Military Review

The use of captured German 88-mm anti-aircraft guns

75
The use of captured German 88-mm anti-aircraft guns

German 88-mm cannons, also known as "Acht-Komma-Аcht Zentimeter" (eight, eight centimeters) have become the same symbol of the German weapons World War II, as a Ju 87 bomber or a Pz.Kpfw.VI Tiger Ausf.E.


Anti-aircraft 88-mm guns were used not only against aviation, with a shortage of specialized anti-tank guns, they were successfully used to combat well-protected medium and heavy tanksas well as in coastal defense.

After the defeat of Germany in the First World War, it was forbidden to have and create anti-aircraft artillery, and already built anti-aircraft guns were subject to destruction. In this regard, work on the design and implementation of new anti-aircraft guns in metal was carried out in Germany secretly or through shell companies in other countries. For the same reason, all anti-aircraft guns, designed in Germany before 1933, had the designation "arr. 18". Thus, in case of inquiries from representatives of England and France, the Germans could answer that these were not new weapons, but old ones, created during the First World War.

In the second half of the 1920s, when designing in Germany anti-aircraft guns designed to counter high-altitude (by the standards of those years) air targets, the 75-mm caliber was initially considered. Work on such artillery systems was carried out by Rheinmetall-Borsig AG and Friedrich Krupp AG.

In the late 1920s, Rheinmetall-Borsig AG created several experimental 75 mm guns with barrel lengths of 55 and 59 calibers. However, these anti-aircraft guns were not adopted by the Reichswehr. As part of military cooperation, the gun, known as the 7,5 cm Flak L / 59, was offered to the USSR.

The original samples, made in Germany, were tested at the Research Anti-Aircraft Range in February-April 1932. In the same year, this gun, converted to a caliber 76,2 mm, was put into service in the USSR under the designation “76 mm anti-aircraft gun mod. 1931 " (3-K).


76-mm anti-aircraft gun arr. 1931

Anti-aircraft gun "arr. 1931 " was a completely modern weapon with good ballistic characteristics for that time. Its carriage with four folding beds provided circular fire, with a projectile weight of 6,5 kg, its height reach was 9 km. Rate of fire - 15 rds / min. The mass in the firing position is 3750 kg, in the stowed position - 4970 kg.

In 1930, the designers of Friedrich Krupp AG, working in Sweden, in agreement with Bofors, created the 7,5 cm Flak L / 60 anti-aircraft gun. In Sweden, the gun was mass-produced under the designation Bofors 75 mm Model 1929.


75-mm anti-aircraft gun 7,5 cm Flak L / 60

This 75-mm gun with a semi-automatic bolt and a cruciform platform was not officially accepted into service in Germany, but was actively produced for export. In 1939, the unrealized samples were requisitioned by the German Navy and used in the anti-aircraft units of the coastal defense. The Germans captured several dozen of these guns in Norway.

88 mm anti-aircraft guns 8,8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41


In 1928, the designers of Friedrich Krupp AG, who worked in Sweden, began to create an 88-mm anti-aircraft gun. When designing the new gun, the developments obtained during the creation of the 7,5 cm Flak L / 60 were used. Later, the design documentation was secretly delivered to Essen. And already in Germany, the first prototypes were made. The prototype was tested back in 1931, but the mass serial production of 88-mm guns began after Hitler came to power.


88 mm anti-aircraft guns 8,8 cm Flak 18 in transport position

For its time, it was a very perfect weapon, which is recognized as one of the best German artillery systems of the Second World War. The 88-mm anti-aircraft gun had very high characteristics for that time. A fragmentation projectile weighing 9 kg could hit targets at an altitude of up to 10600 m.


88-mm anti-aircraft gun in a firing position with the calculation

The maximum firing range at air targets was 14800 m. The mass of the gun in the firing position was 5000 kg. Rate of fire - up to 20 rds / min. Calculation - 10 people. Two single-axle trolleys were used for transportation. Towing was most often carried out by the Sd.Kfz. 7.


North Africa, German 88 mm anti-aircraft gun in tow of the Sd.Kfz. 7

The baptism of fire 8,8 cm Flak 18 took place in 1937 in Spain. Since there were few noteworthy air targets, the main purpose of the 88-mm anti-aircraft guns was shooting at ground targets. Five batteries of anti-aircraft artillery were concentrated in the vicinity of Burgos and Santander. During the Republican offensive at Terual, two batteries were used to defend Burgos, Almazana and Saragossa.

In March 1938, two batteries of German 88-mm guns supported the actions of the Francoists in the Villanev de Heva area with fire. At the same time, anti-aircraft guns were used with great success for counter-battery combat against Republican artillery. In the fall of 1938, the Flak 18s made a significant contribution to the defeat of the Republican forces during the Battle of the Ebro. 88-mm anti-aircraft guns, set to direct fire, destroyed firing points with high accuracy. At the end of hostilities, the Condor Legion had 52 Flak 18 guns.

The combat experience gained in Spain was subsequently taken into account when creating modernized models of 88-mm anti-aircraft guns. The most visible innovation was the shrapnel shield introduced on the part of the guns. In order to reduce the cost of production, the brass parts were replaced by those made of stainless steel.

For the 8,8 cm Flak 18, two different bogies were used (with single and dual wheels). And in order to unify on the modernized gun 8,8 cm Flak 36, they introduced a single gable bogie, which also made it easier to transport the anti-aircraft gun on soft soils. The introduction of a single transport trolley led to changes in the design of the gun. I had to unify the front and rear of the gun carriage. There was no other way to ensure the interchangeability of the carts.


Transfer of the 8,8 cm Flak 36 to the firing position, the transport carts are already separated from the gun carriage

But the main modernization concerned the gun barrel, which received a detachable front part. At the same time, the ballistic characteristics of the gun and the rate of fire did not change.


88-mm anti-aircraft gun 8,8 cm Flak 36 in a firing position with the calculation

In 1939, the production of the 8,8 cm Flak 37 anti-aircraft gun began. Outwardly, this model did not differ much from the 8,8 cm Flak 36. The modernization of the gun in this case did not affect the mechanical part, but the gun guidance system.

The Flak 37 guns were equipped with the Ubertransunger 37 automatic aiming system according to data transmitted by cable from the fire control equipment of the anti-aircraft battery. The 88-mm anti-aircraft guns of this modification were the first to be able to interface with the FuMG 62 Wurtzberg 39 fire control radar.


Anti-aircraft fire control radar FuMG 62 Wurtzberg 39

A radar with a parabolic antenna with a diameter of 3 meters, with a wavelength of 53 cm and a pulse power of up to 11 kW could correct anti-aircraft artillery fire at a distance of up to 29 km. At a distance of 10 km, the error in tracking an air target was 30–40 meters. The radar screen displayed not only air targets, but also the explosions of anti-aircraft shells.

Due to the fact that in the late 1930s the appearance of high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft and bombers operating at altitudes inaccessible to existing anti-aircraft guns was predicted, Rheinmetall-Borsig AG began work on an 88-mm gun with an increased range and height reach.

In 1941, a new anti-aircraft gun 8,8 cm Flak 41, adapted for firing ammunition with an enhanced propelling charge, entered the tests. A projectile weighing 9,4 kg left a two-section 72-caliber barrel (originally a three-section 74 caliber) with an initial speed of 1000 m / s. At the same time, the projectile could rise to a height of 14800 m. Thanks to the improved loading system, the rate of fire increased from 20 to 25 rds / min.


8,8 cm Flak 41 in firing position

To control the fire, the Kommandogerät 40 device was used, which was an optical rangefinder coupled with an analog mechanical computer.


Kommandogerät 40 in the museum exposition

The Kommandogerät 40 device, serviced by a team of five people, made it possible to determine the flight parameters of an air target with high accuracy and transmit data to all four anti-aircraft battery guns in a semi-automatic mode via a wire line. This facilitated and significantly accelerated the process of targeting anti-aircraft guns, which ultimately increased the effectiveness of firing.


During the war years, the modified Kommandogerät 40 devices were also used to control the fire of other modifications of 88-mm anti-aircraft guns.

The 8,8 cm Flak 41 had the best performance in the family of German 88 mm anti-aircraft guns. But this weapon was quite expensive and difficult to manufacture. Before the surrender of Germany, only 556 units were produced. At the same time, 8,8 units were produced for 18 cm Flak 36/37/20754 guns.

In 1942, they tried to cross the Flak 41 barrel with the Flak 37 gun carriage. The tests of the "hybrid" were unsuccessful, the design could not withstand the increased load. Satisfactory results were achieved after strengthening a number of parts and introducing a muzzle brake.

Mass production was not possible due to overload with other orders. A total of 13 guns were fired, known as the 8,8 cm Flak 37/41. An attempt to produce a gun with a Flak 41 barrel on the carriage of a 105-mm anti-aircraft gun 10,5 cm FlaK 39 also failed.

In the initial period of World War II, 88-mm anti-aircraft guns played a leading role in ensuring the air defense of the territory of the Third Reich. As of September 1, 1939, the Luftwaffe anti-aircraft units had 2628 heavy anti-aircraft guns, the vast majority of which were 8,8 cm Flak 18/36/37. In Great Britain at that time there were about half as many anti-aircraft guns, which could be compared in range and reach with the German "acht-acht".


But even after 105 and 128-mm anti-aircraft guns were created and entered into service in Germany, 88-mm guns still made up the majority. In June 1944, the German armed forces had more than 10000 of these guns. 88-mm anti-aircraft guns were in service with anti-aircraft battalions of tank and infantry divisions, but even more often these guns were used in anti-aircraft units of the Luftwaffe.


88-mm anti-aircraft guns were also used as a versatile artillery in coastal defense. The guns installed on the coast were the first to open fire on enemy bombers flying from the sea. They also repeatedly had to engage in battle with fleet the enemy.

So, during Operation Agreement, conducted by the British on September 13-14, 1942 with the aim of disrupting the communications of the Axis countries in North Africa, in the vicinity of Tobruk, the fire of a battery of 88-mm anti-aircraft guns deployed on the coast was severely damaged and subsequently the destroyer HMS Sikh sank. (F82).

Of all the German anti-aircraft guns, the acht-acht played the most prominent role in anti-tank defense. Often, German heavy anti-aircraft guns were used to suppress enemy artillery batteries and provide fire support to ground forces.

In 1939, during the Polish campaign, heavy anti-aircraft batteries armed with Flak 18/36 guns were used very little for their intended purpose. MZA of 20-mm and 37-mm caliber perfectly coped with Polish aircraft flying at low altitudes, providing effective protection to their troops. During the entire campaign in Poland, heavy anti-aircraft batteries fired at Polish aircraft only a few times, but they were widely used to destroy ground targets.

In the course of hostilities in France, 88-mm anti-aircraft guns were very effective against French heavy Char B1 bis tanks and British infantry tanks Matilda Mk I.

The Flak 18/36 guns became a real "lifesaver" for the Germans, effective both in air defense and against ground targets. During the 1940 campaign in the West, the artillerymen of the 1st Anti-Aircraft Corps destroyed on the ground: 47 tanks and 30 bunkers. The 2nd Anti-Aircraft Corps, supporting the actions of the 4th and 6th armies, knocked out 284 tanks, destroyed 17 bunkers.

During the African campaign, the 88-mm anti-aircraft guns available in the German Afrika Korps proved to be a deadly anti-tank weapon, largely devaluing the British superiority in the number and quality of tanks.


Rommel's troops, which arrived in Africa, initially had only 37-mm anti-tank guns 3,7 cm Pak 35/36, Pz.Kpfw tanks. II with a 20 mm cannon, Pz.Kpfw. III with a 37 mm cannon and a Pz.Kpfw. IV with a 75 mm short barreled cannon. The British had well-armored tanks Mk.VI Crusader, Matilda Mk.II, Valentine Mk.III, which were hardly vulnerable to German tank and anti-tank guns. Therefore, the 88-mm anti-aircraft guns were for the German troops the only effective means of dealing with enemy tanks.


If you do not take into account the corps artillery, in the summer of 1941, 88-mm anti-aircraft guns were the only German artillery systems capable of penetrating the frontal armor of heavy KV tanks.


During the war, 88-mm towed anti-aircraft guns were actively used to combat Soviet, British and American tanks on all fronts. Especially their role in anti-tank defense increased after the transition of German troops to strategic defense. Until the second half of 1942, when the number of 88-mm guns on the leading edge was relatively small, not many T-34 and KV tanks were hit by them (3,4% - 88-mm guns). But already in the summer of 1944, 88-mm guns accounted for up to 38% of destroyed Soviet medium and heavy tanks, and with the arrival of our troops in Germany in the winter-spring of 1945, the percentage of destroyed tanks ranged from 50 to 70% (on different fronts). Moreover, the largest number of tanks was hit at a distance of 700-800 m.


These data are given for all 88-mm guns, but even in the 1945 year the number of 88-mm anti-aircraft guns significantly exceeded the number of 88-mm anti-tank guns of a special construction. Thus, at the last stage of the war, German anti-aircraft artillery played a significant role in land battles.

Use of 88 mm German anti-aircraft guns in the USSR


For the first time, several serviceable Flak 18 and Flak 36 were captured by our troops during the winter counteroffensive near Moscow.


There is a possibility that the Red Army occasionally used a few 88-mm anti-aircraft guns against the former owners in 1942. But reliable information about the adoption of captured Flak 18 and Flak 36 dates back to 1943.

In a written report dated September 15, 1943, Marshal of Artillery N.N.Voronov mentioned that the artillery of the Voronezh Front had four artillery regiments armed with German-made anti-tank guns: 5 cm Pak. 38 and 7,5 cm Pak. 40. In addition, the report states that on 7 July, two large artillery regiments were handed over to the front, armed with 88 mm anti-aircraft guns, which were primarily intended for countering German armored vehicles and for counter-battery warfare.

Apparently, the captured 1943-mm anti-aircraft guns, which were commissioned in the summer of 88, were originally in service with the air defense units of the 6th Army, which was commanded by Field Marshal F. Paulus.


Now it is difficult to say why the heavy anti-aircraft guns captured by the Red Army were not used for their intended purpose. It can be assumed that the captured 88-mm anti-aircraft guns did not have serviceable fire control devices. In addition, the servicemen of the Red Army did not have firing tables and technical documentation translated into Russian. Our specialists managed to figure it out with shooting from captured anti-aircraft guns at ground targets, but conducting aimed fire at air targets was a much more complicated matter.

However, this situation persisted until the last days of the war. Several hundred captured 88 anti-aircraft guns were used exclusively as long-range guns for firing at targets deep in the German defenses.

Taking into account the fact that there was no particular sense in saving the resource of the captured German guns, and there was no shortage of ammunition, very often harassing fire was fired from them across the squares. In a number of cases, good results were obtained when shelling the front edge of the German defense. After a series of sighting shots, it was possible to achieve the operation of a remote fuse at a height of 5-10 m above the ground. With an air blast of a projectile, the effectiveness of the defeat of enemy manpower who took refuge in the trenches increased many times over.

In the post-war period, several hundred 88-mm anti-aircraft guns, which had a sufficient resource and good technical condition, were transferred to storage, where they were kept until the early 1960s. An unspecified number of German-made anti-aircraft guns with ammunition were handed over to the Allies, but most of them were cut into metal.

Use of German 88mm anti-aircraft guns in other countries


German 88mm anti-aircraft guns were popular with foreign buyers, and Germany exported several hundred guns.

China became the first importer of 8,8 cm Flak 18. In 1937, the Kuomintang government acquired 5 anti-aircraft batteries (20 guns). 88-mm cannons were actively used in repelling Japanese air raids in the battles of Chongqing and Chengdu. The guns deployed in the fortifications along the Yangtze fired at the advancing Japanese forces. At the same time, several Flak 18s were captured by the Japanese.

After the civil war, Spain bought 88 8,8 cm Flak 36 guns, and in 1943 their licensed production began at the Trubiya plant. Until 1947, more than 44 guns were produced under the designation FT 200. The service of the German 88-mm anti-aircraft guns in the Spanish armed forces continued until the early 1970s.


Anti-aircraft gun 8,8 cm Flak 36 on display at the Military History Museum of Valencia

By the beginning of World War II, there were 24 88-mm anti-aircraft guns in Greece. They engaged the Italian Air Force in 1940, and in April 1941 they fired on Luftwaffe aircraft. After the occupation of Greek territory, the surviving guns were used by the Nazis.

Anti-aircraft 88-mm guns of German production were in the armed forces of Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania. In the post-war period, the Flak 18/36 served in Bulgaria and Romania until the mid-1950s.

In 1943-1944, Finland purchased 90 8,8 cm FlaK 37 guns from Germany. The guns were supplied in two versions, the first batch included 18 anti-aircraft guns on a wheeled carriage, another 72 guns received in June 1944 were intended for installation on stationary concreted bases. Simultaneously with the first batch of Flak 37, the Germans provided 6 FuMG 62 Wurtzberg 39 fire control radars.


8,8 cm FlaK 37 at the Tuusula Anti-Aircraft Museum

FlaK 37 guns were used by the Finns as anti-aircraft guns until 1977, after which they were transferred to coastal defense. The Finnish army finally parted with 88-mm cannons at the beginning of the XNUMXst century.

After landing in Normandy, by mid-1944, the Americans captured more than 80 serviceable German 88-mm anti-aircraft guns. In the fall of 7, the 1944th and 79th artillery divisions were formed to use captured artillery as part of the US 244th Army.


88mm anti-aircraft guns captured by the Americans

These units were armed with 88-mm anti-aircraft guns, as well as 105 and 150-mm howitzers. By December 31, 1944, the 244th Field Artillery Division had fired a total of 10706 shots from captured German guns.

In March 1945, the newly formed French 401st and 403rd anti-aircraft artillery regiments were armed with captured German 88-mm cannons. Due to the lack of full-time German PUAZO, British GL Mk. II and GL Mk. III. German anti-aircraft guns remained in service with regular French units until 1953, after which they were used for training purposes for another 5 years.

In the post-war period, Yugoslavia, in addition to the guns recaptured from the Germans, received from various sources about 50 anti-aircraft guns 8,8 cm FlaK 18/36. The active service of the German anti-aircraft guns continued until the early 1970s, after which they were placed on the Adriatic coast as coastal artillery guns. After the collapse of Yugoslavia, German 88-mm anti-aircraft guns were used to fire at ground targets during the Serbo-Croatian armed conflict.


8,8 cm Flak 41 at the Leshany Military Technical Museum

Up to 300 anti-aircraft guns 8,8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 after the end of World War II were at the disposal of the Czechoslovak army. Most of them in the early post-war years were offered to foreign buyers, but several batteries equipped with 8,8 cm Flak 41 continued to serve until 1963.

In the late 1950s, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam received several dozen 88-mm anti-aircraft guns from the Soviet Union. They took part in repelling the first raids of American aviation, but were later supplanted by 85 and 100-mm Soviet-made anti-aircraft guns.

The ending should ...
Author:
75 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Vovk
    Vovk April 6 2021 18: 12
    +9
    Very interesting article.
    Thanks to the author for the selection of material.
  2. Vovk
    Vovk April 6 2021 18: 17
    +3
    And I will ask a question. Sometimes in articles about the use of Soviet captured anti-aircraft artillery by the Germans, it was mentioned about the successful integration of the 85-mm 52-K anti-aircraft gun into their air defense. Is it true?
    1. Catfish
      Catfish April 6 2021 21: 07
      +7
      Good evening, Andrew. hi
      I can only give an example from fiction. The book is called "The Adventures of Werner Holt", the author, writer from the GDR Dieter Zero, in 1944 he himself served in the air defense units of the Reich in the calculation of the captured 52-K cannon. So, according to him, the Germans called this gun "Russian klystyr" and quite successfully shot down American planes with it.
      If you are interested, the book is on the net, and in the late 60s a film was shot in the GDR under the same name, in my youth I read the book and saw the film.




      Frames from the film.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim April 6 2021 21: 20
        +9
        the Germans called this weapon "Russian klystyr"
        The Germans called it the 8,5-cm Flak M 39 (r). According to German data, about 400 were used.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish April 6 2021 21: 26
          +8
          Vic, hello, I'm talking about slang, I have no reason not to trust Zero about the nickname "Russian klystyr", he fought with this weapon at that time. This is the same as R.08 the Germans affectionately called the "eight". smile drinks
          1. Undecim
            Undecim April 6 2021 22: 43
            +9
            In the literature there is "Russenspritze" - "Russian syringe". 8,5 / 8,8-cm-Flak in the amount of 425 pieces were armed with Heimatflakbatterie, anti-aircraft batteries, equipped with flakhelfer (anti-aircraft assistant in a rough translation). This is a kind of "anti-aircraft militia". Was recruited from 1926 - 1928 of birth since 1943. Noll served in the Heimatflakbatterie 210.
            There were many problems with the operation, hence the nickname.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish April 6 2021 22: 48
              +7
              Vic, how do you like his book in general? She made a big impression on me as a child.
              1. Undecim
                Undecim April 6 2021 22: 51
                +5
                Believe it or not, I have not read either the first or the second. And I did not watch the film.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish April 6 2021 23: 06
                  +7
                  I will believe it, especially since there is no point in reading the second one. As for the film, DEFA made quite decent historical pictures, as an illustration by that time through the eyes of the Germans themselves.
                  By no means do I mean their later "cowboyism".
                  1. Undecim
                    Undecim April 6 2021 23: 18
                    +8

                    We need to get an archivist. I spent an hour while in my own archive I found a photo of 8,5 / 8,8-cm-Flak.
                    1. Undecim
                      Undecim April 6 2021 23: 23
                      +7

                      And this is already a "trophy trophy". Vein. 1945 year.
                      1. Undecim
                        Undecim April 6 2021 23: 28
                        +7

                        This is how the author of the aforementioned book looked around a Soviet anti-aircraft gun around 1944.
                    2. Catfish
                      Catfish April 6 2021 23: 58
                      +9
                      Spent an hour ...

                      I sincerely thank you, I think others will also be grateful. smile
          2. Free wind
            Free wind April 7 2021 03: 44
            +3
            The Germans bored the barrels of our anti-aircraft guns under 88 mm, then used them on their platforms. There are fewer problems with shells, guidance, etc.
      2. John22
        John22 April 7 2021 09: 51
        +4
        Very interesting book. View from the other side. Informative.
      3. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 10: 05
        +4
        a writer from the GDR Dieter Zero, in 1944 he himself served in the air defense units of the Reich in the calculation of the captured 52-K cannon. So, according to him, the Germans called this gun "Russian klystyr" and quite successfully shot down American planes with it.

        Here is a shot from the movie "Bunker", where the Hitler Youths are practicing with our 85-millimeter paper. Filmed, by the way, in St. Petersburg, on Shkapin Street. At 0.31 you can see the wall of the building - this is a local bathhouse, built at least in the 1970s. yes
        It seems that a number of scenes were also filmed on the "Red Triangle" - this is here, on the Obvodny Canal.

        Was recruited from 1926 - 1928 of birth since 1943. Noll served in the Heimatflakbatterie 210.

        Viktor Nikolaevich - it turns out that the scene from "Bunker" is quite real? In the sense that they really could have our gun?
        1. Catfish
          Catfish April 7 2021 10: 09
          +6
          ... is a local bathhouse,


          Russian bath in the center of Berlin !? This is a natural mockery of the Aryan spirit! laughing

          Hi, Nikolai. drinks
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 10: 15
            +4
            Hi, Nikolai.

            Be healthy, Uncle Kostya! drinks The girl, of course, was picked up - a feast for the eyes. It's even a pity. sad I haven't really watched the movie - just the end and the popular "Hitler's opinion". laughing And they filmed - yes, with us. yes The Red Triangle, for example, represents a huge former industrial area of ​​red brick buildings. Previously, rubber products were produced by the order-bearer plant, now everything is rented, half of the buildings collapsed. And there they regularly shoot scenes from the times of the war - entourage! request In 2013, I witnessed such filming, and in 2012, a steam locomotive was driven to the crossing there. yes
            1. Catfish
              Catfish April 7 2021 10: 23
              +3
              I didn't really watch it either, but I saw the episode with the jerks and the antiaircraft gun. Previously, Germany was filmed in all three Baltic states, now it does not roll, so they adapt. And now they may not shoot anything at all - there is no one and no one. negative
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 10: 34
                +3
                And now they may not shoot anything at all - there is no one and no one.

                Well, now war films are becoming fashionable, on the contrary. The question is, how was it filmed ... And filmed often poorly ... Do you know that a film about Devyatayev has been announced?

                I can already say - it's a lie. negative The result will be a spectacular fairy tale, to which, for the sake of the plot (read - a narrow-minded stamp), extra characters (a traitorous pilot) were added, although the story of his escape from captivity itself is no less heroic. Have you read his "Flight to the Sun"?
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish April 7 2021 11: 03
                  +2
                  No, I have not read this book. And the video that you posted does not open.
                  That's what I'm saying that there are no screenwriters, no directors, and there is no one to play, all the faces are the same.
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 11: 24
                    +2
                    No, I have not read this book. And the video that you posted does not open.

                    The book can be found and read. Interesting.
                    Sorry about the video, I didn't know that there was "copyright". Here's the link:
                    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IkMgPdshXA8
                    That's what I'm saying that there are no screenwriters, no directors, and there is no one to play, all the faces are the same.

                    On all counts of the rights. The gloom, unfortunately. hi
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish April 7 2021 13: 34
                      +2
                      Yeah, "Nacht und Nebel", negative
    2. Stas1973
      Stas1973 April 7 2021 04: 10
      +4
      Truth. About 400 units were in service, in particular in the air defense of Berlin. The last of them participated in the defense of Berlin April May 1945
    3. Grossvater
      Grossvater 19 May 2021 10: 24
      0
      Yes, both pure and bored to 8,8. Since the 52K and Flak18 / 36/37 ballistics did not differ much.
  3. Aleks tv
    Aleks tv April 6 2021 18: 17
    +4
    Very interesting.
    I have always been not indifferent to this famous barrel.
    Thank you, Sergei.
    hi
    I did not know that our regiments were already armed with them.
    I didn't have to read the memoirs of the veterans who fought on this trophy, it would be good to find them.

    And ours worked, therefore, mainly on the "land". It is quite logical, so without problems.
    Our artillerymen in the Second World War were at a very good level, even according to the recognition of the Germans.

    Once again - from the bottom of my heart Thank you for the material.
    Boom to wait for the sequel.
  4. forty-eighth
    forty-eighth April 6 2021 18: 22
    +2
    It seems to me that it would be worth mentioning the fact that on the basis of this anti-aircraft gun the Fritzes created a tank gun and put it, in particular, on the Tigers.
    1. tech3030
      tech3030 April 8 2021 08: 49
      +1
      I think the author will continue further and everything will be there.
  5. Undecim
    Undecim April 6 2021 18: 41
    +9
    The maximum firing range at air targets was 14800 m.
    An error has crept into the text. This is the maximum firing range at ground targets.
    1. Obliterator
      Obliterator April 6 2021 20: 10
      -1
      Quote: Undecim
      The maximum firing range at air targets was 14800 m.
      An error has crept into the text. This is the maximum firing range at ground targets.

      Given the country of production, probably 14880m is more correct. laughing
      1. Undecim
        Undecim April 6 2021 20: 19
        +5
        If, taking into account the country of origin and as accurately as possible:
        max. Schußweite: 14.860 m
  6. polpot
    polpot April 6 2021 18: 42
    +4
    The weapon is a legend, thanks for the article.
  7. Alien From
    Alien From April 6 2021 18: 42
    +7
    Plusy to the author hi study, study and study again)
  8. Konstantin Gogolev
    Konstantin Gogolev April 6 2021 18: 48
    +10
    Samuel W. Mitchum, in Rommel's Greatest Victory, describes the damaging effects of 88mm cannons:
    “... the 88mm cannon sent its 21-pound projectile over 2 miles with exceptional accuracy. For example, in the battle of Sidi Omar in November 1941, a British tank regiment lost 48 of its 52 tanks. They were all destroyed by 88mm cannons. None of the British tanks even managed to get close enough to fire at the German cannons .... "
    "88" is powerful. At a distance of 1500 meters - penetration of 1200 mm of armor.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Konstantin Gogolev
      Konstantin Gogolev April 6 2021 19: 20
      +10
      The "88" also had such copies

      1. Catfish
        Catfish April 7 2021 00: 06
        +9
        In addition to you, namesake, I also unearthed such a sample of German technology. hi


        Anti-aircraft gun 8.8 cm Flak, mounted on a three-axle chassis of a vehicle developed by Vogtlandische Maschinenfabrik (VOMAG). Vehicle of the 2nd battery of the 1st battalion of the 42nd anti-aircraft artillery regiment (Flak Regiment 42 (mot.S.))
        1. Konstantin Gogolev
          Konstantin Gogolev April 7 2021 09: 03
          +6
          flak-18 on the Sd.Kfz.9 tractor was never put into production
          Good day, namesake. Here's a papelats found. A sort of armored car. Here the Germans surprised me. Too limited use (shooting almost strictly from the front).


          Acoustic guidance system. The origin of "acoustics" (listeners). Before the advent of radar.
    3. Anatole Klim
      Anatole Klim April 6 2021 20: 15
      +9
      Quote: Konstantin Gogolev
      "88" is powerful. At a distance of 1500 meters - penetration of 1200 mm of armor.

      You have a typo, 120 mm punched yes
      1. Konstantin Gogolev
        Konstantin Gogolev April 6 2021 20: 32
        +4
        I agree, sealed. Thank you.
    4. Undecim
      Undecim April 6 2021 20: 16
      +6
      At a distance of 1500 meters - penetration of 1200 mm of armor.
      Trim sturgeon.
      1. Konstantin Gogolev
        Konstantin Gogolev April 6 2021 20: 37
        +3
        Almost). Overclocked a little)
    5. igor novices
      igor novices April 8 2021 22: 50
      0
      Maybe 120 mm? 1200 mm is an ATGM ... :-)
    6. The comment was deleted.
  9. Pavel57
    Pavel57 April 6 2021 19: 14
    +1
    Was the influence of German anti-aircraft guns on the creation of anti-aircraft guns in the USSR?
    1. Potter
      Potter April 6 2021 21: 54
      +8
      Soviet 76,2mm anti-aircraft gun 29K mod. 1931 - licensed German development. Arr. 1939 - installed on a two-axle cart, ballistics is similar. The 85 mm 52-K cannon used the reserves incorporated in the design of the 76,2 mm cannon. In terms of its performance characteristics, it approached the German 88-mm cannon. The last modification of the anti-aircraft gun of this caliber is the KS-1 system. The ballistics of the 52-K gun was adopted for the D-5, ZIS-S-53 and D-44 tank and anti-tank guns. That is, this is the influence. from a German woman for our artillery. Of course, all this would have been impossible without our designers, in this case the basis of delights is German.
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA April 7 2021 11: 39
        +2
        Quote: Potter
        The 85 mm 52-K cannon used the reserves incorporated in the design of the 76,2 mm cannon.

        EMNIP, the 85-mm round was created on the basis of the "big" round, developed by the Germans as one of the options for the 76,2-mm 3-K anti-aircraft gun.
  10. Undecim
    Undecim April 6 2021 19: 38
    +10
    Now it is difficult to say why the heavy anti-aircraft guns captured by the Red Army were not used for their intended purpose. It can be assumed that the captured 88-mm anti-aircraft guns did not have serviceable fire control devices. In addition, the servicemen of the Red Army did not have firing tables and technical documentation translated into Russian.
    Without Kommandogerät 36 or Kommandogerät 40, the effective use of German anti-aircraft guns for their intended purpose was impossible. It was possible to shoot towards the target.
    Moreover, the problem is not even in the availability of such, but in the possibility of their development. Soviet PUAZO of this level appeared already in 1945 (PUAZO 5), developed just on the basis of Kommandogerät 40.
  11. Xlor
    Xlor April 6 2021 20: 18
    0
    It's strange, why shoot such a large caliber at flying whatnots, late 30s, early 40s?
    1. Serg koma
      Serg koma April 7 2021 06: 18
      +3
      Quote: Xlor
      why shoot with such a large caliber at flying whatnots,

      Bloch MB.210 - Service ceiling: 9 850 m.In combat, aircraft were first used on the Republican side during the Spanish Civil War in 1937

      You shouldn't be like that. In Spain was tested in combat conditions, the most advanced (at that time) aircraft, in particular from the USSR and Germany.
      Small arms, artillery systems and mortars produced in the First World War were sent from the USSR to Spain. As for military equipment - aircraft, tanks, armored vehicles, then predominantly new models were supplied, which initially were not inferior to the Franco military equipment. The Soviet command sought to test new samples in combat conditions technology. (V.I. Mikhailenko
      "New facts about Soviet military aid to Spain")
      "Testing" the combat use of the 8.8 cm Flak is a minimum task, there were no other armed conflicts with the massive use of aviation at that time.
      In 1928, the designers of Friedrich Krupp AG, who worked in Sweden, began to create an 88-mm anti-aircraft gun.
      - Why was such a powerful air defense weapon designed "against whatnot" in the late 20s ??? wassat
    2. Konstantin Gogolev
      Konstantin Gogolev April 7 2021 08: 12
      +4
      Remember the calibration (meaning the division of anti-aircraft artillery according to the type of countermeasures). Already not only "whatnot" fly, but also duralumin bombers. We can say that "88" took into account exactly such clients: high-rise massive targets. The most dangerous aircraft are bombers, which cannot be landed with 20-30 mm. And low-flying "whatnot" well and quadruple "maxims" demolish (if you shoot correctly) and other MZA (small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery).
      1. Konstantin Gogolev
        Konstantin Gogolev April 7 2021 08: 40
        +6


        Flak 37

        Improvements in the new model of anti-aircraft gun have touched the aiming and fire control system. The aiming scale was replaced with a more convenient system for calculating - "follow the pointer". The “follow the pointer” aiming system was developed to simplify aiming and improve shooting accuracy. Two double dials, with multicolored hands, were mounted on the cannon. The dial received information through electrical signals transmitted from the post of the main fire control battery. After sending the information to the gun, one of the colored hands on the dial moved to a certain position. The two crew numbers simply turned the gun at the correct elevation and course angles, exposing the second hands of the dials in accordance with the arrows associated with the fire control post. The data was transmitted to the gun from Funkmessgerät (translated from German - radar) or as it was also called "Predictor" (predictive device) - a mechanical analog computer that calculated the position of the aircraft and data for firing. Operator Funkmessgerät used the telescope to lock onto the target for automatic tracking, after which the azimuth and elevation were calculated using the built-in synchronizer. Target information transmitted to the cannon positions included aircraft speed and course, cannon location, ballistic performance, projectile type, and fuse setting time. After calculating the position of the aircraft, Funkmessgerät compared the data of the guns and calculated the optimal firing time so as to intercept the target at the right height at the right time. The calculation inserted the nose of the projectile into the fuse cocking mechanism, which automatically set the explosion time of the high-explosive charge, so that the latter would detonate after firing at the desired height.
        1. Toucan
          Toucan April 7 2021 09: 59
          +2
          which automatically set the explosion time of the high-explosive charge ..
          Probably still a brinzant charge?
          1. Konstantin Gogolev
            Konstantin Gogolev April 7 2021 10: 15
            +2
            I agree. Can be decomposed into several stages. First, the activation of the blasting charge is the essence, the fuse. Then - the initiating substance.
    3. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA April 7 2021 11: 43
      +4
      Quote: Xlor
      It's strange, why shoot such a large caliber at flying whatnots, late 30s, early 40s?

      Here is the "whatnot" start 30s: smile

      She also knows how to be repaired in flight.
  12. Michael
    Michael April 6 2021 20: 19
    +1
    I wonder how the German anti-aircraft gunners were doing with the confirmation of victories? Some unrealistic list of tanks, aircraft and firing points on the gun is drawn.
    1. Reader 2013
      Reader 2013 April 6 2021 21: 00
      +1
      Now this is called likes))
  13. dzvero
    dzvero April 6 2021 20: 55
    +5
    An unexpected gift in the evening smile Thank you!
  14. Catfish
    Catfish April 6 2021 21: 11
    +7
    Thanks to Sergey for the excellent work. good
    Everything is detailed, reliable, easy to read and with a lot of interesting photos. smile drinks
    1. Bongo
      April 7 2021 01: 36
      +7
      Quote: Sea Cat
      Thanks to Sergey for the excellent work. good
      Everything is detailed, reliable, easy to read and with a lot of interesting photos. smile drinks

      Konstantin, thank you for your kind words! drinks
      The next part will be about 105-127-mm anti-aircraft guns. And fsё ... with this protracted cycle, I will finally end!
      1. Catfish
        Catfish April 7 2021 02: 08
        +4
        Good morning, Sergey (it must have already arrived there)) smile

        It does not seem to me that the cycle has dragged on, before there was nothing like this at all. How will you please in the future? drinks

        Hello and best wishes to your spouse. love
        1. Bongo
          April 7 2021 02: 19
          +8
          Quote: Sea Cat
          Good morning, Sergey (it must have already arrived there))

          Konstantin good day! I really have morning. yes
          Quote: Sea Cat
          It does not seem to me that the cycle has dragged on, before there was nothing like this at all.

          I try to choose not hackneyed topics about which I myself am interested in collecting information. So it happened with this cycle. Of course, I had an idea of ​​what to write about, but of course I estimated the volume incorrectly. And I tried so hard to write as concisely as possible, but it still turned out to be protracted. I also bypassed the captured German fleet, communications equipment, cars and rocketry.
          Quote: Sea Cat
          How will you please in the future?

          As already promised, I will write about the air defense of Japan.
          Quote: Sea Cat
          Hello and best wishes to spouse

          Thank you, she bows too. Sits on the couch with a mug of coffee, covered with cats. lol
          1. Catfish
            Catfish April 7 2021 02: 55
            +4
            It is a pity that the German fleet was bypassed, and one story with the "Graf Zeppelin" is worth a lot. smile
            Hello cats, ours has been sleeping for ten hours without hind legs. drinks
            1. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA April 7 2021 14: 53
              +6
              Quote: Sea Cat
              It is a pity that the German fleet was bypassed, and one story with the "Graf Zeppelin" is worth a lot.

              Yes, and with the "Bismarck" also worked out well. smile
              LK received only two (bow) instead of four standard stabilized "swinging pots" SL-8. And instead of the stern, they had to stick the unstabilized land Kommandogerät 40 described in the article.
              The reason is simple: the manufacturer of rangefinders, the company "Kreiselgerate GmbH", threw all its efforts into the Soviet order - 4 "swinging pots" for "Lyuttsov". As a result, orders from the Kriegsmarine for Bismarck and Prince Eugen were delayed. smile
          2. your1970
            your1970 10 June 2021 13: 37
            +1
            Quote: Bongo
            I also bypassed the captured German fleet, means of communication,
            it's a pity that there will be no connection - a rare topic
      2. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I April 7 2021 11: 51
        +6
        I wish you good health, Sergei! Then, the other day, I realized that I had forgotten which gun aiming radars were used on the battery of German 105-mm anti-aircraft guns that defended Moscow in 1941 ... German or our "experimental" ones? And then there's ... bam, thinking (!) ... aren't you going to write an article about anti-aircraft radars (SONS), PUAZO, sound detectors ... about everything related to WW2 air defense, except for guns ... ? After all, a very interesting and extensive topic, about which, in my opinion, no one particularly wrote on VO! By the way, I want to mention the development of the Typhoon anti-aircraft MLRS by the Germans at the end of the war ... wink ! Interesting "products" in their own way! Some sources reported that the Germans managed to use a certain number of manufactured MLRS installations "in battle" ... of course, these were episodic cases and there were, perhaps, "one, two, and miscalculated", but still ... And in the USSR they were interested in ... and developed Soviet "clones"! Such installations could be effective in the Korean War while defending Pyongyang! hi
      3. Kuroneko
        Kuroneko April 7 2021 15: 51
        -2
        The British had well-armored tanks Mk.VI Crusader, Matilda Mk.II, Valentine Mk.III, which were hardly vulnerable to German tank and anti-tank guns.

        When did the cruising Crusader manage to become a well-armored tank? 0_o '
        This crap was perfectly killed even by land mines.
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh April 7 2021 20: 30
          +3
          Crusider's frontal armor - 49 mm. A lot.
          For comparison: the forehead of the T-34 hull is 45 mm.
          1. Kuroneko
            Kuroneko April 8 2021 12: 45
            -2
            Complete nonsense. WHAT frontal armor? This is the first thing. Churchill, you know, also had tiddly the area in the forehead, where it was 152 mm. So, let's say that Churchill has a frontal armor of 150 with a hook, and even the Tigers won't penetrate it? And the second - I have already spoken about land mines. The Crusader was so PERFECTLY armored that it could be penetrated by land mines. And suddenly, exactly in the forehead.
            And if you have studied the English WWII tank building in any way, you should know that the word "cruising" has absolutely nothing to do with the characteristic "well armored".
  15. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek April 7 2021 08: 32
    +1
    Didn't know there was also a radar in the kit. So there was such a performance in terms of aircraft?
    1. Konstantin Gogolev
      Konstantin Gogolev April 7 2021 13: 57
      +7
      At the end of World War II, the consumption of shells by German anti-aircraft guns per 1 enemy aircraft reached the following values:

      Flak36 (88 mm) - 16 pieces;
      Flak41 (88 mm) - 8 pieces;
      Flak39 (105 mm) - 6 pieces;
      Flak 40 (128 mm) - 3 pieces.
      As a result, by the fall of 1944, the monthly consumption of shells of only 88-mm anti-aircraft guns exceeded 3 rounds.

      This is the kind of performance. I read it myself - I was surprised. We only learned to work with the radar station, I guess.
  16. EvilLion
    EvilLion April 7 2021 08: 56
    -4
    The Teutons invented a lot of things against the Russian Ivan, the T-34 company would creep out on a battery of such a miracle, and it would be as if there would be a full "akht-akht".
  17. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA April 7 2021 11: 34
    +4
    If you do not take into account the corps artillery, in the summer of 1941, 88-mm anti-aircraft guns were the only German artillery systems capable of penetrating the frontal armor of heavy KV tanks.

    Not the only ones. There was also a 5-cm PTP PAK.38.
    Here are the results of shooting domestic armor with trophy shells from captured artillery systems (Gorokhovets training ground from October 9 to November 4, 1942):
    50-mm anti-tank gun PaK.38, ordinary armor-piercing:
    The 75-mm sheet normal showed the back strength limit of 700 m, the through penetration limit of 400 m. That is, starting from a distance of 700 m and closer PaK.38 can penetrate unshielded HF armor, with 400 m it is guaranteed to break through.
    The 45-mm sheet along the normal showed the through penetration limit of 1500 m, at an angle of 30 degrees to the normal 1300 m.
    That is, PaK.38 confidently hits the T-34 in the side and the tower at any real combat distance.

    50-mm anti-tank gun PaK.38, sub-caliber:
    The 75-mm sheet normal showed the back strength of 870 m, the through penetration of 740 m, at an angle of 30 degrees to the normal of 530 and 470 m, respectively.
    The 45-mm sheet along the normal showed the through penetration limit of 1300 m, at an angle of 30 degrees to the normal 700 m.
    © D. Shein
  18. The comment was deleted.
  19. flc9800
    flc9800 April 7 2021 18: 13
    +4
    Thanks to the author for the most interesting article! Well, to the comrades who remembered Dieter Noll with his simply wonderful book "The Adventures of Werner Holt" and the film based on the book (weak as it seemed to me), a separate respect and respect! "Macht, what the hell are you called a gun-maker, when your klystyr, after shooting just a little, crumbles to pieces!" ))))
  20. NF68
    NF68 April 8 2021 16: 31
    0
    A pragmatic approach.
  21. Xlor
    Xlor April 9 2021 10: 58
    0
    Quote: Alexey RA
    Quote: Xlor
    It's strange, why shoot such a large caliber at flying whatnots, late 30s, early 40s?

    Here is the "whatnot" start 30s: smile

    She also knows how to be repaired in flight.

    I have an aviation engineer diploma at home and I know very well what the "whatnots" were in the 30s ... By the way, note that this aircraft does not have its landing gear removed in flight. Why don't you have a bookcase?
  22. Grossvater
    Grossvater 19 May 2021 10: 29
    0
    An interesting article, that's just, speaking about akht-akht of the second half of the war, it is always necessary to separate and indicate exactly where 18/36/37 and where 41/43. The difference in ballistics is enormous.