Military Review

How specialists from Junkers, Heinkel, BMW promoted the Soviet jet aircraft industry after the war.

65
How specialists from Junkers, Heinkel, BMW promoted the Soviet jet aircraft industry after the war.

After the end of the Great Patriotic War, in accordance with the decision of the Crimean Conference on the territory of Germany, it was forbidden to carry out work on military topics. In the Soviet zone of occupation, they were carried out in an atmosphere of complete secrecy, but the Allies knew about it. By a decree of the Council of Ministers of April 17, 1946, it was ordered to transport the most valuable German specialists in aircraft, engines and instruments to specially trained aviation enterprises. In September 1946, 3558 specialists, together with their families, were delivered to the enterprises of the aviation industry in the Moscow and Kuibyshev areas. They were followed by trains with machines, equipment, transport and even drawing boards, tables and plumbing fixtures.


Creation of a base for the work of German specialists


84 aviation enterprises dismantled in Germany with a total of 123 thousand equipment units were transferred to the Ministry of the Aviation Industry. At the places where specialists were hired, intensive training was carried out - the workshops of factories were restored and expanded, dwelling houses were repaired, and Finnish houses were built. At the same time, the task was set to expand the airfield at LII so that jet aircraft built by the Germans could be tested there.

The aircraft designers were assembled at the pilot plant No. 1 on the basis of the former plant No. 458 in the village of Podberez'e, Kimrsky district, about 100 km north of Moscow (Dubna). There, OKB-1 was created, headed by the former head of the Junkers pilot production company, Dr. Baade.

Specialists in turbojet engines were sent to experimental plant No. 2 on the basis of plant No. 145 in the village of Upravlenchesky near Kuibyshev (OKB-2, headed by engineer Russing). Instrument specialists (OKB-3, headed by Lertes) were also housed at this plant due to the limited possibilities for their placement in Podberez'e. Small groups of engine engineers were sent to factories No. 456 in Khimki and No. 500 in Tushino. The factories were equipped mainly with German captured equipment.

The basis of OKB-1 was formed by the employees of the aircraft department of the Junkers firm in Dessau. The deputy chief designer was Freitag, a graduate of the University of Göttingen. The group of leading OKB-1 employees included the author of the Ju 287 bomber project Wokke, the chief engineer of the Junkers plant Hazelof, and the head of the aerodynamics department of the Junkers company, Dr. Bockhaus.

The OKB-2 consisted of employees of several firms. Ressing supervised the design work, his deputies were the former head of the Siebel structure department Heinsen and the Soviet engineer Bereznyak. Among the most qualified German specialists of OKB-2, one should also name the leading specialist in aerodynamics of the Heinkel company, Gunther.

At OKB-1, the main task was to continue the design and experimental work begun in Germany in 1945-1946 to develop new types of jet aircraft, including those with a forward swept wing, and an experimental supersonic flying laboratory.

OKB-2 had to continue work on the creation of forced samples of serial German turbojet engines Jumo-004 and BMW-003 and more powerful Jumo-012 and BMW-018, and the Jumo-022 turboprop engine, which was installed under the NK-2M brand in the middle 1950s on airplanes An-8, Tu-91. OKB-3 was instructed to continue the autopilot work begun in Germany.

At plant No. 500 in Tushino, a group from Dessau under the leadership of Gerlach was supposed to continue work on the Jumo 224 (M-224) aviation diesel engine and organize the production of jet engines based on the English Derwent-5 jet engine. Experimental engines based on Derwent-5 under the RD-500 brand were successfully developed and manufactured.

At plant No. 456 in Khimki, rocket engine specialists were to master the manufacture of a V-2 rocket engine, designated RD-100. Soviet designers proceeded to further boost it in terms of thrust and developed the RD-101 with a thrust of 37 tons and the RD-103 with a thrust of 44 tons. However, German specialists were not allowed to these works. And in the Glushko Design Bureau, they began to develop a new powerful oxygen-kerosene engine, the design of which was based on the backlog of domestic developments of the 30s and 40s.

In addition to aviation and engine-building design bureaus, in 1947 in Moscow was created "Special Bureau No. 1" (SB-1), whose chief engineer was appointed Sergei Beria, the son of the almighty Lavrenty Beria. In August 1950, it was transformed into KB-1, which was entrusted with the creation of the Moscow air defense system - the Berkut system, later renamed the S-25 system. Lavrenty Beria, using his capabilities, transported the entire German company "Askania", which was developing control systems for the German V-1 and V-2 missiles during the war. Subsequently, KB-1 became the Almaz-Antey concern, which developed the S-25, S-75, S-125, S-300, S-400 anti-aircraft missile systems.

Life of German specialists


The largest German colonies were near Kuibyshev and Moscow. In Administrative, together with 755 German specialists, 1355 people from their families arrived from Germany, and in Podberez'e - about five hundred specialists and about a thousand members of their families.

All specialists had to be provided with comfortable housing, with which there were serious problems, there was not enough housing for their employees. This issue was resolved with the help of the government. The necessary funds were allocated, a batch of Finnish houses was purchased, military construction detachments were sent to the places to restore and repair housing, the Ministry of Defense relocated two military units to other areas, one of the sanatoriums was allocated for housing. It was necessary to evict the employees of the factories from a number of houses and move them to other tenants in the order of compaction. As a result, all German specialists were provided with housing, they were provided with apartments in brick, wooden houses and purchased Finnish houses.

Over time, the life of German specialists improved, they were paid one and a half to two times more than Soviet specialists of the same level, closed grocery stores were created for them, where access for the common population was closed. Under the existing rationing system, German families received food ration cards with a large food content, and special halls were assigned to them in canteens. Specialists working in Moscow in SB-1, accompanied by security officers, could visit one of the best Moscow grocery stores - Eliseevsky. For schoolchildren in secondary school, classes with teaching in German were allocated, for preschool children, kindergartens were organized, where the wives of German specialists worked.

In places of compact residence of specialists, German communities were created that were engaged in social work on organizing leisure - trips to nature, studying the Russian language in circles, collective visits to theaters in Moscow and Kuibyshev, participation in a German symphony orchestra, amateur performances and sports sections. They were allowed to purchase radios and listen to foreign radio stations without restrictions. They remained citizens of Germany, they were forbidden to leave the territory of the settlements without special permission or without an escort.

At the initial stage, there was suspicion in the relationship between Soviet and German workers, and private communication with Germans outside the work environment was prohibited. But gradually the relationship became normal. Soviet engineers initially believed that the Germans would not share their experience with us and would engage in sabotage. However, they willingly shared their experience, worked very conscientiously, even when they did not agree with the order of the work being done.

Jet aircraft development


Of particular interest is the organization of the development by the Germans of new jet aircraft, in which they have advanced quite far. Prototypes of aircraft and engines were delivered from Germany - aircraft EF-131, EF-126, Siebel 346, engines Jumo 004C, Jumo 012 (5 units), BMW 003C (7 units), BMW 018, Walter 109– 509 (4 copies). "Siebel 346" and EF-126 were transferred to TsAGI for blowing in a wind tunnel, three BMW 003C engines were sent to the Mikoyan Design Bureau, the rest of the equipment was delivered to pilot plants No. 1 and No. 2.

In the spring of 1947, plant No. 1 was instructed to conduct flight tests of the EF-131 bomber, the EF-346 experimental supersonic aircraft and the EF-126 jet attack aircraft with a turboprop engine, and also to manufacture and test two prototypes of the EF-1948 bomber by September 132.

In 1947, LII conducted flight tests of the EF-126 attack aircraft and the first jet bomber in the USSR, the EF-131, with six triple under-wing engines and a forward swept wing. In October 1947, due to the ban on the stay of foreign specialists at the facilities operating secret equipment, the tests of German aircraft at the LII were ordered to be stopped, and the aircraft and the specialists themselves were returned to plant No. 1. EF-126 and EF-131 stood for several months. at the airfield under the snow. When the aircraft were ready for testing in June 1948, work on these aircraft was discontinued, and the development of the most promising of the German aircraft, the EF-132 long-range bomber, was canceled.


Bomber EF-131

This decision was caused by the appearance in the USSR of a new generation of turbojet engines with better characteristics compared to German engines - AM-TRDK-01 designed by Mikulin and TR-1 designed by Cradle. The EF-131 with "clusters" of low-power "Jumo" under the wings and the EF-126 with an unreliable and uneconomical turboprop were already obsolete machines. Work on the supersonic EF-346 was continued.

The main theme of OKB-1 in 1948 was the construction and testing of the EF-140 bomber, which was a modification of the EF-131 aircraft with the installation of two Mikulin AM-TRDK-01 engines and the use of more powerful weapons. The plane was converted from a six-engine into a twin-engine one. The nacelles were attached to the underside of the wing. The work was carried out as an initiative project of OKB-1.


Bomber EF-140

In September 1948, the EF-140 was fully prepared for flight, tests took place at the airfield in Teply Stan. In May 1949, factory tests of the aircraft were completed, it reached a maximum speed of 904 km / h and a flight range of 2000 km. In connection with the successful tests of the Tu-14 front-line bomber, state tests of the EF-140 were not carried out, OKB-1 was instructed to convert the aircraft into a long-range reconnaissance aircraft "140-R".

In 1949, factory tests of the "140-R" were carried out, which revealed large wing vibrations. After the modifications, the tests continued, but the vibration of the wing did not stop. In July 1950, it was decided to stop all work on the "140-R". This was the last aircraft with a forward-swept wing created in the USSR, TsAGI specialists came to the conclusion that it was undesirable to use such a wing in aircraft construction.

The last work of OKB-1 was the creation of a front-line bomber "150" with a conventional swept wing. The fundamental difference between this aircraft was that it was a completely new design, developed with the involvement of the achievements of aviation science and technology of the second half of the 1940s.

The prototype "150" was the RB-2 bomber project, developed at the initiative of Baade in 1948. According to calculations, the maximum speed of this 38-ton aircraft should have been about 1000 km / h.

The bomber was a high-wing aircraft with a swept wing, T-shaped tail and two turbojet engines on pylons under the wing. It was the first aircraft built in the USSR with engines on pylons. Due to the high level of novelty of the design, the process of building the aircraft was greatly delayed, almost everything had to be made anew, often turning to the help of other factories. Only at the end of 1951 was the plane ready for testing.


Bomber "150"

The dimensions of the factory airfield did not allow testing such a heavy aircraft. And it should be transported to the new airfield, equipped in Lukhovitsy. The aircraft "150" first took to the air in September 1952 and was successfully tested. However, on May 9, 1953, while landing, test pilot Vernikov made a mistake, the plane lost speed and fell onto the runway from a height of 5-10 m.

Despite the fact that the aircraft exceeded the specified characteristics during the tests, it was not restored. According to its characteristics, "150" occupied an intermediate position between the Il-28 and Tu-16. Under the pretext of excessive range for a front-line bomber and insufficient for a strategic one, this project was closed in December 1953.

The return of German specialists to the GDR began in 1950. And by the end of 1953, most of them left the USSR. The teams of German specialists in the field of aircraft and engine building in the Soviet Union created not only prerequisites for the construction of large Tupolev and Myasishchev bombers. Their contribution was more significant in teaching their own way of thinking and the ability to bring their ideas to life for young Soviet engineers. They introduced many ideas into the development of the Soviet aircraft industry, which turned out to be very significant. Perhaps these developments became the main trophy of the Soviet Union, which allowed the dilapidated country in a matter of years to turn into a world superpower with the world's best aviation.

The further fate of the 150 bomber project is also interesting. Baade managed to convince the leadership of the GDR and Moscow of the advisability of starting the development and production of passenger aircraft in the GDR.


Passenger aircraft "Baade 152"

At the end of 1954, OKB-1 began designing a turbojet passenger aircraft. The project "150" was taken as a basis. In May 1956, OKB-1 was transferred to the GDR and incorporated into the Flugzeugwerke production association. The aircraft project was named "Baade 152". The aircraft was equipped with four Pirna 014 turbojet engines under the wings, twin-engineered in two arrow-shaped narrow pylons.

The presentation of the new aircraft took place in 1958, flight tests began, and in March 1959, the prototype suffered a plane crash, during which the crew died. The work, however, was continued. Another prototype of the aircraft was built and took off in August 1960. And an experimental batch of aircraft was laid on the stocks of the plant. But in the GDR the leadership changed, which decided not to manufacture its own aircraft, but to repair and build aircraft under a Soviet license. In addition, the Baade 152 aircraft created unhealthy competition for the Soviet Tu-104.

In the summer of 1961, work on the aircraft was discontinued. Samples of aircraft destroyed. Except for one, which is now kept in the Dresden airport museum.
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  1. apro
    apro April 6 2021 05: 09
    +12
    Considering that the work of German specialists somehow begs the achievements of the Soviet aircraft industry. Is not productive. To correctly use the German experience in aircraft building is a normal practice, especially in the difficult post-war times. When it was necessary to catch up with the Americans with Angles. To raise the technical and production level.
    Yes, there is a German trace, but it is the Soviet leadership's merit to use it correctly.
    1. Civil
      Civil April 6 2021 11: 22
      +2
      Quote: apro
      Considering that the work of German specialists somehow begs the achievements of the Soviet aircraft industry. Is not productive. To correctly use the German experience in aircraft building is a normal practice, especially in the difficult post-war times. When it was necessary to catch up with the Americans with Angles. To raise the technical and production level.
      Yes, there is a German trace, but it is the Soviet leadership's merit to use it correctly.

      In such questions, there is no reasoning at all, only tasks and goals. Therefore, Soviet engineers do not owe anything morally to foreign specialists.
  2. Torins
    Torins April 6 2021 06: 58
    +4
    Now adherents will come running "If it were not for the Germans, they would still be eating cabbage soup with bast shoes!" - So nifiga, the USSR had quite a strong school of aircraft construction, and we would have achieved a lot ourselves, but of course there was a benefit from adopting German experience. In the article, however, everything is right about this)
    1. Professor
      Professor April 6 2021 07: 36
      -5
      Quote: Torins
      Now adherents will come running "If it were not for the Germans, they would still have been eating cabbage soup with bast shoes!" - So nifiga, the USSR had quite enough strong school of aircraft construction, and we ourselves would have achieved a lot, but of course there was a benefit from adopting German experience. In the article, however, everything is right about this)

      Strong, strong ... But in some places stronger. Do not forget whose bomber was then copied 1 in 1 and whose jet engine was on the first Soviet jet fighters, Who "helped with advice" to Sergeant Kalashinov ..
      Well, the fact that the Germans in all areas were taken away everything that could not be a secret. And they did the right thing by taking them out. good

      PS
      And immediately after the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, Soviet specialists took out to the USSR all the samples of military equipment they wanted. "For information".
      1. apro
        apro April 6 2021 07: 58
        +3
        Quote: Professor
        Don't forget whose bomber was then copied 1 in 1

        And what does it change? To copy and completely build several different things. To build the entire technological chain. This is already yourself.
        Quote: Professor
        Who "helped with advice" to Sergeant Kalashinov ..

        And who is it? Schmeiser's merit in establishing the technological process of production, but not in designing the final product.
        Quote: Professor
        But in some places it is stronger.

        And no one argues. To overtake in a decade what has been created for a hundred years is a success. It can be repeated once again.
        1. mat-vey
          mat-vey April 6 2021 08: 19
          0
          Quote: apro
          Schmeiser's merit in establishing a technological production process.

          And what kind of "process" Schmeisser "established"?
        2. Professor
          Professor April 6 2021 09: 30
          -3
          Quote: apro
          And what does it change? To copy and completely build several different things. To build the entire technological chain. This is already yourself.

          Changes the alignment - who is the leader and who is the follower.

          Quote: apro
          And who is it? Schmeiser's merit in establishing the technological process of production, but not in designing the final product.

          And Kalashnikov himself spoke of something else: "he helped with advice."

          Quote: apro
          And no one argues. To overtake in a decade what has been created for a hundred years is a success. It can be repeated once again.

          A hundred years? Where did you study the history of aeronautics?
          By the way, before the revolution, Russia was not listed among the laggards in this area. The chronic lag began just then (under the rule of the Soviets) and has never been overcome. They could not "catch up and overtake America." So, there can be no talk of any 100 years.
          1. apro
            apro April 6 2021 09: 56
            +1
            Quote: Professor
            Changes the alignment - who is the leader and who is the follower

            Yes ??? on the battlefield ??? the level of Soviet aircraft construction corresponded to the level of potential opponents.
            Quote: Professor
            And Kalashnikov himself spoke of something else: "he helped with advice."

            I readily believe it myself.
            Quote: Professor
            A hundred years? Where did you study the history of aeronautics?

            Also, aircraft construction was influenced by the general level of industrial development and the scientific and production level, and in this, at the time of industrialization, the USSR lagged behind potential opponents by a century.
            Quote: Professor
            By the way, before the revolution, Russia was not listed among the laggards in this area.

            What are you? and motor-building and production of bearings. and products of the chemical industry. so minor misunderstandings ...
            Quote: Professor
            The chronic lag began just then (under the rule of the Soviets) and has never been overcome.

            This must be knocked out in stone ... and put on the grave of common sense. The USSR created the entire line of aircraft. And was able to repel all threats in an air war. And provide itself with air traffic.
            1. mat-vey
              mat-vey April 6 2021 10: 31
              +5
              Quote: apro
              Quote: Professor
              And Kalashnikov himself spoke of something else: "he helped with advice."

              I readily believe it myself.

              But you don't have to believe in the fairy tales from Ogonyok - Kalashnikov arrived in Izhevsk in the fall of 1948 to introduce his AK into production .. Before that, all design work took place in Kovrov and Shchurovo (Kolomna) ..
            2. Professor
              Professor April 6 2021 10: 57
              -3
              Quote: apro
              Yes ??? on the battlefield ??? the level of Soviet aircraft construction corresponded to the level of potential opponents.

              And on the battlefield too. The USSR was almost always in the role of catching up, sometimes lagging critically, sometimes not.

              Quote: apro
              Also, aircraft construction was influenced by the general level of industrial development and the scientific and production level, and in this, at the time of industrialization, the USSR lagged behind potential opponents by a century.

              Well, then it's even easier. The Wright brothers discovered this in an airplane building in 1903. In your opinion, the USSR has made up for 10 years in 100 years. That is, the USSR in 2003, with a titanic effort, reached the level of the bourgeois in a decade. Interesting vision of history.

              And at the time of industrialization, the USSR did NOT lag behind potential opponents by a century, but a maximum of 10-20 years. Wouldn't you say that the level of industrial development in 1935 in the USSR corresponded to that in the USA in 1835?

              And again, in 1917, Russian industry was in no way lagging behind the bourgeoisie. That is, even theoretically, the lag could not be more than 20 years at the time of the beginning of industrialization.

              Quote: apro
              What are you? and motor-building and production of bearings. and products of the chemical industry. so minor misunderstandings ...

              Yes Yes. Exactly. RI was integrated at that time into the world economy and the level of industrial development corresponded to the standards of that time. For example, the pace of construction of railways before the revolution was never achieved under the USSR. I generally keep quiet about the quality. The Tsar's tunnels still do not leak.

              Quote: apro
              This must be knocked out in stone ... and put on the grave of common sense. The USSR created the entire line of aircraft. And was able to repel all threats in an air war. And provide itself with air traffic.

              Where is the contradiction? The USSR created the entire line of aircraft, was able to repel all threats in an air war and provide itself with air traffic, and at the same time it was chronically lagging behind. Do you understand, someone drove Mercedes and BMWs, and someone on Zaporozhets "providing automobile communication"? It seems that there is no difference on paper, but it is.
              That is why the Soviet aviation industry could not stand the competition when it entered the open market.
              1. apro
                apro April 6 2021 11: 18
                0
                Quote: Professor
                And on the battlefield too. The USSR was almost always in the role of catching up, sometimes lagging critically, sometimes not.

                Ie the USSR was constantly under direct military threat ???

                Quote: Professor
                Well, then it's even easier.

                It should not be simpler, it should be more precise. The lag was outlined even during the first bourgeois revolutions, when the technical and organizational, industrial and educational potential of the advanced countries exceeded that of the r., On the legacy of which the USSR was created.
                Quote: Professor
                Exactly. RI was integrated at that time into the world economy

                What caused the collapse of ri.
                Quote: Professor
                That is why the Soviet aviation industry could not withstand competition when it entered the open market.

                And he needed it ??? The USSR created its own sphere of influence. And it was enough for him. And the question is, where did you see the free market. And fair competition? Living in a capitalistic system, I don’t see it.
                1. Professor
                  Professor April 6 2021 12: 17
                  -5
                  Quote: apro
                  Ie the USSR was constantly under direct military threat ???

                  Rather, it was a threat to others.

                  Quote: apro
                  It should not be simpler, it should be more precise. The lag was outlined even during the first bourgeois revolutions, when the technical and organizational, industrial and educational potential of the advanced countries exceeded that of the r., On the legacy of which the USSR was created.

                  This is not true. Before the revolution, the level of industrial development of the Russian Federation corresponded to the world level.

                  Quote: apro
                  What caused the collapse of ri.

                  Not at all. The collapse of the Republic of Ingushetia occurred solely due to internal politics.

                  Quote: apro
                  And he needed it ??? The USSR created its own sphere of influence. And it was enough for him. And the question is, where did you see the free market. And fair competition? Living in a capitalistic system, I don’t see it.

                  You live in a developing country with state capitalism. That's why you don't see.
                  1. apro
                    apro April 6 2021 13: 14
                    +3
                    Quote: Professor
                    Rather, it was a threat to others.

                    Oh ... somehow, the Soviet aviation was so weak and imperfect. What posed a threat to the opponents ??? strongly ... did not expect.
                    Quote: Professor
                    It is not.

                    Of course not. French buns were cheerfully crunching in the empire. And suddenly a misfortune happened. Who would have thought ... that in terms of the level of industry they were lagging behind by an order of magnitude. And that it belonged not entirely to Russians. And they collected debts that they could not pay off. And this is strong was crippled by sovereignty.
                    Quote: Professor
                    Not at all.

                    Of course not, just not the resolution of economic problems, which greatly exacerbates internal problems.
                    Quote: Professor
                    You live in a developing country with state capitalism

                    Well, thanks enlightened. But the keyword is capitalistic. And the market decides. And the solutions are visible at every step.
                    1. Professor
                      Professor April 6 2021 13: 39
                      -2
                      Quote: apro
                      Oh ... somehow, the Soviet aviation was so weak and imperfect. What posed a threat to the opponents ??? strongly ... did not expect.

                      Even a single MiG-21 capable of carrying one missile or one bomb is and will be a threat.

                      Quote: apro
                      Of course not. French buns were cheerfully crunching in the empire. And suddenly a misfortune happened. Who would have thought ... that in terms of the level of industry they were lagging behind by an order of magnitude. And that it belonged not entirely to Russians. And they collected debts that they could not pay off. And this is strong was crippled by sovereignty.

                      You are scattering numbers without realizing it. They were either 100 years behind, or an order of magnitude. Neither is true. The revolution did not come about because of technological backwardness. Read a short course in political economy.

                      Quote: apro
                      Of course not, just not the resolution of economic problems, which greatly exacerbates internal problems.

                      The resolution of economic problems had nothing to do with the level of technological development of the country at that time. The standard of living of the population in the USSR has always been lower than that of the bourgeoisie. And before industrialization and after.

                      Quote: apro
                      Well, thanks enlightened. But the keyword is capitalistic. And the market decides. And the solutions are visible at every step.

                      No. Key words "developing" "state". You have no market. You have a state everywhere. Well, almost everywhere. recourse
                      1. apro
                        apro April 6 2021 14: 21
                        0
                        Quote: Professor
                        Even a single MiG-21

                        Even a single Soviet aircraft posed a threat. Against high-tech. In all respects its superior enemy aircraft. I have no questions on this point. Thank you.
                        Quote: Professor
                        You're scattering numbers

                        And you are not supported by words.
                        Quote: Professor
                        The revolution did not come about because of technological backwardness.

                        Basically, the level of industrialization, mechanization, and the level of motorization, the level of electrification, is comparable with the leading countries, and this is the basis of economic growth.
                        Quote: Professor
                        The resolution of economic problems had nothing to do with the level of technological development of the country at that time.

                        Yes..yes..the issue of land ownership in the west was resolved back in the 17th century, which gave impetus to the development of both industry and technology.

                        Quote: Professor
                        The standard of living of the population in the USSR has always been lower than that of the bourgeoisie. And before industrialization and after.

                        But growing up is enough for a person to feel like a person.
                        Quote: Professor
                        Key words "developing" "state"

                        Is there such a formation? Or are you inventing something ??? capitalism is either it or it is not. The key word. And the state in the capitalistic system is the conductor of the will of the capitalists. Or is there someone else ??? who has a profit from the social product ?? ?
                      2. Professor
                        Professor April 6 2021 14: 49
                        0
                        Quote: apro
                        Even a single Soviet aircraft posed a threat. Against high-tech. In all respects its superior enemy aircraft. I have no questions on this point. Thank you.

                        Even one madman with a knife on the street poses a threat to ALL of society. I am glad that there are no questions on this topic.

                        Quote: apro
                        And you are not supported by words.

                        Convinced. Back up your words about 100 years behind.

                        Quote: apro
                        Basically, the level of industrialization, mechanization, and the level of motorization, the level of electrification, is comparable with the leading countries, and this is the basis of economic growth.

                        Read a short course in political economy.

                        Quote: apro
                        Yes ... yes ... the issue of land ownership in the West was resolved back in the 17th century, which gave impetus to the development of both industry and technology

                        The resolution of economic problems had nothing to do with the level of technological development of the country at that time. Read a short course in political economy.

                        Quote: apro
                        But growing up is enough for a person to feel like a person.

                        No, not enough. That is why not one of the 350 million citizens of the USSR came to his defense in 000.

                        Quote: apro
                        Is there such a formation? Or are you inventing something ??? capitalism is either it or it is not. The key word. And the state in the capitalistic system is the conductor of the will of the capitalists. Or is there someone else ??? who has a profit from the social product ?? ?

                        Read a short course in political economy and then it will be possible to have a conversation with you. Until then, all the best to you. hi
                      3. apro
                        apro April 6 2021 15: 11
                        -2
                        Quote: Professor
                        Even one crazy man with a knife

                        Soviet crazy ?? Are you serious?
                        Quote: Professor
                        Read a short course in political economy.

                        Same to you.

                        Quote: Professor
                        Until then, all the best to you.

                        And you do not cheer.
              2. Torins
                Torins April 8 2021 12: 00
                0
                This is not true. Before the revolution, the level of industrial development of the Russian Federation corresponded to the world level.
                Yeah, so much so that during the First World War, he could not provide the front with either cartridges, or shells, or even food. I am generally silent about aircraft engines.
                1. Professor
                  Professor April 8 2021 14: 59
                  -1
                  Quote: Torins
                  This is not true. Before the revolution, the level of industrial development of the Russian Federation corresponded to the world level.
                  Yeah, so much so that during the First World War, he could not provide the front with either cartridges, or shells, or even food. I am generally silent about aircraft engines.

                  Corruption is the eternal satellite of Russia.
                  1. Siberian54
                    Siberian54 April 8 2021 16: 05
                    0
                    Are you a victim of the exam? The shells left over from the First World War and the civil war (and the tsarist reserves) were used until 1943. automatic and rifle cartridges until the summer of 42, food-16-17 years, the problem is only in the capital due to the actions of speculators and bourgeois parliamentarians who were preparing a coup in the country
                  2. Professor
                    Professor April 9 2021 07: 04
                    0
                    Quote: Siberian54
                    Are you a victim of the exam? The shells left over from the First World War and the civil war (and the tsarist reserves) were used until 1943. automatic and rifle cartridges until the summer of 42, food-16-17 years, the problem is only in the capital due to the actions of speculators and bourgeois parliamentarians who were preparing a coup in the country

                    You just confirm MY words that industrial production in pre-revolutionary Russia was at a high level.
        3. Siberian54
          Siberian54 April 7 2021 04: 55
          +1
          "PROFESSOR." dumpingleasing ..
          1. Professor
            Professor April 7 2021 06: 49
            0
            Quote: Siberian54
            "PROFESSOR." dumpingleasing ..

            No. Soviet planes were less and less allowed to enter Europe as they made noise and smoke. And in terms of profitability, they could not withstand the competition with the bourgeoisie. And this includes the availability of spare parts and how many hours a year the liner is in the air.
            1. Siberian54
              Siberian54 April 8 2021 15: 57
              0
              In addition to the "superjet" aircraft that are now trying to put on stream, these are modifications of those latest models from the USSR that "buried a used Boeing"
        4. Dmitry V.
          Dmitry V. April 9 2021 14: 08
          0
          Quote: Professor
          Well, then it's even easier. The Wright brothers discovered this in an airplane building in 1903.


          Well, it's too categorical that it was the Wrights who discovered the history of aircraft construction.
          For some reason, they first visited Mr. Gustave Whitehead (they saw his gasoline engine, which Whitehead had designed for his airplane)
          which, according to some testimonies, was 2-3 years ahead of the Wrights.

          1902 "On the afternoon of January 17, 1902, the weather looked promising. It was the day [Whitehead] and his helpers had been seeking, so they quietly took their new avion, No. 22, to the beach outside Bridgeport and started its kerosene motor. Gustave Whitehead took his place at the controls of the machine, the men gave it a preliminary push, and it trundled away on its three wheels and was off! The plane performed so admirably that its owner continued his flight for a distance of two miles over the Sound, following the shore line of the beach. The men pulled it ashore, and now Gustave Whitehead proposed to fly across the Sound.
          He took off again [and] was steadily progressing out across the Sound when it occurred to him that it might be interesting to see if he could make his machine turn. He turned the rudder slowly and drove one propeller faster than the other. Steadily and rapidly the machine came about until he was facing his starting point. As he neared his rejoicing helpers on the shore, he slowed the speed of the plane and again dropped it gently into the water. It had traveled a distance of approximately seven miles, not across the Sound, but it had made the first turn in the air so far as has been recorded. "



          and even his line is several times safer in flight than Wright's lines
    2. mat-vey
      mat-vey April 6 2021 10: 01
      -3
      Quote: Professor
      And Kalashnikov himself spoke of something else: "he helped with advice."

      Did he tell you this personally?
    3. Bad_gr
      Bad_gr April 9 2021 00: 14
      0
      Quote: Professor
      And Kalashnikov himself spoke of something else: "he helped with advice."

      "....... What was he doing here
      In fact, Hugo Schmeisser did not have a choice, not only in material terms - even if he wanted to vegetate out of work in post-war Germany, he would still be taken to the USSR - German specialists who were considered especially valuable workers who could help the Soviet Union with their knowledge or skills, they repatriated in hundreds, together with their families, regardless of their wishes (it came to curiosities - one specialist was even allowed to take a cow with him to the USSR, to which he had become attached to his soul at home). Hugo Schmeisser lived in Izhevsk from October 1946 alone, without a family. He worked at the Izhevsk plant as part of a group of German colleagues-designers, the same as himself, repatriates. Judging by the data of historians, German specialists were not involved in the development of strategically important Soviet weapons - over time, all repatriates would sooner or later have to be returned to their homeland, and no one was going to reveal the secrets of Soviet design thought to them. Schmeisser, together with his colleagues, worked in areas related to the conversion of post-war Soviet production, they advised young designers of small arms "Izhmash". Judging by the archival documents, Soviet specialists did not value Schmeisser highly - he did not have a special technical education, and he used this, constantly refusing orders. As a result, in September 1949, he was declared incapacitated as an efficient designer for Izhmash. Conspiracy historians tend to believe that this date coincides with the beginning of work on the AK-46 Mikhail Kalashnikov. Allegedly, the Soviet designer, under the leadership of a German colleague, took for his machine gun all the best that the Schmeisser rifle had. The documents state the opposite - in principle, the Germans were not included in the design teams for the creation of automatic weapons for the USSR Armed Forces. The famous Soviet weapons designer Yevgeny Dragunov recalled that Hugo Schmeisser was not at all impressive as a specialist - passive at work, elderly (he was over 60), a sick person. Schmeisser spent almost 6 years in the USSR, then he was allowed to leave for Germany. Such a long period of stay of the repatriated in the Soviet Union is associated not at all with the fact that he was especially valuable, but with the usual haphazard process of that time: there was no definite order in which of the Germans and when to send back to Germany in the USSR. In 1953, after a short life at home, Schmeisser died, in poverty and obscurity - he could not stand the operation on his lungs.
      Nikolay Syromyatnikov

      Source: What did the German gunsmith Hugo Schmeisser do in the USSR after the war
      © Russian Seven russian7.ru ..... "
      1. mat-vey
        mat-vey April 9 2021 18: 07
        0
        Quote: Bad_gr
        In reality, Hugo Schmeisser had no choice

        In fact, he volunteered himself and even headed a commission for the selection of candidates for a trip to the USSR ..
  3. Abram Ivanovich
    Abram Ivanovich April 6 2021 21: 38
    0
    Is this vacation started? Well, when it's over - to school. Quickly, decisively. Learn Russian.
  • mat-vey
    mat-vey April 6 2021 08: 20
    -1
    Quote: Professor
    Who "helped with advice" to Sergeant Kalashinov ..

    Well, and who?
  • mat-vey
    mat-vey April 6 2021 10: 34
    0
    Quote: Professor
    Don't forget whose bomber was then copied 1 in 1

    B-29 American car ... or do you have other information?
  • Vikxnumx
    Vikxnumx April 6 2021 11: 30
    +1
    Do not forget whose bomber was then copied 1 in 1 and whose jet engine was on the first Soviet jet fighters, Who "helped with advice" to Sergeant Kalashinov ..

    So the Americans dragged missiles and missile men ...
  • boris epstein
    boris epstein April 6 2021 17: 50
    +1
    Well, the Tu-4 was not quite copied from the American 1 in 1. And the engines were more powerful, and the range was greater, and instead of the Colt 12,7 mm machine guns, there were coaxial 20-mm automatic cannons. And the fundamental difference is technological. For the Soviet industry, all drawings were made not in the inch, but in the metric system. About Schmeiser and Kalashnikov. Schmeiser worked in Kovrov, and Kalashnikov in Izhevs. Before the AK Kalashnikov already had one prototype, but not an assault rifle, but a submachine gun. In AK, he repeated the principle of its automation. Yes, and the Sturmgever differs from the AK very much. In the Schmeisser, the barrel bore is locked by a skew of the bolt, and in the Kalashnikov, by turning the bolt. This is a fundamental difference.
    And to learn MT Kalashnikov was from anyone other than Schmeiser. There was such a Russian / Soviet inventor-gunsmith Vladimir Grigorievich Fedorov. Back in 1916 (the first in the world) he developed an automatic machine. Fedorov's AF assault rifle, which was in service with the Red Army until 1927. So VG Fedorov published the book "Automatic weapons."
    1. mat-vey
      mat-vey April 6 2021 17: 55
      +1
      Quote: Boris Epstein
      Schmeiser worked in Kovrov, and Kalashnikov in Izhevs.

      Everything is correct, but vice versa))
      Quote: Boris Epstein
      And to learn MT Kalashnikov was from anyone other than Schmeiser.

      Sudaev, Deikin, Fierce ...
      1. boris epstein
        boris epstein April 6 2021 18: 10
        0
        No, not the other way around. That's right, Schmeiser is in Kovrov, and Kalashnikov is in Izhevsk. There he worked all his life, and there is a monument to him.
        Yes, Sudaev designed his PPS-44 almost like a copy of a Sturmgever, but it was not adopted for service. But Kalashnikov and Sudaev are almost the same age, and Kalashnikov could not learn from Sudaev. Sudaev worked in Leningrad, and Kalashnikov in Izhevsk. In addition, Sudaev died, if I'm not mistaken, in 1946.
        1. mat-vey
          mat-vey April 6 2021 18: 15
          0
          Quote: boris epstein
          No, not the other way around. That's right, Schmeiser is in Kovrov, and Kalashnikov is in Izhevsk. There he worked all his life, and there is a monument to him.
          Yes, Sudaev designed his PPS-44 almost like a copy of a Sturmgever, but it was not adopted for service. But Kalashnikov and Sudaev are almost the same age, and Kalashnikov could not learn from Sudaev. Sudaev worked in Leningrad, and Kalashnikov in Izhevsk. In addition, Sudaev died, if I'm not mistaken, in 1946.

          UUUUUUUUUUUU - how everything is neglected ... you should start smoking from scratch ..
          Read Malimon ..
          A.A.Malimon Domestic machine guns (notes of a gunsmith tester)
          ..at least ..
          1. boris epstein
            boris epstein April 7 2021 16: 40
            0
            UUUU, how everything is started. Maybe you would like to start smoking from scratch? Encyclopedia "Small arms" A B Beetle and the book "What they shoot in the CIS". Handbook of small arms, Minsk-Moscow, Harvest, AST, 2003 Better still go on the Internet and put in the search line "Mikhail Timofeevich Kalashnikov". This is no longer Malimon.
            1. mat-vey
              mat-vey April 7 2021 17: 05
              0
              Quote: Boris Epstein
              Better yet, go to the Internet and enter into the search line "Mikhail Timofeevich Kalashnikov

              and you didn’t try to do the same about Schmeisser? Although about M.T. Kalashnikov, you wouldn’t hurt either ..
              Quote: Boris Epstein
              .This is no longer Malimon.

              For your overall development - Malimon is a direct participant in the weapons competitions of 1944-46. An employee of the NIPSVO GAU ..
              1. boris epstein
                boris epstein April 7 2021 17: 08
                0
                Precisely because he is the only one and it is impossible to check his words through other people, he has no faith. There is a proverb in the threat: "He lies as a witness."
                Yes, I also checked about Schmeiser. He did not do anything serious.
                1. mat-vey
                  mat-vey April 7 2021 17: 11
                  0
                  Quote: Boris Epstein
                  That's precisely because he is the only one

                  Have you heard anything about the test reports? Although it doesn't matter - “Scheisser in Kovrov” is enough ..
                  1. boris epstein
                    boris epstein April 7 2021 17: 30
                    0
                    Quote from the Internet. Biography of MT Kalashnikov. "In March 1948 [18], by order of the Chief Marshal of Artillery N. N. Voronov, Mikhail Kalashnikov was sent to the Izhevsk Motorcycle Plant for the author's participation in the development of technical documentation and organization of the production of the first experimental batch of his AK-47 assault rifle. The task was completed in the shortest possible time: 1500 assault rifles [18] manufactured at the Motozavod successfully passed military tests and were adopted by the Soviet Army.In 1949, the creator of the assault rifle was awarded the Stalin Prize of the first degree and the Order of the Red Star [19].

                    Later, in 2009, Kalashnikov, in an interview with a journalist of the newspaper Metro Moscow, explained the secret of the success of his machine gun [20]:

                    “The soldier made a weapon for the soldier. I myself was a private and I know well the difficulties faced in the life of a soldier ... When its design was being finalized, I visited military units, consulted with specialists. And the soldiers told me what suits them and what needs to be improved. The result is a simple, reliable and effective weapon. AK works in any conditions, fires flawlessly after being in the ground, in a swamp, and falling from a height onto a solid surface. It is very simple, this machine. But I want to say that making a simple one is sometimes much more difficult than a complex one. "
                    Subsequently, dozens of prototypes of automatic small arms were developed at the Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant on the basis of the AK design under the personal leadership of Kalashnikov. "
                    Carpets are never mentioned.
                  2. mat-vey
                    mat-vey April 7 2021 17: 36
                    0
                    Quote: Boris Epstein
                    No, not the other way around. That's right, Schmeiser is in Kovrov, and Kalashnikov is in Izhevsk.

                    Who wrote this?
                    So - Schmeisser was never in Kovrov. But Kalashnikov was. And when he arrived there, Schmeisser had already lived there since the fall of 1946 ..
              2. zenion
                zenion 28 May 2021 16: 15
                +1
                boris epstein. There are real people who swear by their mother that they could do nothing in Russia without the Germans. Without the Germans, the Russians did not know which side to eat bacon and from which end they break eggs. Precise boiling of eggs up to a second, hard-boiled, the Germans also taught the Russians. Without them, everyone cooked hard-boiled eggs as much as he wanted, there was no correct cook. It got to the point that the eggs were fried when the water boiled away and of course the eggs burned, causing a loss to the state. Here is this mischievousness in the USSR, it was able to beat the Wehrmacht to the last egg. The Germans did not know what to think. Thinking like an enemy did not help at all, the enemy did not think, but acted.
      2. clerk
        clerk April 6 2021 18: 35
        +3
        But Kalashnikov and Sudaev are almost the same age, and Kalashnikov could not learn from Sudaev. Sudaev worked in Leningrad, and Kalashnikov in Izhevsk. In addition, Sudaev died, if I'm not mistaken, in 1946.
        Sudaea is 7 years older than Kalashnikov, had a higher engineering education and graduated from the Artilleryskub Academy (against the seven-year and sergeant courses at the MTK). And in the middle of 1943, Sudaev worked in Moscow. Kalashnikov was sent to Izhevsk in 1948
        1. mat-vey
          mat-vey April 6 2021 18: 38
          +1
          Quote: clerk
          Kalashnikov was sent to Izhevsk in 1948

          In 1948 on a business trip, finally in 1949 ..
          Considering that Sudaev was the master-mentor of Kalashnikov and their tables were next to each other ... then of course he couldn't ..)))
        2. zenion
          zenion 28 May 2021 16: 17
          0
          How could it not help if they sent notes to each other with doves. The pigeons went crazy running back and forth twice a day.
  • zenion
    zenion 28 May 2021 16: 01
    0
    Professor. Little of. When the Germans turned away, there was a children's tank on the table of the tank designer, which was made by the son of the German designer for his father's birthday, so Molotov stole it. Then the T-34 was made on it. And that designer could not understand where, the plasticine tank had gone, did the mice really gnaw. Wherever Molotov passed, the Germans lost something. It is also surprising that what was done in the USSR was not similar to what was done in Germany. Even from the ready they could not do it normally, everything was brought to mind with a broom file, a rasp. The muzzle of the tank was cut out with a pocket knife, and the shells were made on wood-cutting machines, and they were called DIP. In the workshop where I worked I was interested in one exhibit, a lathe. Very beautiful, and instead of cast iron, where you could have installed items of yellow metal, probably bronze. And finally I walked around the back of the machine, and there it says in German "made in Germany 1939". I asked the foreman, why is it not a beautiful machine? The foreman replied, he is weak and there the plain bearings can be sharpened, only a trifle. Those who worked in Sverdlovsk in the workshop two hundred and fifty at the plant saw this machine.
  • Vovk
    Vovk April 6 2021 07: 52
    -1
    It must be admitted that in the USSR the design and launch of the MiG-15, MiG-15bis, MiG-17, Il-28, Tu-95 series is more than a merit of the strong merit of German aviation specialists. A successful space program without their participation can not even be considered. It must be admitted that without German specialists and the selfless labor of Soviet specialists, there was no giant technological leap in the war industry of the USSR.
    1. Santa Fe
      Santa Fe April 6 2021 09: 48
      +3
      Google for decency, which engine was on the MIG-15 and IL-28, the history of the appearance of the Klimov VK-1 turbojet engine

      Before writing about the "strong merit" of German specialists
      1. Vovk
        Vovk April 6 2021 13: 47
        -3
        Quote: Santa Fe
        Google for decency, which engine was on the MIG-15 and IL-28, the history of the appearance of the Klimov VK-1 turbojet engine
        Before writing about the "strong merit" of German specialists

        Maybe you should not google yourself, but really talk with aircraft designers and look at jet engines live in a museum? He is 500 meters away from me.

        It will surprise you, but the adaptation of Nene-II to the realities of the USSR industry in the form of VK-1 was made with great difficulty by German and Soviet specialists.
        1. Santa Fe
          Santa Fe April 7 2021 01: 17
          0
          Licensed British Nin was installed on Russian fighters and bombers

          The question remains - what does this have to do with the Germans

          Or do you consider us backward Russian Mongols, who, even with a purchased sample, drawings and documentation, could not start production without the help of a clever German uncle

          Despite the fact that before that they defeated the Germans and independently developed and produced thousands of weapons

          Ps. Rolls Royce Nin was fundamentally different from jet BMW and Jumo with axial compressor
          1. Vovk
            Vovk April 7 2021 09: 38
            -3
            Quote: Santa Fe
            The question remains - what does this have to do with the Germans

            Because technologically the USSR lagged behind all developed countries in the world. Why do you think Stalin bent Tupolev in stupid copying of the B-29 ... and then after copying the TU-4, its characteristics did not reach the B-29 standard.

            Or do you consider us backward Russian Mongols, who, even with a purchased sample, drawings and documentation, could not start production without the help of a clever German uncle

            The simplest example, having world samples of microprocessors, drawings and documentation for some reason, only a few countries can produce modern microprocessors. The same is in aviation - "just on paper - but there were ravines."


            Despite the fact that before that they defeated the Germans and independently developed and produced thousands of weapons

            Is it possible to call a country technologically developed, which, in order to reduce technological defects for the production of weapons, massively used casting, stamping and presses. Well, it will not work out in 5-15 years to get a high technological culture in the industry - no social services. commitment and repression will not pull the country out of technological lag.


            Ps. Rolls Royce Nin was fundamentally different from jet BMW and Jumo with axial compressor

            Of course they were different, but the equipment and specialists exported from Germany made it possible to establish the production of analogues RD-10, RD-20, RD-21, taking into account the local specifics of the industry. This saved 10 years of scientific research, spurred metallurgy and industry, and allowed, at the very least, to begin the transition to jet aircraft. Even in the theory of materials and technologies, we did not have the knowledge of specialists for the production of complex technological products. The technological chain for the production of VK-1 was born in the throes of specialists from the USSR and the Germans.
      2. zenion
        zenion 28 May 2021 16: 19
        0
        Santa Fe. Their strong merit was that they did not interfere.
    2. boris epstein
      boris epstein April 6 2021 17: 55
      +2
      The MiG-15 was equipped with an NIN engine purchased in England, which the British did not manage to bring to the series. KB Klimov coped with this.
    3. zenion
      zenion 28 May 2021 15: 47
      0
      You're right! Without German specialists, the Red Army would not have been able to defeat Germany and scare the US and Nagliya to the bone.
  • Free wind
    Free wind April 6 2021 08: 02
    +3
    The silhouette of a passenger plane, B-47 and B-52 resemble that planes, not cocktails. Actually, the Germans also took part in their creation. And prefabricated panel (slotted) Finnish houses were not bought, but supplied as reparations from Finland. All seals had to be sealed with felt, where did it go, figs knows. It happened to be covered with clay and earth. They are still dating. The roofs were supplied with iron initially. Sometimes it disappeared. to see the rust was eating. Winged with boards and mat.
  • Santa Fe
    Santa Fe April 6 2021 09: 36
    -12%
    Their contribution was more significant in teaching their own way of thinking and the ability to bring their ideas to life for young Soviet engineers. They introduced many ideas into the development of the Soviet aircraft industry, which turned out to be very significant.

    I must say frankly - German developments were carefully studied, but all were found to be hopeless

    German engineering thought seemed cutting edge only for the Russians.

    In the west, Germany was considered a backward and impoverished country (and remains so to this day - a poor relative of Britain and the United States). For the confrontation with the West, German developments could not be used. Soviet jet aircraft developed and advanced technologies and engines purchased from Great Britain after the war
    1. mat-vey
      mat-vey April 6 2021 10: 08
      +7
      Quote: Santa Fe
      German engineering thought seemed cutting edge only for the Russians.

      Arkhip Mikhailovich Lulka (Ukrainian. Arkhip Mikhailovich Lulka; 1908-1984) - Soviet scientist, designer, specialist in the field of aircraft engines. Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1968), head of the Design Bureau "Saturn". Hero of Socialist Labor (1957). Laureate of the Lenin and two Stalin Prizes.
      In 1939-1941 he developed a structural scheme of a turbofan engine (dual-turbojet engine), which was the prototype of the existing schemes, designed a prototype turbofan engine with an axial compressor.
  • TermNachTer
    TermNachTer April 6 2021 12: 26
    +3
    Why not tell how they promoted jet technology and rocketry in the United States?))))
  • Simple
    Simple April 6 2021 13: 10
    +4
    Quote: Professor
    Well, the fact that the Germans in all areas were taken away everything that could not be a secret.


    When I got a job here, I "knocked off a lot of company doorsteps" in one of them, the old chief reproached me and remarked to me that the Russians were taking out all the metal-working machines. They also wanted to "expropriate" his father's firm, but the workers of that firm made them temporarily not workers.

    He showed me one of these Mauser machines. I also had to work on it.
    1. boris epstein
      boris epstein April 6 2021 17: 58
      +3
      And how much and what did the Germans plunder in the USSR during the years of occupation?
  • Basarev
    Basarev April 6 2021 17: 14
    +2
    Not only the Soviets brought in German engineers. Let us recall the famous American operation Paperclip, which was carried out precisely for this purpose.
  • Reserve buildbat
    Reserve buildbat April 6 2021 19: 49
    0
    It is very interesting where the author collected such data. Simply, according to the documents on the basis of which the book by D.A. Sobolev was written "The German trace in the history of Soviet aviation" (RIC "Aviantik, Moscow, 1996), the following picture is obtained:
    The number of aviation specialists and their family members at MAP factories:
    Plant No. 1
    OKB # 1 (chief designer Baade): Doctors - 5, designers - 116, engineers - 83, workers - 123, others - 5. Total specialists - 332, family members - 698.
    OKB # 2 (chief design. Reading): Doctors - 7, designers - 80, engineers - 34, workers - 64, others - 2. Total specialists - 187, family members - 346.
    TOTAL: Doctors - 12, designers - 196, engineers - 117, workers - 187, others - 7. Total specialists - 519, family members - 1044.
    Plant No. 2
    OKB # 1 (chief design. Washer): Doctors - 10, designers - 80, engineers - 85, workers - 172, others - 3. Total specialists - 350, family members - 628.
    OKB # 2 (chief designer Prestel): Doctors - 2, designers - 55, engineers - 50, workers - 142, others - 2. Total specialists - 251, family members - 401.
    OKB # 3 (chief designer Lertes): Doctors - 4, designers - 9, engineers - 11, workers - 36, others - 1. Total specialists - 61, family members - 82.
    TOTAL: Doctors - 16, designers - 144, engineers - 142, workers - 350, others - 6. Total specialists - 662, family members - 1111.
    Plant No. 500 (design group Gerlach): Doctors - 1, designers - 13, engineers - 2, workers - 29, others - 0. Total specialists - 45, family members - 85.
    Plant # 456 (design group Baum): Doctors - 2, designers - 0, engineers - 20, workers - 1, others - 1. Total specialists - 24, family members - 68.
    I do not mention other discrepancies in the data, not to mention the fact that the book concluded that German knowledge and technology were only useful in the field of engine building, which is also very much.

    And I ask you not to forget that, for example, the entire rocket and rocket-space theme of the United States was based on Werner von Braun.
    And the influence in aviation was by no means stronger, simply because the trophy teams of the "allies" darted across Germany and dragged everything they could, including from the Russian zone of occupation.
  • zenion
    zenion 28 May 2021 15: 39
    0
    In short, you can write this. The Soviet Union itself could not build anything. But with the help of the German designers of the Red Army, it was possible to defeat Nazi Germany. Each designer was awarded a star of the hero of social labor and a cross made of the purest uranium with diamonds.
  • Pavel57
    Pavel57 2 June 2021 20: 36
    0
    The German trace has left a real legacy in the field of turbojet engines. Although the MiG-9 flew simultaneously with the Yak-15, not without participation in the work of the Germans.