Military Review

Austerlitz: Napoleon and his troops on the eve of the battle

153

Louis-Albert-Gislaine Buckler d'Albes (1761-1824) "Napoleon visits a soldier's bivouac on the evening before the Battle of Austerlitz, December 1, 1805, and soldiers light torches in his honor!" Versailles


And the renewed people
You humbled the young riot,
Newborn freedom
Suddenly numb, she lost her strength;
Among the slaves to rapture
You quenched your thirst for power
He rushed to the battles of their militia.
Laurels wrapped around their chains.
Napoleon. A.S. Pushkin

Greatest battles in stories. Our previous material was devoted to the analysis of the forces of the Allied army, which was preparing to give battle to the army of the Emperor Napoleon at Austerlitz. Today we have to consider the forces that he could oppose two other emperors - his opponents, and leading them, either win or fall!

Austerlitz: Napoleon and his troops on the eve of the battle
Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, Marshal of France, King of Sweden and Norway, original painting by François Kinson (1771-1839) 1804, rewritten by Joseph Nicholas Jouy (1809-1880) after her death in the days of the Paris Commune. Versailles

Napoleon also divided the army into several corps, each of which was subordinate to its own marshal. So, the 1st corps was commanded by Marshal Bernadotte. It numbered only 11 infantry and artillerymen with 346 guns. And he also had cavalry, but she obeyed Murat and was withdrawn from the corps. Bernadotte did not like this attitude towards him, and during the battle on December 22, he was rather passive.


Portrait of Marshal Louis Nicolas Davout (1770-1823), Tito Marzocchi de Bellucci (1801-1871) after the painting by Pierre-Claude Gauthero (-1825), circa 1852 Versailles

The 3rd corps of Marshal Davout on the morning of December 2 numbered 6387 infantry and 6 guns. True, Friant's division came to his aid, passing 36 leagues in just 40 hours. However, on the way, many fell behind, and only 3200 people came to the battlefield out of more than 5000, with 9 guns.


Portrait of Marshal Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult (1769-1851). Louis-Henri de Rudder (1807-1881), after Jean Brocq (1771-1850). Date: first quarter of the 1856th century (original), XNUMX (real copy). Versailles

The 4th Corps was commanded by Marshal Soult. In total, it consisted of 24 infantrymen and 333 cavalrymen and artillery servants, that is, more than 924 thousand people and 25 guns.


Jean Lannes, Marshal of France (1769-1809). Jean-Charles Nicaez Perrin (1754-1831). Date: about 1804-1809 Versailles

5th Corps was commanded by Marshal Lann. In total, there were 13 people, 284 cannons and 20 horsemen, subordinate, however, to Murat.

In the cavalry reserve, which he commanded, powerful forces were involved: carabinier, cuirassier and dragoon regiments, which had their own horse artillery: only about 8000 horsemen, excluding artillery servants. In total, as is customary today in modern Russian historiography, it is believed that under Napoleon's command there were 72 (100) people and 72 cannons. True, he had 300 more guns from a large artillery park, but it was difficult to use them in a field battle due to their heavy weight. The Allied army was larger in number, and most importantly, it had almost twice as many guns: 139 against 18 for the French.

At the same time, Napoleon had many advantages that the Allied armies did not have.


Napoleon examines the battlefield. A still from the film "Austerlitz" (1960). Note that behind Napoleon's figure is an optical telegraph setup, and the film shows how it is used. That is, Napoleon also had a quick connection between the units, while the allies got along with sending traditional equestrian orderlies and, of course, were constantly late. And this is by no means a fiction of filmmakers. It was Napoleon who appreciated the capabilities of the optical telegraph and gave the order to build a network of telegraph stations in France (where he, in fact, was invented in 1792) and the use of its mobile version in the army

So, the French emperor, on the eve of the battle, both on horseback and on foot, studied the field of the future battle for two days. As a result, according to Savary, Napoleon's adjutant general, the plains of Austerlitz became as familiar to Napoleon as the environs of Paris. In the evenings, the emperor walked around the camp of the soldiers: he simply sat by the soldiers' bonfires, exchanged jokes with the soldiers, greeted old acquaintances, veterans of the guard, which, of course, neither the Austrian nor the Russian emperors did. The appearance of Napoleon instilled in the soldiers courage and confidence in the coming victory. There was another very important circumstance that increased the combat effectiveness of the French army, namely, conscious discipline.


Napoleon's bet on the Austerlitz field. Behind him is the famous carriage, and on the left, the guards sappers are cutting down the headquarters for him ... Painting by Louis Francois Lejeune (1775-1848). Museum of the History of France, Paris

If in the Russian imperial army discipline was stick, and soldiers had to fight with a spanking ass, then Napoleon did not allow corporal punishment in his army at all. For serious misconduct a soldier was tried by a military court, which sentenced him either to death and hard labor, or to imprisonment in a military prison. However, there was another court in Napoleon's army - a comradely one, not indicated either in documents or in laws, but with the tacit approval of Napoleon in the Great Army. Those accused of cowardice or some other misdemeanor were tried by their company comrades. Moreover, in the event of a serious offense, the company could immediately shoot them. The officers, of course, knew about what had happened, but they did not interfere in the soldiers' affairs. Moreover, none of the officers should not only participate in this court, but even know (at least officially) that he was and to what punishment whom he sentenced, even if it was about execution.

In the Russian Imperial Army ... there seemed to be no death penalty for the lower ranks at all. The soldiers were simply chased through the line and at the same time beaten to death with sticks, ripping the meat off the back from the back to the bone. It is difficult to imagine anything more savage and crippling to the psyche of a soldier than this "punishment". Moreover, punches with gauges were prescribed for almost everything: for negligence in drill exercises, for admitted untidiness and carelessness in clothing (100 blows or more), drunkenness was punished with 300-500 blows, 500 blows were given for theft from comrades, for the first escape from the army a fugitive received 1500 blows, for the second 2500-3000, and for the third - 4000-5000. So soldiers shot in the Russian army very rarely, but they listened to the cries of the punished every day. And they also drove the soldiers to someone who knows where, to foreign lands, who knows why, they were poorly fed on the way, and the road itself was full of mud ... So show courage and heroism in these conditions.

It was not so in Napoleon's army. Yes, problems with feeding existed here, but he managed to convince the soldiers that even here, in Austria, they are defending their home and native France from the encroachments of foreigners who are trying to take away from them the most precious thing - the conquest of the revolution. The army regularly distributed bulletins, which were edited by Napoleon. They explained in a simple and accessible form the goals and objectives of the campaign, that is, everything was done so that "every soldier understood his maneuver!"


Portrait of Anne-Jean-Marie-Rene Savary (1774-1833). Robert Lefebvre (1755-1830). Versailles

On the other hand, it was on the field of Austerlitz that Napoleon proved himself not only a great commander, but also ... a psychologist! A subtle connoisseur of human souls, or rather, the souls of his two opponents - the emperors! He needed to convince them that it would be especially easy to defeat his army right now, and thus make them the first to launch an attack. To do this, he ordered his troops to start withdrawing and sent Adjutant General Savary to Alexander, offering to start negotiations on an armistice, and then on peace. Moreover, the general had to ask Alexander for a personal meeting. Well, in the event that the Russian emperor responded with a refusal, send his trusted representative for negotiations. All this could be perceived by people of a small natural mind as evidence of his, Napoleon's, weakness and ... this is exactly how everything that happens by the two emperors was perceived.

As expected, Alexander refused a personal meeting with Napoleon and sent to him the young prince Pyotr Dolgorukov, one of his courtiers, whom Napoleon later called "heliport" even in official publications. Although Napoleon met him very kindly, the prince, being a supporter of the war and being confident in the invincibility of the Russian troops, behaved proudly and arrogantly with him, rejected all Napoleon's proposals, while presenting his own in a very decisive and uncontested form.


Portrait of Prince P. P. Dolgoruky (1777-1806). Portrait by Nicolas-Francois Dan (1764-1832)

After negotiations, Dolgorukov told Emperor Alexander I that Napoleon was afraid of a battle with the Russian army, and, contrary to the opinion of the infantry general M.I.Golenishchev-Kutuzov, he insisted on the battle (later, in military and noble circles, Dolgorukov was considered one of the main culprits of the defeat of the Russian -Austrian army). Dolgorukov behaved unreasonably, disrespectfully and spoke to Napoleon like this, “as if with a boyar whom they want to exile to Siberia"- the emperor later commented on this meeting. Of course, for the insolence shown by him, Napoleon could well have given the order to interrupt his convoy, and take the prince himself prisoner and whip him on the buttocks for the amusement of his soldiers - the desire to avenge this shame of his favorite could well provoke the Emperor Alexander to attack, but ... Napoleon he did not do this, but pretended to be embarrassed and confused in front of the prince. Apparently, he understood that even the stupidity of Prince Dolgorukov has its limits, and therefore, although he rejected all his proposals, the refusal was made in such a form that only strengthened the opinion of his opponents about Napoleon's "timidity" and his "lack of confidence" in his abilities ...

It is interesting that when Dolgoruky was later reproached for the fact that it was through his fault that the Allies lost the Battle of Austerlitz, the prince, with the permission of Alexander I, issued two whole brochures in French, in which he tried to justify himself. But ... for some reason, Emperor Alexander himself after that began to keep him away from his court, although he sent him on various kinds of diplomatic missions. He died a year later, after the Battle of Austerlitz, and it is possible that it was this tragedy that left its fatal stamp on his future fate.


The marshals offer Napoleon to retreat. "You are children!"- Napoleon answers them. Still from the film "Austerlitz" (1960)

The funny thing is that among the French marshals there were people, and they were Murat, Soult and Lannes, who, on November 29, considered retreating the best solution. Lann was asked to compose a note for Napoleon, who, after reading it, was very surprised that his fearless Lann suddenly advised a retreat from something. He turned to Soult, and he ... immediately stated that “overturn the opponent”, Although he himself had just advised Lann to propose a retreat to the emperor. For such hypocrisy, Lannes wanted to immediately challenge Soult to a duel, and did not call it only because Napoleon himself ordered a retreat from Austerlitz, leaving him to the enemy, and placing all his troops between Brunn and Pratzen Heights. Napoleon personally prepared a proclamation, which stated that it was difficult to crush the positions of the French army, and when the enemy began “attack our batteries, I would like to stab them in the flanks».


"They're trapped!" Still from the film "Austerlitz" (1960)

In the evening, seeing that the allies were occupying the Pratsen heights left by him, the emperor went on reconnaissance, ran into the Cossacks, but escaped from them thanks to his escort. Leaving his horse, he went out to his soldiers, and they shouted "Long live the emperor! Long live his coronation anniversary!"Rushed to light his way to headquarters with torches. The screams and fires caused concern in the Allied camp, but soon everything was quiet there, but Napoleon, returning to headquarters, corrected the text of the proclamation, writing that: “the allies will advance to crush my right flank”, And in this form sent it to the headquarters.

On December 1, on the eve of the battle, Napoleon gathered all the corps commanders and explained to them the essence of his plan. He realized that the main blow of the Allies was to be expected on the right flank, that their goal was to cut it off from the roads to Vienna and deprive it of supplies. Therefore, he decided to counterattack the enemy in the center and cut the allied army into pieces, which would inevitably cause panic in its ranks. To this end, the center of the French troops was reinforced as much as possible by the corps of Marshal Soult, the left wing was commanded by two Marshals Bernadotte and Lannes, but the right flank was placed under the command of Marshal Davout, from whom only one thing was required - to hold on at all costs! The Imperial Guard was in reserve in the center.


Map of the disposition of troops on the eve of the battle

In fact, Napoleon in this way could completely neutralize Weyrother's plan, as if he personally looked into it. But ... like any of the plans, Napoleon's plan contained many very risky elements that could easily lead him not to victory, but to defeat. The fact is that the success of the entire operation depended on whether Davout was able to hold out until the allies fell on him with most of their forces and descended onto the plain from the Prazen Heights. It was not difficult to occupy these heights after that. But the troops who occupied them, the purpose of which was to strike the flank and rear of the allies attacking Davout, in turn, could be subjected to a flank attack by the Russian imperial guard and parts of Bagration. They should have been tied down in battle, but this had to be done in time. That is, the success and failure of the battle depended on just a few minutes, as well as ... on the initiative and enterprise of the commanders of the allied army. But Napoleon believed that he was dealing with mediocrities, incapable of such actions, and ... the future showed how much he was right in this assessment of his opponents!

To be continued ...
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  1. Sling cutter
    Sling cutter April 8 2021 04: 48
    +15
    An interesting article, I read it with pleasure.
    And I immediately remembered the summer of 1980, I am a schoolboy, but not yet a high school student,
    I read "War and Peace" by L.N. Tolstoy and apparently, like all boys, I miss lyrical scenes, such as "oak", and
    I carefully read all the battle ones. yes
    It was then that I first learned about the Battle of Austerlitz.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka April 8 2021 06: 01
      +12
      Quote: Stroporez
      And I immediately remembered the summer of 1980, I am a schoolboy, but not yet a high school student,
      I read "War and Peace" by L.N. Tolstoy and apparently, like all boys, I miss lyrical scenes, such as "oak", and

      Likewise, for the first time I mastered only battle scenes !!!
      Vyacheslav - thanks !!!!
      1. Sling cutter
        Sling cutter April 8 2021 06: 04
        +8
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        Likewise, for the first time I mastered only battle scenes !!!

        Hello, guys are all the same, but girls read about love wink
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka April 8 2021 06: 18
          +8
          Quote: Stroporez
          Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
          Likewise, for the first time I mastered only battle scenes !!!

          Hello, guys are all the same, but girls read about love wink

          My daughter at school, after reading "War and Peace", criticized the behavior of Natasha Rostova, thereby causing hysteria in the teacher !!! laughing
          1. Sling cutter
            Sling cutter April 8 2021 06: 28
            +4
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            My daughter at school, after reading "War and Peace", criticized the behavior of Natasha Rostova, thereby causing hysteria in the teacher !!!

            Oh times, about morals! laughing
          2. kalibr
            April 8 2021 06: 45
            +8
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            Natasha Rostova, thereby causing hysteria in the teacher !!!

            Generation Z what you want!
            1. Alien From
              Alien From April 8 2021 16: 04
              +4
              The Pepsi generation is difficult to understand, I generally keep quiet about z.
          3. Richard
            Richard April 8 2021 08: 11
            +11
            Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
            My daughter at school, after reading "War and Peace", criticized the behavior of Natasha Rostova, thereby causing hysteria in the teacher !!!

            Pearls from school essays about Natasha Rostova laughing
            • Natasha Rostova wanted to say something, but the opened door closed her mouth
            • Despite her spontaneity, Natasha Rostova did not allow anyone to touch her own dignity
            • Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy made the heroine of his novel - Natasha Rostov a mother
            • When I read Tolstoy's novel, I myself wanted to become Natasha Rostova.
            • I really like the heroine of Leo Tolstoy's novel "War and Peace", especially when she dances at the ball with Stirlitz.
            1. Sling cutter
              Sling cutter April 8 2021 08: 12
              +8
              Quote: Richard
              Richard (Richard)

              Richard! Stage !!! good drinks laughing laughing laughing
      2. Sling cutter
        Sling cutter April 8 2021 06: 18
        +6
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        Likewise, for the first time I mastered only battle scenes !!!

        Here it is, our
        1. WHAT IS
          WHAT IS April 8 2021 06: 30
          +12
          "I don't know anyone who would write about the war better than Tolstoy."
          Ernest Hemingway
          I join in, there was not enough patience for the whole novel, only battle scenes)) Yes, since the Battle of Narva they did not know defeat, and now Austerlitz happened ...
          1. Sling cutter
            Sling cutter April 8 2021 06: 54
            +11
            Quote: WHAT IS
            "I don't know anyone who would write about the war better than Tolstoy."
            Ernest Hemingway

            Comrade, it's hard to disagree with Hemingway good However, in my time, the girls were reading love scenes, and Lev Nikolayevich came out to know perfectly well this component of human existence. wink laughing
            1. WHAT IS
              WHAT IS April 8 2021 07: 02
              +12
              Should he not know - Tolstoy never hid the fact that he loved women and learned very early what carnal love is. In general, Lev Nikolaevich's life was quite stormy, and feelings for girls and ladies of different classes - from maids and peasants to socialites lionesses.
              “I am in love, as I did not think that it was possible to love. Tomorrow I'll go, as soon as I get up, and I'll say everything or I'll shoot myself. "

              A talented person is talented in everything))
              1. Sling cutter
                Sling cutter April 8 2021 07: 10
                +10
                Quote: WHAT IS
                A talented person is talented in everything))

                good Whole villages left behind descendants yes drinks
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku April 8 2021 16: 11
                  +6
                  Whole villages left behind descendants

                  Do you remember "DEFO's Westerns" with Goyko Mitic? "Chingachgook Big Serpent" was the name of one of his heroes. In the original, in German, it sounded: Chingachgook große Schlange ... If Lev Nikolaich watched such films, then the nickname might suit him ... lol
                  In general, the life of Lev Nikolaevich was rather stormy, and in it they found a place for feelings for girls and ladies of different classes - from maids and peasants to socialite.

                  But after all this, you can also engage in deep philosophy, pacifism and non-resistance to evil by violence ... bully
                  How many-sided can a person be, my friends? what But he harassed the family, didn't he? drinks
                  1. Sling cutter
                    Sling cutter April 8 2021 16: 22
                    +5
                    Quote: Pane Kohanku
                    How many-sided can a person be, my friends? But he harassed the family, didn't he?

                    Feudal lord one word. There is the right of the first night and a full bouquet, be healthy, the ROC has already sent it. You see what a thing, he died in 1910, but under the Soviets, something went wrong with the family and the story here has a lot of discrepancies, and already with a late hump "Tolstoyans" got out as if from a snuffbox. Now, after all, the estate under management is also some kind of seventh on jelly. drinks
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku April 8 2021 16: 29
                      +5
                      and already at the late hump the "Tolstoyans" emerged as if from a snuffbox.

                      Well, if they like it ... It is interesting that at the 1940 meeting following the results of the Finnish war the word "Tolstoyans" was spoken. Marshal Shaposhnikov aptly put it:
                      "If we recall here the encirclement of the 54th division, we get an interesting picture. On the one hand, the enemy is trying to split the division into small parts and surround them. This method of action is correct, it is always necessary to split the enemy into parts, and then separate foci to liquidate. On the other side are sitting Tolstoyans, who, instead of timely cleaning the blockage of 10 trees, sit and wait for the heap to be 20. There is no reconnaissance, the flanks and rear are not guarded. "
                      Aptly and bitterly! request There was a hell of a mess ...
                      1. Sling cutter
                        Sling cutter April 8 2021 16: 34
                        +5
                        Quote: Pane Kohanku
                        Aptly and bitterly!

                        Well, this is for this
                        Quote: Pane Kohanku
                        and non-resistance to evil by violence ...

                        It seems to me that the "Tolstoyans" are from the Bolshevik terminology, although the wiki says: Tolstoyism is a religious and ethical social movement in Russia at the end of the 1880th - beginning of the XNUMXth centuries. It arose in the XNUMXs under the influence of the religious and philosophical teachings of Leo Tolstoy.
            2. kalibr
              April 8 2021 07: 39
              +7
              Quote: Stroporez
              leaves Lev Nikolaevich perfectly knew this component of human life

              Read the memoirs of his wife ... find out!
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave April 8 2021 07: 47
                +8
                Yes ... Sophia Andreevna was a woman of great patience!
                Thanks for the article, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
              2. Sling cutter
                Sling cutter April 8 2021 08: 04
                +8
                Quote: kalibr
                Read the memoirs of his wife ... find out!

                Honestly, I lived next to his museum-estate for more than 30 years yes With the biography of Lev Nikolaevich, we, as locals, are familiar to the smallest details, down to the chair he sat in the Noble Assembly, and the memories of his contemporaries and "in the baths" of various read-re-read during school years (2 times a month open .N. Tolstoy) and after so much that it is impossible to count everything.
                Many high school students took excursions around the estate on Sundays, and every wedding was simply obliged to drop in at Yasnaya Polyana and have a drink there.
                Nemchura, of course, greatly mocked the estate, a stable was built there and a cemetery for German soldiers was built a whole field, in Tolstoy linden trees and next to his grave .. The cemetery was already demolished in the late USSR, and so it stood for the edification of descendants. There, "black" medallions are still found, gold rings, teeth, and so on, little things. wink
                right next to the grave

                They were heavily shredded there
                1. kalibr
                  April 8 2021 08: 42
                  +6
                  What happens!
                  1. Sling cutter
                    Sling cutter April 8 2021 08: 45
                    +7
                    Quote: kalibr
                    What happens!

                    It happens, however. laughing drinks
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku April 8 2021 09: 51
                      +5
                      It happens, however.

                      Valery, hello! drinks As far as I understood, the Germans tried to burn down the estate before the retreat, but our people extinguished it. soldier
                      After the liberation of Yasnaya Polyana, the commission of the USSR Academy of Sciences established:
                      “... After the German units had cleared the estate, three German staff officers suddenly arrived in a car. They break into the house, each has a tank of fuel in his hands, run upstairs, in three rooms - the library, the bedroom of Lev Nikolaevich and the bedroom of his wife S.A. Tolstoy - made of hay, straw and wooden furnishings they form three bonfires, pouring fuel on everything ”.
                      The house was saved by young people: Pavlik Komarovsky, a local doctor by the name of Ilyukhin, tenth grader Claudia Litvinova.
                      “We, the youth, have made our way to the second floor, but the smoke is still pouring down, and you cannot understand where it is burning from. It is difficult to breathe and see. Pavlik acts as a fire extinguisher. And from the street they serve water, pour it on the wall and pour it, ”recalled Klavdia Litvinova.
                      At first, the House was extinguished with snow, then someone guessed to look into an old boarded-up well, in which there was water. The fire was extinguished for four hours.
                      Having examined the House in January 1942, Shchegolev wrote: “I saw thickly smoked walls. An ominous hole in a burnt ceiling, broken off plaster. In some places, the masonry was exposed. Brown streaks - a trail of water - snaked along the cornice. The charred boards lay in bulk. <…> The fire was laid out exactly in the place where Lev Nikolayevich's bed had stood ”.
                      “Everything in the house was smoked from the fire, contaminated by German soldiers. Instead of a well-maintained estate, there is a contaminated territory, knocked out by explosions of high-explosive bombs, haunted by hundreds of cars ... ", - said in the act of the commission of the Academy of Sciences.

                      https://tula.mk.ru/social/2020/05/09/muzey-yasnaya-polyana-razvenchal-4-miff-ob-okkupacii-usadby-tolstogo.html
                      Here's a newspaper clipping:

                      And here is what our soldiers saw. Library after release:

                      Dining room:

                      Items left by the Nazis:

                      Source - "Varalbum".
                      Well, this is also reflected in the film "The Defeat of the Nazi Troops near Moscow".
                      1. Sling cutter
                        Sling cutter April 8 2021 10: 27
                        +6
                        Quote: Pane Kohanku
                        As far as I understand. The Germans tried to burn down the estate before the retreat, but our people extinguished it.

                        Hello, friend! drinks Just now I noticed that there are two Kohan laughing
                        You presented the generally accepted official version and most likely this is the truth. Yasnaya Polyana, during the battles for Tula, was a very shallow German rear 10 km. from the Kremlin, and our trenches passed 1-1,5 km from the Kremlin. but this is the very center

                        Here are anti-aircraft guns on direct fire, in the then city limits

                        These fighters are looking exactly towards Yasnaya Polyana.

                        To make it clear, Yasnaya Polyana can be seen from the city through binoculars in good weather.
                        Roughly speaking, after December 6, 41, the counter offensive was so rapid that the Germans simply did not have time to destroy the estate, although they wanted the bastards.
                      2. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku April 8 2021 10: 33
                        +4
                        These fighters are looking exactly towards Yasnaya Polyana.

                        Look - they are holding a German captured PT-gun PzB 38 or PzB 39! good
                        But these shots are a great rarity, they have my Grandfather-militia on them.

                        At what minute? He fought in the Tula workers' regiment?
                      3. Sling cutter
                        Sling cutter April 8 2021 10: 46
                        +7
                        Quote: Pane Kohanku
                        At what minute? He fought in the Tula workers' regiment?

                        From 4:40 on, he was in the back with the militia of the Tula Workers' Regiment. The factories were partially evacuated and the entire defense was produced and repaired weapons (art systems, tanks), incl. trophy. When the siege was declared, the men went to the front from the machines, made their own weapons and went with them. Only women and teenagers 12-14 years old remained in the shops. My Grandmother with her eldest son, my uncle's relatives worked like this for 12 hours , replacing each other, so that someone would stay with the little ones, and then the uncle fled to the front, although he was returned a week later.
                        Incidentally, there are still frames of the chronicle (I can't find it), where my Granny "maxim" collects. good
                      4. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku April 8 2021 10: 54
                        +5
                        Only women and adolescents of 12-14 years old remained in the workshops. My Grandmother with her eldest son, my uncle's relatives worked like this for 12 hours, replacing each other, so that someone would stay with the little ones, and then the uncle ran to the front, though he was returned a week later.

                        So, with the whole world, and won .... Honor and bow to your family, and to all our ancestors! soldier
                        Pay attention, many with SVT. And the PP Korovin was also in service with the Tula workers' regiment. The designer has specially developed it for yours.
                        By the way, here is another photo of soldiers with a German rifle! Ahh, you've already posted it .. Well, okay!drinks
                      5. Sling cutter
                        Sling cutter April 8 2021 11: 07
                        +7
                        Quote: Pane Kohanku
                        Pay attention, many with SVT. And the PP Korovin was also in service with the Tula workers' regiment.

                        If you knew what wonders you fought with, you would be dumbfounded yes Any of those craftsmen could reproduce any sample in a barn on their knees! I didn’t know a single house in the city, so that the indigenous couples didn’t have a “priblud-trafeyaf”, during and after the war there was nothing to eat, so we walked through the fields of forests, where they would find mushrooms, where potatoes were, and at the same time. ..., well, the indigenous kazyuk cannot pass by such wealth, I still remember when my grandfathers cousins ​​watered the vegetable garden with oil wink laughing
                      6. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku April 8 2021 11: 49
                        +11
                        If you knew what wonders you fought with, you would be dumbfounded

                        Duck, of course, a city of craftsmen! drinks And craftsmen not only for gingerbread and samovars ... wink
                        Do you recognize?

                        Your fellow countryman, Vasily Degtyarev, still in the form of the sample of Alexander III. As a boy, he began to work at the factory, but as the army approached, "he was lucky" - as a foreman, he was sent to the Officer Rifle School in Oranienbaum, and the head of the local Rifle Range, the bearded thinker Nikolai Filatov, looked at him and "took it under his beard. ". Degtyarev already then began to embody his first designs in metal, and then he contacted Fedorov ... In general, this is how a genius was raised! good
                        so that the indigenous couple-three "priblud-trafeyaf" do not have

                        We had a lot of this near Leningrad, too - my uncle told me. fellow
                      7. Sling cutter
                        Sling cutter April 8 2021 12: 59
                        +5
                        Quote: Pane Kohanku
                        Your countryman, Vasily Degtyarev, still in the form of the sample of Alexander III.

                        Surprised by a photo good And the fact that almost all gunsmiths in Russia are originally Tula is a fact. yes
                      8. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku April 8 2021 13: 05
                        +5
                        And the fact that almost all gunsmiths in Russia are originally Tula is a fact.

                        Many, yes. Honor and glory to them. But not only from Tula there are talents in which our country is rich. Kalashnikov is from Altai, Simonov is from Vladimir, Fedorov is from St. Petersburg, and Tokarev is generally a hereditary Cossack! good
                        But Tula, Izhevsk, Kovrov - yes, the city of gunsmiths. drinks You can also remember Sestroretsk, Izhora and Obukhovsky zavdy ... a lot of people!
                        And here is Tokarev in the form of an esaul. He also began to study his first weapon at the Officer Rifle School.
                      9. Sling cutter
                        Sling cutter April 8 2021 13: 50
                        +5
                        Quote: Pane Kohanku
                        Many, yes. Honor and glory to them. But not only from Tula there are talents in which our country is rich. Kalashnikov is from Altai, Simonov is from Vladimir, Fedorov is from St. Petersburg, and Tokarev is generally a hereditary Cossack!

                        Comrade, I just wanted to say that almost all famous gunsmiths went through the Tula Arms Factory and they embodied many of their inventions here.
                    2. Catfish
                      Catfish April 8 2021 17: 01
                      +6
                      Hello my friend! smile
                      I was in Tula on a business trip from our museum in the early eighties. They drank in the Tula Museum of Weapons, simultaneously looking at the barrels never seen before, drank in Yasnaya Polyana, not looking at anything, my friend was a scientific secretary there. They drank exclusively vodka, because the local "shmurdyuk" to people who were not used to it was categorically contraindicated. In one of the gaps I went to the grave of Fedorov, did not drink, just bowed to a talented person. To be honest, the city made a terrible impression, especially the empty shelves of the shops were depressing. drinks
                    3. Sling cutter
                      Sling cutter April 8 2021 17: 20
                      +4
                      Quote: Sea Cat
                      To be honest, the city made an eerie impression, especially the empty shelves of the shops

                      Hello, friend! drinks We had a black joke, if the Germans entered the city, they would take it back, that means it would be destroyed to the ground, and then a new one would be built, like Belgorod, for example.
                      Now it has changed, of course, with the exception of the old one.
                      But the museum is new, one such in the whole country

                      On the other side, a part of the gun curtain (new)
                    4. Catfish
                      Catfish April 8 2021 17: 24
                      +5
                      Yes, a luxurious museum, and the old one impressed me as such a cozy, homely collection of beautiful objects, although the exhibits ran up my eyes. smile drinks
                    5. Sling cutter
                      Sling cutter April 8 2021 18: 54
                      +7
                      Quote: Sea Cat
                      and the old one impressed me as such a cozy, homely collection of beautiful objects, although the exhibits ran up my eyes.

                      And the old one remained in the Kremlin, only an exposition from the storerooms, it's also cool.
                      There will be time to come, what is it 130 miles, garbage! I'll show you everything! good drinks
                    6. Catfish
                      Catfish April 8 2021 19: 00
                      +7
                      thanks for the invitation smile ... In the old days, I would have broken off right away, but now I’m old, lazy, and we only have bicycles and quadriks in technology, cars are dumb, I don’t want to mess with it, like Sukhov with a horse. drinks
                    7. Sling cutter
                      Sling cutter April 8 2021 19: 06
                      +4
                      Quote: Sea Cat
                      but now he has become old, lazy,

                      Do you remember this beard:
                      - Lieutenant, they say that you were a member of the court in your youth?
                      -Eh youth, youth ...
                      -Member here!
                      -Member there!
                      It is necessary to massage the 9th Lyokh, he will take you to me too. And we will live for 3 days on a full accordion, but within reasonable limits good And we will pull up Mikado at 11, he will sit there, at 9 at the station we will meet drinks
                    8. Catfish
                      Catfish April 8 2021 19: 39
                      +5
                      Yeah, it would be great! smile You can even dream. drinks
                    9. Sling cutter
                      Sling cutter April 8 2021 19: 43
                      +6
                      Quote: Sea Cat
                      Yeah, it would be great! You can even dream.

                      We were born to make a fairy tale come true! drinks
                    10. Catfish
                      Catfish April 8 2021 19: 54
                      +4
                      I can imagine ... laughing
        2. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku April 9 2021 09: 48
          +4
          On the other side, a part of the gun curtain (new)

          The last photo above shows the Hotchkiss light machine gun. Few people remember about him, but he was tested at one time with us in Oranienbaum, in the same Officer Rifle School. Below is the Shosh machine gun.
        3. Sling cutter
          Sling cutter April 9 2021 10: 16
          +6
          Quote: Pane Kohanku
          The last photo above shows the Hotchkiss light machine gun. Few people remember about him, but he was tested at one time with us in Oranienbaum, in the same Officer Rifle School. Below is the Shosh machine gun.

          Good morning, comrade! hi I am sometimes amazed at your knowledge, really. good
        4. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku April 9 2021 10: 45
          +4
          I am sometimes amazed at your knowledge, really.

          Well, what kind of knowledge is there ... I learned for myself that each of our company has the knowledge that is not available to others. And each is gradually revealed, which pleasantly shocks the rest. drinks
          And about Hotchkiss - I have unfinished material. More than 20 pages, more than 30 photos .. And ten more pages must be added ... I have been writing for a year - and now the desire has disappeared ... That's it! request
          Valery, thank you for your kind words! You yourself amazed me with your knowledge! drinks Photo - shine!
        5. Sling cutter
          Sling cutter April 9 2021 11: 03
          +5
          Quote: Pane Kohanku
          More than 20 pages, more than 30 photos .. And ten more pages must be added ... I have been writing for a year - and now the desire has disappeared ... That's it!

          Nifigase belay Bro, you have to publish, and when you publish, immediately the interest will return. fellow
          Quote: Pane Kohanku
          Photo - shine!

          There are a lot of photos left, mine is gone, now I'm in charge. Here, too, I am going to digitize and systematize everything, but my hands do not get it, now one thing, then another. And now summer is coming soon, summer cottages, fishing, mushrooms. Now before winter drinks
        6. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku April 9 2021 14: 38
          +4
          Here, too, I am going to digitize and systematize everything, but my hands do not reach, then one thing, then another.

          They will come, there would be a desire!
          And now summer is coming soon, summer cottages, fishing, mushrooms. Now before winter

          This is yes. And it will be cool for at least another week.
          Prince Philip, the consort of the Queen of England, died today. I take mine to work in the morning, for more than an hour in traffic jams. Only yesterday they caught something about Philip with conversations, at the same time told her about his uncle - Sir Louis Mautbetten, the commander of the British forces in Southeast Asia during the war, subsequently blown up by Irish terrorists ...
          And so ... Well, what can I say - rest my soul, Lord! Long lived! hi
        7. Sling cutter
          Sling cutter April 9 2021 15: 28
          +3
          Quote: Pane Kohanku
          And so ... Well, what can I say - rest my soul, Lord! Long lived!

          Still, the grandfather probably remembered Lenin, and he talked with Roosevelt, for sure.
          PySy. Look there my commentator about Olivier Dassault, a strange death, however. hi
        8. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku April 9 2021 16: 03
          +3
          Still, the grandfather probably remembered Lenin, and he talked with Roosevelt, for sure.

          Man of the era, don't tell me!
          PySy. Look there my commentator about Olivier Dassault, a strange death, however.

          You know, I rarely discuss politics, but your comment is so subtle that I answered, and you have already seen. drinks
        9. Sling cutter
          Sling cutter April 9 2021 16: 09
          +4
          Quote: Pane Kohanku
          You know I rarely discuss politics, but your comment

          Already fed up with these cap-throwers and, which is typical, themselves with bare rolls and in worn out galoshes, but not in the world, your division wassat drinks
        10. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku April 9 2021 16: 14
          +3
          Already fed up with these cap-throwers and, which is typical, themselves with bare rolls and in worn out galoshes, but not in the world, your division

          Yes, I agree completely. Continuous PR, nepotism and an ass that breaks through the next bottoms.
        11. Sling cutter
          Sling cutter April 9 2021 16: 17
          +1
          Quote: Pane Kohanku
          Yes, I agree completely. Continuous PR, nepotism and an ass that breaks through the next bottoms.

          This tin! I'll go buy beer for the mood laughing drinks https://youtu.be/LcrZ2xeqIUU
          Funny song))))))
  2. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master April 8 2021 14: 55
    +5
    Quote: Pane Kohanku
    head of the local Rifle range, bearded thinker Nikolai Filatov,

    repeat
  3. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku April 8 2021 15: 03
    +3
    I know, I know! repeat
  4. Sling cutter
    Sling cutter April 8 2021 17: 04
    +5
    Quote: Pane Kohanku
    I know, I know!

    Ha, I messed up a little, I didn't correct it, I thought I wouldn't notice nikhto, but here the people are sharp-sighted laughing drinks
  • Proxima
    Proxima April 8 2021 09: 57
    +6
    Quote: WHAT IS
    "I don't know anyone who would write about the war better than Tolstoy."
    Ernest Hemingway

    Naturally, a professional soldier, an artilleryman, a participant in military operations (the Crimean War), and also a "part-time" writer of genius. All over the world it is believed that "War and Peace" - the standard of the historical novel .
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave April 8 2021 07: 18
    +8
    While studying the first volume of War and Peace, Druon came across my path as a reader. Since then, Napoleonism has faded for me ... request
    1. Richard
      Richard April 8 2021 07: 47
      +8
      Good morning Anton hi
      Druon is one of my favorite historical writers
      By the way, Maurice Druon has "Russian" roots. On the paternal side, he came from the famous Jewish merchant family Lesk in Orenburg, who owned a large department store in the city with branches in Ufa, Samara and Samarkand. His great-grandfather was Anton Osipovich Lesk, a merchant of the first guild. Druon's grandfather, the doctor Shmuel-Osher Berovich Kessel, moved to the family of his wife (Raisa Antonovna Lesk) in Orenburg from Shavli, Kovno province. The writer's grandmother, Raisa Antonovna Lesk, was born in Memel, where her father, before moving to Orenburg, was the editor of a local Jewish newspaper. Druon's father, actor Lazar Samuilovich Kessel (May 20, 1899-1920), left Russia with his parents and brother in 1908 and settled in Nice, where he played under the acting pseudonym Sieber. Officially, he never recognized his son, who was born from his extramarital affair with actress Leonilla Samuel. At the time of the boy's birth, his mother Leonilla was married to the artist Roger Wild (1894-1987), and at birth the future writer was recorded as Samuel Roger Charles Wild. Mother subsequently married a notary, Rene Druon (1874-1961) and adopted his surname. In 1926, he legalized her son as his own. Young Druon was greatly influenced by his uncle, brother of Lazarus Joseph (Joseph) Kessel (1898-1979), writer, journalist and hero of the French Resistance.
      Maurice Druon is one of the co-authors of The Song of the Partisans, which became the anthem of the French Resistance during World War II (Russian text and music by Anna Marley, French version created on May 30, 1943 by Druon in collaboration with Joseph Kessel).
      On December 8, 2006, by the decision of the French Ministry of Culture, the manuscript of "The Song" was recognized as a historical monument.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave April 8 2021 07: 52
        +6
        Hello Dmitry!
        In general terms, I was in the know, thank you for the clarification!
      2. Aviator_
        Aviator_ April 8 2021 08: 28
        +6
        House of Druon's parents, Orenburg, 60s of the last century. Lined with glazed bricks in places
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku April 8 2021 11: 36
          +4
          House of Druon's parents, Orenburg, 60s of the last century. Lined with glazed bricks in places

          Sergei, I may be wrong, but Druon seems to have been a minister in France for a while?
          I read it at a mature age. I was very attracted by the syllable of the last book of the cycle - "When the king ruins France." The unhurried story of the cardinal during the trip ... hi
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ April 8 2021 20: 12
            +3
            That’s what I don’t know, I don’t know. Here's what this house looked like in 2019.
    2. Mihaylov
      Mihaylov April 8 2021 11: 29
      +8
      Quote: 3x3zsave
      While studying the first volume of War and Peace, Druon came across my path as a reader.

      Good afternoon Anton, but for me as a child, Druon passed by, unfortunately it was not possible to get his books. And in adulthood it did not go well, for example, I also did not read "Count Montecristo" in childhood and, to put it mildly, did not make an impression, unlike "The Three Musketeers", which I can still reread.
      That's why I got acquainted with the Middle Ages by Walter Scott. drinks
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave April 8 2021 13: 17
        +5
        unfortunately it was not possible to get his books
        Good day, Sergey!
        I had a "pull" in the library collector of our town.
        1. Richard
          Richard April 8 2021 14: 20
          +8
          I had a "pull" in the library collector of our town.

          And my wife and I donated waste paper for his books, but we collected the entire series of "Kings"
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave April 8 2021 15: 03
            +5
            I collected paper "Volens-Nolens" for free.
          2. Phil77
            Phil77 April 8 2021 18: 52
            +6
            Dmitry, I welcome you!
            Here's a little bit of nostalgia, buddy! wink


            hi
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 April 9 2021 06: 54
              +3
              They all stand side by side. Various degrees of reading.
              Only “Queen Margot” was originally put in another place by my father.
              She fought off the pack and does not come across when moving and rearranging.
        2. Mihaylov
          Mihaylov April 8 2021 14: 23
          +6
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          I had a "pull" in the library collector of our town.

          Lucky!
          My friends had a collection of Walter Scott and, as I remember now, a collection of Belyaev's science fiction. But Druon was not there.
          And I could not get Montecristo in the library, not in the reading room, much less on my hands, why I don’t remember. On the black book market, they wanted a terrible sum for that time - as much as 70 rubles, of course they didn't buy me. In general, childhood trauma. drinks
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave April 8 2021 15: 08
            +5
            I also have an injury. They didn't buy the GDR "railway" for me, for 36 rubles crying
            Now, sometimes I go to the "Grandmaket Russia", I feel nostalgic ...
            1. Mihaylov
              Mihaylov April 8 2021 15: 16
              +5
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              I also have an injury. They didn't buy the GDR "railway" for me, for 36 rubles

              And here I was lucky, I had it! good
        3. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku April 8 2021 16: 01
          +7
          I had a "pull" in the library collector of our town.

          - How were you taken on the radio with such diction? Do you have some kind of cronyism here?
          - Why blat? Sestla!
          stop
          Joke! I looked, and the Sea Cat appeared ... And let's pour him a penalty! drinks
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave April 8 2021 16: 31
            +3
            Named aunt, godbrother. (The harsh truth of life laughing tongue )
      2. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master April 8 2021 15: 04
        +6
        Quote: Mihaylov
        as a child, Druon passed by

        I was reading in my freshman year, at the same time as Tolkien's Silmarillion. smile I took books from classmates, I had to return ...
        My total fascination with the Russian Middle Ages began with Dmitry Balashov, despite the fact that before that there were Valentin Ivanov and Alexei Yugov and Eduard Zorin and many others ... But Balashov interrupted everyone - and the listed authors: Scott and Stevenson, and Conan Doyle with his "White Squad" - everyone!
        1. Mihaylov
          Mihaylov April 8 2021 15: 14
          +5
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          My total fascination with the Russian Middle Ages began with Dmitry Balashov,

          I also loved Balashov at school, I especially liked the "Great Table", and V. Ivanov's "Primordial Rus" too, there is even a luxurious edition of the late 80s.
          1. ecolog
            ecolog April 8 2021 23: 58
            +2
            "Primordial Rus" was read with a bang. Although even then I was confused by the description of the invasion Viking's ammunition. Not a Viking, but a Tiger tank. Shakhmagonov's "Joy and Sorrow" also played well. The battles are described in such detail, as if eyewitnesses were describing. It turned out they were lying.
  • Catfish
    Catfish April 8 2021 15: 28
    +5
    Hello, hello! smile
    For me, the stumbling block has always been the "drawing room of Anna Pavlovna Scherer", due to the complete lack of knowledge of the French language.

    Evening of Anna Pavlovna Sherer. Artist A. Nikolaev. 1981.

    But the battle scenes of the former lieutenant of artillery are wonderful as they are. It is understandable - he himself fought.

    L.N. Tolstoy in April 1855 commanded a battery of 3 guns at the 4th bastion of Sevastopol. For "composure and command of actions", shown in continuous battles with the enemy, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant and awarded the Order of St. Anna, 4th degree with the inscription "for bravery."

    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku April 8 2021 16: 14
      +4
      St. Anne of the 4th degree with the inscription "for bravery".

      Uncle Kostya, hello! Yesterday I called and called you, Phil even laid out the bait, and you, the cunning cat, took it, and did not come! drinks Tell me, was the 4th degree of "Anna" worn on the lanyard of cold steel?
      1. Catfish
        Catfish April 8 2021 16: 43
        +4
        Kolya, hi! drinks
        I don't know for sure with this order, there is an Annensky cross of the 4th degree, but the badge of the order was really worn on the handle (not on the lanyard) of cold steel, I laid out both above. Maybe at different times - in different ways? I'm not a specialist, I have to ask Rich a question. smile
        I didn’t "come" because the invitation came out only today, there is none at all. And what kind of bait did Seryoga put out?
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku April 8 2021 16: 47
          +4
          And what kind of bait did Seryoga put out?

          Yes, about the bait - a joke. drinks But you go under the Celts from Ryzhov, look, we discussed the daughters of the cocky Boudicca there. lol
        2. Phil77
          Phil77 April 8 2021 18: 38
          +4
          I know, I know what kind of bait Nikolai was joking about! A monument in the glorious city of London. And girls in free clothes. laughing
          1. Catfish
            Catfish April 8 2021 18: 57
            +4
            Hi, Seryozha. smile
            Searched the Celts and found neither a monument, nor "girls in casual clothes" (which is especially depressing) sad
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 April 8 2021 19: 03
              +4
              Well, how is everything there. Just from there.
              And Boudicca is in place, and the horse, and her daughters. Yes, and the pedestal is in place! laughing
              1. Catfish
                Catfish April 8 2021 19: 12
                +3
                Strange, I'll climb again. request
        3. Richard
          Richard April 8 2021 22: 25
          +4
          I don't know for sure with this order, there is an Annensky cross of the 4th degree, but the badge of the order was really worn on the handle (not on the lanyard) of cold steel, I laid out both above. Maybe at different times - in different ways? I'm not a specialist, I need to ask Rich a question

          Anninskoe Arms, the unofficial name of the Russian award weapon (sword, saber, dagger) with the Order of St. Anna of the third degree attached to it (since 1797). With the addition of the fourth degree of the order in 1815, its sign began to be attached at the top of the saber hilt and on the handle of the dagger. Anninsky's weapon from 1828 relied on a lanyard made of a red order ribbon with a yellow border. From 1829 on the hilt of the Anninsky weapon there was an inscription “For bravery”. On infantry swords and naval half-sabers, Annin's lanyards ended with a round red pompom, which received the name "cranberry" in army jargon, which was also adopted by the navy.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish April 8 2021 22: 27
            +3
            Well, I told you ... Thank you, Dima. drinks
            1. Richard
              Richard April 8 2021 22: 37
              +4
              The Anin saber of Vasily Mikhailovich Chernetsov has been preserved in the Museum of the History of the Don Cossacks of Novocherkassk


              And here is the hero of WWI Vasily Chernetsov with her in the photo
              1. Catfish
                Catfish April 8 2021 22: 44
                +4
                He seems to have had the "St. George Weapon". I do not remember exactly.
                1. Richard
                  Richard April 8 2021 22: 51
                  +4
                  There was also a "golden" St. George, but disappeared in the fire of the civil war. only this weapon survived, surrendered by Chernetsov to the Chairman of the DonRevkom Golobuv in 1918
              2. Richard
                Richard April 8 2021 22: 44
                +3
                Order grades and wearing rules
                I degree - Gold cross, large, covered with red enamel; along the edges of the cross there are gold borders, in the corners of the connection of this there are gold through decorations; in the middle of the obverse, on a white enamel field, also circled with a gold border, is the image of St. Anne, and on the reverse, on the same field, there is a Latin blue monogram of the initial letters of the order's motto, under the crown. It is worn on a red ribbon with a yellow border, two and a quarter inches wide, over the left shoulder, with a forged silver star on the right side of the chest, in the middle of which there is a red cross; around the cross, on red enamel, the Latin motto: Amantibus Justitiam, Pietatem, Fidem, that is, Those who love Truth, Piety, Fidelity. This motto is borrowed from the original letters of the name and family of the Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna: AIPF (Anna, Imperatoris Petri Filia, Anna of the Emperor Petra Dshcher) - Cross on a ribbon 10 cm wide across the left shoulder, a star on the right side of the chest; 350 or 200 rubles. annual pension;
                II degree -. A cross similar to the one established for the first degree, but of a lesser size, is worn around the neck, on a ribbon one inch wide. - Cross on the neck with a ribbon 4,5 cm wide ("Anna on the neck" [1]); 150 or 120 rubles. annual pension;
                III degree - Cross of even smaller size; worn in a buttonhole, on a half-top wide ribbon. - Cross on the chest on a 2,2 cm wide ribbon; 100 or 90 rubles. annual pension;
                IV degree - Red enamel cross, in a golden field, enclosed in a red enamel circle; a golden crown above the cross. This sign is attached to a military sword, saber, semi-sable, broadsword, dagger (to the latter at the top of the handle). When rewarding them for military exploits, an inscription is added on the hilt (at the dagger on the diameter of the handle of the arc): for bravery. Such an inscription also complains to those who, having already this fourth degree of the order for other, non-military distinctions, will again perform a military feat. Those granted by this sign are signed with the inscription: for bravery, they wear lanyards made of the ribbon of the Order of St. Anne with silver tassels, according to the approved samples.
                Officers awarded the Order of St. Anna of the fourth degree are supplied with only order insignia, so that those who receive them themselves attach them to swords or sabers.
                The inscription for bravery on golden broadswords and naval sabers is made, following the example of cavalry sabers, on two rims of the hilt.
                Class officials and doctors who have been awarded the Order of St. Anne of the fourth degree for the distinction rendered under enemy shots are assigned a lanyard from the ribbon of this order without an inscription on the sword: for bravery. tapes; 50 or 40 rubles. annual pension.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish April 8 2021 22: 54
                  +4
                  For the fourth degree - I saw a photo of a cross to be worn on the chest. Invalid information?
                  1. Richard
                    Richard April 8 2021 23: 09
                    +4
                    Invalid information?

                    But why?
                    XNUMXrd degree on the chest. This concerns the Order itself
                    And then on the chest were worn "soldier" insignia of the Order of St. Anna - silver medals with the insignia of the order, introduced to award the lower military ranks in the Russian Empire. For the Japanese and World War I, many were awarded them
                  2. Catfish
                    Catfish April 8 2021 23: 32
                    +4
                    But I haven't heard of Soldatskaya Anna. It’s even strange, I had a friend, Valerka Durov, worked in our numismatics department, published regularly and gave us his books as gifts, but I don’t remember such an Anna. It is a pity that all the books are in Moscow, otherwise I would rummage around now.
                  3. Mordvin 3
                    Mordvin 3 April 8 2021 23: 53
                    +3
                    Quote: Sea Cat
                    But I haven't heard of Soldatskaya Anna.

                    At Ushaky, many people were awarded Anna.
                  4. Richard
                    Richard April 9 2021 00: 43
                    +4
                    What are you? The soldiers called her at first "Dvadtsarik" - but that until 1904 she was issued for 20 years of blameless military service, and from the Russian-Japanese she received a new status "For Bravery" and a new soldier's nickname "Chervonchik" - since she was supposed to appropriate remuneration.
                    The most massive WWI medal. The prototype of the Soviet medal "For Courage".
                  5. Richard
                    Richard April 9 2021 02: 12
                    +4
                    Here, by the way, is an interesting photo of S.M. Prokudin-Gorsky
                    "Full Cavalier of St. George Vasily Karabanov, Ensign of the 146th Infantry Tsaritsyn Regiment"


                    Karabanov has two soldier Anna - one "For Courage" immediately after the St. George's bow, the other, apparently "For 20 years of blameless service" at the very end. Although the difference between these medals is only in the back. Here's how scrupulous about the awards in RI
                  6. Sling cutter
                    Sling cutter April 9 2021 02: 27
                    +5
                    Quote: Richard
                    Here's how scrupulous about the awards in RI

                    Great photo! good drinks But I want to note, Kamrad, that in the USSR they treated the awards no less scrupulously, and in terms of texture, recognition and semantic load, I think they were the best and unsurpassed in the world.
                  7. Richard
                    Richard April 9 2021 05: 47
                    +5
                    Good Morning, Valery!
                    In the USSR until 1943. , unlike RI, there was no division of awards into generals, officers and soldiers. And it was right - there was a principle of equality of those awarded! The apotheosis of which were the golden stars of the Heroes of the USSR and the heroes of Social Labor. During this period, I agree with you, the reward system of the USSR was the best in the world. But with the advent of the purely general's orders of Kutuzov, Suvorov, Bogdan Khmelnitsky and the diamond-studded Victory, this system lost the same principle of equality, when awards were given for achievements, and not according to rank and position.
                    What is happening now with the award system of the Russian Federation is the topic of a separate article - the status of the highest orders is "tarnished" by awarding dubious characters, numerous departmental awards with "candy wrappers" have overshadowed the number of state awards, which are very similar in appearance, which should not be a priori and so on and so forth.
                  8. Sling cutter
                    Sling cutter April 9 2021 05: 58
                    +5
                    Quote: Richard
                    What is happening now with the award system of the Russian Federation

                    Considering that the Russian Federation has the status of AOZT, then the awards have an exclusively intradepartmental significance. Well, how can this be?
                  9. Sling cutter
                    Sling cutter April 9 2021 06: 09
                    +7
                    Quote: Richard
                    overshadowed by the number of state, which outwardly are very similar,
  • Undecim
    Undecim April 8 2021 07: 43
    +12
    After reading the article, there was a desire to outline the operational situation regarding Napoleon's army. before the battle in "military language".

    Napoleon with the corps of Jean Lannes and Nicolas-Jean-de-Dieu Soult, with the Guards and the cavalry of Murat, took positions between Brunn and Austerlitz, his forward detachments were stationed at Vishau. Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte and the Bavarian corps stood at Iglau against Archduke Ferdinand, and the corps of Adolphe Mortier, defeated at Dürnstein, in Vienna, Louis-Nicolas Davout, advancing from Vienna and from the Hungarian border, in the vicinity of Nicholsburg. Auguste-Frideric-Louis Vies Marmont, Michel Ney and A. Massena watched and followed the army of Archduke Charles in Lower and Inner Austria.
    The supply lines of the Napoleonic troops were quite extended. They were covered mainly by the troops of the German allies of France; only one Bavarian division was involved against the enemy. On the French side, therefore, the sprawling supply lines did not directly reduce the number of combat units, but in the field of logistics and communication they caused serious problems. Therefore, instead of continuing the offensive, the French emperor wanted to force the enemy to take offensive actions, as if provoking him to attack. Napoleon found himself in a very unpleasant operational situation, from which there were only two ways out: either to retreat in order to concentrate forces, or to defeat the united enemy army, standing at Olmutz, even before he received significant new reinforcements.
    1. kalibr
      April 8 2021 08: 45
      +6
      Looking at this map, you see how slowly the allies crawled towards Austerlitz ...
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku April 8 2021 10: 15
        +6
        Looking at this map, you see how slowly the allies crawled towards Austerlitz ...

        Vyacheslav Olegovich, thanks for the article, I would like to draw your attention to small details ... wink

        Lann is depicted with a saber not quite usual for a Frenchman - a Turkish kilich with a wide upper part of the blade - elman. He participated in the Egyptian campaign, so he could take out the saber from there.
        Lannes's relationship with Bonaparte was very uneven and sometimes contradictory. But after his death, Napoleon wept. Another digression: remember the Khodynka catastrophe of 1896? The tsar was then reproached that after the death of the people, he went to a ball in the evening to the French ambassador, who, they say, had already ordered a bunch of roses and other buns ... That ambassador was Lanne's grandson - Gustave Louis Lannes, Marquis de Montebello! request
        But pay attention to the close-minded Dolgorukov:

        Dolgorukov under Paul I at the age of 21 became adjutant general. By the way, for the merits! soldier Well, the Pavlovian award is very clearly distinguishable - the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, or the "Maltese cross". hi
        1. Mihaylov
          Mihaylov April 8 2021 10: 49
          +8
          Quote: Pane Kohanku
          Lann is depicted with a saber not quite usual for a Frenchman - a Turkish kilich with a wide upper part of the blade - elman. He participated in the Egyptian campaign, so he could take out the saber from there.

          Good afternoon Nikolai, the Egyptian campaign in general gave rise to a fashion in Europe for oriental sabers. It is felt that the Mameluke cavalry nevertheless made an impression. In addition to the exported ones, they began to be produced in marketable quantities in Europe and even to take "Mameluk" sabers into service. They differed from the original in greater pretentiousness and some buffering.
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku April 8 2021 11: 00
            +6
            In addition to the exported ones, they began to be produced in marketable quantities in Europe and even to accept the "Mameluk" sabers for service. They differed from the original in greater pretentiousness and some buffering.

            For some reason I thought so, Sergei ... what Pretentiousness? wink So Napoleonic Empire style! drinks
            1. Mihaylov
              Mihaylov April 8 2021 11: 14
              +9
              Quote: Pane Kohanku
              Pretentiousness?

              I meant that somehow they do not look like a combat one, some kind of stylization, for example:

              This is from the Internet, and these (also English) from the Museum of the Guard:
              hi
        2. kalibr
          April 8 2021 11: 21
          +6
          What nice additions! Thanks!
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku April 8 2021 11: 25
            +5
            What nice additions! Thanks!

            For photographs of weapons and uniforms, please contact the esteemed Sergei Mikhailov - he has a large archive of visits to museums. I think it will not be superfluous! drinks
            1. kalibr
              April 8 2021 11: 30
              +6
              This is to bear in mind, my friend gets along with him!
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku April 8 2021 11: 32
                +7
                This is to bear in mind, my friend gets along with him!

                "You shoot like a soldier," Kamal said, "show me how you drive." drinks Thank God! By the way, Sergey's photos are better than mine ... good
            2. Mihaylov
              Mihaylov April 8 2021 11: 48
              +7
              Quote: Pane Kohanku
              For photos of weapons and uniforms, please contact

              Nikolay, here is another interesting engraving, although it belongs to a slightly later time than the topic of this article:

              It is called the "Union of Sovereigns for the Salvation of Europe". Russia in the 1810s.
              It depicts Alexander I, the Prussian king Frederick William III, the Austrian emperor Franz I against the background of trophies - the banners and standards of the Napoleonic army, and Pallas Athena extends a wreath over the victors. drinks
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku April 8 2021 11: 56
                +8
                It is called the "Union of Sovereigns for the Salvation of Europe". Russia in the 1810s.

                Sergey, is this after the Vienna Congress? Bernadotte was forgotten, but this beech and sociopath did not go into European affairs anyway, preferring to deal with Swedish interests proper. wink
                And here is a caricature of the times of 100 days.

                "Swing". On the left, the Prussian, Austrian and Russian monarchs are sitting on the swing, on the right - Bonaparte. He weighs more than all the monarchs of the anti-Napoleonic coalition. The French king Louis XVIII fell from a swing. Caricature of 1815.
                1. Mihaylov
                  Mihaylov April 8 2021 12: 00
                  +6
                  Quote: Pane Kohanku
                  Sergey, is this after the Vienna Congress?

                  Yes, of course, after that, they could safely call themselves winners hi
                  Forgotten Bernadotte

                  They were thinking about three.
                  As in the joke:
                  - Do you drink? so I will be the third?
                  - No, you will be the fourth, we have already sent three. drinks
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku April 8 2021 12: 55
                    +6
                    They were thinking about three.

                    Exactly, and let this unborn child go to his Swedish forest. laughing But Sweden does not fight under Bernadotte! good
                    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                      Kote Pan Kokhanka April 8 2021 20: 24
                      +5
                      Quote: Pan Kohanku
                      They were thinking about three.

                      Exactly, and let this unborn child go to his Swedish forest. laughing But Sweden does not fight under Bernadotte! good

                      The king with the tattoo "death to kings" is still the "anointed of God" !!! laughing
                      1. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku April 9 2021 09: 44
                        +4
                        The king with the tattoo "death to kings" is still the "anointed of God" !!!

                        Tricky bug! But, mind you, the Swedes called him themselves - for his own noble behavior. Unusual choice - apparently, I really really liked it! drinks By the way, there is an opinion that the tattoo had a different content.
              2. Catfish
                Catfish April 8 2021 16: 48
                +6
                Sergey, hello! hi
                And sho Comrade Franz is all white, as if he bathed in flour? smile
                It looks like an unfinished canvas.
                1. Mihaylov
                  Mihaylov April 8 2021 16: 53
                  +7
                  Quote: Sea Cat
                  And sho Comrade Franz is all white, as if he bathed in flour?

                  Good afternoon Constantine,
                  his uniform, as I understand it, is white, as befits the Austrians.
                  Looks like an unfinished canvas

                  This is an engraving, just the quality of the photograph is not very good, it is behind the glass, and I could not attach itself to remove the glare hi
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish April 8 2021 17: 09
                    +5
                    Now it is clear. It was not the uniform that confused me, but the discolored orders, braids and face, it looks like a hand-painted lithograph. Now it is clear that this is just a lens flare. smile
    2. Sling cutter
      Sling cutter April 9 2021 02: 34
      +5
      Quote: Undecim
      Napoleon found himself in a very unpleasant operational situation, from which there were only two ways out: either to retreat in order to concentrate forces, or to defeat the united enemy army, standing at Olmutz, even before he received significant new reinforcements.

      Greetings! hi drinks As Bismarck used to say: "I am not interested in their intentions, I am interested in their potential."
      1. depressant
        depressant April 9 2021 16: 18
        +2
        Dear colleague Stoporez, I am glad to see you visiting Vyacheslav Olegovich! )))
        So you complained that I left the critical sections of the VO, well, so ...
        But not to interfere in the dispute between Ivan Ivanovich (a major official) and Ivan Nikiforovich (an oligarch) - a dispute in which each of the parties tries to substantiate the legitimacy of its claim to a share of the budget and the illegality of such a claim of the opposite party - this is now an internal matter. Those who argue, these functions of money, do not see or hear us. It is much more pleasant for me to listen to the people for whom I exist. I hope to see you constantly)))
        1. Sling cutter
          Sling cutter April 9 2021 16: 30
          +4
          Quote: depressant
          I hope to see you constantly)))

          Greetings, Lyudmila Yakovlevna! hi love
          Thank you for the kind words, I will try.
          Quote: depressant
          glad to see you visiting Vyacheslav Olegovich!

          Yeah, here, as "visiting a fairy tale", no one trolls or bulls anyone laughing laughing laughing
          1. depressant
            depressant April 9 2021 17: 55
            +2
            The intelligentsia, however! )))
            At the same time, reflections are allowed not only on the topic of the article, but also the exchange of thoughts about anything, often in a metaphorical form. It is comfortable to live in such a relaxed atmosphere, and this is definitely not enough for analytics and opinions, where a tough specificity of the commentary is required, supported by facts. And for the facts now you know what. This is how we got into the realm of absurdity. For example, I really wanted to speak on the subject of the fire in Moscow, at Samsonov's. But who cares? It is not necessary to convince those who see the analogy, and no matter how much you poke a blind person with your nose, it is useless. You can give an exact definition of the era, but it will not change its color from this. There is no interaction, but there is one-sided action.
            1. Sling cutter
              Sling cutter April 9 2021 19: 03
              +3
              Quote: depressant
              It is not necessary to convince those who see the analogy, and no matter how much you poke a blind person with your nose, it is useless.

              I agree with you, I have visited the resort for two days good laughing But still pulls: "And he, rebellious, asks for a storm, As if there is peace in the storms!" fellow
              1. depressant
                depressant April 9 2021 19: 48
                +2
                Colleague, if you are drawn somewhere, you hang on to me, I will go read and maybe even hang up wassat )))
                1. Sling cutter
                  Sling cutter April 9 2021 19: 53
                  +3
                  Quote: depressant
                  Colleague, if you are drawn somewhere, you hang on to me, I will go read and, maybe, even hang up)))

                  A curious little article came out about propaganda, people are already chopped up wassat
                  1. depressant
                    depressant April 10 2021 07: 59
                    +1
                    And what do you think, colleagues! laughing
                    Having succumbed to the provocation of the sweet, spontaneous and rock-and-roll uninhibited Stoporez, the ingenuous I went to Opinions and at the very end of the debate, more reminiscent of an exam in medicine or psychology, I laid out my politicized fabrications. And in the morning, as a "reward", she received a threat from a certain visitor named Doc.
                    The word "orus" in Tuvan is for sure "Russian"? wassat ))))
                    There are more words attached. He asked what I care about Tuva and attached these complementary words, from which I deduced that they were in Tuvan.
                    And here I really made many conclusions for myself. It is advisable that they be made by those who are supposed to be according to their position.
                    In general, both laughter and sin. Now I'm expecting threats in Chechen. But for some reason I got the opinion that Kadyrov is smart. Or at least cunning.
                    In general, being guided by the principle of humanism, I am already a more rare walker to the "harmful" sections of the VO, so as not to wag my compatriots' nerves. wassat ))))))
                    1. Sling cutter
                      Sling cutter April 10 2021 08: 55
                      +3
                      Quote: depressant
                      Succumbing to the provocation of a sweet, direct and rock-n-roll uninhibited Stop-cutter

                      Why provocation? request
                      On that branch
                      Anto and Volodya Mordvin fought, by the way Constantine was also present there.
                      Quote: depressant
                      And in the morning as a "reward" she received a threat from a certain visitor named Doc.

                      In a personal? belay
                      1. depressant
                        depressant April 10 2021 09: 33
                        +1
                        Yes, colleague, in a personal. I don't know if this short phrase can be reproduced here, there are three words, one of which is orus.
                      2. Sling cutter
                        Sling cutter April 10 2021 09: 40
                        +3
                        Quote: depressant
                        Yes, colleague, in a personal. I don't know if this short phrase can be reproduced here, there are three words, one of which is orus.

                        Fuck, a completely harmless article, a lot of interesting comments and so much negativity .......
                        By the way, your comment is very correct and informative at the same time. hi
                      3. depressant
                        depressant April 10 2021 11: 02
                        +1
                        Doc doesn't think so! I guess he is hurt and hurt. All of Tuva lives off the cultivation of cannabis and the spread of drugs in the nearest regions of the Russian Federation, maybe even further. There are no manufactures. This Baysarov - encouraged the population by the railway, and squeezed it, and people hoped so! It is very difficult to enter and leave Tuva - natural features, the population is criminal and poor. Back in the 90s, there was a report about the murder of 7 Russian hunters. It became clear that they were extreme nationalists. By voluntarily joining the Union, they did not get what they expected, and they themselves cannot, the level of social development did not allow. And the RSFSR turned out to be not a bottomless barrel. Now - criminalization and extreme hostility towards Russians. This is a tragedy for them and for us. While the authorities dealt with themselves, many people die there.
                      4. Sling cutter
                        Sling cutter April 10 2021 11: 06
                        +1
                        Quote: depressant
                        Now - criminalization and extreme hostility towards Russians. This is a tragedy for them and for us. While the authorities dealt with themselves, many people die there.

                        To be honest, many regions in Zamkadye are doomed to survive. I am surprised by the fact that the most famous Tuvan does not lobby for the interests of his small homeland in any way, although he takes a friend of friends there for walks.
                      5. depressant
                        depressant April 10 2021 12: 04
                        +1
                        Mother is Russian. Alexandra Kudryavtseva, from the Oryol region. Over time, the family moved to Ukraine. Therefore, Sergei Shoigu has a mentality of the European type. He is Tuvan in name only. Tuva is very far from him, there is no clan affection. Accordingly, there are no obligations. At one time, I distinguished him from all government officials. He seemed very correct, responsible and very Soviet. I suppose he stayed that way in his heart. But to live with wolves is to howl like a wolf. He took for himself the initial necessity, got involved inadvertently, and now where to go, go and not young. This is how souls perish, beautiful impulses wassat
                      6. Sling cutter
                        Sling cutter April 10 2021 12: 22
                        +2
                        Quote: depressant
                        He seemed very correct, responsible and very Soviet.
                        belay
                        He only has a party card from the Soviet in the safe and pictures of Komsomol parties laughing A typical major, dad is a party nomenklatura, he did not work for a day, he rubbed himself in the district committees, he did not serve in the army for a day, but orders and medals, as if he reached Berlin twice.
                        By the way, he has the status of a member of the Order of Malta with the corresponding sign. The daughter is a deserved general of the Ministry of Emergency Situations, the second works in "Gasprombank" and concurrently heads the Russian Triathlon Federation, although not everyone knows what it is, but there was no other free federation.
                        Talented dad, talented children, all in Feng Shui good
                        This is for short. laughing drinks
                      7. depressant
                        depressant April 10 2021 12: 58
                        +1
                        Yes, I know all this, colleague. Well, what can you do ... We got such imperious material, and how to work with it? There is no theory showing how to overcome his resistance. They are also inscribed in the system of global relations, which will support, correct them, or sweep them away. Itself. On occasion. But not because we want it, but because they want it themselves. There is nothing in our favor. We are no longer the subject of history. And in order to become them, new Marxes are needed, but they and others like them are not yet visible on the horizon.
                      8. Sling cutter
                        Sling cutter April 10 2021 22: 45
                        +5
                        Quote: depressant
                        We are no longer the subject of history. And in order to become them, new Marxes are needed, but they and others like them are not yet visible on the horizon.

                        Colleague, we just sometimes do not see the obvious, although we are trying to look closely. yes
  • Andrey Korotkov
    Andrey Korotkov April 8 2021 08: 44
    +4
    Great article as always, thanks to the author. I'm afraid to be mistaken, but the optical telegraph was invented by the Englishman Robert Hooke in 1684, in 1702 the Frenchman Amanton added movable joints to the design, K. Chapp added a code-scheme to the generally accepted model hi
    1. kalibr
      April 8 2021 11: 22
      +5
      Quote: Andrey Korotkov
      I'm afraid to be mistaken, but the optical telegraph was invented by the Englishman Robert Hooke in 1684

      It may well be that I didn't really dig into this ...
  • Tavrik
    Tavrik April 8 2021 12: 19
    +3
    That is, Napoleon also had a quick connection between the units, while the allies got along with sending traditional equestrian orderlies and, of course, were constantly late.

    Monsieur Chappe's optical telegraph for communication with the corps did not work.
    To do this, he ordered his troops to start withdrawing and sent Adjutant General Savary to Alexander, offering to start negotiations on an armistice, and then on peace. Moreover, the general had to ask Alexander for a personal meeting.

    Yes, it was. Nice move. Well, the time before the arrival of the corps Davout had to stretch out.
    The funny thing is that among the French marshals there were people, moreover, they were Murat, Soult and Lannes, who, on November 29, considered retreating the best solution.

    Yes, Soult and Murat framed Lanna from the heart ...
    On December 1, on the eve of the battle, Napoleon gathered all the corps commanders and explained to them the essence of his plan. He realized that the main blow of the Allies was to be expected on the right flank, that their goal was to cut it off from the roads to Vienna and deprive it of supplies. Therefore, he decided to counterattack the enemy in the center and cut the allied army into pieces, which would inevitably cause panic in its ranks. To this end, the center of the French troops was reinforced as much as possible by the corps of Marshal Soult, the left wing was commanded by two Marshals Bernadotte and Lannes, but the right flank was placed under the command of Marshal Davout, from whom only one thing was required - to hold on at all costs! The Imperial Guard was in reserve in the center.

    Nothing like this. The main forces of the French were concentrated on their left flank. The light infantry regiment that occupied Mount Santon even took a special oath that they would not leave the mountain under any circumstances. A powerful blow was planned on the right flank of the allies. In the center were, in fact, the divisions of Wandamme and St. Hilaire. Davout was expected to arrive on the right flank.
    But when Napoleon saw that the Allies were descending from the Prazen Heights, the disposition was replayed and the main blow was struck by Saint-Hilaire and Vandamm. Well, plus Davout, who had a forced march by the beginning of the battle, grabbed Telnits and Sokolnits, which they could not quickly take.
    So, hitting the center with cutting allies was an improvisation. It was then that flatterers began to paint about the genius of the emperor. Like, it was intended.
    1. Liam
      Liam April 8 2021 12: 41
      +3
      Quote: Tavrik
      So, hitting the center with cutting allies was an improvisation. It was then that flatterers began to paint about the genius of the emperor. Like, it was intended.

      ))) In general, it is precisely such improvisations that are signs of genius much more than plans drawn up in advance. Any good staff officer will make a good plan ... and replay everything by making a decision in minutes "along the way" and bring to life exactly that genius
    2. kalibr
      April 8 2021 14: 50
      +4
      Quote: Tavrik
      So, hitting the center with cutting allies was an improvisation.

      I haven't read about it anywhere ...
      1. Tavrik
        Tavrik April 8 2021 21: 09
        +3
        "Napoleon, Russia and Europe. 1799-1805" OV Sokolov. Volume two.
        There, in the Appendices, the dispositions of Napoleon from 01.12.05 and Weyrother are given.
        1. kalibr
          April 8 2021 21: 34
          +4
          Eugene ... But I've read F.G. Urtul ... he is at least a Frenchman and introduced many interesting historical documents into circulation. Whereas Sokolov, like Tarle, by the way, only copied other people's books and testimonies. Therefore, I would rather accept the Frenchman's point of view on the Frenchman. Then I like the book by D. Chandler ... the series "Campaign" Osprey ... Well, you know, I don't really trust our historians. I know many, I myself am one of them ... Western ones, with all their originality, are better.
          1. Tavrik
            Tavrik April 9 2021 00: 50
            +4
            While Sokolov, like Tarle, by the way, only copied other people's books and testimonies

            Well, Tarle had no options ... Who would have let him go to Vincennes to work in the archives of the army?
            And with Sokolov, the opposite is true. He just always emphasized that he uses synchronous documents, i.e. those that were worked off "hot on the trail". And he himself worked in the archives, incl. and French. Take any of his books and look at the bibliography for any chapter. Most of the sources there are primary sources in French.
            I also have Urtul and Chandler. No, Sire is better laughing I doubt that Chandler and Urtul know Russian and work in Podolsk.
            1. kalibr
              April 9 2021 07: 25
              +3
              Quote: Tavrik
              in Podolsk.

              Podolsk does not have what you think about. This is in the Military-Historical Archives in Moscow-RGVA. But I don't care who wrote what. After reading a certain number of books - let's just say - I have formed a certain opinion. So I am presenting it. You have a different story about reading ... Well, thank God. It would be very sad to have absolute like-mindedness.
            2. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku April 9 2021 09: 53
              +3
              And he himself worked in the archives, incl. and French.

              Let's just say ... The Order of the Legion of Honor will not be given to a foreigner just like that ... Apparently, his merits in the field of history were really appreciated by the French. hi
  • Andrey Korotkov
    Andrey Korotkov April 8 2021 12: 56
    +1
    [quote = Tavrik] [quote] That is, Napoleon also had a quick connection between the units, while the allies got along with sending traditional equestrian orderlies and, of course, were constantly late. [/ quote]
    Monsieur Chappe's optical telegraph for communication with the corps did not work.
    [Quote] yes I suppose that the situation changed quickly, opto.telegraph (advanced semaphore) is not a telephone i.e. order, encryption, signal transmission over the line (~ 5 leagues), decoding critically affected the combat situation. But in 1794 (attempt2) Paris was notified of the defeat of the Austrians by telegraph dispatches.
    1. Tavrik
      Tavrik April 8 2021 13: 12
      +3
      There is no book at hand, but in the evening I will look with whom and at what speed he worked.
    2. Tavrik
      Tavrik April 8 2021 21: 18
      +4
      The optical telegraph operated between the headquarters of the emperor and major cities. For example, Napoleon in Saint-Cloud received telegrams from Strasbourg, from the prefectures.
      1. Andrey Korotkov
        Andrey Korotkov April 8 2021 21: 47
        +3
        Quote: Tavrik
        The optical telegraph operated between the headquarters of the emperor and major cities. For example, Napoleon in Saint-Cloud received telegrams from Strasbourg, from the prefectures.

        Yes, Napoleon always belittled the losses of his armies, and reports of victories flew quickly, Milan on May 15 - Lombardy belongs to the republic! what is a PR man yes
  • Sertorius
    Sertorius April 9 2021 02: 39
    +1
    Of course, for the insolence shown by him, Napoleon could well have given the order to interrupt him with the convoy, and take the prince himself prisoner and whip him on the buttocks for the amusement of his soldiers - a desire to avenge this shame of his pet could well provoke Emperor Alexander to attack, but ...

    The very case when you write a historical article relying on sources, trying to use only reliable information, but could not resist and fantasized. lol
    1. kalibr
      April 9 2021 07: 27
      +3
      What did you dream up? What could or what really happened? About what could not be prohibited ...
  • Tavrik
    Tavrik April 9 2021 15: 44
    +2
    And the renewed people
    You humbled the young riot,

    I read co-blindly: "And zeroed people ... " laughing