Military Review

Celtic time

233

Shot from the movie "King Arthur", 2004


In this article we will talk a little about the Celts, who from about the middle of the VIII century. BC e. and until the turn of the old and new eras were the real masters of Europe.

At the peak of their expansion, the Celtic tribes occupied the territory of France, Belgium, Switzerland, the British Isles, northern regions of Italy, significant parts of Germany, Spain, and the Balkan Peninsula. On this map, we see the European regions inhabited by the Celts. The area where, according to many historians, the very first Celtic tribes settled is highlighted in yellow:

Celtic time
Resettlement of the Celts

It is believed that it was the Celts who were the first in Europe to learn how to make iron tools. In addition, it is believed that they were the first Europeans to wear pants.

We can judge about the appearance of the Celts by the message of the Roman historian Polybius, who wrote:

"These people are tall and hardy, beautiful and blue-eyed."

Diodorus of Siculus reports that a distinctive feature of the appearance of the Celtic warriors was bright motley clothing (often striped or checkered), a long mustache and hair that stood upright, like a horse's mane (for this the Celts moistened them in lime).

The main occupation of the Celts was agriculture and cattle breeding.

The Celts reached the peak of their power in the IV-III centuries. BC e. In 390 (according to another version - in 387), they even sacked Rome. In the battle at the Allia River, Brenn, the leader of the Celtic (Gallic) Senone tribe, decided to attack not the main forces of the Romans, but their reserve units, located on one of the hills. The proud quirits, deciding that the Gauls had surrounded them, fled from the battlefield.

Titus Livy reports:

"No one was killed in the battle, all those killed were stabbed in the back when the crush began, and the crowd made it difficult to escape."

The panic was such that most of the inhabitants of Rome fled from the city, the remaining 7 months were hiding in the fortress of the Capitol. It was then that "the geese saved Rome." And then Brenn, throwing his sword on the scales, uttered his famous phrase: "Woe to the vanquished."


Paul Jamin. Brenn and some of his trophies, painting 1893

However, the Celts never created a strong centralized state.

The first information about the Celts


The first surviving mentions of the Celts are contained in the works of Herodotus, a historian who lived in the middle of the XNUMXth century. BC e. It was he who called the tribes living in the north and west of Hellas Celtic. Later authors already give the names of individual tribes. The Celts who attacked Macedonia, Greece and Asia Minor were known as the Galatians.


Penetration of the Celts in the Balkans, invasion of Asia Minor


Greek horseman fights with foot Galatians, fragment of the Bithinian stele from Kutluk, beginning of the XNUMXrd century. BC e.

The Celts in the British Isles were called Britons, Britons and Scots. And the Celts who occupied the territories of modern France and Northern Italy were called Aquitanians, Aedui and Helvetians. The Romans called the Celts "roosters" - that is, Gauls. They received this nickname for their warlike, pugnacious nature and love for bright, conspicuous clothing.

But the Greeks and Romans were especially surprised by the custom of the Celts to lend with the condition of paying off the debt after death - in the afterlife. For example, the Roman historian Valery Maxim wrote about this.

Settling in new territories, the Celts gradually mixed with other tribes: Iberians, Ligurs, Illyrians, Thracians. On this map, we see how the expansion of the Celtic tribes took place.


Celtic expansion

Only a few of the Celtic tribes retained their identity for a long time. These were, for example, lingons and boi. Their paucity was the price to pay. So, Gaius Julius Caesar argued that in 58 BC. e. there were only 32 thousand pure-blooded Celts of the Boyi tribe, while the Helvetians - 263 thousand people (among other numerous tribes, the Belgi and Arverni are called). In the end, the Boi were driven out by the Romans from Cisalpine Gaul (Northern Italy) and settled on the territory of modern Bohemia (central and northwestern parts of it), giving these lands the name Bohemia (Boiohaemum). Here they met with the Slavs and were assimilated by them.

Other Celtic tribes in northern Italy and southern France, even before the complete conquest of these areas by Rome, underwent significant Romanization.

Celtic warriors


But what did these natives of ancient Europe look like?

Most of our contemporaries imagine them like this.


Still from the film "Druids", 2001


Shot from the TV series "Mists of Avalon", 2001

In the worst and worst case, the Celts appear in this guise.


Asterix obelix

Meanwhile, the Istanbul Archaeological Museum has an image of a Celtic warrior from the XNUMXnd century BC. e.


Galatian mercenary of the Ptolemies. Gravestone stele from Sidon, XNUMXnd century BC e. Archaeological Museum, Istanbul

And here are other images of Celtic warriors.


Celtic warrior, bronze figurine from southern France. XNUMXth century BC e.


Gallic horseman, drawing on a Greek vase, Puglia. IV century BC e.


Terracotta figurine of a Celtic warrior. II – III centuries BC e.

In 1876, a double Celtic burial with a chariot was found in La Gorges Maille (France), which was dated to the XNUMXth century. BC e.


Double burial with a chariot at La Gorges Maila

Specialists of the laboratory of visual forensics under the leadership of Philippe Frosch carried out the reconstruction of the faces of the soldiers buried in it.

This man was given the code name Vellokat - "He who fights."


And this one was called Katumaros - “the great fighter”.


And here is how the Northern European Celtic warrior is presented on one of the historical reconstructions.


Ordinary weapons Celts Diodorus of Siculus calls a long sword, which they carried on a chain on their right side, a spear or darts.


Sword found at the bottom of a river, Northern France, XNUMXst century BC e.


Celtic spear tips

Not everyone wore chain mail and a bronze helmet; many fought naked.



Sculpture III century BC e., found in northern Italy - a Celtic warrior in a horned helmet.

Diodorus reports:

"On their heads, they (the Celts) wear bronze helmets, with large protruding parts around them, making their wearers look like giants: some of the helmets have horns attached, others have hammered protomes of birds or four-legged animals."


Horned helmet III century. BC e. can be seen in the city of Parma (National Archaeological Museum)

And this is the horned god of the Celts, Cernunnos. The image was found during excavations in the basements of the Parisian temple of Notre Dame. Probably, it was he who was imitated by the Celts who wore horned helmets.


This helmet has a plume mount, which was either feathers or ponytails.


Helmet with plume mount, Museo Archeologico Nazionale delle Marche

But these bronze Celtic helmets from the Museum d'Archeologie nationale et Domaine national de Saint-Germain-en-Laye have no horns.


Bronze helmet, III century. BC eh
.


Gallic helmet of the XNUMXrd – XNUMXnd centuries BC e.

Varieties of Celtic helmets:


Celtic shields were long - human-sized. Sometimes they were decorated with relief bronze figurines.


Celtic bronze shield of the XNUMXth – XNUMXrd centuries. BC e., British Museum

Noble people fought on horseback or on war chariots, from which darts were thrown at the beginning of the battle.


Bas-relief depicting a Gallic chariot, Padua Museum. IV century BC e.

The privates fought on foot.

Celtic women


And this is an attempt to imagine what a Celtic woman might look like.


Celtic woman, reconstruction

By the way, the Celts did not have a god of war - his place was taken by the warlike goddess Morrigan. And Celtic women often fought alongside men. This custom persisted for the longest time in Ireland, where only in 697 AD. e. a law was passed exempting women from military service. It was the Celtic women warriors who became the prototypes of all kinds of "Zen-warrior queens". This is how one of these heroines looks in the film "Warrior Queen" (in Russia this name was translated as "Queen against Rome"), 2003


And even M. Semyonova, who is considered the author of works in the style of "Slavic fantasy", apparently confusing the Slavs with the Celts, writes that the teacher of the Volkodav's martial arts was a woman - the priestess Kendarat. And also reports that Knesinka Elena is the daughter of a famous warrior who died in a battle with the local Vikings. There is also a warrior-maiden Ertan in the novel - where are we going without the "Slavic Amazons"?

Some researchers believe that the trials of the groom, which are told in many tales, are an echo of Celtic traditions. If no one objected to the marriage, the tasks were purely symbolic and formal. But when the bride's parents or the girl were against, the tests were appointed very serious.

If there were several suitors, so as not to offend or offend any of them, a competition was arranged. Sometimes it was just a puzzle, sometimes it was a competition in wrestling or running, archery, etc. Moreover, often it was required to win in some kind of competition not only the opponent, but also the bride (or - only the bride). As you can imagine, the contender, who was attractive to this girl, had much more chances of winning.

And sometimes they were given really dangerous tasks associated with a real risk to life. For example, bring 5 heads of warriors of a hostile tribe or steal cattle. In this case, friends could help the groom. Moreover, sometimes a girl took part in such expeditions, to whom the young man wooed: if the parents were against the marriage, and she was for.

The groom could refuse the test. And he no longer had a second chance to get married. But if the applicant fulfilled all the conditions, then neither the girl nor her parents had the right to refuse.

Celts against Rome


Diodorus reports that before the battle, the best warrior of the Celts usually challenged the bravest of opponents to battle. At the same time, he sang a song in which he praised his ancestors and his own exploits, insulted enemies. In case of victory, he cut off the head of the defeated enemy and hung it on the neck of his horse. The head of the Roman consul Lucius Postumus, who was killed in the Po valley in 216, was preserved and brought to one of the temples. The victor nailed the armor of the slain to the wall of his house.

History has preserved the names of some Romans who won such fights.

Titus Manlius, who defeated the huge Celtic, took off the gold jewelry (torques) from his neck, after which he received the nickname Torquat. Mark Claudius Marcellus, in the future - one of the opponents of Hannibal, in 222 BC. e. killed in a duel the Gallic leader Viridomar.

I must say that at the first clashes, the Celts struck the Romans with their ferocious appearance. Their appearance was so intimidating that the Roman legionaries were at first very reluctant to enter the battle.

However, it soon became clear that physically strong and hardy opponents have weaker weapons and are undisciplined. Yes, and they did not have a professional army: when the war began, everyone who was able to hold it, including women, took up arms. Polybius reports that, entering the war, the Celts did not have a campaign plan and were fighting under the influence of momentary impulses.

In general, faced with a well-organized and disciplined army led by an experienced general, the Celts generally had no chance of victory. But they turned out to be very good mercenaries and showed themselves excellently in Hannibal's army. And then they were actively attracted to the ranks of their troops by the Roman generals.

Where did the Celts disappear to?


The Celts were weakened not only by the constant onslaught of Rome (as well as the Germanic tribes), but also internecine wars. As a result, under the blows of the Germans, the Celts retreated beyond the Rhine. Julius Caesar in companies 58–51 BC e. captured Gaul. During the reign of Octavian Augustus, the Romans conquered lands along the upper Danube, northern Spain and Galatia. Under the Emperor Claudius, a part of Britain became part of the empire. The Celts either left the lands conquered by Rome, or lost their identity, undergoing assimilation and Romanization. Currently, the descendants of the Celts are considered the Irish, the Welsh (residents of Wales), the Highland Scots, the Bretons of France.

Having lost the historical competition to other peoples, the Celts and their descendants had a great influence on the development of Western European civilization. Thus, the Irish who adopted Christianity in the XNUMXth century in the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries "exported" many saints to Britain and various countries of mainland Europe.

115 Irish were declared saints in Germany, 45 in France, 44 in England, 36 in what is now Belgium, 25 in Scotland and 13 in Italy. Celtic traditions are an important part of European literature in the Middle Ages and Modern Times. But this influence was mutual. And Celtic legends have absorbed the folklore motives of the newcomer Scandinavians and the natives of the Pictish.

In the next articles we will continue the story about the Celts. Let's talk about druids and bards, then talk about King Arthur and some of his knights, about Merlin and fairies, as well as about the Holy Grail.
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  1. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. April 7 2021 05: 31
    -9
    If you scratch some Anglo-Saxon, you will definitely find a Celtic in it.
    I keep thinking what what a passion a certain population of Europeans have to ride without pants at gay pride parades.
    Now everything is clear, the genes of the Celts are to blame.
    I thank the author for the most intimate article, she finally gave me an answer to the modern behavior of the descendants of the Celts.
    1. Free wind
      Free wind April 7 2021 05: 48
      +19
      So the Celts seem to have invented pants. It's not very pleasant to run through the forest with a bare bottom, maybe some animals will cling to. And it's cold to pick up knee-deep raspberries in the snow. laughing
      1. sergo1914
        sergo1914 April 7 2021 06: 56
        +5
        Quote: Free Wind
        So the Celts seem to have invented pants. It's not very pleasant to run through the forest with a bare bottom, maybe some animals will cling to. And it's cold to pick up knee-deep raspberries in the snow. laughing


        Came up with pants, and then disappeared.
        Pants are evil.
        1. Egoza
          Egoza April 8 2021 07: 18
          +2
          Quote: sergo1914

          Came up with pants, and then disappeared.
          Pants are evil.

          DON'T GONE !!! Carefully re-read the article, for which I bow to the author!
          "the main occupation is agriculture and cattle breeding; bright colorful clothes, long mustaches and hair. An undisciplined army, a civilized state has never been created ..."
          Brothers! So it's the Ukrainians! And the pants are famous harem pants! And the lady in the reconstruction picture is Tikhanovskaya! They created it straight from it!
      2. mat-vey
        mat-vey April 7 2021 07: 06
        +4
        Quote: Free Wind
        So the Celts seem to have invented pants

        The history of the appearance of trousers in Europe began with Scythian fur and leather trousers. Riders who rode without a saddle and did not dismount their horses for many hours, they saved from bad weather and protected the skin. Gauls and Germans, that is, barbarians, adopted this type of clothing from the Scythians. Therefore, among the patricians of Ancient Rome, trousers were considered "barbaric clothing", and severe punishment was imposed for wearing them. They were allowed to be worn by soldiers only on long horse crossings.
        1. Richard
          Richard April 7 2021 10: 13
          +14
          Pants are a rather complex product that requires cutting and sewing.
          To sew pants, the material must be cut. If this is leather, then there are no special problems with this, but simple weaving fabric and especially knitted fabric (knitwear) do not like cuts. In the ancient world, pants originally appeared where thin leather was not in short supply (among steppe cattle breeders). And where the clothes were made of woven materials for a very long time, they were not cut or sewn, but solid-woven or whole-knitted pieces of fabric were used as clothes. A toga, a tunic, a tunic, a loincloth — these were all clothes without cuts in the fabric. Pants naturally in the civilized world were considered clothing of the barbarians as they were made of leather. As for riding a horse, the ancient Greeks quite had enough blankets (the same one piece of fabric) so as not to rub the causal places on the horse's skin.
          1. mat-vey
            mat-vey April 7 2021 10: 56
            +3
            Quote: Richard
            As for riding a horse, the ancient Greeks had enough blankets.

            So they drove in different ways - the Scythians, one might say, lived on horses ..
          2. Mihaylov
            Mihaylov April 7 2021 11: 23
            +8
            Quote: Richard
            Pants are a rather complex product that requires cutting and sewing.

            All this splendor shattered on a small piece of paper stuck at the front door of the store:
            No pants
            - Fu, how rude! - said Ostap, entering. - It is immediately clear that the province. They would write, as they write in Moscow: "There are no trousers." Decent and noble. Satisfied citizens go home. And here - "there are no pants." They would also write "no trousers."
            wassat
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave April 7 2021 19: 18
              +4
              "On the wall of the only lupanarium of Lutetia, with errors, it was inscribed:" Do not enter in pants! "
              -Such, here, multiculturalism, these quirits, - Asterix said sadly to Obelix. "
          3. Free wind
            Free wind April 7 2021 13: 59
            +4
            The blanket is not a person's protection. and horses. Human sweat eats away at a horse's skin, and a horse can die.
        2. paul3390
          paul3390 April 8 2021 12: 46
          +2
          The history of the appearance of trousers in Europe began with Scythian fur and leather trousers.

          I think the history of trousers begins with the Neanderthals .. For I absolutely do not understand how you can survive the ice age in winter without trousers ..
      3. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 April 7 2021 13: 19
        +3
        There is no wind, actually in winter there are no raspberries, birds and bears love raspberries. It is doubtful that until the Scythians or Celts, until the snow, they postponed the collection of raspberries
        1. Free wind
          Free wind April 7 2021 13: 29
          +5
          Well, now what to add to each word, "a joke, not a joke. And I set fire to the minibus." Happy holiday to you. love
        2. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar April 7 2021 14: 40
          +4
          Quote: Astra wild2
          There is no wind, actually in winter there are no raspberries, birds and bears love raspberries. It is doubtful that until the Scythians or Celts, until the snow, they postponed the collection of raspberries

          love love love
          Happy Birthday and Best wishes!
          On your 19th birthday, I wish you all the beauties of the planet, kneeling at your feet, so that you can more comfortably put the heels of your Jimi Chu or Louboutins on someone's muscular back. hi
        3. Catfish
          Catfish April 7 2021 14: 50
          +6
          Dear Vera! love
          Happy birthday with all my heart! love drinks
          Health, happiness, good luck and all the best! smile love drinks
        4. Korsar4
          Korsar4 April 7 2021 18: 28
          +5
          Vera!
          Happy Birthday! Health, luck and good mood!
    2. Operator
      Operator April 7 2021 09: 43
      +3
      The Celts are practically the entire population of Europe in the middle of the 2nd millennium BC. west of the Elbe-Sudeten-Venice, with the exception of the Basques and Scandinavians.

      The ancestors of the Romans (Latins and Sabines) were also Celts before the appearance of the Etruscans west of the future Rome, the Trojans who sailed from Asia Minor after being defeated in the war with the Greeks. The Etruscans reformatted the Latins and Sabines, gave them their own language and religion, after which the Romans found themselves in confrontation with the rest of the inhabitants of the Apennine Peninsula, the remaining Celts / Gauls.

      The ancestors of the Celts are migrants from Asia Erbines (haplogroup R1b, carriers of which make up 90% of today's inhabitants of Western Europe, with the exception of the Scandinavians). Five thousand years ago, they crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and committed genocide (the so-called era of stone axes) to the indigenous inhabitants of Western Europe - the Illyrians, whose descendants constitute less than 10% of the modern inhabitants of this region (with the exception of Scandinavia).

      3,5 thousand years ago, the Black Sea Aryans (haplogroup R1a) came to Western Europe (specifically to today's Austria) with horses, war chariots and high technologies in the processing of bronze, gold and silver, which assimilated the Erbins (who lived in the Stone Age) in the cultural and linguistically. The exception is the Basques, who have retained their native language.

      After that the former Erbins - Celts became the so-called. Indo-Europeans - speaking a language based on Aryan Sanskrit with an admixture of the Bass language, of course.
    3. The comment was deleted.
      1. Baron pardus
        Baron pardus April 8 2021 17: 57
        +2
        Let me tell you a secret. The modern descendants of the Celts are the Irish, the Welsh and the French. So, among the natives of Wales, and the French, black hair and dark eyes, along with a hunchback, well, it is AT ALL not uncommon. Although the combination of dark hair and blue eyes predominates, in short, judging by the descriptions, Conan is a Barbarian from Welsh. :-). Neither a Slav, nor a German, nor an Italian, or some other European Konan phenotype, does not fit. "Additionally, most Welsh people had either black / brown hair, and strangely enough, blue / green eyes. Blond Welsh people usually have naturally darker roots as well, for some reason . ... Finally, men tended to be tall but stocky while women were very small and slight - at least a foot smaller than the average English woman. "

        "In addition, most people in Wales have either black or dark brown hair, and oddly enough, blue / green eyes. Even blondes in Wales have dark roots for some reason. And finally, the men are tall but broad-shouldered. and stocky, at the same time women - very slender and petite - at least a foot (30,5 cm) shorter than the average English woman "


        And as for the Jews / Armenians, I'm sorry, but some of you have an obsession that Jews are everywhere. From the series "Chingachgook, the great serpent .." Like "under your bed, in your closet in your head". Mostly "in your head". The woman in the photo does not fit either "slim" or "miniature", here you are right. And about the "white" race ... well, it's not here, it's for you in the department of Alfred Rosenberg. As for the Jews, to him.
        1. The comment was deleted.
          1. Baron pardus
            Baron pardus April 8 2021 20: 11
            +1
            As befits a follower of Rosenberg and the Black Hundreds, you demonstrate not just ignorance, but illiteracy. You don't even know how to read. Neither Russian nor English. I am sure that in German, the language of Alfred Rosenberg, your ideological inspirer, you are neither boom boom nor a crow. I talked about the natives of WELSH (WELSH), and you climb me with the Irish (IRISH). The flags, you know, are different. And St. Patrick's Day is not among the Uels, not among the Scots, oh horror, not among the Chinese, and, azokhn wei, not among the Jews, but among the IRISHIANS (I was talking about the UELSHTS). They are, you know, two DIFFERENT groups, two DIFFERENT branches of the Celts. Something like the Poles are Slavs, and Russians are Slavs, which does not make Russian Poles and Russian Poles. You will still drag there Scots and Gakonians to a heap. And in general, what do you not know? Dartanyan is an Armenian, in fact, his surname ends in -yan. Dzhigarkhanyan, Mkrchtyan, Dartanyan ... All Armenians ... You didn't know? Oh God. This is a conspiracy ... an Armenian conspiracy, they are everywhere ...

            If you want to talk about absolutely dark-haired, dark-skinned Frenchmen, then "all sorts" did not get there. And the Jews from France were regularly kicked out (which is not surprising, when a handful of people say that they say go to the forest with your own laws, we live by our own, but we beat yours). We stopped in Spain where it was necessary to organize a small Reconquista to kick them out of there. And the search for Jews and tailed-horned Masons under the beds is already a symptom, for a start, a symptom of inferiority, and then this is for you to Grandpa Ziggy, or to Mr. Skinner. "There is no anti-Semitism in England, if only because we do not consider ourselves more stupid than the Jews" - Sir Winston Churchill. Listen to his words. And think about your wretchedness. He was a smart man, an aristocrat to the core. Anti-Soviet and Russophobe, but the smartest person.

            Like any Black Hundred, you are deprived of a sense of humor, however erudity too. In books (and they rule, and they need to be read and not burned, as your ideological teachers liked to do), Conan the barbarian is described in absolutely detail with "black hair and icy blue eyes." (Death has a blue gaze? Perhaps the ancestor of Roke Alva, but you, as an ideological fighter against the dominance of the omnipresent and omnipotent Jews and Armenians, is forgivable not to know this). And if it's no joke, then by phenotype (we do not have Conan's Halotype, unfortunately, otherwise it will suddenly turn out that he is a Semite?). Conan goes exactly to the Natives of Wales. Nowhere else in Europe "Tall, but stocky men, with dark hair and blue or green eyes" (which is what the Welsh phenotype is) is not.

            And about Khazaria. You said it very well. I'm sure that if you dig into your genes, there will be a lot of interesting things. As a rule, among the wrestlers about nationality and purity of blood, all sorts of mestizos are the most corrupt. An inferiority complex, you know ... Combined with a persecution mania. A terrible thing. But haloperidol and electricity do wonders. And they will help you, I'm sure. A real Aryan must be as tall as Goebbels, Stroen as Goering and Belokur as Hitler. By the way, Heydrich's grandmother was called Sarah (grandfather, apparently was a pirate). Interestingly, what was the name of your grandmother, my fighter for the purity of the nation and blood? I am sure that if you dig, then the Nuremberg Laws can be applied to you in the same way as to me.
            1. The comment was deleted.
              1. Baron pardus
                Baron pardus April 8 2021 21: 04
                0
                Once again, for the fight against "the dominance of the omnipotent and omnipresent Jews, Armenians and Freemasons." The branches of the Celts are DIFFERENT. There are Irish, there are Welsh, and there are others, Narpimer French. AND PHENOTYPES (read what it is) DIFFERENT. Although the culture and origins have common roots. Slavs, for example, are different. There are Russians, and there are Czechs, Serbs, Poles there. For you, this is a possible revelation that will shake your universe and mind.

                about the fact that the Scots, the Welsh and the Irish are "one people" you tell them if you can run fast. Roots, yes, one. But the result is completely different. This is about the same as approaching a westerner and telling him that he is one people with Poles and Russians. Or tell Pole that he is "one people" with the Westerners, Ukrainians and Russians. After all, all "like" brothers are Slavs, right? Make an experiment - and I'll see, with a stopwatch. You are guaranteed to pass the 100m race record :-).

                I am absolutely sure about my genes. Father is a Jew with an admixture of Poles and Germans, perhaps there were Hungarians, but that was 5 generations ago. Russian mother, with an admixture of Kazakhs. (her grandfather). So, personally, I am under the Nuremberg Laws at all 100. And I do not complex, unlike some.

                Well, if you give up everything that the Jews have done (or those who are accused of being hidden Jews), then you will have to give up a lot of things. And in music, and in physics, and in many other things. You were absolutely not taught by the example of your ideological Nazi teachers. "Truly Aryan sciences" lost outright to international sciences. Radar, sonar, nuclear weapons ... By all these parameters (and this was then the advanced sciences), the Germans lost to the Americans who did not care "what color the cat was, as long as it caught mice well" - to paraphrase the words of the Great Mao. It is important that the cat catches mice, whether it has a crooked nose or not.

                Robert Howard, by the way, was not a Jew. The fact that Mo, Larry and Curly Howart were née Horowitz does not mean that everyone with the name Howard was Horowitz, which is absurd.

                To whom what, but to the naked in the bath. The conversation was about the CELTS and the BRANCHES of the Celts, and you started looking for the Jews and "racial purity." Obsessions + inferiority complex + persecution mania ... This is already a diagnosis ... Oh, sorry "punitive" psychiatry was abolished. How many clients ...
                1. The comment was deleted.
        2. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 April 9 2021 20: 36
          0
          Baron, I agree about Rosenberg: they loved to calculate the percentage of Aryan blood. Interestingly, they also used the term "haplogroup"!
  2. Catfish
    Catfish April 7 2021 05: 35
    +15
    Good morning friends. hi

    Thank you Valery for the excellent article. good

    Until this day, I didn’t really know anything about the Celts except that they were somewhere, once, and something.
    The reenactor in the image of a North European warrior-Celtic made a little laugh, his face was too full and smooth,
    the more it looks like a parody, not an epic image. Otherwise, everything is very interesting.

    Yes, and the helmet with the "trident" is generally a song, I'm surprised that the historians of the ancient Ukrov did not claim it. laughing
    1. Sling cutter
      Sling cutter April 7 2021 05: 59
      +15
      Quote: Sea Cat
      Yes, and the helmet with the "trident" is generally a song, I'm surprised that the historians of the ancient Ukrov did not claim it.

      Comrade, it is in vain that you tell them, because these can wassat
    2. Richard
      Richard April 7 2021 10: 14
      +13
      The pants are believed to have been invented in China. At least the oldest ones have been found on a Chinese mummy dated to sometime around 1000 BC. e.
      It turns out that pants were fashionable from the east, and skirts were worn in the west. At some point in history, these two fashion trends met. After that, the pants have become part of the everyday life of Western people. Although in the same Scotland, men still love to flaunt in skirts smile
      1. Konnick
        Konnick April 7 2021 10: 27
        +14
        This is of course a reconstruction, but in the conditions of the tundra steppe, our ancestors 30 thousand years ago wore clothes similar to the clothes of the indigenous peoples of the north, the weather did not allow walking without pants laughing photo of the reconstruction of clothes from the Sungir Upper Paleotic site, near Vladimir

        And a spear from a mammoth tusk hunter.
        1. Free wind
          Free wind April 7 2021 13: 53
          +2
          Well, rather a spearhead. It seems like the technology of straightening tusks has not yet been invented. And in the frost, I often see girls running around in short skirts, who go to school. Beauty requires sacrifice.
          1. Konnick
            Konnick April 7 2021 14: 08
            +7
            The fact of the matter is that it is entirely made of ivory.
      2. Konnick
        Konnick April 7 2021 10: 30
        +11
        Anecdote, English.

        In the old days, when the British took Scottish cities by storm, they killed men and raped women.
        That is why the proud but life-loving Scots began to wear skirts.
        1. VLR
          April 7 2021 10: 34
          +11
          "Scottish warriors wear skirts,
          Under which there are no cowards.
          They are braver than anyone in the world -
          They will drive the English dogs away. "
          Funny "Song of Dogs, Warriors and Cowards".
      3. Free wind
        Free wind April 7 2021 14: 15
        +3
        In the Alps, not so long ago, they found the mummy of a man who lived 2.700 years ago. For the campaign, he was dressed completely for the winter. And in warm boots and pants.
      4. Baron pardus
        Baron pardus April 8 2021 20: 20
        +1
        In general, many things have been invented in China. For example mechanical calculators. If it were not for the neo-Confucians who absolutely perverted, in general, the reasonable and good teachings of Confucius (this, by the way, is about the dangers of excessive ingenuity), then thanks to the technological advantage, the Han people would simply capture whatever they wanted. When opponents have simple iron, and you have bronze swords with CHROME plated, not inferior to steel, plus primitive MLRS, and iron discipline, organization and deeply developed military tactics and diplomacy, it’s hard to resist you.
    3. Richard
      Richard April 7 2021 11: 19
      +7
      Yes, and the helmet with the "trident" is generally a song

      Greetings, Constantine hi
      If you successfully dive in such a helmet in the right place, you can get hold of a fish on a gorge, which you can cook in the same helmet laughing
      1. Catfish
        Catfish April 7 2021 13: 30
        +3
        Hi Dima. hi Yes, a very versatile piece of equipment. smile
  3. Free wind
    Free wind April 7 2021 06: 44
    +8
    Among the Greeks and Romans, large personal belongings were not held in high esteem, no one measured them. It was believed that large pipirkas are a sign of barbarians and slaves. Look at the Terracotta figurine. Europe of that time was almost all covered with forests, it is unlikely that the Celts had a lot of horses there. In principle, they could have fought on horseback, there are all sorts of pictures, but in reality it was very difficult. There were no saddles, of course, too, they would hold on to the horse when he was walking, let's say at a light trot, if the horse goes into a gallop, you will fly away after 5 meters, how else to fight while doing this? What kind of skin is in Madama's belt, I did not understand. Except that it's a gargle raccoon, nothing comes to mind. But they seem to be just found in America. The Indians had not yet reached Europe on kayaks.
    1. Cowbra
      Cowbra April 7 2021 07: 39
      +5
      The genets were ...
    2. kalibr
      kalibr April 7 2021 07: 50
      +13
      Quote: Free Wind
      Romans big personal belongings were not held in high esteem, no one measured them.

      Emperor Heliogabalus, on the other hand, summoned people with large ... to the palace, examined, admired, ordered ... gilded! And he appointed to high positions, declaring that a person with large ... organs has a lot of mind! But he ruled for only three years ...
      1. depressant
        depressant April 7 2021 08: 48
        +6
        Paying attention to the statuette, I did not dare to start a conversation)))
        I wonder what was the technology of gilding the piers - hot or cold? wassat ))))
        And what were the consequences of gilding? Is it not a short term of reign - due to the anger of both the gilded and the unworthy, hehe ...
        1. kalibr
          kalibr April 7 2021 10: 27
          +7
          Quote: depressant
          Is it not a short term of reign - due to the anger of both the gilded and the unworthy, hehe ...

          I had an article on VO about Heliogabalus. There all his quirks are painted in detail!
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 12: 50
            +4
            I had an article on VO about Heliogabalus. There all his quirks are painted in detail!

            Yes, I often remember with humor. Well written! lol
            Having lost the historical competition to other peoples, the Celts and their descendants had a great influence on the development of Western European civilization. Thus, the Irish who adopted Christianity in the XNUMXth century in the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries "exported" many saints to Britain and various countries of mainland Europe.

            The center of distribution was the monastery on the island of Iona, founded by the saint, but the thieving Columba. lol

            It would be interesting if someone wrote about that period. hi There was also that Santa Barbara among the Scots, Irish and Anglo-Saxons who did not join them - our appanage princes nervously smoke on the sidelines. This time also has its own cultural values, many saints came from there, but it is poorly consecrated for the domestic reader. sad And one Saint Brendan with his mythical sailing on the ocean is worth a lot! fellow In general - you and cards in hand, Vyacheslav Olegovich! wink I think you can ask the respected Alex "Boltorez" for something about the materials. drinks
            1. Mihaylov
              Mihaylov April 7 2021 14: 19
              +5
              Quote: Pane Kohanku
              the Celts and their descendants had a great influence on the development of Western European civilization.

              Good afternoon Nikolai,
              I made a grandiose historical discovery about their great influence on the development of Western European civilization:

              Note, the Celts invented the game of throwing a ring on a stick:

              True, probably in their time this game was somewhat more cruel and all those who failed were killed, which developed severity and resistance to hardships in Celtic children! wassat
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 14: 40
                +5
                True, probably in their time this game was somewhat more cruel and all those who failed were killed, which developed severity and resistance to hardships in Celtic children!

                And basketball was invented by the Aztecs? And there you had to hit the ball with any point, but not with your hands? wink There, it seems, there were also some sanctions, either to the losers, or to the winners ... lol
                1. Mihaylov
                  Mihaylov April 7 2021 16: 26
                  +4
                  Quote: Pane Kohanku
                  And basketball was invented by the Aztecs?

                  I remember exactly that golf was invented by the hobbits. drinks
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 16: 46
                    +4
                    I remember exactly that golf was invented by the hobbits.

                    And I also remember that Skyrim is for the Nords! The Thalmor are out! angry But this is already another fairy tale ... wink drinks
                  2. Baron pardus
                    Baron pardus April 8 2021 18: 03
                    +1
                    About golf. Robin Williams' iconic miniature: The Scholtander Invents Golf. Rzhachki level "Pad Stalom" You can translate into Russian, but there will be a lot of mate. You have to listen to it in English, Williams is a great Scottish accent. Met the Scots in life. Well, that's how they talk. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uVvGv1d5hs0
          2. Astra wild2
            Astra wild2 April 7 2021 19: 48
            +1
            Vyacheslav Olegovich, when was the material and what was the name?
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 20: 49
              +3
              Vyacheslav Olegovich, when was the material and what was the name?

              Vera, if you are talking about the depraved Heliogabalus, then here is the article of 2015. I didn’t know Vyacheslav Olegovich at that time ... laughing
              https://topwar.ru/82049-geliogabal-samyy-razvratnyy-rimskiy-imperator.html
              1. Astra wild2
                Astra wild2 April 8 2021 13: 31
                +1
                Thanks, I'll take a look
      2. Glory1974
        Glory1974 April 7 2021 10: 06
        +5
        summoned people with large ... to the palace, examined, admired, ordered ... to gild!

        And women are interested in nothing gilded? After all, from somewhere came the expression: "Golden female organ - cap" laughing
        1. depressant
          depressant April 7 2021 11: 02
          +4
          I believe the "cap" is a barbaric invention of the era of knightly campaigns in the name of the Holy Sepulcher, called the "belt of veneration". And this is hardly the case with the Celts with their warlike women. And in the Middle Ages ... Here the knight departs, unhygienically chaining the unhappy wife in a specially molded iron, and she, the wife, waving a handkerchief from the tower after her husband for the last time, in irritation orders: "Call me a blacksmith here!" The blacksmith, sighing "Oh, these ladies!", Habitually presses a secret spring, and now a detail with an intact barn lock, easily removed from the metal frame, falls into the master's hand. Handing over the detail to the lady who had time to throw off the belt, and accepting the bag with the reward, the blacksmith says: "I hope you remember how quickly you put it on? Have you saved the assembly drawing?"
          1. VLR
            April 7 2021 11: 13
            +9
            Now, by the way, they doubt that ladies really wore such belts for a long time. This would quickly lead to pressure sores in the most intimate places and inflammation. It is believed that the belts could be worn symbolically on girls - before the first wedding night, for example, the bride's mother solemnly handed the key to the groom so that he would remove the belt personally. Or used as toys - such medieval role-playing games. In wealthy families, chastity belts were real works of art, at the place of their manufacture they were called "Venetian lattices" or "Bergama castles". But this does not mean that a girl or a woman really constantly wore this terrible "accessory" worthy of inquisitors.
            1. Astra wild2
              Astra wild2 April 7 2021 14: 27
              +2
              Valery, we are interested in this "Venus Belt", do you have any materials about it or where to read it?
              1. VLR
                April 7 2021 16: 15
                +2
                I didn’t do it on purpose, it’s some kind of side knowledge, I read it somewhere in between times. Sometimes it really piques interest and starts the process of studying additional materials. And you can go far. For example, I have written articles about orders of knighthood, but I have also written about Masons. Because "they were spinning under our feet all the time," and they achieved that I began to work with them. In the epic cycle, I did not plan to write about women and, especially, about Snakes (it was unexpected for myself), but I did. In this cycle about the Celts, topics have also arisen that I was not going to write about, but they have arisen and, in my opinion, will be very interesting for everyone. However, in the case of these belts, the process did not start. I think there are some separate materials about them on the Internet.
                1. Astra wild2
                  Astra wild2 April 7 2021 19: 43
                  0
                  Let's look for
                  1. Phil77
                    Phil77 April 7 2021 19: 51
                    +1
                    Happy Birthday!

                    Vera, do you really want to see this medieval * gimmick *? winkThere is a photo, but .... quite a creepy thing for a modern person.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish April 8 2021 17: 44
                      0
                      Everything was simple with that! laughing
          2. kalibr
            kalibr April 7 2021 12: 41
            +4
            Watch the wonderful German film "Wonderful Times in Spessart" 1967 there is about it ...
            1. Catfish
              Catfish April 8 2021 17: 49
              0
              I liked the first "Ghosts at Spessart Castle" better. smile

              1. kalibr
                kalibr April 8 2021 17: 54
                +1
                In the second, the armor is good, the medieval costumes are beautiful and the song. And the Mennesinger is good!
          3. Free wind
            Free wind April 7 2021 13: 37
            +5
            Madama comes to the doctor for a medical examination, with a chastity belt, the doctor is horrified by the barbarism, "oh my God, why are the toes blue?" "the rubber band has burst! love Happy holiday.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish April 8 2021 17: 51
              +1
              Non-observance of safety precautions when working with locksmith tools. laughing
              1. Phil77
                Phil77 April 8 2021 18: 58
                +2
                Hi buddy, pretty cute * product *. laughing
                The reality was harsher.

                1. Catfish
                  Catfish April 8 2021 19: 02
                  +2
                  Nightmare! Continuous unsanitary conditions! Poor aunts! sad
                  1. Phil77
                    Phil77 April 8 2021 19: 09
                    +2
                    So I mean. Yesterday Vera dreamed of getting materials about this * piece of iron *, but .... Guests, DR, and all that accompanying. Moreover, she has her own * authorities * on the site. laughing Well, okay. bully
          4. Korsar4
            Korsar4 April 7 2021 21: 28
            +3
            Moral: a good blacksmith will not be left without work.
        2. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 13: 14
          +6
          And women are interested in nothing gilded?

          Heliogabal was not special in women, he could not even figure out the intimate urges of his ass - "everything around is beautiful, everything around is mine!" laughing By the way, after his assassination, his real name - Antonin - became forbidden for the emperors! stop
          1. Mihaylov
            Mihaylov April 7 2021 15: 02
            +5
            Quote: Pane Kohanku
            Heliogabal was not special in women, he could not even figure out the intimate urges of his ass - "everything around is beautiful, everything around is mine!" laughing By the way, after his assassination, his real name - Antonin - became forbidden for emperors!

            Nikolay, I recommend the original source, all from there:
          2. Catfish
            Catfish April 8 2021 17: 38
            +4
            As a child, come on, it was Heliogabalus' favorite toy. laughing
      3. Richard
        Richard April 7 2021 12: 27
        +4
        kalibr (Vyacheslav): But ruled for only three years

        Almost four. - from June 8, 218 to March 11, 222.
      4. Catfish
        Catfish April 8 2021 17: 16
        +2
        But he ruled for only three years ...


        Hmmm, it immediately becomes clear what size the "merit" of Heliogable was. laughing
    3. Korsar4
      Korsar4 April 7 2021 21: 26
      +2
      Not all forests. There were plenty of open spaces.
    4. Baron pardus
      Baron pardus April 8 2021 20: 24
      0
      I read a very interesting theory, by the way about the Greeks and Romans too. It said that the more PRIMITIVE the animal, the larger the genitals of the males. For example, monkeys - chimpanzees - are very smart, and the genitals are small, but baboons have larger ones. And marsupials (the most primitive of mammals) are generally champions in size.
  4. Van 16
    Van 16 April 7 2021 07: 30
    +5
    Among other things, there is such a thing as "Celtic music". There are a large number of musicians who represent this direction with dignity. And they are quite popular. Including in Russia.
    Great article, thanks!
    1. depressant
      depressant April 7 2021 13: 07
      +2
      For example, "Mill". They compose themselves in the Celtic style. The creative intensity is supported by the opinion of some historians that the Slavs come from the Celts)))
      1. Van 16
        Van 16 April 7 2021 14: 36
        +3
        "Mill" has now moved away from the Celtic style, a little different music is played. But in the first albums - yes, there was, you could feel the influence.
        1. ANB
          ANB April 8 2021 00: 51
          +2
          ... "Mill"

          Folk rock.
          And the early albums had Celtic and non-Celtic motives. And now it is the same. Natalya Andreevna O'Shey, PhD, Department of Germanic and Celtic Philology. Hence the love for Celtic music.
          1. Baron pardus
            Baron pardus April 8 2021 21: 37
            0
            Folk Metal rules. There was such a cool group "Skyclad", the impression is that the lyrics were written by a convinced communist, what is one song "Inequality street", that's what the guys actually lit up to Celtic music. Live saw a couple of years ago a German folk group "Soltatio mortis", also a sickly light with Celtic music. They sing in German. Combination of Irish music with German => brainwave. But it’s very robust. For example, the song Weiß Wie Schnee is a sickly lecture on mythology :-)
    2. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 14: 24
      +6
      There are a large number of musicians who represent this direction with dignity. And they are quite popular.

      Michael Flatley celebrated Irish dance. good He is beautiful! drinks
      1. Van 16
        Van 16 April 7 2021 14: 34
        +4
        "Michael Flatley Glorified Irish Dance"
        Without a doubt hi
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 14: 37
          +4
          Without a doubt

          In 2013, I took tickets for his show, they performed in St. Petersburg ... and it didn't come together to go! crying
          1. Mihaylov
            Mihaylov April 7 2021 14: 43
            +5
            Quote: Pane Kohanku
            In 2013, I took tickets for his show, they performed in St. Petersburg ... and it didn't come together to go!

            2 times was on their show hi
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 14: 45
              +5
              2 times was on their show

              Gorgeous! But now Flatley, it seems, is no longer dancing the main role? drinks
              1. Mihaylov
                Mihaylov April 7 2021 14: 46
                +5
                Quote: Pane Kohanku
                But now Flatley, it seems, is no longer dancing the main role?

                Yes, he hasn't been dancing for a long time. In both cases, there were already other soloists. drinks
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 14: 48
                  +5
                  Yes, he hasn't been dancing for a long time. In both cases, there were already other soloists.

                  Vyborg used to host the Maypole festival of ethnic music every year - right in the castle. It was stopped several years ago.
          2. Van 16
            Van 16 April 7 2021 15: 06
            +4
            Alas, I didn't get to see it live either, I just watched the video. A stunning sight, in all plans.
  5. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave April 7 2021 07: 31
    +10
    I'll add an illustration.

    Celtic sword in a scabbard, second half of the XNUMXth century BC e.
    Thank you, Valery!
    1. depressant
      depressant April 7 2021 08: 58
      +5
      I watched "Xena, Warrior Princess" and was indignant: what kind of unnatural stories the filmmakers would not come up with! But no, it's all true. Hence, it follows that European emancipation is based on deep historical roots. Is this the harm of enlightenment? what wassat ))))
      1. Bolt cutter
        Bolt cutter April 7 2021 13: 28
        +5
        European emancipation is based on deep historical roots.
        Boudica, queen of the Izeni Celtic tribe, who rebelled against the Romans when they violated the treaty of alliance.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 14: 47
          +5
          Boudica, queen of the iceni Celtic tribe, ........ when they violated the treaty of alliance.

          And when she began to be indignant, she herself was roughly flogged, and her two daughters were raped ... No. But the Romans then tensed hard! belay
          1. Bolt cutter
            Bolt cutter April 7 2021 14: 50
            +4
            The daughters with her on the chariot are depicted, by the way. Unfortunately, it is difficult to get a photo of the format necessary for the site, and it is too lazy to go with the camera yourself - an hour there / back.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 14: 51
              +4
              Unfortunately, it is difficult to get a photo of the format necessary for the site, and it is too lazy to go with the camera yourself - an hour there / back.

              So if someone you know lives there, ask them to take a picture! drinks
              By the way, what happened to the daughters then?
              1. Bolt cutter
                Bolt cutter April 7 2021 14: 54
                +3
                So I myself live "there". About 25 minutes one way to Westminster tube.
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 14: 56
                  +4
                  So I myself live "there". About 25 minutes one way to Westminster tube.

                  I, by a sinful deed, at first did not pay attention to the tower from behind. Is this monument right next to Big Ben?
                  1. Bolt cutter
                    Bolt cutter April 7 2021 15: 06
                    +2
                    Yes, yes. Across the street from Elisabeth Tower (that's how this tower of the Parliament building is called), Big Bank is the nickname of the superintendent Benjamin Hall (Welsh) who has long adhered to the tower. Immediately in the same place (from the side of the photographer's back) - Westminster Bridge.
                  2. Bolt cutter
                    Bolt cutter April 7 2021 15: 16
                    +2
                    By the way, London parrots have every right to be here under the heading "history". This is Kramer's parrot, they are numerous in India, and the first records of wild parrots in the parks of London date back to the 1890s. The population of these flocking birds could not become stable without an influx of "fresh blood" - and this was provided by the colonial officers and officials of Britain, who returned from India and brought these exotic birds with them. Subsequently, some escaped and were exposed to the frost - a lot laughing and ensured the nourishment of the flock and the existence of a stable healthy population. Something like this. Now they fly through the park and are not afraid of anyone - they literally sit on their heads.
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 17: 01
                      +4
                      By the way, London parrots have every right to be here under the heading "history".

                      A great idea for a note to you or Shpakovsky - for an article! good And in winter they are definitely not cold?
                      Our birds are simpler, but you get no less pleasure. On weekends we went to Pskov, on Saturday I fed the seagulls a whole loaf on Velikaya.

                      There was a strong headwind for them, so they just hovered nearby and caught on the fly. One craftsman caught five times in a row! good And how they swear among themselves! fellow
                      Beyond the river - the Mirozhsky monastery. The local temple (which is on the left, with a dark dome) is one of the oldest in Pskov, 12th century. drinks
                      1. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter April 7 2021 17: 05
                        +2
                        Our birds are simpler, but you get no less pleasure
                        In Latvia, I fed seagulls from the balcony with herring (there was simply nowhere to put it) - then the neighbors washed the dirty cars wassat .
                        And in winter they are definitely not cold?
                        They live in the foothills of the Himalayas, so they are familiar. Food is plentiful, and in London freezing temperatures are rare and do not last long.
                      2. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 17: 15
                        +3
                        then the neighbors washed the dirty cars

                        Did you come to swear later? lol By the way, I fed them the second loaf on Sunday. Watching their communication and behavior is ridiculous.
                        Food is plentiful, and in London freezing temperatures are rare and do not last long.

                        And when there is a lot of food, you can be picky, like a squirrel in Peterhof. wink They are so eaten there that the seeds are swept away immediately. negative Only nuts! stop And we'll see if we will eat them ... what
                      3. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter April 7 2021 17: 25
                        +3
                        They are so eaten there that the seeds are swept away immediately.
                        Parrots also sort out nuts, and then take one they like (almond or Brazilian) in their paw and slowly eat it, holding it in their paw like a sandwich.
                        Watching their communication and behavior is ridiculous.
                        Parrots also behave amusingly - they call their own, hang on the branches, and then, like a hummingbird, fly up and sit down. Do not hesitate to wait for their turn to the table on the shoulder or on the head of the "feeder".
                        To strangers - turn from the gate yes
                        Did you come to swear later?
                        They were afraid to talk to my father - he once arranged a frantic fight from which he emerged victorious smile
                2. Astra wild2
                  Astra wild2 April 7 2021 19: 34
                  +2
                  And does everyone tolerate this?
                  1. Bolt cutter
                    Bolt cutter April 7 2021 19: 46
                    +3
                    The parrot is a proud bird; it does not impose its society on anyone.
                3. Konnick
                  Konnick April 7 2021 21: 19
                  +4
                  In Rome, in the Borghese park, parrots also fly, near the zoo, they nest there, feed, and fly to the park for entertainment, return in the evening. Smart bird.
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave April 7 2021 20: 19
              +5
              How unlucky Peter was with the subway!
              1. Bolt cutter
                Bolt cutter April 7 2021 20: 29
                +4
                And you have it prettier - back in Soviet times I read about your metro, about crystal columns and all that. There is no such thing in London - the underground is utilitarian here.
                1. Phil77
                  Phil77 April 7 2021 20: 40
                  +3
                  Alexey, the most beautiful metro stations are located here, in Moscow! Here is the most striking example for you, station * Novoslobodskaya *.


                  Now, of course, not on a grand scale, and many things are not right. But many stations in the center are something amazing!
                  1. Phil77
                    Phil77 April 7 2021 20: 46
                    +1
                    A * Mayakovskaya *? A * Taganskaya-ring *? Treasure !!!

                  2. Bolt cutter
                    Bolt cutter April 7 2021 20: 47
                    +1
                    Westminster is beautifully done.
                    Canary Wharf is beautiful too.
                  3. Phil77
                    Phil77 April 7 2021 20: 50
                    +1
                    Perhaps, but all the central metro stations are beautiful!

                    This is again * Novoslobodskaya *, almost a general view.
                  4. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave April 7 2021 21: 25
                    +3
                    Alex, these are transport hubs, and they should be. Moscow is also striving for this. Peter - no, because "the kingdom is not enough, there is nowhere to turn around." There was an attempt with the Ladozhsky railway station, but it did not happen ...
                  5. Phil77
                    Phil77 April 8 2021 06: 40
                    +2
                    Yes, yes. * Moscow is also striving for this. * I mean that there is a clear line between the stations created in the EARLY time and those that are * sculpted * now. From the point of view of * transportation * -yes. The metro is within walking distance, but what about beauty? Taste and color are of course individual concepts, but ... hi
              2. Korsar4
                Korsar4 April 7 2021 21: 42
                +3
                Mom worked not far from the Novoslobodskaya metro station. But my favorite station is Mayakovskaya.
              3. Phil77
                Phil77 April 8 2021 06: 45
                +3
                Probably- * Kolkhoznaya *. Now * Sukharevskaya *. Childhood memory, and nothing can be done about it. 1972, I'm nine years old and I'm ONE going to my aunt in * Medvedkovo *.
              4. Korsar4
                Korsar4 April 8 2021 06: 59
                +2
                Moscow always began from the Square of Three Stations. Komsomolskaya-ring is beautiful.

                But it is already possible to consider it slowly now.
              5. Phil77
                Phil77 April 8 2021 07: 01
                +3
                I agree. But before you run and do not notice these beauties! All I have to work. See you, we will write off.
              6. Astra wild2
                Astra wild2 April 8 2021 17: 46
                +1
                There is a series: "Three stations", something like this, about police (militia) everyday life on transport
              7. Korsar4
                Korsar4 April 8 2021 22: 16
                +1
                No, it came across. I rarely watch TV.
              8. Astra wild2
                Astra wild2 April 9 2021 18: 13
                +1
                It was shown about 4 years ago.
                Before my "first coming", I watched a lot of TV, a tablet appeared and I "opened" Google and I watch TV less often + time became short
  6. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave April 7 2021 21: 11
    +3
    About crystal columns, in "Avtovo" - these are fairy tales. It is really beautiful there, but without mania in the use of materials, because common areas must have a certain vandal resistance.
    And I, in fact, about the depth of occurrence. Sometimes, having got used to it for many years, you ride an escalator and think: during this time in Moscow you can drive 3-4 stations.
    1. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter April 7 2021 21: 15
      +3
      And I, in fact, about the depth of occurrence
      The only branch in London located entirely underground is Victoria. The rest are either not deep or partially on the surface.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 7 2021 21: 29
      +3
      So the London subway originates from the "elevator"! Or am I confusing with New York?
    3. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter April 7 2021 21: 38
      +3
      Or am I confusing with New York?
      Most likely yes, you are confusing. The original idea was - to connect the center and the City quarter by train in a tunnel - there was no land for the construction of an "ordinary" line. The idea came about in the 1830s, in 1855 a test tunnel was built at Kebleworth, and in 1863 the line between Paddington and Farringdon began to work. The interior of one of the Baker st. have kept virtually unchanged since those times. The world's second largest metro station in Budapest.
    4. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter April 7 2021 21: 46
      +2
      By the way, the totem beast and the sovereign master of the London subway - mouse wassat
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 April 7 2021 21: 43
    +3
    You are not very lucky with the construction site. The metro is a consequence.
  • Bolt cutter
    Bolt cutter April 7 2021 15: 36
    +3
    what happened to the daughters then?
    Even their names are currently not known for sure. It is believed that they died with their mother, but there is a version that one or both were sent north, to lands not under the control of the Romans.
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 15: 53
      +3
      but there is a version that one or both were sent north, to lands not under the control of the Romans.

      And Adrian's shaft, then, EMNIP, was not yet ... Adrian, it seems, is best known for two facts - the shaft of the name of his beloved, and the fact that the guest worker Antinous with his brilliant ass constantly distracted the emperor from state thoughts about national happiness. wink By the way, V.O. Shpakovsky once published an article about one fort near the rampart. drinks
      1. Bolt cutter
        Bolt cutter April 7 2021 15: 57
        +3
        was not yet.
        Its construction began 60 years after the iceni revolt in 144 CE.
  • Phil77
    Phil77 April 7 2021 15: 52
    +4
    Well, though I'm not in London, but ... please, a photo of this monument. laughing

    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 15: 55
      +4
      Well, though I'm not in London, but ... please, a photo of this monument.

      Thank you, Sergey! drinks And now we call everyone in chorus Santa Claus Sea Cat - discuss the "charms" of the daughters of the pugnacious queen! wink fellow
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 April 7 2021 16: 04
        +5
        For * charms *
        -catch more, buddy!
        Heck! Hello, friends! laughing


        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 16: 09
          +5
          -catch more, buddy!

          Looking at the flaws in the clothes of the "princesses", the thought creeps in that Boudicca was rushing with them in a "psychic attack" - to hit the Romans with "forms" of the body. fellow Like sailors riding zebras. laughing

          Remember the joke? wink
          The policemen twist the man:
          - You're under arrest! You have the right to remain silent! Anything you say can be used against you!
          - Naked woman ...
          - What - "naked woman" ???
          - Use a naked woman against me!


          So Boudicca decided to do the same! drinks
      2. Phil77
        Phil77 April 7 2021 16: 08
        +4
        Nikolay, excuse me, but after yesterday's beautiful victory of our * army * over * yours * the mood is amazingly amazing! Everything is * burning * in your hands! laughing wink laughing
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 16: 11
          +3
          above * yours * the mood is amazingly amazing! In the hands of everything * burns *!

          Glad! good Keep it up! drinks
      3. Catfish
        Catfish April 8 2021 19: 51
        +3
        ... we call the Sea Cat - to discuss the "charms" of the daughters of the pugnacious queen! wink fellow


        Not my type, I won't. sad
        This one, no matter where it went, and heraclopid women - thank you. request

        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku April 9 2021 09: 42
          +2
          and heracles-like women - thank you.

          And the heliogabal? drinks
          1. Catfish
            Catfish April 9 2021 09: 52
            +1
            These I leave exclusively to you, my dear lady. wink
          2. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku April 9 2021 09: 56
            +4
            These I leave exclusively to you, my dear lady

            Oh, how you stroked me! I washed it, I washed it, Uncle Kostya! drinks Mikado and I endorse! good
          3. Catfish
            Catfish April 9 2021 10: 01
            +2
            "Mikado is a smart cat, and everyone calls him
            With the Invisible Paw because he is a great rogue. " smile

            (a little parody of T.S.Eliot)
          4. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku April 9 2021 10: 02
            +3
            With the Invisible Paw, because he is a great rogue.

            Great! Even that rosy gingerbread! And when he wants to eat, he generally portrays a faithful shepherd dog, does not leave a single step! laughing
          5. Catfish
            Catfish April 9 2021 10: 15
            +3
            The ability to competently master the tactical techniques necessary to achieve the set goal characterize their bearer exclusively in a positive aspect. soldier
          6. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku April 9 2021 10: 24
            +2
            tactical techniques

            He is a very good psychologist! wink
          7. Catfish
            Catfish April 9 2021 10: 28
            +1
            This is an essential quality of any cat. yes
  • Mihaylov
    Mihaylov April 7 2021 16: 24
    +4
    Quote: Phil77
    Well, though I'm not in London, but ... please, a photo of this monument.

    1. Phil77
      Phil77 April 7 2021 16: 29
      +4
      Yes, perhaps not. Measures to combat * flu * there are generally draconian.
      Good afternoon!
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave April 7 2021 19: 55
    +2
    Laziness - engine of progress.
  • depressant
    depressant April 7 2021 15: 50
    +1
    There are other versions as well.
    Budikka and her daughters made their escape, but after a while they poisoned themselves so that they would not be caught. According to other sources, Boudicca and her daughters were killed in this battle in battle, and their bodies were carried out by loyal warriors, then buried next to the battlefield.
    1. depressant
      depressant April 7 2021 19: 14
      +4
      And yet, in the conversation about Boudicca, it is necessary to place accents, because there is a significant moment in this story - the clash of Roman law and local law of the so-called kingdom allied to Rome.
      It was normal Roman practice to leave the independence of the allied kingdoms under the condition that the kingdom, after the death of the currently living allied king, according to his will, would cede to the Roman emperor. Rome considered itself the full-fledged owner of such a state, although the administration was further carried out by the son of the late testator and the kingdom looked and existed as independent. Prosutag did just that - he bequeathed his kingdom to the Roman emperor, but he had no sons! He had daughters. The Romans reacted indifferently to Prosutag's will while he was alive, remembering to himself that power, according to Roman laws, was transferred only through the male line. And when Prosutag died, they came to take power from the daughters of Boudicca in order to turn the kingdom into a colony ruled directly from Rome, that is, they trampled on the local law of inheritance in favor of their own, Roman law. And then the war broke out, which Boudicca, defending the local inheritance of her daughters, lost.
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 April 7 2021 19: 41
        +3
        But as for the daughters, I am like a respected * Boltorez * -Alex / Alexey? Alexander? / I climbed, climbed, looked for, looked, but .... I never found their names. recourse How did it come to be so interesting?
        1. Bolt cutter
          Bolt cutter April 7 2021 19: 52
          +3
          The history of their names has not been preserved. British historians have a consensus on this score.
          Alex / Alex? Alexander?
          It depends on which passport smile
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 April 7 2021 19: 56
            +3
            And perhaps in Russian, in what is clear with a lion and a unicorn. hi
            1. Bolt cutter
              Bolt cutter April 7 2021 19: 58
              +3
              And there is no Russian and never was - even as a tourist, I can only go to Russia with a visa. (In the USA, without wassat )
              1. Phil77
                Phil77 April 7 2021 20: 00
                +3
                In this case, how can I contact you? bully
              2. Bolt cutter
                Bolt cutter April 7 2021 20: 04
                +3
                Alexey initially yes But Alex is already somehow more familiar.
              3. Phil77
                Phil77 April 7 2021 20: 08
                +3
                Okay, very nice, Sergei. hi
              4. Bolt cutter
                Bolt cutter April 7 2021 20: 09
                +3
                Mutually. Let's get to know each other. Alexei. drinks
              5. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 20: 51
                +3
                I ask both to love and favor each other, my dear interlocutors! drinks
              6. Phil77
                Phil77 April 7 2021 20: 53
                +3
                The historical company is replenished with good people and worthy interlocutors. good
              7. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 20: 55
                +3
                The historical company is replenished with good people and worthy interlocutors.

                Vivat! I "dug up" Alexei for myself about a month ago, and our thoughts, Sergei, completely coincide! Will live! drinks
                By the way, where is the Sea Cat? drinks Oh, I forgot ... probably again with three 18-year-old students on the bank of his personal pond he is having fun - he is giving a lecture on poster painting ... lol At least he will say so to his wife! stop
              8. Bolt cutter
                Bolt cutter April 7 2021 20: 57
                +3
                Thank you for your warm welcome! drinks I am happy to communicate here, read and even plan to write!
              9. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 20: 59
                +3
                I am happy to communicate here, read and even plan to write!

                Exactly! We'll ask for both! wink drinks
              10. Bolt cutter
                Bolt cutter April 7 2021 21: 00
                +3
                Now I'm thinking about what to write a good year's article recourse .
            2. Astra wild2
              Astra wild2 April 8 2021 18: 17
              +1
              Will be chained. "Samsonias" will be less. When I was not yet "registered", but simply read, there were more authors "Samsonia" did not close the gaps
    2. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 April 8 2021 17: 54
      0
      Colleague, I only learned yesterday that you are England. I thought that our Russian
    3. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter April 8 2021 18: 22
      +2
      You are England. I thought that our Russian
      I am a Russian Baltic, who have lived in England for more than ten years. But not because in England hedgehogs are fatter - I just like it here. Wife again.
      Will be chained. "Samsonias" will be less
      I am far from humanitarian disciplines, therefore it will not be easy for me to write something suitable. Taking photos is even more difficult - everything is closed everywhere.
    4. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 April 8 2021 18: 30
      +1
      Themselves said that you were thinking of writing. I was dreaming
    5. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter April 8 2021 18: 34
      +2
      No, I will write something suitable without fail yes What do you think about what? It's just that we are still in quarantine now.
      Now on the next branch, imperfect and archaic English is being used wassat
    6. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 April 8 2021 18: 50
      +1
      It is desirable, something exciting, so that women would be interested.
      For example, from the cultural history of London, or Estonia, and if it is historical and romantic - fine.
      I know one thing: you will not write in the style of Kharluzhny, probably, hurray-patriots will remain with their nose
    7. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter April 8 2021 18: 53
      +1
      or Estonia
      I can talk about Latvia, but I still have to get to it. I can also talk about France, a wife from there. (And the same problem) Well, about England, of course. I'll think of something, in a word.
    8. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 April 8 2021 19: 40
      +1
      They lived in Latvia, and my wife is French.
      "Still need to get there," but don't you remember?
      R.
      S.
      Excuse me, professional curiosity (I work in a polyclinic) what corona vaccines do you use? And so to speak rating: which ones are more popular?
    9. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter April 8 2021 19: 50
      +1
      what corona vaccines do you use?
      Pfizer from the very beginning, then AstraZeneca went in parallel, and on Monday Moderna began to be applied. They don't give a choice, they don't take money.
      They lived in Latvia, and my wife is French.
      Almost all adult life has passed here. Russian beauties are very fond of money and attach absolute importance to this factor (I say it as it is). By the way, she really likes Latvia.
      "Still need to get there," but don't you remember?
      I would like some good good photos.
    10. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 April 9 2021 18: 06
      +2
      "don't give a choice" this is not a buffet.
      "Russian beauties really love money" in fairness, ALL women will not refuse money
    11. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter April 9 2021 22: 46
      0
      in fairness, ALL women will not refuse money
      Western Europeans look at the financial / property situation of the potential second half much more adequately. They look, so to speak, at personality, not cash. And what Russian will go on the Tiraspol / Chernobyl tour instead of the Bahamas / Miami?
  • Phil77
    Phil77 April 8 2021 19: 30
    +2
    Good evening, Alexey!
    Why not just write about life. About the life of the * Russian Balts * in London, about its inhabitants, about what you like and what you dislike. About the attitude of ordinary Englishmen to our country / if they are interested in us at all? laughing /. Topic for the article?
  • Bolt cutter
    Bolt cutter April 8 2021 19: 41
    +3
    Good evening!
    if they are interested in us at all?
    Here is the problem - they are somehow parallel to other people's affairs and no one will talk about someone's missile program in the presentation of the yellow tabloid.
    just about life. about the life of * Russian Balts * in London
    No fighting in London has yet been observed, and the site is a MILITARY OVERVIEW. In addition, feed the hamsters who will run with stories about the poor Balts, toilets, gays, (one assured me that there is no sewage system in London wassat ) and there is not the slightest desire for devastation. It will be necessary to choose something historical, make a photo and write. I'll wait until the end of the quarantine.
  • Phil77
    Phil77 April 8 2021 19: 44
    +1
    I will wait. But for now, sorry, but I have a * puck *. The fourth match of the CSKA-SKA series. wink I'm leaving, temporarily.
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master April 9 2021 10: 45
    +3
    Quote: Bolt Cutter
    I will have to choose something historical

    As an option, you can consider the following topic: take English historical novels popular in Russia and take a ride through the "places of military glory" - to show how they look now. Well, at least, I don't know, "Ivanhoe" or "Black Arrow", "Treasure Island", "The Adventures of Oliver Twist", "The Prince and the Pauper", but at least "The Hound of the Baskervilles". smile It is interesting to see how Sherwood Forest and Grimpen Bog looks now. smile
    Surely the English language is full of studies that determine the prototypes of certain objects - Torkilston Castle, taken by the joint storming of Robin from Locksley and Richard the Lionheart, the town of Shoreby, where Dick Shelton and Richard Gloucester defeated the Lancastrians and the like.
    I think it would be interesting.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 April 10 2021 19: 17
    0
    "feed the hamsters" Do you want to leave the hamsters without food ?! This is sadism.
    Joke
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 April 10 2021 19: 13
    +1
    Are you saying that Western women spat on cash for the sake of personality?
    So they are sublime natures? Are we mercantile?
  • Bolt cutter
    Bolt cutter April 11 2021 09: 09
    0
    So they are sublime natures?
    Good morning! Not sublime, but on the contrary, down-to-earth and adequate.
    Western women spit on cash for the sake of personality?
    Not all and not always, but as a rule, yes.
    Are we mercantile?
    I don’t know about you, but my and my friends’s experience says yes.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 April 7 2021 14: 50
    +3
    Xena looked with the boys and raised them by her example: "A beautiful and brave girl, she considers it hers to protect the weak. You are men, which means you must be: brave and generous. Look how Xena protects a criminal. If she killed her or else I'd rather give her to the crowd, Xena would be idolized, and so she risks and still saves "
    I hope not, I'm sure that my boys are REAL DEFENDERS: merciless to the enemy and generous to the weak
    1. cat Rusich
      cat Rusich April 7 2021 23: 04
      +3
      Quote: Astra wild2
      Xena looked with the boys and raised them by her example: “A beautiful and courageous girl, she considers it hers to protect the weak.
      Remembered Xena ...
      Remember Gabriel too ...
      Gabriel
      Gabrielle of Poteidia is the partner of the Warrior Princess.
      Actress Renee O'Connor.
      Gabrielle and Xena
      Gabrielle and Xena.
      The work of the "hero" partner - heavy and ungrateful.
      We will show respect for the "heroes' partners" and we will REMEMBER them yes
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 April 8 2021 13: 30
        0
        You are right: Gabriel also needs to be remembered.
        Like Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave April 7 2021 19: 52
    +1
    No it is not true! In principle, biological life on this planet is tailored to the fact that individuals producing offspring are stronger than individuals who initiate this action. On small and medium-sized predators, including humans, nature "rested".
  • Richard
    Richard April 7 2021 10: 25
    +11
    The Celts had a highly developed metallurgy, where they reached much greater heights than, for example, the Romans in the same period of time. The Celts made long swords of excellent quality on a huge scale. An impressive number of Celtic swords of various periods have been found, they are classified into several types according to the generally accepted system of periodization of La Tene culture:
    Swords of the Latene I type (450-250 BC). The length of the blade of such swords is from 55 to 65 cm. There is only one exception - the length of one find reaches 80 cm. All these swords are double-edged, with a pointed tip and belong to the piercing-chopping type. The most characteristic feature of these early weapons is the special shape of the scabbard.
    Swords of the Latene II type (250-120 BC). Swords have become more of a slashing weapon. The tip of the sword became rounded, and the length of the blade gradually increased until the blades reached 75-80 cm. The weight of such a sword, together with the handle, reached about 1 kg. Although the old scabbard shape continued to be used in the Balkans, in Western Europe it began to follow the contour of the sword itself more. Literally hundreds of them were recovered from a lake near the village of La Ten in Switzerland, and although local differences can be identified, which affected mainly the shape of the scabbard, the La Tene II fully reflects the characteristic features of swords of that period. The scabbard (usually iron) was made of two plates. The front, which was slightly wider than the back, curved around it at the edges. The scabbard was reinforced with a decorative overlay on top and a tip that reinforced the entire structure from below.
    Swords of the Latene III type (120-50 BC). The length of the blade continued to increase. In some of the specimens found, it reaches 90 cm. Although swords with a pointed tip still continued to exist, the type rounded at the end began to prevail. The long scabbard shown in this group is from Britain. The shape of the scabbard clearly dates back to the La Tene culture, but their considerable length - about 84 cm - suggests that they should be attributed to a later period.
    1. Richard
      Richard April 7 2021 10: 25
      +10

      Sketch of swords from Connolly's book. 1-12 - the evolution of the Celtic sword. Scale 1: 8. 1, 2, 3 - swords and scabbards from the Marne region in France. Museum Saint-Germain. 4, 5, 6 - daggers and scabbards from the Marne region in France. Museum Saint-Germain. 7 and 7a - sword and scabbard from La Ten. Basel Museum. Switzerland. 7b - the reverse side of 7a, which has a loop for hanging. 7c - the tip of the scabbard 7a. 8 - the tip of the sheath of a sword from France. OK. 200 BC 9 and 9a - sword and scabbard from Port. 10 - a scabbard that was found in the Thames near London. 11, 11a and 11b - sword and scabbard front and back from Ambleton, Cumberland. 12, 12a - sword and scabbard from Yorkshire. 13-16 - sword hilts. 13 - from Thorpe Bridlington. Yorkshire. 14 - from Hod Hill, Aorset. 15 - from the valley of the river Marne. France. 16 - from Galtstatt. Austria. 16a - a picture of a handle from Pergamum. Turkey.
      1. Richard
        Richard April 7 2021 10: 30
        +7
        Celtic swords. London Museum. Periods of late I, II, III

        Celtic swords. London Museum. 1000-850 BC

        Celtic swords. London Museum. 50-200 A.D.
        1. Richard
          Richard April 7 2021 10: 40
          +8
          La Tène culture - Celtic archaeological culture of the Iron Age (about 450 BC - 1 BC), spread throughout Central and Western Europe (France, Switzerland, Spain), on The Balkans, Asia Minor, Britain and Ireland. Named for the village of La Tène in Switzerland, a few kilometers from Neuchâtel.
      2. kalibr
        kalibr April 7 2021 10: 30
        +9
        You’ve covered everything very well, Richard. It was just pleasant to read. Soon there will be my article on swords, which will have a very beautiful photo of a Celtic sword from the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
        1. Richard
          Richard April 7 2021 10: 35
          +8
          Descriptions of Celtic swords by Roman authors have also survived.
          Dionysius describes how the Celts raised swords over their heads, rotated them in the air, and then brought them down on the enemy as if they were chopping wood. It was this handling of the sword that terrified their opponents. However, the Roman warriors soon learned to cope with this too.
          Polybius reports that the Romans began to take the first blow on the upper edge of the shield, reinforced with an iron plate. From a blow on the iron edge, the sword was bent, and the Celtic warrior was forced to straighten it with his foot, which opened the legionnaire the opportunity to attack a temporarily unarmed enemy. In addition, the legionnaires found out that while the celt is striking a slashing blow with his sword, they can reflect it with a shield and strike from under the shield in the stomach.
          If we compare Celtic swords with Roman swords, then they are closest to the spatami used by cavalrymen. In terms of their parameters, Celtic swords are opposite to the most famous Roman weapon - the gladius, which was much shorter and was intended exclusively for stabbing, not chopping blows.
          1. kalibr
            kalibr April 7 2021 10: 42
            +5
            Quote: Richard
            not chopping blows.

            55555555555555555555555555555555
          2. Astra wild2
            Astra wild2 April 7 2021 12: 26
            +3
            "The Romans began to take the first blow on the upper edge of the shield" - for each virus they find their own vaccine. And if not completely protects, like the smallpox vaccination, then it alleviates the disease like the flu or the new "corona". Taki and the Romans with the blows of the Celts
            1. kalibr
              kalibr April 7 2021 18: 34
              +3
              Happy Birthday! Health and happiness!
          3. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 12: 52
            +5
            Polybius reports that the Romans began to take the first blow on the upper edge of the shield, reinforced with an iron plate.

            The Romans seemed to be quick to jump to conclusions. EMNIP, and after meeting with the Dacians, Roman helmets began to be reinforced with stripes on top in a criss-cross pattern - strengthening the protection against falx blows. soldier
        2. vladcub
          vladcub April 7 2021 18: 32
          +1
          "my article on swords will be coming soon" and I hope for your additions ..
          Joke
          1. kalibr
            kalibr April 7 2021 18: 38
            +3
            Quote: vladcub
            and I hope for your additions ..

            Exactly. It's always more interesting with them!
            1. vladcub
              vladcub April 7 2021 18: 41
              +3
              Good evening in O. I agree with you: it's always nice to read an explanatory commentary
    2. vladcub
      vladcub April 7 2021 14: 02
      +2
      Kamrad, Dmitry "Richard", "long swords of excellent quality" coming out of the Celts first metallurgy in Europe?
      But: "the Celtic warrior was forced to straighten him with his foot", probably the swords were made of soft metal? However, this is the diocese of Vik. Nika, he is our specialist in metal.
      In any case, the Celts are good fellows: "they made long swords on a huge scale" - how much metal was needed, and the extraction of ore then significantly differed from the modern one. You can't buy much on the foreign market, you need metal yourself
  • Mihaylov
    Mihaylov April 7 2021 10: 45
    +5
    Some researchers believe that the trials of the groom, which are told in many tales, are an echo of Celtic traditions.

    The motive of the trial of the groom in Greek myths has a much more ancient origin, dating back to the Mycenaean times, and apparently even earlier. For example, the competition between Pelope and Oenomai, for the hand of the daughter of the last Hippodamia. However, one cannot exclude an even deeper layer here, which goes into the common Indo-European past.
    1. VLR
      April 7 2021 10: 56
      +6
      Well, I think that the peoples of Northern Europe received stories about wedding trials not from the ancient Greeks, but from the Celts, with whom their ancestors mingled. Yes, and ours, apparently, too - there are stories in the epics about the Polyanitsa, who sometimes defeat the hero, sometimes - suffer defeat, but, in the end, marry him. Probably, in the initial versions, it was still about matchmaking. But traditions were forgotten and later storytellers already say that the heroes accidentally met these armed girls - in an open field.
      1. Mihaylov
        Mihaylov April 7 2021 11: 12
        +4
        Quote: VlR
        Well, I think that the peoples of Northern Europe received stories about wedding trials not from the ancient Greeks, but from the Celts, with whom their ancestors mingled. And ours too

        Perhaps they did not adopt this plot from someone, but this plot is extremely ancient and common for everyone, which subsequently received its own variations from each of the peoples.
        the heroes accidentally met these armed girls in an open field.

        As we now know from archeological data, it was quite possible to meet armed girls in an open field: both the Scythians and the Sarmatians had such. hi
  • Konnick
    Konnick April 7 2021 11: 25
    +4
    In 1876, a double Celtic burial with a chariot was found in La Gorges Maille (France), which was dated to the XNUMXth century. BC e.


    And in the 1970s. Chelyabinsk archaeologists under the leadership of Vladimir Gening discovered 5 burials similar to Krivoozersk in Sintashta, about 80 km south of Krivoy Lake, but only wheel prints (in four cases with 8 and in one case with 12 spokes) or holes for them were preserved. In addition, the initial radiocarbon dating dated them to the 2000th-2100th centuries. BC, and only later was it established that they date back to ca. 1800 BC, i.e. roughly modern to the chariot from the Crooked Lake. In general, now the burial grounds in Sintashta, Krivoy Ozero and Kamenny Ambar, the settlement in Arkaim and similar antiquities such as Potapovka on the Middle Volga date back to XNUMX-XNUMX. BC.
    And these spoke wheels are the oldest.

    And the haplogroup is the same as that of the Celts.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 April 7 2021 12: 14
    +7
    Colleagues, Valery, good afternoon. My colleagues have not seen the material yet, and I will be the first to say.
    Valery, thank you very much: a) I’ve already got bored of good materials, and Samsoniada is not for me!
    b) camorra and mandrake are interesting materials, but ... not the most important material for women
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku April 7 2021 14: 19
      +5
      but .... not the most important material for women

      But attention is important for women! wink
      Colleagues soldier Happy Birthday to our beautiful Vera "Astra wild2"!
      Faith - happiness to you! love Health, fulfillment of all desires! And may everything be fine in the family!
      1. Mihaylov
        Mihaylov April 7 2021 14: 34
        +5
        Quote: Pane Kohanku
        Happy Birthday to our beautiful Vera "Astra wild2"!

        Fully joining Nicholas!
        Most sincere Congratulations!
        The main thing is Health!
      2. Bolt cutter
        Bolt cutter April 7 2021 15: 48
        +4
        I join in the congratulations! All the best and wonderful, Astra Wild!
      3. VLR
        April 7 2021 16: 50
        +2
        I join in the congratulations. I wish you and your loved ones health and success.
        1. vladcub
          vladcub April 7 2021 18: 28
          +4
          Astra, happy birthday. You are our Amazon.
          Comrades, in "History" we have two ladies, and only Astra is interested in weapons. All the best to her and her sons and all her loved ones
        2. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 April 8 2021 18: 34
          +2
          It is very flattering that I was congratulated by the BEST SITE AUTHORS
    2. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master April 7 2021 16: 34
      +3
      Congratulations, Vera.
      May the Camorra with mandrake pass you by and the brandy with Madeira remain. smile
  • Cure72
    Cure72 April 7 2021 12: 25
    +3
    Quite an interesting topic. Valery thanks for the article!
  • vladcub
    vladcub April 7 2021 12: 59
    +4
    "all the killed were stabbed in the back when the crush began, and the crush made it difficult to escape" as soon as the panic begins, then - 60% of the victory. Panic is always and everywhere bad, but in battle it is a complete trinity. Therefore, always and everywhere you need to remain calm or at least try not to panic. Panic is especially dangerous at night, when the enemy is not visible, and everyone is rushing about and shooting anywhere.
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master April 7 2021 13: 27
    +9
    Author, as always, thanks.
    Let's plunge into hoary antiquity. smile
    Personally, I have recently rethought my attitude to the Celts and their culture, if not civilization.
    Until recently, it seemed to me that the Celts, whom the Romans and Greeks considered barbarians, were in fact wild and uncivilized peoples, who knew nothing and knew nothing.
    It turned out that this is by no means the case. Hardly in terms of technology and technology, the Celts lagged behind Rome, and in some areas they were even superior, in particular, in matters of metal processing and the manufacture of high-tech products from it, such as, for example, long swords and chain mail.
    The question arises: why did the Celts suffer defeats over and over again in clashes with Rome? My opinion is because of the backwardness in matters of humanitarian knowledge.
    For those colleagues who consider philosophy and the rest of the humanities (including history) to be profanity and nonsense in comparison with the exact sciences, I strongly recommend that you think about the question: in what way did Rome turn out to be stronger than the Celtic barbarians, who for the most part surpassed the Romans in physical parameters (were taller, faster, stronger, more enduring), and in terms of equipment in the military sphere, and, often, in terms of individual combat training, and in terms of numbers?
    In my opinion, the clash of Rome with the Celts is the most vivid example of how important the humanities are in the life of people, the theoretical achievements of which allowed Rome to build a strong state with a strict vertical of government and an extensive system of law, to create a sustainable economy, which, in its turn, allowed the Roman republic, and later the empire, to create and maintain a disciplined and effective army for a long time.
    The Celts did not have philosophers. There are more than enough handicraft engineers, but look for philosophers-theorists in the daytime with fire, there is no more. The result is the actual destruction of the original culture (the death of civilization) and the transformation of a huge number of strong, proud, free and beautiful people into disenfranchised slaves of some cowardly short men who huddle together in fear on the battlefield and hide behind thick boards that all the time they carry on themselves like donkeys.
    1. depressant
      depressant April 7 2021 23: 10
      +4
      Misha, tin! Your comment is the most powerful one in this discussion. Here I will take note of this:
      The Celts did not have philosophers. There are more than enough handicraft engineers, but look for philosophers-theorists in the daytime with fire, there is no more. The result is the actual destruction of the original culture (the death of civilization) and the transformation of a huge number of strong, proud, free and beautiful people into disenfranchised slaves of some kind


      My regards! hi
    2. cat Rusich
      cat Rusich April 7 2021 23: 46
      +3
      Quote: Trilobite Master

      Let's plunge into hoary antiquity. smile
      The result is the actual destruction of the original culture (the death of civilization) and the transformation of a huge number of strong, proud, free and beautiful people into disenfranchised slaves of some cowardly short men who on the battlefield huddle together from fear and hide behind thick boards, which all the time they carry on themselves like donkeys.
      Let's remember September 9th year Teutoburg forest...
      Galov neighbors managed to destroy 3 legions (17, 18, 19), 6 cohorts and 3 cavalry units.

      Quote: Trilobite Master
      cowardly short men who huddle together in fear on the battlefield and hide behind thick boards that they carry around like donkeys all the time.
      "cowardly little men" Won - the war for them is a craft in which they achieved mastery (the period of decline is a separate topic ...)
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      a huge number of strong, proud, free and beautiful people.
      They treated the war as a "souvenir trip".

      Quote: Trilobite Master

      The Celts did not have philosophers. ...
      The Celts had druids - the mind, honor and conscience of the people ...
      soldier
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master April 8 2021 10: 38
        +1
        Quote: cat Rusich
        Let's remember September 9th year of the Teutoburg Forest

        What for? It is absolutely impossible to compare the Germans and Celts of that time - nothing in common.
        I urged to think about the reasons for the victories of Rome over the Celts, despite their physical, technical and numerical superiority.
        Quote: cat Rusich
        The Celts had druids - the mind, honor and conscience of the people

        And there were no philosophers. Or do you allow the replacement of one by another? Do you think that religion can replace science?
        1. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 April 8 2021 18: 40
          +1
          "religion can replace science" religion can only be an adjunct
        2. cat Rusich
          cat Rusich April 8 2021 21: 13
          0
          Quote: Trilobite Master

          And there were no philosophers. Or do you allow the replacement of one by another?
          There is simply such a people as JEWS ...
          Lost several wars to Rome -
          66-71g (the last fortress of Mossad)
          115-117g (the last fortress of Lida)
          132-136g (last fortress of Beitar)
          Jews were deported-expelled from Palestine-Judea, but kept their faith, customs and identity as a people.
          They write about the Gauls only in history textbooks, we can say the Druids also lost - there are only rumors about them who they were (or won and carried their "sacred secrets" into oblivion ...)
      2. Baron pardus
        Baron pardus April 8 2021 18: 37
        0
        It is not individual fighters who are fighting, but structures. The Romans took, as always, organization, discipline and the ability to work in the ranks. (Story,, matters). A Celtic or Germanic may be stronger and more enduring, but certainly no more trained than a Roman warrior.
        Especially for a massive battle in the ranks. Ordung und disseplinen was not invented by the Germans at all.
        I'm not even talking about armor. Chain mail is unlikely to save from a direct hit from a pilum from a short distance, but if tangentially, then it can. Such little things make up defeat or victory. When people who could have been in the column "wounded but recovered" go to the column "climbed into the line without armor, died of 50 minor wounds from which the armor could have protected."

        And the point is not in Philosophy, but in a professional army that did not paint the grass, did not build dachas for the centurions, like one army in which my father served, and did not bother with the problems of equality of ethnic groups, 50 sexes and sex orientations and "equal representation of all ethnic groups and sex orientations in command structures ", which turned into the army in which I served, and trained to the point that the techniques were repeated in a dream. You can read philosophy to the point of insanity (which is what reading philosophy leads to), but a person who, instead of philosophy, works out blows will sweep you aside. A philosopher, with all his "deep thought", not only a boxer in the ring will lose, but also a locksmith in such a simple thing as replacing a tap .. Less talk, more business "Such a well-read person, but he cannot make out the bolt of a rifle ... And also student of classical philosophy ... ". All "well-read" and "cleverness" is garbage if it does not give practical knowledge and skills.
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master April 8 2021 19: 12
          0
          Any ancient Greek gopnik could pile on Socrates, and a modern one could pile on a professor of philosophy. If you can only think at this level, I have nothing more to tell you.
          Try to go up one level.
          The Roman army was a product of Roman society, the Roman state, the analogue of which at that time could not be created by any people. It was the state with its management system, economy and law that was the basis for the Roman army, not the other way around. But how did they manage to create such a state? Here's what to think about.
          1. Baron pardus
            Baron pardus April 8 2021 19: 52
            0
            What is needed is not "philosophy" but practical skills. And in his own business. No matter how much the baker reads philosophy, it won't help him to fix his boots. Need technical skills. And this is by no means philosophy. This is anything you like, chemistry, physics, logical thinking (developed by MATH). RJ Mitchell, I have not read philosophy, I read aerodynamics, mechanics, strength of materials, physics, and much more. The work of Socrates is not needed to create Spitfire. I will say more for repairing a diesel engine - too. To change the electrical wiring too. Even for cleaning a clogged toilet, or changing the oil in your car's engine. Requires technical and practical skills. In the size of the state, educational structures, economic, supply structures and training, training, training are needed. (To study, to study to study, our beloved Ilyich told us). And learn YOUR business. How to plan roads, how to build roads. How much will the construction of roads cost, depending on the terrain and building materials. ETC. Chinese Generals could perfectly quote all ancient Chinese philosophers. However, against the Mongols, this did not help them much, although the Mongols did not bother with philosophy. Russian princes could quote the Holy Scripture, but it did not help much against the same Mongols. SKILLS, ORGANIZATION and SUPPLY are important. You can cleverly say "Be like water, when it is placed in a jug, it becomes a jug when it is placed in a cup, becomes a cup", or you can simply say "Work and act depending on the circumstances." The result is the same. Organization is by no means a philosophy. The Jews can indulge in any jungle of Cabalism and interpretation of the Talmud. But it is not this that helps the Israeli armed forces to win, but the quantity and quality of training of personnel, especially the Air Force and Tank Forces. It is pleasant to chat about lofty matters. But to calculate the construction of a building, so that it does not fall, you need mathematics and strength of evidence, and certainly not Plato or Socrates or Taliy there. For the same building, knowledge of economics is needed, along with resistance to materials and mathematics, in order to calculate how much all this will cost us. Trained stone masons and carpenters are needed. Moreover, they were trained not in philosophy but in their own crafts.

            It’s good AFTER work, and not instead of it, to philosophize about high and beautiful things. Especially with whiskey or ganjubas or mushrooms. Especially with ganjubas and mushrooms and other products of CHEMISTRY AND BOTANICS. Such depths of knowledge are revealed .. Mom, do not cry. Amid the icy twinkling of stars in the vast darkness of space, the gates of Ishtar opened for me once. Then I realized that I understood the universe itself ... Only I did not remember anything :-). But he philosophized and reasoned for hours 3. The people liked it. They said that he was telling intelligently, beautifully, and correctly, only they did not remember anything :-) ...
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master April 8 2021 20: 24
              0
              You did not understand me and, apparently, you will hardly understand.
              You argue on the level of "no need to think, you need to do" ... Well, well, good.
              I leave you with these thoughts. hi
              1. Baron pardus
                Baron pardus April 8 2021 20: 45
                0
                You have to do not just stupidly. And to do it RIGHT. And this grows not about lengthy discussions about any muddy crap, like spaceships plowing the vastness of a large theater, but from specific SCIENTIFIC and practical knowledge. I already told you that Socrates or someone else will absolutely not help you in designing the building. You need to know mathematics, strength of materials, economics and even geology in order to DESIGN a building. Economy to calculate the most profitable construction option. And workers, whether they are stone makers, roofers, carpenters, or anyone else, should KNOW HOW TO DO YOUR JOB. And philosophy will not bring them this knowledge. And what will she bring. Nothing good. Read Voltaire. Douse the past with mud and lies? Yes, for a sweet soul, because "the past must be destroyed, along with its heroes." One can argue whether Jeanne D'Arc was a schizophrenic, or excessively religious, whose parishes began from fasting, but, as Voltaire argued, she was not a cattle. He himself admitted that he lied about this, and about many others. Because "the heroes of the past must be destroyed. Probably from the realization of their own insignificance. Why pour crap all over the past. Why? And just like that, out of idleness. And what else can a rich talker - a keeper do except to destroy those who have achieved more than he.
                What was the inspiration for the maniacs who staged a blood bath called "Parisian Commune"? Philosophy of HUMANISM ... From which in his letters with Voltaire Frederick the Great (note, not Voltaire the Great, but FRIEDRICH THE GREAT) left no stone but stone.
                Since there are no brains to engage in mathematics, there are no other sciences or engineering, hands grow from Glutteus Maximus, then we will go into philosophy. For the ability to beautifully bash and give money, and something else, too, if it is good to hang noodles. Unlike these bloody talkers, Lenin and Stalin possessed knowledge in history, sociology and economics. But Trotsky did not know how to do anything other than to philosophize. And his "workers' armies" are still some of the "philosophers" - utopians of the Renaissance era brought ...

                Translating all this into the military plane, I will explain that a political instructor is only good for something when he leads by his EXAMPLE. Matthew Rijuey describes his divisional priest who landed with the rest of the gliders. With a carbine in hand. It is only then that philosophy and religion (and religion is a branch of philosophy) is useful. A philosopher is only useful when something can be specifically TAKEN and APPLY from his inventions, and this "something" should not be an abstruse retelling of well-known elementary truths (see what I wrote about Water, I certainly ran into Bruce Lee, but for the sake of the cause) ...
                1. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master April 8 2021 21: 05
                  0
                  I have not the slightest desire to argue with you, at least today. I can only state that you have a very distorted idea of ​​philosophy, what it does, what problems it faces at the present time, etc.
                  There was such a philosopher, Karl Marx. He created a kind of theory of the world order. On the basis of this theory, one empire was overthrown, and in its place another, even more powerful, was built. Later, Marx's theory was turned into dogma, perverted, lost its attractiveness, and this mighty empire also collapsed. And on the other side of the planet, this theory was not turned into a dogma, developed and modernized, and now everything is not so bad there.
                  This is philosophy. That's all, actually.
                  1. Baron pardus
                    Baron pardus April 8 2021 21: 30
                    +1
                    Michael, if you will allow me, I will appeal specifically to you. Marx was an ECONOMIST, and he worked with the same ECONOMIST, Engels. Both, at the same time, were well versed in sociology. By the way, Marx was also a Russophobe. "Marx called Russia no other than a barbaric, uncivilized country, worthy only of contempt. One has only to carefully read his countless works ..." We are in for a fight against the barbarian hordes of Austria and Russia ... "Where have I already heard about" Eastern hordes Asians ready to destroy European civilization? "

                    Moreover, many of his rantings (for example, about the harm of the traditional family, which is a "relic" and "an instrument of oppression"), turned out to be even harmful. The theory (pure THEORY) of Marx, absolutely cannot be considered without CORRECTIONS and ADDITIONS that were introduced into it by both Lenin and Stalin. You cannot be a Christian by reading only the Old Testament. If you reject the new covenant, then you are not a Christian, but a Jew. You cannot read or even talk about the teachings of Marx (the pure theory of a person who has never worked a day in his life), without corrections, amendments and additions that Lenin, and, especially, Stalin, and Mao, of course, brought to this teaching.
                    Philosophy in his office is one thing, namely this, pure theory, absolutely divorced from practice, Marx was engaged in, although he was helped by Engels, who was an outstanding economist and sociologist (as well as Marx). And in comparison with philosophers humanists like Voltra and other utopians, this was a step forward, of course. But all the same, the THEORY of Marx is nothing without the teachings of Lenin and Stalin. Only a theory full of mistakes. And it was Lenin, Stalin and Mao who made it REAL. Their work is based not on theories but on life.

                    As for philosophy. At one time he was fond of Taoism and Confucianism. However, the Tao openly says that a theory divorced from application is ridiculous and absurd. And most philosophers are so abstract that their debauchery is useless ...
                    1. Trilobite Master
                      Trilobite Master April 9 2021 11: 14
                      0
                      Mikhail is my name, I specially wrote it in my profile so that I could be addressed like this. smile
                      Let's start with the fact that Marx was, first of all, a philosopher. His theory of formations and class struggle as the main engine of the historical process has practically no relation to economics. And whatever the merits in its development of Lenin (who was himself a strong theorist) and Stalin, they developed it, and this very development was an activity within the framework of philosophy. That is, a part of their activities, both Lenin and Stalin were philosophers, since they dealt with issues of the global world order.
                      The example with Marx is far from the only one when the ideas born by philosophers turned the world upside down, pushing it forward in its development. Many things that seem obvious to you now were not at all so throughout history, and it took a lot of work and sacrifice to introduce them into human consciousness, primarily on the part of the philosophers.
                      You are used to thinking concretely - well, I don't mind. There are people who are deprived by nature of the ability to think in certain categories. Apparently, abstract thinking is difficult for you personally. This is normal, don't take it as an insult.
                      Perhaps this is why your position on philosophy is similar to that of a deaf person who sincerely proves to others that music does not exist.
                  2. Baron pardus
                    Baron pardus April 8 2021 21: 33
                    0
                    And the problems today are not philosophical but sociological, economic, ecological, ideological. But certainly not philosophical. The saddest thing is that all these problems are easy enough to solve. But there are no "beautiful solutions" that would please everyone. They are NEVER and not. And to build a house, you have to get dirty. And no one wants to get dirty now ... After all, this, oh horror, can lead to a loss of popularity ...
          2. The comment was deleted.
        2. cat Rusich
          cat Rusich April 8 2021 20: 50
          0
          Quote: Baron Pardus
          It is not individual fighters who are fighting, but structures. The Romans took, as always, organization, discipline and the ability to work in the ranks. (Story,, matters). A Celtic or Germanic may be stronger and more enduring, but certainly no more trained than a Roman warrior.
          Especially for a massive battle in the ranks. Ordung und disseplinen was not invented by the Germans at all.
          .
          Var ...!
          return my legions !!!

          В Teutoburg forest lost legate Var ... No discipline among the soldiers will save the army, when the commander of the army himself scored on discipline.
          It's just that I'm talking about the fact that "the barbarians living across the river (Rhine)" defeated Rome, but Gauls did not ...
          Vercingetorig lost
          Armenia won
          Having suffered a defeat in the Teutoburg forest comparable to the defeat at Cannes, Rome "took revenge on the Germans", but retreated and "Roman province of Germany" has sunk into oblivion.
          You can also remember the wars between Rome and Parthia - Rome lost - could not win ...
          As a particular example Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC - The Roman commander Crassus lost - he could not competently command an efficient army.
          A professional army is needed - a professional COMMANDER soldier
          1. Baron pardus
            Baron pardus April 8 2021 21: 09
            +1
            Absolutely. Without a good commander, no organization, no training will help, although during the 7 year war, there were episodes when the commander fled, and the army continued to fight. Juge Liang managed to win battles sometimes at all when there was no hope of victory, moreover, the "allied" generals strove to substitute and soak him (Battle of Red Cliffs). Takeda Shingen and Uesugi Kenshin weighed noble people to superior forces and robustly trained enemy forces more than once or twice ... Eh ... how we crushed everything.
            But again. It is not PHILOSOPHY that matters, but tactics and supplies.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 April 7 2021 14: 33
    +4
    Katumarus has a very attractive face. We, me and my friends liked it
  • Alexander Betonkin
    Alexander Betonkin April 7 2021 14: 41
    +4
    Thanks for the Celts. About the pants: " In addition, it is believed that they were the first Europeans to wear pants.. "In the Ötztal Alps, in 1991, a corpse was found aged 3300 BC. Https://pikabu.ru/story/zagadka_ledyanogo_cheloveka_istoriya_unikalnoy_alpiyskoy_mumii_6411865
    Judging by the map, the territory of the Celts (almost). Well, the pants on that man weren't quite, but over 3000 years they had perfected them. fellow
    к
  • vladcub
    vladcub April 7 2021 18: 13
    +1
    "Horned helmet of the 3rd century" he was Podrabinek to a Celtic deity, and medieval knight's helmets were also horned and with a plume. It turns out that the zealous defenders of Christ and imitated the pagan deity? This is the number
    1. Mikhail3
      Mikhail3 April 8 2021 14: 28
      0
      All religions imitate each other. There is a suspicion that God was one, just different religions described him in different ways. As in the parable of the elephant and the seven blind ...
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 April 7 2021 19: 57
    +2
    Colleagues, I am very pleased that I have so many "virtual" guests. Thank you all for your warm wishes.
    It's nice to talk to you, but I have to say goodbye. Real guests came
  • Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 April 8 2021 14: 27
    0
    Pants were inevitably invented by everyone who rode horses. Horse sweat is very edible. So I very, very doubt about the chariots. Forested Europe is an extremely uncomfortable landscape for chariots) So uncomfortable that you can't climb at all. Or did the Celts, who did not create a single state, have a single powerful road service? Hehe ...
    The story of the iron weapon is extremely murky. The fact is that the collision of iron and bronze weapons is resolved unambiguously. If there is no accident, the warrior with iron always wins. No options at all. The bronze sword simply breaks, the armor breaks through with one blow. The more I learn, the more the history of "Roman rule" seems to me exclusively on paper ...
  • Mike_E
    Mike_E April 9 2021 13: 47
    +2
    Quote: Trilobite Master
    Any ancient Greek gopnik could pile on Socrates, and a modern one could pile on a professor of philosophy. If you can only think at this level, I have nothing more to tell you.
    Try to go up one level.
    The Roman army was a product of Roman society, the Roman state, the analogue of which at that time could not be created by any people. It was the state with its management system, economy and law that was the basis for the Roman army, not the other way around. But how did they manage to create such a state? Here's what to think about.

    It is said that Socrates was a hoplite. And quite good, according to Plato. This is to the question of gopniks)