1804–1810), Jean Ambroise Baston de Lariboisiere (1811–1812), Jean-Baptiste Eble (1813) and Jean-Bartelmo Sorbier (1813– 1815). The first inspector general presided over the council of inspectors general (major generals and lieutenant generals). But since the inspectors general, as a rule, were in the active army, the council met extremely rarely.

At the corps level of the Grand Army, the artillery was commanded by the commandant with the rank of lieutenant general. He was always at the headquarters of the corps and distributed the artillery among the infantry divisions and cavalry brigades, or led them into "large batteries."

Napoleon considered artillery to be the main firepower in battle. Already in the first campaigns in Italy and Egypt, he tried to use artillery to deliver a decisive blow to the enemy. In the future, he tried to constantly increase the saturation of his troops with artillery.

At Castiglione (1796), he could concentrate only a few guns on the main direction. At Marengo (1800) he had 18 guns against 92 Austrian ones. At Austerlitz (1805), he put 139 guns against 278 Austrian and Russian. At Wagram (1809), Napoleon brought 582 guns, and the Austrians - 452. Finally, at Borodino (1812), Napoleon had 587 guns, and the Russians - 624.

This was the peak moment in the development of French artillery, since the number of guns with which the French could resist the Allies in 1813-1814 was much lower. This was primarily due to the loss of the entire artillery fleet during the retreat from Russia. Despite enormous efforts, it was impossible to restore the former power of the artillery in such a short time.

The number of gunners in the French army grew steadily and noticeably. In 1792 there were 9500 of them. Three years later, in the war of the Third Coalition, there were already 22 of them. In 1805, the Grand Army numbered 34 artillerymen. And in 1814, just before the fall of Napoleon, as many as 103 thousand. However, over time, a significant part of the artillerymen began to be veterans, who could be used only in the defense of fortresses.

During revolutionary wars, there was one weapon for every thousand soldiers. The artillery was small then. And in its ranks it was easier to attract thousands of volunteers from the infantry than to train thousands of professional gunners and give them the appropriate equipment. However, Napoleon persistently strove to ensure that the coefficient of saturation of the troops with artillery was as high as possible.

In the 1805 campaign, there were almost two guns for every thousand infantrymen, and in 1807, more than two. In the war of 1812, there were already more than three guns for every thousand infantrymen. Napoleon considered the saturation of the troops with artillery the most important task - in view of the loss of veteran infantrymen.

As the combat effectiveness of the infantry decreased, it was necessary to strengthen it more and more with artillery.

Based on:

M. Head. French Napoleonic Artillery... Almark Publishing Co. Ltd., 1970.
Ph. Haythornthwaite. Weapons and Equipment of the Napoleonic Wars... Cassells, 1999.
A. Pascal. Histoire de l'armée et de tous les régiments, depuis les premiers temps de la monarchie française... A. Barbier, 1850.
HCB Rogers. Napoleon's Army... Hippocrene Books, 1974.
R. Sutterlin. Histoire du commité de l'artillerie... Revue Historique des Armées, (1): 51–79, 1975.
JC Quennevat. Les vrais soldats de Napoleon... Sequoia-Elsevier, 1968.
J. Tulard, editor. Dictionnaire Napoléon... Fayard, 1989: B. Cazelles. Artillery.

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Photos used:
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  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka April 10 2021 05: 19
    +4
    Unexpectedly, especially against the background of the cycle about Austerlitz by V.O. Shpakovsky.
    The standardization was carried out by General Jean Florent de Vallière (1667-1759), who introduced a unified classification system for guns, dividing them into categories from 4 to 24 pounders. The disadvantage of this system was that the guns were strong, but at the same time heavy, which means they were clumsy and clumsy in battle, on the march and in service.

    No less serious problem of Louis XIV's artillery was the lack of "flies" on the "last argument of the kings"!
    1. Richard
      Richard April 10 2021 10: 17
      +7
      on the 24-pounder gun, Griboval's guns were

      link: Shpakovsky "Artillery of the Conqueror of Europe"
      source: https: //topwar.ru/174356-artillerija-pokoritelja-evropy.html
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka April 10 2021 17: 29
        +3
        Dmitry, between the reforms of Griboval and Vallière (Contemporary of Louis XIV) if the difference is not half a century.
        So, in the wake of the Author, it makes no sense to mix all the French into one cauldron. Griboval's French guns managed to get flies, then they were cut down, then they began to introduce them again. But the merit of the French is not in this, but in the systematization of calibers, drilling of barrels and the introduction of iron axles. The rest is borrowing from neighbors. For example, organizationally, the French artillery in the "period of the kings" suffered from organizational turmoil. For example, it did not have a permanent buffet, and the recruitment of servants was so perverted that even during the early Empire, guns were recruited from line infantry.
        Well, the latter was cleaned up for fans of French artillery, historians always mention in passing that the great army did not have field artillery. Even four pounds were usually noticed on Austrian three pounds. By the way, not the best weapons of that era.
  2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka April 10 2021 05: 48
    +5
    ... The Seven Years' War proved the superiority of the Austrian artillery, where light 3-, 6- and 12-pounder guns were introduced, as well as light mortars. Other countries followed Austria, especially Prussia.

    A controversial statement, although often found in foreign literature.
    The Swedes were the first to use light field artillery, a century and a half before the Seven Years' War. For example, even before the Great Northern War, Charles XII presented Peter the Great with a park of field 3 (and 3,5) pound guns. Even if we were Swedish guns and blamed for the useless gun carriages, we were not shy about using them against the “teachers”.
    About Prussia, "which rushed to copy the Austrian light weapons" smiled. Prussia lightened its weapons during the reign of Frederick the Great, ahead of only France.
    If we compare the guns of the Northern War period (front, carriage and gun body), the lightest were if they were not domestic.
    1. Former naval person
      April 11 2021 21: 42
      +1
      the seven-year war, oddly enough, fell precisely on the reign of Frederick the Great ...
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka April 12 2021 19: 30
        0
        Quote: Former Naval Person
        the seven-year war, oddly enough, fell precisely on the reign of Frederick the Great ...

        Only the reform of the Prussian artillery was suspended a decade after the Seven Years' War.
        So Frederick the Great fought with the Pope's cannons, all his "innovations" of artillery were consistently given to his opponents. However, this fate beat on the hands of the projects of all the rulers from Adolf-Gustav to Frederick II.
        1. Former naval person
          April 14 2021 20: 04
          +1
          Well, Moscow was not built right away ... and Rome did not immediately, and Berlin, and Paris, and ... insert the desired city.
  3. Sergey Valov
    Sergey Valov April 10 2021 07: 12
    +4
    The author did not say a word about the reform of the French artillery in 1803 under the leadership of Marmont, which was never completed. Another drawback of the article is the author's enthusiasm for listing various formations with their number of personnel, with almost complete disregard for the size and composition of the army's artillery fleet and its distribution among military formations.
    1. Richard
      Richard April 10 2021 10: 37
      +6
      Sergey, welcome. hi
      On the questions asked, a military bone is immediately felt.
      There is a good article "Material part of the French artillery during the Napoleonic wars." There is a lot of everything: the performance characteristics of all the guns and ammunition of Napoleon's artillery, and the artillery standards of ammunition, and of course the structure of the artillery fleet and its number
      for example:

      link: https://sasza.livejournal.com/2687.html
      1. Richard
        Richard April 10 2021 11: 12
        +2
        I apologize for the "artieлeriya ". The" l "key constantly sinks request
        1. Alien From
          Alien From April 10 2021 12: 45
          +5
          hi I want to draw the attention of respected members of the forum, historical topics on VO are becoming very attractive! Thanks to all contributors and commentators, very informative!
      2. Sergey Valov
        Sergey Valov April 10 2021 15: 18
        +4
        Thank you. I bought O. Sokolov's book "Napoleon's Army" long ago, and this issue is also dealt with quite well there.
    2. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I April 11 2021 01: 18
      +2
      Quote: Sergey Valov
      The author does not say a word about the reform of the French artillery in 1803 under the leadership of Marmont,

      You're right! I also noticed this when I first read this article a few hours ago ... But it was already night and I had no time either to reread the article more attentively, or to comment ...
      But from "morning" the "gaps" became more noticeable!
      1. The author mentions the events of the early 19th century, but not a word about the "XI system" of Marmont, which should replace the "Griboval system"! And the fact that this system did not supplant the "Griboval system" ... Duc, did not have time! The reform took both time and a lot of money, which caused problems! And then there's the "Napoleonic" wars! That is why at the beginning of the 19th century there were two systems: Griboval and Marmont! That brought significant confusion to the organization and logistics of the artillery units of the French army. If my memory serves me, then one of the "moments" of Marmont's reform was the replacement of 4-pounder and 8-pounder guns with 6-pounders ... As a result, three caliber guns were found in the field artillery! True, the French tried to "get out"! For example, the guns of the "Griboval system" were sent to Spain, and with the guns of the "XI system" to fight with Russia, Prussia, England ... Somehow .... as I remember now! I ask you to excuse me if, nevertheless, my memory failed!
      2. The author does not, in practice, speak of the use of howitzers and mortars in the Napoleonic army; about artillery ammunition of that time
      1. Former naval person
        April 11 2021 21: 46
        -1
        attentive readers will find the line "to be continued ..." under the article, and the trolls will pretend not to notice it.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka April 13 2021 12: 39
          +1
          Quote: Former Naval Person
          attentive readers will find the line "to be continued ..." under the article, and the trolls will pretend not to notice it.

          Well, it is not even funny to accuse Nikolayevich of "trolling", but perhaps it is stupid. Yes, I ran ahead with anyone. In what, and in the fire-breathing gland "he understands a lot" !!!
          1. Former naval person
            April 14 2021 20: 02
            +1
            so no one denies the merits of Nikolayevich. just in Russian culture there is such a saying: "hurry up - make people laugh" :-)
  4. riwas
    riwas April 10 2021 07: 16
    +3
    I have a question. At Pushkin in "Poltava":
    "Cannonballs roll, bullets whistle, cold bayonets hang."
    Why are the cannonballs rolling and not flying? Maybe this is due to their ricochet from the ground?
    1. kalibr
      kalibr April 10 2021 07: 38
      +9
      If the ground allowed, then they tried to shoot with a ricochet. So the cannonballs "rolled" further and tore off more legs ...
      1. Sergey Valov
        Sergey Valov April 10 2021 07: 47
        +3
        After the ricochet, the core continued to fly, as for the legs, then how lucky.
        1. Richard
          Richard April 10 2021 10: 52
          +6
          Traditional smoothbore guns with a relatively long barrel. They fired with spherical cannonballs and buckshot - also spherical. The fire was conducted along a flat trajectory - so that the core, flying through the formation, hit everyone in its path.
          An important component of the shooting was the recording of the ricochet. Unlike the rotating rifle shells, cannonballs and buckshot ricocheted quite predictably and could be exploited. Expecting to hit the target after the first or even the second bounce, it was possible to maintain a flat trajectory at a great distance.

          There were special ricochet tables for calibers
          1. Sergey Valov
            Sergey Valov April 10 2021 15: 27
            +3
            The theme is inexhaustible. For example, Napoleon himself has an article on artillery. Published in his selected works in 1956.
        2. Ryazan87
          Ryazan87 April 10 2021 15: 55
          +7
          "... Seeing a cannonball slowly rolling towards us, I absentmindedly wanted to push it with my foot, when suddenly someone jerked me back: it was the captain of the Preobrazhensky regiment, Count Polignac, my Petersburg acquaintance." What are you doing! "He exclaimed. - How can you, artillerymen, forget that even such nuclei, according to the law of rotation about their axis, do not lose their strength: it could tear off your leg! "
          A.S. Norov, in the battle of Borodino, a warrant officer of the 2nd light company of the guards artillery.
      2. Blacksmith 55
        Blacksmith 55 April 10 2021 09: 17
        +2
        Good morning .
        The author would also point out at what distance the guns of that time beat.
        It is clear that the closer the enemy is, the more effective (I mean more precisely) the fire.
        And from what distance did they start firing?
        1. kalibr
          kalibr April 10 2021 09: 21
          +4
          The usual distance for the field guns, which we are talking about, is 1000 m. So they tried to ricochet to shoot so that the cannonball rolled off to ... 1050. And the buckshot was fired at both 300 and 30 m. when the French general ordered to load cannonballs + buckshot and aim ... at the belt buckle of our soldiers, that is, shoot from ... 30 meters. And he was glad how the kernels and buckshot mowed whole glades in their ranks.
        2. Richard
          Richard April 10 2021 10: 58
          +5
          Good morning Peter hi
          The range limit is 2-2,5 km. Effective firing distance - depended on what we want to hit and how many cores are ready to release.
          When shooting at a target 4,4 m wide and 1,88 m high, the results are as follows.
          6-pounder cannon:
          584-730 m - half of the cores hit the target
          1095 m - one of 6-7 cores hit the target
          1314 m - one of 20 cores hit the target
          12-pounder cannon:
          1606 m - a third of the cores hit the target
          1314-1825 m with ricochets - one of 4-5 cores hit the target
          A cannon shot from a 12-pounder cannon could hit 600 meters, from a 6-pounder - 400 meters.
          The aiming was, in fact, only by changing the angle of the barrel, the charges were used ready-made.
          link: https: //pikabu.ru/story/soldatyi_napoleonovskoy_yepokhi_chast_3__artilleriya_7792229
          1. Blacksmith 55
            Blacksmith 55 April 10 2021 12: 21
            +2
            Thanks for the info . I am not at all an artillery player, although I served in the artillery, BUAR, that is, reconnaissance, and there as a driver.
            But always, in my free time, I am interested in ancient equipment and weapons. It's better for me to go to a museum than to lie on the beach on vacation.
    2. Sergey Valov
      Sergey Valov April 10 2021 07: 54
      +2
      “Why are the cannonballs rolling and not flying?” - Pushkin is a poet, you don’t have to take everything literally, as an example from the same place - “Soon noon, the heat is burning like a plowman is resting” - the battle actually began at about 9 am.
    3. Former naval person
      April 11 2021 21: 45
      0
      this will be discussed in the sequel.
  5. Undecim
    Undecim April 10 2021 07: 36
    +15
    Another merit of Griboval was that he reduced the gap between the caliber of the gun and the caliber of the nucleus, which up to that time could reach half an inch.

    This is not the merit of Griboval, this is the merit of the Swiss who moved to France, Jean Maritz, who invented the technology and equipment for drilling cannon barrels, which made it possible to obtain a perfectly flat channel of the required diameter, moreover, strictly along the axis of the barrel. Prior to this, the bore was formed by rod casting.

    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I April 10 2021 15: 52
      +6
      Maritz (Moritz) did not invent the "whole" technology for drilling gun barrels! He introduced horizontal drilling technology by using horizontal drilling machines! And vertical drilling machines were used before!
      1. Undecim
        Undecim April 10 2021 17: 38
        +6
        Applied to France, he developed and implemented everything "in general", first vertical drilling, then horizontal. In those distant times, as now, such technologies were not shared and each country "discovered" for itself.
        For example, for Britain such a "discovery" was made by John Wilkinson.

        Horizontal drilling, technically, was not invented by Maritz.

        This is from the encyclopedia De la pirotechnia Biringuccio, 1540.
  6. kalibr
    kalibr April 10 2021 07: 36
    +4
    Very good material, just against the background of articles about Austerlitz!
  7. kalibr
    kalibr April 10 2021 07: 42
    +6
    Yes, but still I would like "pictures" with guns ...
    1. Richard
      Richard April 10 2021 10: 11
      +6
      In August there was an excellent, well-illustrated article on VO about Napoleonic artillery - "Artillery of the Conqueror of Europe"
      link: https: //topwar.ru/174356-artillerija-pokoritelja-evropy.html
      Vyacheslav Olegovich, by any chance do you remember who the author is? wink
      1. kalibr
        kalibr April 10 2021 11: 22
        +5
        Quote: Richard
        Do you remember who the author is?

        Unfortunately no! By old age, the monkey has become a weak head. "Whose shoe? Mine !!!" My article, it turns out ... Oh, old age is not a joy.

        But I wrote about the "pictures" meaning that a person will find something else.
        1. Sergey Valov
          Sergey Valov April 10 2021 15: 54
          +1
          https://sheba.spb.ru/za/artilleria-1938.htm - одна из первых моих книг по которым я учился читать. Картинок там немеряно.
          1. Richard
            Richard April 10 2021 16: 39
            +4
            Did you learn to read from "Artillery" by Vladimir Pavlovich Vnukov?
            Who, back in 1935, predicted that in the near future, powder cannons would give way to electric ones, firing hundreds of kilometers, and described their principle of operation.


            I sincerely envy you that you were holding such a rarity in your hands. In the 80s, I only read a fuzzy, blurry copy of it, sewn by a colleague from dark orange xerox paper. I had to strain my eyes, but the book was worth it
            1. Sergey Valov
              Sergey Valov April 10 2021 16: 46
              +1
              I still have it on the shelf and I held it in my hands 20 minutes ago. By the way, in this series there were also Tanks, Your Wings and Flying in the Clouds. I also have the last two.
              1. Richard
                Richard April 10 2021 16: 53
                +2
                There are no words
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish April 10 2021 18: 40
                  +1
                  Hello Dima. hi
                  I also have this tome, as a child I exchanged it in the school library for a collection of no less weight "World of Adventures". I did it without asking and received a reprimand from my parents. I also have a second, post-war edition, presented by a friend of my father, but the drawings there are of lower quality.
              2. mr.ZinGer
                mr.ZinGer April 10 2021 21: 10
                0
                Please, what is this series in more detail?
                1. Sergey Valov
                  Sergey Valov April 10 2021 21: 59
                  +1
                  These are books of the same type, I have three, about the fourth, Tanks, I only heard from my father, they were published before the war. The books are written in a very light language, the level is from about 10 years old and above, but as an adult I read them with pleasure, it is difficult to call them children. The books are very richly illustrated. The first one has already been mentioned above. For aviation, this is a translation of the American edition:
                  Assen Jordanov, Your Wings, M., 1937.
                  Assen Jordanov, Flying in the Clouds, M. 1940.
                  If you need more information do not hesitate to ask.
                  Sincerely.
                  1. mr.ZinGer
                    mr.ZinGer April 10 2021 22: 57
                    0
                    Thank you!
                    Assen Jordanov is the creator of the DC-3 and B-29, went to the Internet, I can find these books.
            2. John22
              John22 April 14 2021 08: 49
              0
              There is another similar book with the same name, which tells the story of the arrangement of guns and shots. Author V.A. Nadin and others. Issue 1972, ed. DOSAAF.
    2. Catfish
      Catfish April 10 2021 18: 41
      +1
      Hi, Vyacheslav! hi Yes, the article looks rather pale, unlike yours. smile
  8. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh April 10 2021 20: 24
    0
    Very interesting and informative article. About structure, quantity
    usually they write little.
    Are fond of performance characteristics