Military Review

"Thor" in his prime

24
35 years ago, on March 18, 1986, the Air Defense Forces of the Ground Forces adopted the Tor air defense system (according to the then classification - SAM) "Tor". The head developer of the Tor air defense missile system was the Research Electromechanical Institute (the chief designer of the complex was V.P. Efremov, the chief designer of the combat vehicle was I. M. Drize), the co-developer for the manufacture of prototypes and the head manufacturer was the Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant (now IEMZ Kupol, part of the Almaz-Antey VKO Concern).




The development of a new anti-aircraft complex, which replaces the "Osa", was carried out for eleven years and was crowned with complete success. The troops were armed with an air defense system that was long ahead of its time and at the same time has a huge modernization resource.

Usually, a new combat vehicle retains many of the features of its predecessors. An experienced eye will easily see the general design features of the Yak-9 and Yak-1, T-62 and T-54, and the inexperienced will not even notice the difference between them. But there are times when the newly adopted equipment is radically different from its predecessors. In such cases, they say that the designers have made a revolution. It is precisely this revolutionary product that the Tor air defense system has become. Even outwardly, he had little in common with his predecessor. Instead of a light antenna-triggering device - a massive "tower". The inclined guides of the missile defense system gave way to an internal vertical layout (looking ahead, it should be noted that the designers of foreign analogues will come to vertical launch only after two decades). The chassis is not wheeled, but tracked (one of the main purposes of the "Torah" is to provide anti-aircraft cover tank divisions, and the new air defense system had to be equal in cross-country ability to the main tanks). Radar antennas - with a phased array. The “stuffing” of the complex was no less radically different - analog computing devices were replaced by digital ones. But there were also some traits related to the Wasp. In particular, the radio command guidance method was retained. Considering the power of the radar, the radio command telecontrol used in the complex in its area of ​​responsibility significantly surpassed (and surpasses) alternative methods of missile guidance. The only drawback of RC-guidance is the impossibility of providing firing according to the "fire-and-forget" principle, which allows the implementation of homing heads. But, firstly, the GOS, having this, perhaps, the only merit, had a number of significant shortcomings, and secondly, they significantly increased the cost of missiles. Soviet designers who created weapon to repel the massive invasion of the enemy, they could not, of course, leave aside the "economy of war". And it is worth noting that the course towards economical missiles remained true after the end of the Cold War. Yes, today it is difficult to imagine an open armed conflict between the world powers. But now, not only small countries, but also individual armed groups can afford an impressive fleet of air attack weapons - through the use of UAVs. And it is for the fight against drones that the Tora missiles are optimal - inexpensive due to the use of RC guidance and accurate due to a powerful guidance station. The choice of missiles with the seeker turned out to be fully justified. The task of increasing the fire performance began to be solved in a different way - increasing the channeling rate on the target, first to two for the "Tor-M1", then up to four for the "Tor-M2U" and "Tor-M2".


Since the adoption of the first "Thor" air defense system of this family, there have already been three waves of deep modernization. The newest Russian air defense missile system "Tor-M2", equipped with powerful and perfectly protected from interference detection and guidance radars, is capable of effectively intercepting high-speed (700 m / s and above) low-flying (10 m and below) small-sized (RCS - 0,1 m2 and less) SVN. The far border of the affected area (at least 15 km) allows you to cover large-area objects, and the upper (12 km) - to deal with high-flying tactical air defense systems. Heading parameter ± 9,5 km provides cover for a front 19 km wide. The radio command guidance method makes it possible to continuously correct the flight of missiles and direct them to the target along the most effective trajectory. BK - 16 missiles per one BM of the complex - allows you to reflect a massive raid, while the complex is capable of simultaneously firing at four targets. The probability of hitting them is close to 100%, which made it possible to abandon the practice of firing two missiles at one target. The deployment time of the "Tor-M2" complex is 3 minutes, which ensures the rapid introduction of the air defense missile system into battle in the event of a sudden enemy raid. At the same time, reconnaissance of the air situation and firing can be carried out in the movement of the complex.


SAMs of the "Tor" family are distinguished by a high level of noise immunity. So, during the tests in Greece, the work of the "Tor-M1" air defense system could not interfere with the electronic warfare means adopted for the armies of the NATO countries. During Russian tests, domestic electronic warfare equipment also failed to interfere with the operation of the "Torah".

SAM family "Tor" can be integrated with various types of carrier base. IEMZ Kupol serially produces the Tor-M2 air defense system on a tracked chassis, Tor-M2DT on the basis of a two-link tracked cross-country conveyor, DT-30PM and Tor-M2K on a three-axle wheeled chassis. At the request of the customer, the complex can also be produced in the version of an autonomous combat module - "Tor-M2KM", suitable for installation on any carrier base of suitable carrying capacity, transportation by helicopter and railway platform. Diversification in terms of the base significantly expands the scope of use of the "Tor" air defense systems: "Tor-M2" is the "standard" version of the air defense system for tank divisions, "Tor-M2DT" is intended for use in difficult terrain, and "Tor-M2K" is optimal for use in countries with a developed system of paved roads.
A significant advantage of the Russian complex over such modern western air defense systems is the deployment time from the marching order to the combat order - the period during which the complex can "from a state of rest of reconnaissance and fire weapons" go to active reconnaissance of the air situation and intercept targets. "Tor-M2" is deployed within three minutes, without stopping movement, and also on the move can conduct combat work and to detect and intercept targets. For Western counterparts, the deployment time can reach 10-15 minutes, and they can carry out combat work only after a complete stop. The short deployment time and the ability to conduct reconnaissance and fire on the move, coupled with a tracked chassis, make the Tor-M2 air defense system a true air defense system of the Ground Forces - highly mobile, capable of accompanying tank and motorized rifle divisions on the march and in all types of combat even on rough terrain. , without hindering their movements, provide reliable cover from air attacks.

Today air defense systems of the "Tor" family are the main means of air defense in the tactical echelon of the Ground Forces. They are able to provide protection for important military and civilian objects and reliably cover troops on the march and in all types of combat, without hindering their movement. Within their area of ​​responsibility, they successfully counteract the entire spectrum of modern tactical air defense systems - from aircraft, helicopters, cruise, anti-radar and other guided missiles, gliding and guided aerial bombs and unmanned aerial vehicles in conditions of intense fire and radio, optical-electronic countermeasures, in any weather conditions, day and night. SAM family "Tor" serve in the most critical areas. They provide air defense for the Russian base in Khmeimim. They serve in the Kaliningrad Region and the Eastern Military District. Tor-M2DT provides air defense for the Arctic group of Russian troops.
The main advantage of the Tor-M2 air defense system is the ideal balance of tactical and technical characteristics while reaching the maximum in the most key positions. It is possible to design an air defense system that will have a longer firing range or more means of destruction of a target due to the loss of some other important characteristics. You can create a simpler and, accordingly, less expensive complex with a significant decrease in combat capabilities. It is possible to overtake "Thor" by some separate characteristic. It is impossible to overtake the "Thor" in terms of the aggregate performance characteristics.

At the same time, the improvement of the complex continues. It is led by IEMZ Kupol, which since 2013 has been the parent enterprise not only for the production, but also for the development of the MD air defense missile system. The total list of topics of research and development work aimed at improving the "Torah" exceeds two dozen titles. Work is being carried out in the direction of increasing noise immunity, increasing the ability to detect and defeat actively maneuvering, small-sized or weakly emitting air targets. In addition, the tasks of increasing the probability of hitting air targets are being solved; expansion of the affected area; increasing the maximum speed of targets hit, increasing the parameter of hitting air targets; full automation (robotization) of the combat work process; reducing the reaction time, etc.

The Tor-M2 air defense missile system not only has no equal in the world in terms of its performance characteristics, but also optimally corresponds to the tasks of building an air defense system aimed at countering the most urgent air threat at the moment: a sudden massive attack of small-sized air attack vehicles traveling at extremely low altitudes. And this is a huge merit of both domestic military thought, which managed to predict the nature of the upcoming battles and correctly set the task, and Soviet and Russian designers who managed to solve this problem and created an air defense system capable of fighting not only existing, but also promising air attack weapons.
Author:
Photos used:
TV CHANNEL "BRYANSKAYA PROVINCE" (http://www.guberniya.tv/)
24 comments
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  1. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U April 1 2021 04: 08
    +8
    The most successful complex, but engineers and scientists do not rely on luck, which means it is a thoughtful, calculated and even felt complex.
    1. Ilya-spb
      Ilya-spb April 1 2021 07: 34
      +4
      We must reward the developers of this wonderful complex!

      And ... More "Thors" good, and different, in the troops!
      1. Insurgent
        Insurgent April 1 2021 10: 38
        +7
        Quote: Ilya-spb
        We must reward the developers of this wonderful complex!

        The responsible executor of the Tor air defense system from the parent organization was Iosif Matveevich Drize (20.03.1927/3.11.2016/22.03.1926 - 16.09.2006/XNUMX/XNUMX), and the Chief Designer - Veniamin Pavlovich Efremov (XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX - XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX), were awarded state awards and prizes.

        In general, the following structures were involved in the development and production of the Tor complexes:

        - The complex as a whole - Research Electromechanical Institute, Moscow (development);
        - Machine-building plant named after M. I. Kalinin, Sverdlovsk, Sverdlovsk region. (production),
        - Mari machine-building plant, Yoshkar-Ola, Mari ASSR (production);
        - Fighting vehicle - Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant, Izhevsk, Udmurt ASSR (production);
        - Rocket - MKB "Fakel", Khimki, Moscow region. (development);
        - Onboard missile equipment - Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant, Izhevsk, Udmurt ASSR (production);
        - Launcher and transport-loading machine - State Design Bureau of Compressor Engineering, Sverdlovsk, Sverdlovsk region. (development);
        - Tracked chassis - Mytishchi Machine-Building Plant, Mytishchi, Moscow Region. (production);
        - Drives - VNII "Signal", Kovrov, Vladimir region. (development); Lyuberetskiy plant of agricultural machinery named after A. V. Ukhtomsky, Lyubertsy, Moscow region (production);
        - Systems of near location - Scientific Research Institute of Electronic Devices, Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk region. (development);
        - Works on installation, adjustment, testing and commissioning of stationary objects for field testing of the complex - Construction and installation department No. 304, Kuntsevo, Moscow region. (building).
        - Tracked tractor - Minsk Tractor Plant, Minsk, Byelorussian SSR (development / production);


        As you can see, the list is impressive. Moreover, the development involved not only enterprises and design bureaus located on the then territory of the RSFSR, but also now "abroad" - Belarus.
        1. Sanya Terek
          Sanya Terek April 1 2021 11: 25
          +1
          Quote: Insurgent
          ... the development involved not only enterprises and design bureaus located on the then territory of the RSFSR, but also now "abroad" - Belarus.

          The first military unit armed with the "Tor" air defense missile system (the 257th Guards anti-aircraft missile regiment of the 24th motorized rifle Samara-Ulyanovsk, Berdichev Iron Order of the October Revolution, three times with the Red Banner, Orders of Suvorov and Bogdan Khmelnitsky division of the Carpathian military district "also remained outside the borders of the Carpathian military district").
          1. Insurgent
            Insurgent April 1 2021 11: 27
            +2
            Quote: Sanya Tersky
            The first military unit armed with the "Tor" air defense missile system (the 257th Guards anti-aircraft missile regiment of the 24th motorized rifle Samara-Ulyanovsk, Berdichev Iron Order of the October Revolution, three times with the Red Banner, Orders of Suvorov and Bogdan Khmelnitsky division of the Carpathian military district "also remained outside the borders of the Carpathian military district").

            For us - behind the front line.
            1. Sanya Terek
              Sanya Terek April 1 2021 11: 34
              0
              Unfortunately, exactly behind the front line... And not only this regiment. The KVO was rearmed in the first place, for example, when it comes to the military air defense, the first formation of the USSR Armed Forces armed with the S-300V1 (25th anti-aircraft missile brigade of the district) also remained behind the front line.
            2. sivuch
              sivuch April 1 2021 14: 21
              +1
              not so scary. the equipment was quite crude, there were no regular TZM, Rangirov, so for Svidomo - a suitcase without a handle.
  2. Aleksandr1971
    Aleksandr1971 April 1 2021 07: 02
    -13%
    "Thor" in terms of performance characteristics is a successful complex, but what are its practical results?

    Wasn't it "Thor" that the Persians shot down a Ukrainian passenger Boeing by mistake? What is the likelihood that in the future the Torahs will not record civilian aircraft as enemy targets?
    Or was it 100% the fault of the Iranian Tor staff?
    1. Ros 56
      Ros 56 April 1 2021 07: 38
      +3
      And when the Ukrainians shot down a passenger plane with the help of the S-300 over the Black Sea, was the technology also to blame? The person is always to blame.
      1. Old tanker
        Old tanker April 1 2021 09: 30
        +5
        Not the S-300, but the S-200.
        1. Ros 56
          Ros 56 April 1 2021 14: 27
          0
          Well, it happens that he made a small mistake, instead of hurray, the guard shouted. laughing I will not argue. hi
    2. Insurgent
      Insurgent April 1 2021 12: 50
      +4
      Quote: Aleksandr1971
      Or was it 100% the fault of the Iranian Tor staff?

      Judge for yourself. Two recorded cases of the use of the "Tor" air defense system by the Iranians:

      - On August 17, 2010, Iranian air defense systems shot down an F-4 "Phantom" fighter of its own Iranian air force near the Bushehr nuclear power plant.
      As the Israeli agency Debka, close to the intelligence circles, reported, the plane entered the 20-kilometer exclusion zone around the nuclear power plant for unknown reasons. The pilot and navigator managed to eject.


      - On January 8, 2020, the Boeing 737-800 NG airliner of Ukraine International Airlines (UIA) performing international flight PS752 on the Tehran-Kiev route, crashed after departure from Tehran. At the same time, all 176 people on board were killed - 167 passengers and 9 crew members.
      A few days later, Iranian authorities announced that the plane was accidentally shot down from an Iranian anti-aircraft missile system. According to the preliminary findings of the investigation, the Tor-M1 complex was used.
      1. sivuch
        sivuch April 1 2021 14: 18
        +1
        NNAZ, the Persians simply turned off the Friend-Alien as a possible source of interference. That is, everything that flew in the area of ​​responsibility of the Tors near the Bushehr nuclear power plant was automatically alien. With the ensuing consequences.
    3. Bad_gr
      Bad_gr April 1 2021 13: 37
      +2
      Quote: Aleksandr1971
      What is the likelihood that in the future the Torahs will not record civilian aircraft as enemy targets?

      ".... The airliner Airbus A300B2-203 of Iran Air made a commercial passenger flight IR655 on the Tehran-Bandar-Abbas-Dubai route, but 7 minutes after departure from Bandar Abbas, flying over the Persian Gulf, it was shot down by a ground- air ", released from the US Navy missile cruiser" Vincennes. "All 290 people on board the aircraft were killed - 274 passengers (including 65 children) and 16 crew members [1].
      The crash of flight 655 was the largest plane crash in the history of Iran and the Airbus A300, as well as in the history of the Airbus family of aircraft.
      At the time of the missile launch, the cruiser Vincennes was in the territorial waters of Iran. The US government said the Iran Air airliner was mistakenly identified as an Iranian Air Force F-14 fighter. .... "
    4. sivuch
      sivuch April 1 2021 14: 23
      +1
      I don’t claim, but it seems that the Azerbaijani Su-25 was shot down by Thor. The Armenians, as you know, declare as many as 4 Su-25s, but here they can be understood - at least some consolation.
  3. Hermit21
    Hermit21 April 1 2021 10: 33
    -1
    Did the author hear anything about paragraphs?
  4. musketon64
    musketon64 April 1 2021 11: 25
    -2
    Interestingly, is it possible to make an anti-tank modification of this complex to destroy tanks from above with a missile with a cumulative warhead?
  5. leks
    leks April 1 2021 13: 49
    +1
    Quote: musketone64
    Interestingly, is it possible to make an anti-tank modification of this complex to destroy tanks from above with a missile with a cumulative warhead?

    Why and what for? Thor is air defense, period.
    The task of the torus is to clean up the sky, and for this it was created.
    To defeat tanks, there are other weapons.
    In general, I like the Thor air defense complex, I especially like the last modification for 16 missiles, so you look and 24 missiles will appear.
    With s350 Vityaz and Tor m2, the designers and engineers have done an excellent job. The main thing is that there are more of them in the army to replace obsolete modifications.
    1. musketon64
      musketon64 April 1 2021 14: 40
      +1
      Quote: leks
      Why and what for? Thor is air defense, period.
      The task of the torus is to clean up the sky, and for this it was created.
      To defeat tanks, there are other weapons.


      There is another. But stupidly in the forehead --- "Chrysanthemum", "Storm", "Cornet", etc. But most modern tanks cannot be smashed head-on. Especially if they have a KAZ of the "Trophy" type. And we do not have those who strike from above (I hope so far). And a missile attacking from above by radio commands will be much cheaper than a missile with an IR seeker.

      Thor is air defense period.

      Under certain circumstances, the American Javelin can also overwhelm a helicopter, although it was created primarily against armored vehicles. But I was referring to a long-range anti-tank complex based on the "Torah", which will be much more effective than the same "Chrysanthemum" due to the possibility of hitting tanks from above.
  6. Usher
    Usher April 1 2021 23: 33
    -1
    I thought Thor had 8 missiles.
  7. CastroRuiz
    CastroRuiz April 2 2021 15: 44
    0
    Omoriacheniy Tor, on Kinzhal sovsem v stati netronut i net info, shto est rozrabotan i morskiy Tor-2M / Kinzhal M.
    Perviy budet stoyat na ARK Nakhimove.
    1. Andrew77
      Andrew77 April 10 2021 00: 17
      0
      Dagger - the development of another developer (:-)) - NPO Altair, with the TOP are unified in terms of the rocket and part of the iron. GRAU index - 3K95, and TOP - 9K330 (9K331 - TOP-M1). But, as they say, "hot" TOP - exactly what TOP M2
  8. Andrew77
    Andrew77 April 10 2021 00: 10
    0
    Quote: Usher
    I thought Thor had 8 missiles.

    8 missiles 9M330 - TOP and TOP-M1. The junior modifications - it seems, starting from the M2 and onwards - were supplied with 16 9M338 missiles
  9. Ratmir_Ryazan
    Ratmir_Ryazan 12 June 2021 01: 04
    0
    TOR-M2 can simultaneously fire at 4 targets.

    And if there are 5 targets and it will be high-precision missiles that attack this TOP?