Military Review

Cons "Berkut" and "Dvina": on the first Soviet air defense systems S-25 and S-75

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Cons "Berkut" and "Dvina": on the first Soviet air defense systems S-25 and S-75

Development aviation in the post-war period, demanded from the world armies and new solutions in the field of air defense. Given the progress in aircraft construction and the appearance of aircraft with jet engines, the old anti-aircraft artillery could no longer fully ensure the safety of the army and civilian objects from air strikes.


SAM S-25 "Berkut": creation and disadvantages


In Soviet Union история anti-aircraft missile systems began in the 1950s. In August 1950, the Soviet leadership decided to create an air defense system that would use missiles, not artillery, and would have an advanced radar network. All questions on the organization of the updated air defense were taken over by the Third Main Directorate under the Council of Ministers of the USSR. The curator of the department was personally Marshal of the Soviet Union Lavrenty Beria. So the development of a new anti-aircraft missile system "Berkut" began. Interestingly, the chief designer of the Berkut was the son of Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria Sergo.

The system was adopted in 1955, after the death of I.V. Stalin, and L.P. Beria. Anti-aircraft missile system "Berkut" could hit a target at a speed of 1500 km / h at an altitude of 20 km, at a distance of 35 km to the target. According to many military historians, the Berkut air defense system for the 1950s was the most advanced air defense system capable of detecting and hitting targets.

However, it soon became clear that the anti-aircraft missile system also has very tangible disadvantages.

First, the Berkut air defense missile system turned out to be very expensive in terms of creation and maintenance. Accordingly, only Moscow could cover the complex, because of the high cost, even work on creating a complex to cover Leningrad, not to mention other cities of the USSR, was curtailed.

Secondly, the Berkut air defense missile system was not mobile, and this feature turned it into an excellent target for an enemy strike in the event of an armed conflict. Following the disabling of the system, the city was already defenseless against enemy aircraft.

Thirdly, the Berkut air defense missile system was designed to protect against the impact of a large number of bombers, but by the time it entered service, the tactics of using bomber aviation had changed: now bombers operated in small units, therefore, they could be detected, and it became more difficult to reflect the blows.

Nevertheless, despite the shortcomings, the complex for several decades, up to the 1980s, provided cover for the sky over the Soviet capital. Only thirty years after its creation, it was removed from the armament of the USSR air defense.

S-75: the first mobile complex in mass production


Following the creation of the Berkut, Soviet designers, trying to avoid its shortcomings, began to develop a mobile anti-aircraft missile system. Work on its creation began in 1953 and was carried out by the same KB-1 A.A. Raspletin and the OKB-2 operating within it, headed by P.D. Grushin.


SAM S-75 in Egypt, 1985

To create a mobile S-75 air defense system, the developments of the Berkut air defense system were used. The S-75 used a V-750 rocket with 2 stages - a launch and a sustainer. Also, the SM-63 launcher and the PR-11 transport-loading vehicle were developed. In 1957, the S-75 air defense system was put into service. The complex had three modifications - "Volkhov", "Desna", "Dvina".

The purpose of creating the S-75 was to ensure the mobility of the air defense system and reduce the cost of producing and maintaining anti-aircraft missile systems. During the Cold War, the S-75 was also in demand in other countries: the Soviet Union exported air defense systems to Algeria, Vietnam, Egypt, Iraq, Libya, Yugoslavia, Syria and many other countries. Throughout its history, the S-75 air defense system has participated in many conflicts, including the Vietnam War, the Arab-Israeli Wars and the Persian Gulf War. I must say, he has proven himself very well.

However, already in the years of the Vietnam War, certain shortcomings of the S-75 were revealed. So, by 1968 the number of missiles needed to hit one target increased - up to 12-15 missiles per target, which increased the cost of using the complex. In addition, the number of missile falls as a result of not hitting targets has also increased. This entailed human casualties.

Nevertheless, for that time, the S-75 remained truly advanced air defense systems. The situation began to change in the 1980s in connection with further progress in the field of aircraft construction and missile weapons. The S-25 and S-75 were replaced by the S-125 "Neva", S-200 "Angara", S-300, S-400 air defense systems. The S-500 air defense missile systems also come with completely different performance indicators.
Author:
Photos used:
Wikipedia / SSgt. David Nolan - http: //www.defenseimagery.mi
37 comments
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  1. rocket757
    rocket757 April 5 2021 13: 04
    +2
    Nevertheless, for that time, the S-75 remained truly advanced air defense systems. The situation began to change in the 1980s in connection with further progress in the field of aircraft construction and missile weapons.
    The process of confrontation, shield and sword, was launched once and will not stop .... never, probably.
    1. KKND
      KKND April 5 2021 13: 07
      +7
      Quote: rocket757
      The process of confrontation, shield and sword, was launched once and will not stop .... never, probably.

      Virtuals on the network will never run out. The process has started.
      The article is very short and weak. Here is the author, learn from a plush doll how to talk about such systems.
  2. Holuay T.O
    Holuay T.O April 5 2021 13: 04
    0
    С-25 CARRYING BATTLE SURVEY UNTIL 1986
    He had a strong side, a platoon with a Nuclear warhead
    Berkut's feathers reliably guarded the Moscow sky, a breakthrough was ruled out
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I April 6 2021 04: 57
      +2
      Quote: Holuay T.O.
      Nuclear warhead

      In addition to the high-explosive and nuclear warhead, they also made a "multi-cumulative" warhead ... yes
  3. tralflot1832
    tralflot1832 April 5 2021 13: 20
    +4
    With 75 this is a legend !!! What they just did not shoot down. From Vietnam to Israel. I have the honor to live in glod, with the man who pressed the start button over Cuba !!!
    1. tralflot1832
      tralflot1832 April 6 2021 06: 34
      -1
      The name of the pilot u 2 Rudolph Anderson. No figs to fly where the guys from the air defense are sitting.
  4. NDR-791
    NDR-791 April 5 2021 13: 51
    +9
    However, it soon became clear that the anti-aircraft missile system also has very tangible disadvantages.
    It is so, it is of course. Unless you remember that the first warship was a simple log. And we can also say that the bow has a big minus - it is inferior to the AK in terms of rate of fire and range. I think the article should not have been called that, but simply "History of the first Soviet air defense systems S-25 and S-75". Although this is not enough for history.
  5. Runway
    Runway April 5 2021 13: 56
    +7
    The last paragraph is the pearl of the note. It will be a revelation for the author that in the 60s, the country's air defense air defense brigades were formed according to the principle of a "puff pie" - 200, 75 and 125 complexes.
  6. mark1
    mark1 April 5 2021 13: 57
    +1
    The S-25 was, of course, expensive, but it was also multi-channel (up to 20 targets!) And this was the last line of defense of the capital, and in front of it were still (in circumference) 4 air defense corps! Everything worked perfectly together.
    1. mark1
      mark1 April 5 2021 15: 09
      0
      Quote: mark1
      (around the circle)

      By sector
    2. mvg
      mvg April 5 2021 17: 56
      -1
      Everything worked perfectly together.

      Did you check it yourself? Or who participated in a real battle? All air defense zones, built according to Soviet canons, all lost in their mini-tournaments with aviation. Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq twice, Yugoslavia, Karabakh, Georgia ... But everything worked "perfect"
      1. mark1
        mark1 April 5 2021 18: 03
        +8
        Quote: mvg
        Did you check it yourself?

        Believe it or not - I checked (participated). In the Arctic -86 for example. None of them broke through to Moscow, although the North-West shook slightly.
        You do not understand the subject of the conversation, my friend - the country's Soviet air defense system was the most effective in the world. And we didn’t miss Rust, but we didn’t.
        1. Maki Avellevich
          Maki Avellevich April 6 2021 06: 27
          +1
          Quote: mark1
          You do not understand the subject of the conversation, my friend - the country's Soviet air defense system was the most effective in the world.

          The Syrians will confirm from 1982.
          1. mark1
            mark1 April 6 2021 06: 42
            0
            So i say
            Quote: Maki Avellievich
            You do not understand the subject of the conversation,

            and the circumstances of what was happening. Do not take into account such an important factor as the depth of defense and that an inept user and a member will easily break.
      2. Vikxnumx
        Vikxnumx April 5 2021 18: 52
        0
        Did you check it yourself? Or who participated in a real battle? All air defense zones, built according to Soviet canons, all lost in their mini-tournaments with aviation. Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq twice, Yugoslavia, Karabakh, Georgia ... But everything worked "perfect"
        \ And yes !!! +
        Any air defense system (computer, etc.) can be overloaded ....
        And don't poke Ebiet here! There God's chosen ones washed themselves with kerosene ...
      3. Andrey sh
        Andrey sh 12 May 2021 21: 19
        0
        And how the American complexes showed themselves - in Saudi Arabia they did not even notice the attack ...
      4. Sheridan
        Sheridan 15 May 2021 18: 29
        0
        Shit, Andryukha, money business?
  7. YOUR
    YOUR April 5 2021 14: 02
    +8
    Weak article.
    At that time, the cost was not particularly looked at. Perhaps more money than the complex itself was invested in the arrangement of towns, positions and roads. The roads for the C-25 are still in use.
    The main disadvantage of the C-25 is the minimum target hit height. For the first releases, this is 3 km, after upgrading 1.5 km.
    The same for the S-75, the first releases, the minimum target hitting height is 1 km, then, modernization and the minimum target hitting height of 300 m. In Vietnam, the Americans quickly found the weak point of the air defense system and switched to raids at low altitudes. Plus a fairly large "funnel", the minimum range is 7 km. Those. "funnel" with a diameter of 14 km where the target could not be fired upon.
    1. mark1
      mark1 April 5 2021 15: 06
      -1
      Quote: YOUR
      The main disadvantage of the S-25 is

      The main disadvantage of the S-25 is the lack of intelligible modernization. for example, it was possible to compile the multichannel S-25 with the S-75 air defense system. Both systems are close enough to each other and, if the Customer so desired, the issue could be solved relatively inexpensively. The link that any normal modernization was economically unprofitable due to the limited use of the S-25 is rather doubtful due to the status of a protected object. The high fire efficiency of the complex is worth a lot.
      1. YOUR
        YOUR April 6 2021 04: 00
        +5
        What do you mean, these are completely different systems. Even the element base on which these complexes are assembled is different. In the C-75, miniature radio tubes were used to the full, in the C-25 there were such pots, on the radiators of cooling of other radio tubes it was possible to boil a kettle. To alter, use a different element base ... yes, it is cheaper to create a new complex. This is a small part of the differences and obstacles to combining these complexes.
        But nothing goes unnoticed. Without these air defense systems there would be no S-125, S-200, S-300, S-400 experience is accumulating.
        1. mark1
          mark1 April 6 2021 06: 32
          -1
          Quote: YOUR
          To alter, use a different element base ... yes, it is cheaper to create a new complex.

          Well, yes, this is written in books, I read it. Well, firstly, not cheaper (we are talking about the 60s and early 70s) But here is another thing - to pair the existing multichannel radio command control system with a serial complex, at the output would get high fire performance at medium and high altitudes and the possibility of using at low altitudes for relatively small money + the prospect of further development of serial S-75 towards multichannel.
  8. Ros 56
    Ros 56 April 5 2021 14: 29
    0
    Ilya seems to be feeling unwell after the weekend, well, it is clear and understandable to any in the slightest degree of knowledge that any newly developed weapon has a lot of shoals and shortcomings, which are corrected in the course of experimental operation, and in fact, serial samples.
  9. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I April 5 2021 14: 30
    +10
    Well, well ... from the first lines it is noticeable that this is a highly simplified superficial article ... no ... not an article ... a summary of the "read book" ... a synopsis! I wanted to comment ... but immediately said to myself: "Stop! What is there to comment on? Here it is necessary to add 2/3 of the article! Comment on the abstract? No really!" ...
    PS It is worthy of commenting on the present articles (!) Of Linnik S. Shpakovsky O., Klimova M. ... Try to find something else that can be added to the comments to these detailed articles that cover many nuances! But comment on the synopsis? Dismiss! ...
    1. Niko
      Niko April 5 2021 15: 15
      +5
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      Well, well ... from the first lines it is noticeable that this is a highly simplified superficial article ... no ... not an article ... a summary of the "read book" ... a synopsis! I wanted to comment ... but immediately said to myself: "Stop! What is there to comment on? Here it is necessary to add 2/3 of the article! Comment on the abstract? No really!" ...
      PS It is worthy of commenting on the present articles (!) Of Linnik S. Shpakovsky O., Klimova M. ... Try to find something else that can be added to the comments to these detailed articles that cover many nuances! But comment on the synopsis? Dismiss! ...

      I agree, I will only add that the article is not just superficial, but also SHORTENED to the limit. You can write superficially (the audience is different, someone also needs an educational program), but here ... even the level of the educational program is far from
    2. not main
      not main April 6 2021 01: 05
      0
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      Well, well ... from the first lines it is noticeable that this is a highly simplified superficial article ... no ... not an article ... a summary of the "read book" ... a synopsis! I wanted to comment ... but immediately said to myself: "Stop! What is there to comment on? Here it is necessary to add 2/3 of the article! Comment on the abstract? No really!" ...
      PS It is worthy of commenting on the present articles (!) Of Linnik S. Shpakovsky O., Klimova M. ... Try to find something else that can be added to the comments to these detailed articles that cover many nuances! But comment on the synopsis? Dismiss! ...

      Let me disagree! First, you entered the heading of "opinions", not "analytics" or weapons. So, be it as it may, and more indulgent. The man expressed his opinion! And if you are more professional, then at least do not offend. Reading is disgusting.
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I April 6 2021 04: 46
        +2
        Quote: non-primary
        Reading is disgusting.

        Well, that is so immediately and disgusting! This article is rather not disgusting to read. In Soviet times, there was a magazine called "Military Knowledge" for schoolchildren playing Zarnitsa ... young soldiers ... This article is on the level of that magazine! You'd better read jokes ... like: "Oh, I don't like Chingachgook! Don't like it ... don't eat! "
    3. zyablik.olga
      zyablik.olga April 6 2021 08: 22
      +2
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      It is worthy of commenting on the present articles (!) Of Linnik S. Shpakovsky O., Klimova M. ... Try to find something else that can be added to the comments to these detailed articles covering many nuances! But comment on the synopsis? Dismiss! ...

      The authors listed by you, before writing an article, deeply study the material, and have an idea of ​​what they are writing about. This material is clearly many times lower than the level of the above authors.
  10. rozman
    rozman April 5 2021 19: 10
    0
    It was necessary to say about the "affected zones", considering the progress of the air defense system
  11. Aviator_
    Aviator_ April 5 2021 20: 51
    +2
    The topic is interesting, but the article is more than scanty. The impression that the student wrote half an hour before the lesson.
  12. bbss
    bbss April 5 2021 22: 11
    +2
    The S-75 is of course mobile, but this mobility is achieved with a soldier's hump. Collapse - unfold a big hassle. I happened to participate.
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I April 6 2021 04: 52
      +3
      Quote: bbss
      S-75 of course mobile

      Once, in one article I read the expression: "semi-stationary ..."! wink
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA April 6 2021 19: 00
        +2
        Quote: Nikolaevich I
        Once, in one article I read the expression: "semi-stationary ..."!

        I immediately remembered the "Instructions for the reader of scientific articles" from "Physics are joking" with the decoding of traditional, commonly used expressions:
        "... was accidentally slightly damaged during operation ..." (Dropped to the floor.)
        ".... Handled with extreme care ..." (They did not drop it on the floor.)
        "Automatic device ..." (Has a switch.)
        "... a circuit on transistors ..." (There is a semiconductor diode.)
        "... semi-portable ..." (Provided with a handle.)
        "... portable ..." (Supplied with two handles.)
        smile
  13. O. Bender
    O. Bender April 6 2021 06: 00
    +4
    The author about the consumption of missiles on one target, to put it mildly, went too far. At the beginning of combat use, the effect of the C75 was sufficient, but the Merikos did not sleep in the shafts, and the shrikes and tactics changed. But this system poured the US Air Force decently. library, a funny book about the use of air defense systems in local wars with conclusions and generalization of combat experience. The author would have read it, but there is a stamp.
    1. Sergey Sfiedu
      Sergey Sfiedu April 6 2021 16: 07
      0
      Those little books are also not the height of the truth, they were written from one-sided sources.
      1. Sheridan
        Sheridan 15 May 2021 18: 33
        0
        Don't be silly. Behind these books are the lives of our people. Don't listen to the White Ticket anymore.
  14. Toucan
    Toucan April 6 2021 06: 45
    +3
    The article is very superficial negative
    [1957, the S-75 air defense system was put into service.

    Dear author, in 1957 was adopted SAM SA-75, which had significant differences from the C-75.
    However, already in the years of the Vietnam War, certain shortcomings of the S-75 were revealed.

    In Vietnam, the CA-75M was replaced. Maybe it's better to write about what you know a little about?
  15. kytx
    kytx April 7 2021 06: 43
    0
    this is not an article
    some announcement