Military Review

Calabrian Ndrangheta


The arrest of Salvatore Colucci, one of the bosses of the Ndrangheta, October 2009

In previous articles we talked about the Sicilian mafia, the clans of the American Cosa Nostra, the Campanian Camorra. This one will tell about the criminal community of Calabria - Ndrangheta ('Ndrangheta).

Calabria and Calabrians

In the more developed regions of northern Italy, the reputation of Calabria and its inhabitants is low. Back in the middle of the twentieth century, British journalist Henry Morton wrote:

“In Lombardy and Tuscany, people still shudder at the very mention of Calabria. They would rather spend their holidays in the Congo than in this Italian region. "

Calabria on map of Italy

The differences between North and South of Italy are still very large - in mentality, lifestyle, per capita income. And even purely outwardly, the natives of Calabria can hardly be confused with the northerners from Florence or Milan.

Calabria, like Campania, Puglia and Basilicata, was part of the Kingdom of Naples, and later (since 1816) - the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

Kingdom of neapolitan

Calabrian Ndrangheta
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

The name of this historical the region comes from the Greek words kalon brion and means "fertile land". It is separated from Sicily by the narrow Strait of Messina, the minimum width of which is only 3,2 km.

In the Middle Ages, the aristocracy in Calabria was of Spanish (more precisely, Aragonese) origin. The aristocrats did not particularly stand on ceremony with the local Italians, so some of the men fled to the forests and mountains, becoming Brigante. Literally translated, this word means "robber", but it did not carry an unambiguous negative connotation: the common people often idealized and romanticized the "briganti", presenting them as fighters against the injustice of greedy noble gentlemen. Among the Brigante, the picciotteria gangs stood out, whose members were already perceived by everyone as real bandits. Some believe that it was from them that the Ndrangheta later grew.

The birthplace of this criminal community is considered the region closest to Sicily - Reggio di Calabrio.

Reggio di Calabrio on Calabria map

Some researchers believe that the "big brothers" of the Sicilian mafia influenced the formation of organized crime in Calabria. Some moved here voluntarily, others were exiled to the mainland.

On the map of 1595, the territory of the Kingdom of Naples, roughly coinciding with the modern area of ​​Reggio di Calabrio, is designated as Andragathia Regio ("Androgatia"). The connection between the words Andragathia and 'Ndrangheta is visible to the naked eye.

Some believe that the name Andragathia was derived from the Greek word andragatos, meaning "brave." This is quite a "working" version, since in ancient times this area was part of the "Magna Graecia". Here was the famous city of Croton (Crotone), which was famous for its wrestlers. In Hellas then they said that “the last of the Crotons - the first of the rest of the Greeks", And there was a saying"healthier than croton". In this city he founded the famous school of Pythagoras, about whom Aristotle said that at first he “studied science and numbers, and later became a miracle worker».

F. Bronnikov. "Pythagoreans", painting, painted in 1869

The rich Sybaris was also located here, the inhabitants of which (the Sybarites) became famous for their love of luxury and all kinds of pleasures.

But on the other hand, 'ndrina is a family, and "Androgacy" can be "The Land of Families." This version is less romantic, but it seems more believable.

It is from ndrin that Ndrangheta consists, which emphasizes the family character of this criminal organization. There are currently 73 ndrins operating in Reggio di Calabrio, and 136 of them throughout Calabria.

Exactly when the stable Calabrian crime families emerged is not known for certain. Reliable indications of the existence of the Ndrangheta in written sources are found only since 1897. Even at the trial of 1890, the members of the gang of the city of Palmi in official documents are called ... Camorrists. Although it is clear that they had nothing to do with the Campaign.

Organizational structure of the Calabrian Ndrangheta

The head of the Calabrian 'ndrina bears the title of capobastone. The sons of the members of these "families" are called Giovane d'onore ("boy of honor" or something like that) and are accepted into the clan by birthright. The rite of passage is traditionally held when they turn 14. Outsiders who want to get into the "family" are Contrasto onorato (people who must "earn a contract"): the probationary period can range from several months to two years.

The person accepted into the family undergoes a special rite: he pierces his finger, moistens the icon with the image of the Archangel Michael with his blood and takes an oath:

"If I betray, then let me be burned like this saint."

(From the article Old Sicilian Mafia you must remember that this archangel is the patron saint of the Ndrangheta).

In the case of a marriage between members of different families, the ndrins were united into one. In addition, such marriages were often arranged with the aim of ending the "faida" - a war between two clans. Faids could last for years, claiming dozens and sometimes hundreds of lives.

Often the "families" of the Ndrangheta united on a territorial basis, forming a "Territory" (locale), which had a common cash desk and an accountant-bookkeeper.

The locale's assistants are the capo crimine (the head of the rank-and-file "militants" - Picciotto d'onore) and the mastro di giornata (the "master of the day" who liaises between the "families" and coordinates their actions). And for Sgarrista ("cunning") is assigned the duty of collecting "tribute". For special merit, a member of the clan receives the title of Santista ("saint"), which gives him special respect and certain privileges. This title appeared only in the late 60s. XX century on the initiative of Girolamo Pyromalli (head of the ndrina from the city of Joya Tauro). In the 70s. In the twentieth century, an attempt was even made to unite the Santista of different clans into one structure - La Santa: it was supposed to engage in arbitration and mediate conflict situations. According to the original plan, the number of "saints" should not have exceeded 33, but now this rule is not observed. Candidates for "saints" are called "Santis of Purgatory" (Santa del Purgatorio). According to the journalist Antonio Nikas, who specializes in the problems of organized crime, the rite of passage goes like this. The candidate appears before three active Santists who symbolize the heroes of the Italian national liberation movement - Garibaldi, Mazzini and Lamarmor. He pierces three fingers so that blood gets on the image of the Archangel Michael and states that he is looking for “honor, loyalty and blood". After that, they announce that the Sun has now become his father, the Moon is the mother, and he himself is now their messenger.

Antonio Pelle, who held the high rank of Vangelo o Vangelista ("evangelist"), was chosen as the head of "Santa". He never went to school and began his career in the "criminal business" from the very bottom.

Even above the "evangelists" are Quintino, Trequartino and, finally, Padrino.

Like the Campanian Camorra, the Ndrangheta does not have a general leadership, breaking up into separate clans - this is the very circumstance that distinguishes these criminal groups from the "real" Sicilian mafia.

For the Camorra and the Mafia, hostile relations have long been characteristic, but the members of the Ndrangheta managed to establish friendly relations with both. There have been cases when men of Calabrian "families" were simultaneously members of some other clan - Sicilian or Campanian.

Many have heard of the struggle that was fought with the Sicilian mafia in Italy under Mussolini. In 1935, by order of the Duce, a three-month operation was carried out against the Calabrian Ndrins, but the police did not achieve much success then. It was a matter of the isolation and fragmentation of the Calabrian clans: the defeat of one "family" did not in the least affect the neighboring one.

"Upward movement"

Until the 1960s, the Ndrangheta was largely a regional criminal organization, with little influence over neighboring areas. Everything changed with the beginning of the construction of the railway to Naples and the so-called "Highway of the Sun" to Salerno: the Calabrian "families" then managed to switch to themselves part of the federal funds allocated by Rome and became very rich on contracts. At the same time, a boom in cigarette smuggling began, in which the ndrins also took part with pleasure. Looking at the neighbors, they began to try to kidnap people and demand a ransom for them. In 1973, even the grandson of the wealthy American oil businessman Getty was kidnapped. To speed up the process of obtaining the ransom, the grandfather was sent the ear of the grandson. The peak of this kind of crime was in 1975, when 63 abductions were recorded, including a one month old baby. The Barbaro clan was especially successful in such matters. The Plati commune controlled by him even received the unofficial name "The Cradle of Abductions".

In the 90s, Ndrangheta became involved in the international drug smuggling and marketing business. They started with heroin, but then they forged ties with Colombian drug cartels and began to work with cocaine. Currently, the Calabrian clans account for up to 80% of all cocaine shipments to Europe.

Giuseppe Morabito "rose" to the organization of drug trafficking and gained great influence. After his arrest, the drug traffic began to control Pasquale Condello, who managed to hide for a long time, but he was also arrested in 2008.

The arrest of Pasquale Condello, February 2008

Then came Roberto Pannunzi, a native of the Macri clan, who was called the "Italian Pablo Escobar". After the collapse of the "Medellin Cartel", he began to cooperate with smaller Colombian manufacturers and even with the terrorist group Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia, headed for a long time by Salvatore Mancuso, who came from a family of Italian immigrants. And then Pannunzi forged ties with the Mexican drug cartel Los Zetas, about which one of its founders, Arturo Desena, said:

“The most important thing for us is money, honor and respect. We are engaged in drug trafficking and we earnestly ask the Mexican and US authorities not to interfere with our business. You cannot destroy us for one reason - Los Zetas knows everything about the work of the police and special services, but the secret services and the police know nothing about the work of Los Zetas. "

The emblem of the Los Zetas drug cartel on one of the hills near Naples

War with Rome

For many years, the city of Reggio was the capital of Calabria. Sometimes it is called like this whole area - Reggio di Calabrio. It should be reminded that it is the homeland and traditional fiefdom of the Ndrangheta. In 1970, the Italian authorities decided to move the capital of Calabria to Catanzaro. This decision was supported by the oppositional Communist Party of Italy. But they forgot to ask the opinion of the inhabitants of Reggio, and they reacted sharply to this decision.

On July 15, an uprising began in the former capital, which lasted until February 1971.

The social basis of this uprising proved to be extremely variegated. Members of the local ndrins also joined this unexpected "revolution". The anarchists also willingly joined in, who, in general, did not care where and for what reason they burned cars and smashed windows. Other allies of the rebels were the neo-fascist organizations "National Avant-garde" and "Italian Social Movement" (ISD) pursuing their goals. Moreover, even the local archbishop Giovanni Ferro supported the rebels.

The leader of the Popular Front, Junio ​​Valerio Shipione Borghese, also showed interest in the uprising.

Married to the great-great-granddaughter of the Russian Emperor Alexander I, Daria Olsufieva, the prince was a naval officer and met the beginning of World War II as a submarine commander. It was he who owns the idea of ​​creating flotilla assault weapons, armed with torpedoes controlled by combat swimmers. In the Italian navy, he was known by the nickname "Black Prince", but sometimes he was also called "the prince of frogs." Some researchers explain the death of the battleship "Novorossiysk" on the roadstead of Sevastopol on October 29, 1955 by a sabotage organized by Borghese. This ship was received by the USSR on account of reparations, earlier it was called "Giulio Cesare".

According to one version, Borghese, taking advantage of the situation, decided to seize power in the country.

On December 8, 1970, Popular Front militants occupied the lobby of the Italian Ministry of the Interior. However, the leaders led by Borghese did not come to the putsch (just like Prince Sergei Trubetskoy on Senate Square in December 1825). Borghese eventually fled to Spain, where he died in 1974. In 1972, director Mario Monicelli even shot the satirical film We Want Colonels, the protagonist of which was named Tritoni (more than a transparent allusion to the "Prince of the Frog" Borghese). And then the strangeness began: in 1984, the Italian Supreme Court of Cassation suddenly ruled that there was no attempt at a coup d'état in December 1974.

But back to Calabria, where from July to October 1970 there were 14 terrorist attacks using explosives, and attacks on prefectures and police stations became commonplace, their number reached several dozen.

The frightened authorities of Rome promised to increase funding for the rebellious province and, most importantly, billions of dollars in investments in the construction of new enterprises, reconstruction of old ones and in infrastructure. The bosses of the Ndrangheta, hoping to profit from government orders, have left the game. Against this background, they even arranged a compromise with the division of capital functions between Catanzaro and Reggio di Calabrio (the regional council of Calabria and the regional court of appeal remained in the old capital). They did not know that after three years their clans, who had not divided the contracts for the reconstruction of the port of Joya Tauro, would fight in the First Ndrangheta War, which we will talk about in the next article.

The neo-fascists, now regarded as "defenders of the interests of the oppressed South," significantly improved their positions in the 1972 elections, with the ISD receiving 2,9 million votes. The leader of the uprising and a member of this party, Ciccio Franco became a senator.

"Business projects" of the Calabrian Ndrangheta

With the inclusion of Ndrangheta in the international drug trade system, "real money" came to this criminal community. As a result, it is the Ndrangheta who now dominates Italy, squeezing out even the famous Sicilian mafia. Prosecutor Mario Venditi assesses the situation as follows:

"Ndrangheta launders money as skillfully as she once was just as deftly wielding a sawed-off shotgun."

Currently, the drug trade brings Calabrian "families" at least 20 to 24 billion dollars a year, in this direction they actively cooperate with Albanian criminal groups (they were described in the article Albanian crime clans outside Albania).

Do not disdain the Calabrian "dons" and trade weapons, smuggling of radioactive materials, organization of illegal migration to Italy and the EU countries. Do not forget about investments in real estate, services and retail, restaurant and tourism.

In the 13,3st century, the Ndrangheta clans are actively lobbying for the construction of green energy facilities. The fact is that the size of the subsidy for "green" kilowatt / hour in Italy ranges from 27,4 to 8 euro cents, depending on the region. And subsidies for solar energy alone (less than 10% of all electricity generated in Italy) amount to 86 billion euros per year. And there is also subsidized wind power, geothermal power plants and stations for generating electricity from solid household waste. Moreover, 6% of green energy facilities are located in the south of the country: most of them are in Puglia, but there are many in Calabria. And Ndrangheta makes money not only from construction, but also from the operation of these facilities: the firms she controls are shareholders of electric companies. Construction organizations associated with Ndrangheta have built a huge number of wind generators, around which environmentalists have carefully cut down forests so that nearby trees do not interfere with the wind from turning the blades. By the way, little is said about this, but on the ground around each such windmill lie the corpses of birds chopped up by the "wings" of these terrible "mills" (experts of the Spanish Ornithological Society, for example, calculated that the wind generators of this country annually kill from 18 to XNUMX million birds and bats). It is also proven that the Ndrangheta made huge money from the construction of large power plants in Crotone and Catanzaro, since all the contractors were associated with various Calabrian clans.

According to experts, in 2007 the total turnover of the Ndrangheta clans exceeded 43 billion euros. Of these, more than 27 billion was "earned" from the drug trade, the arms trade brought an estimated 3 billion euros, a little less - the organization of illegal migration and control over prostitution. Through extortion, the Calabrian Ndrins received about 5 billion euros. But the second item of income after the drug trade was precisely legal activity: over 5,7 billion euros were brought by various commercial enterprises.

The German Institute for Demoskopita (Demoskopita) estimated that in 2013 the combined annual turnover of all Ndrangheta “families” was 53 billion euros (compared to 2007, an increase of 10 billion), which is higher than Deutsche Bank and McDonald's combined.

In the next article we will talk about the wars of the Calabrian clans, their activities outside Italy.

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  1. Hunter 2
    Hunter 2 29 March 2021 18: 13
    Valery, just Excellent! Your article in the evening - A great end to the day! The mafia cycle is just bombing, let the critics try to write better! Thank you for your quality work! Well, with the next article - everything is clear, and then?
    When will Asia start ???
    1. VLR
      29 March 2021 18: 44
      Good evening. No, there are no plans for Asian crime clans yet. In one article, let's change the topic. I think let's talk a little about the Celts first. In my opinion, it turns out very interesting there.

      1. Hunter 2
        Hunter 2 29 March 2021 18: 56
        We agree to the Celts, Sarmatians, Scythians ... we agree to everyone! Valery write More, increase production! You - Authors, well, there are very few left on VO. Thanks again for the great article! hi
      2. KONST.RU
        KONST.RU 29 March 2021 23: 43
        Hello, we did not mention the connection between the ndrangheta and the Solntsevskaya gang. It would be interesting.
    2. Alien From
      Alien From 29 March 2021 19: 55
      I join you, a complex topic, the author copes brilliantly! hi
  2. knn54
    knn54 29 March 2021 18: 51
    Valery, as always, is a plus.
    Even A. Dumas did not pass by the Calabrian bandits.
  3. Richard
    Richard 29 March 2021 19: 05
    According to the myth popular among the Ndrangheta, the crime syndicate has aristocratic roots. Once upon a time, the three Spanish knights Osso, Mastrosso and Carcagnosso decided to avenge the desecrated honor of their sister. After killing a man, they were imprisoned for 29 years, 11 months and 29 days. The conclusion was beneficial to the brothers, since during this time they developed the rules of omerta, the basis of all mafia codes. Moreover, the brothers founded three mafias: Osso founded Cosa Nostra, Mastrosso founded the ndrangheta, and Carcagnosso founded the Neapolitan Camorra. Despite the obvious mythological component, this story shows us something of course important: the close connection of the three mafias, the importance of the concept of honor and the essential
    1. VLR
      29 March 2021 19: 10
      Yes, I mention this legend
      in the article "The Old Sicilian Mafia".
      1. Richard
        Richard 29 March 2021 19: 26
        Your article is excellent. Thank you so much!
  4. Richard
    Richard 29 March 2021 19: 07
    According to a report by Italian anti-mafia organizations, as many as 73 ndrins operate in Reggio Calabria, and there are 136 of them in the region itself. Ndrina is the minimum unit of the ndrangheta, its basis, its atom. Most often, it consists of members of the same family and, moreover, has a certain independence. Each ndrina controls a certain territory assigned to it, and is headed by a capubastuni.
    Interestingly, this role can even be played by a woman, but only if her husband, capubastuni, is killed or arrested. The Ndrins, these small criminal atoms, penetrated not only all Italian regions, but also those countries where Italian emigrants flooded: first of all, the USA, Canada, Australia and Germany.
    “The Ndrangheta has penetrated everywhere, but her head remains in the province of Reggio Calabria, her 'mother' will always be there. The real strength of the ndrangheta lies in its ability to adapt: ​​two or three people are enough to found an ndrina. At first they will have a certain autonomy, they will be able to try different criminal and business models, unite with local crime, choose their own development strategy, but as soon as the business gains momentum, they will have nowhere to run ... "
    Luigi Bonaventura
    former member of the 'Ndrangheta

    "The 'Ndrangheta has no problem doing business with people of any race or nationality."
    Saverio Morabito
    former member of the 'Ndrangheta
    1. Richard
      Richard 29 March 2021 19: 10
      When the number of ndrins in a certain area increases, they form a locale. A locale usually consists of at least 49 people, it is controlled by the head of the locale, who has an accountant and a capo-crimine in his assistants, it is he who organizes murders, kidnappings and other necessary things. There is also the position of mastro di giornata - he is responsible for what happens in the controlled territory, and helps the members of one locale to be in constant contact with each other.
      Lokale helps the Ndrins to find a common language and not get involved in internal conflicts and strife. The absence of a strict vertical allowed the Ndrangheta to better adapt and carry out powerful colonization, but this also led to various clan wars, the so-called faids. Faids are not only a matter of business, but also of honor, so they can last for years. In addition to the usual faids, two full-scale wars are also noted: the first occurred in 1974 and caused the death of 300 people, and the second in 1985 and took about 500 people.
  5. Richard
    Richard 29 March 2021 19: 19
    Ndrangheta hails from the poorest region of Italy, and money has always been the main thing for her, which is why she was ready to do everything and work with everyone. The degree of cooperation of the Ndrangheta with other Italian mafias is extremely high: there are cases when members of the Camorra and Cosa Nostra were also members of the Ndrangheta and vice versa.
    However, cooperation with foreign criminal groups, especially with Colombians, turned out to be much more active. According to journalist Roberto Saviano, who was sentenced to death by the Camorra, it was the members of the ndrangheta who first began to trade directly with Colombian drug cartels, which, naturally, made it possible to supply high-quality cocaine to Europe at low prices.
    This was largely due to Roberto Pannunzi, he is also called the "Italian Pablo Escobar". Pannunzi is a native of Calabria and a protégé of Anonio Macri himself, the famous leader of the Macri clan, who had a very strong influence on the development of the Ndrangheta in Canada. He managed to become related with both the famous Siderno group and the Colombian drug dealers, thanks to which the 'Ndrangheta exported tons of cocaine from Colombia and traded with the famous Medellin cartel.
    At the same time, after the collapse of the Medellin cartel, nothing changed: the Ndrangheta simply switched to smaller cartels in Colombia itself and to a large Mexican supplier Los Zetas. In the early 2000s, she even collaborated with the right-wing Christian terrorist group Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia, which supplied at least 8 tons of cocaine to Calabrians.
  6. Richard
    Richard 29 March 2021 19: 26
    The candidate appears before three active Santis who symbolize the heroes of the Italian national liberation movement - Garibaldi, Mazzini and Lamarmor. He pierces three fingers so that blood gets on the image of the Archangel Michael and declares that he is looking for "honor, loyalty and blood." After that, it is announced that the Sun has now become his father, the Moon is the mother, and he himself is now their messenger.

    Allow me to correct a little - not a messenger, but a cab. Doesn't change the essence, but so in the original
    As Antonio Nicasso writes:
    When the Santista undergoes the initiation ceremony, there are three in front of him: in the center is a man symbolizing Garibaldi, on the right is Mazzini and on the left of Lamarmor (heroes of the Italian national liberation movement). The neophyte is asked what he is looking for. The neophyte answers: "I seek honor, loyalty and blood." After that he is called a cannibal, and the future centist answers: "No, I collect blood, a vein comes out of one of the brothers and enters mine." Then they pierce him with a needle three fingers and squeeze his hand into a fist, saying that his father is the sun, his mother is the moon, and by profession he is a cab. "
    Santists do not do the dirty work - they make connections and engage in intellectual work, and their rituals differ significantly from the standard Ndrangheta rituals and are more similar to the Masonic rituals ..

    and further, it is:
    At the same time, such rituals are only part of the larger - La Santa really worked closely with the Freemasons, and many Santists were members of different lodges. And this is not a fiction, but an objective reality, enshrined in court documents and police records. Today all this may seem strange and even ridiculous, but recall that the organization was created in the 70s, at a time when Italy was torn apart by red and black terrorism, and part of the political and military elite was in Masonic lodges.
    The famous "P2" consisted of at least 44 members of parliament, 22 generals of the armed forces and 12 generals of the carabinieri, and the organization itself was involved in the Borghese military coup, which was to take place in 1970. Thus, La Santa, infiltrating Masonic lodges and going into strange rituals, only tried to get to the highest echelon of power in order to dissolve in it and become completely invulnerable.
  7. Richard
    Richard 29 March 2021 19: 34
    Another interesting feature is the participation of the Ndrangheta in politics, because this is what allows us to win important tenders (the last case is related to the construction of facilities for EXPO 2015) and channel the budget in the right direction. In the south of Italy, where the participation of the mafia in political life is historically strong, this issue was beautifully described by Robert Putnam in his famous study “For Democracy to Work. Civil Traditions in Modern Italy ”. But the 'Ndrangheta went far beyond the borders of the south and feels great even where the American researcher saw a sufficient concentration of social capital.
    In 1991, a law was passed in Italy that allowed to suppress mafia infiltration in various local administrations. Thanks to this law, from 1991 to 2013, more than 58 administrations were dispersed in different cities of Italy. These were mainly councils of deputies of small towns in Calabria, but similar cases were recorded in Piedmont, Lombardy and Liguria.
  8. Mordvin 3
    Mordvin 3 29 March 2021 22: 22

    When Ushakov brought his ships, the Turks began to plunder the Sicilians. Well, they piled on the Turks ... the Sicilians ...
  9. Moskovit
    Moskovit 29 March 2021 22: 28
    And when will there be a story about the Russian mafia))
  10. Free wind
    Free wind 30 March 2021 04: 07
    It was not for nothing that Donky Hot fought with the mills. By the way, when worms look at the windmills, their head starts to ache. Try to take a saber, a stick and chop a sparrow or crow flying past, do you think it will work? It is unlikely that birds still have a mind, unlike those who broadcast on TV about millions of chopped birds. Bats fly at night, uses supersensitive echolocation, even if you gouge out her eyes, she will not fly close to the windmill. The planes chopped 7.382.569 unfortunate birds into cabbage last year, Echiobe scientists counted, to ban the planes.
    1. VLR
      30 March 2021 06: 42
      I was also surprised at first when I learned about the death of birds associated with wind turbines. I began to study the issue on purpose. It turned out that the upper end of the blade of the E-126 windmill reaches a height of 198 meters - and in the 80s. The twentieth century reached only 15 m. At the same time, the so-called "throwing area" increased by 100 times, not 10. From the side it seems that the blades are moving lazily, as in slow motion. However, in fact, the speed of the blades in an average wind is 90 meters per second!
      Why the birds die: it turns out that the blades are at the height of soaring and the birds are literally drawn to these "fans". And bats get internal hemorrhages and die, being at a distance of 100 meters from the wind turbine (wind pressure). So, these windmills are really scary things. Currently, each one kills up to 1000 birds a year. However, new wind turbines are now being designed with a wingspan of 300-400 meters. These monsters will "clear the air" even more intensely.
      1. Free wind
        Free wind 30 March 2021 09: 44
        There is increased air pressure in front of the blades of the wind turbine, it creates resistance to the air flow, this is not an aircraft engine. A windmill and cigarette smoke cannot suck in, let alone a bird. Make a simple propeller out of paper, a leaf of cattail, bring a cigarette to it in the wind, you will see where the smoke goes. Probably there are a lot of chopped birds on the Internet. the Chinese would be happy. Surely the wind creates tremendous pressure in the mountains, at high speed against the mountains 1-8 km high, with mice and soaring birds, all the foothills of the mountains and multi-storey buildings are dotted and covered. And usually large birds soar. And the altitude of their flight is up to 8 kilometers, polar geese have been seen at such heights. Do you know how many beneficial insects break on the hood and windshields of cars, and birds too .. They are so beautiful, they are wonderful creatures.
        1. VLR
          30 March 2021 10: 14
          At least that's what they write - and on a lot of resources. I always double-check with several sources.
          1. VLR
            30 March 2021 10: 27
            In addition, if the movement of air created by the blades on one side of the windmill repels birds, then on the other it should attract. By the way, they write that the main victims of windmills are birds of prey that soar, waiting for prey, and flew too close, and migratory flocks.
            1. VLR
              30 March 2021 10: 40
              In Spain, near Cadiz, an experiment was carried out: the windmills were stopped for the period of spring and autumn migrations of birds. Result: the number of dead birds found near them decreased by 50%.
              1. vladcub
                vladcub 30 March 2021 12: 16
                Where are the various environmental organizations looking?
                Here we get a double-edged sword: wind power has no emissions into the atmosphere, but at the same time, a lot of birds die.
                With them it is bad and without them it is bad. So a compromise is needed
                1. VLR
                  30 March 2021 12: 27
                  It's just that in the West, where, basically, "alternative energy" is developing, there are "sacred cows" about which one cannot write badly - only good or very good. Green Energy is one such cow. It can only be very "good", very promising, very cheap, and so on. They try not to remember the extremely low efficiency of alternative power plants and huge subsidies for the production of green kilowatt-hours. The fact that people do not survive next to wind turbines and run away from them in all directions - too (they can exist only in an absolutely deserted space, giving rise to a desert around them). It is also impossible to talk about the unreliability of solar panels and the difficulties of their disposal.
                  1. VLR
                    30 March 2021 12: 54
                    The same solar batteries - both their production and their utilization are "chemically dirty". They are extremely vulnerable to any natural phenomenon. And even in the best case, they fail after about 20 years. Even simple hail damages them irreversibly. In 2015, a tornado destroyed about 200 panels at California's Desert Sunlight Solar Farm.
                    It is estimated that just recycling those solar panels used in Japan for 2020 would require 19 years of XNUMX/XNUMX operation. Taking into account the pace of construction of new solar energy facilities, experts give approximately the following forecasts:
                    "The problem of recycling solar panels will explode with full force in two to three decades. This process can destroy the environment due to the creation of a huge amount of waste that is very difficult to recycle."

                    “Already in 2016, there was more than 250 metric tons of solar panel waste, and according to the most conservative forecast, this figure could increase to 000 metric tons by 2050. But there is a more pessimistic forecast that with such a large amount of waste we will face it by 78. "
                    1. vladcub
                      vladcub 30 March 2021 14: 23
                      I say: "a double-edged sword" and so bad and so
                    2. Free wind
                      Free wind 31 March 2021 04: 26
                      The solar battery is silicon and quartz, that is, sand, just sand. Grind it and throw it back on the beach, you don't need a lot of money.
                      1. VLR
                        31 March 2021 05: 16
                        And also during the processing of solar cells, hydrochloric acid, lead and cadmium are produced "magically". Cadmium, an overactive carcinogen, is no less toxic than mercury and arsenic, which, by the way, are also formed during the manufacture of panels. And the starting material for their production is extremely toxic trichlorosilane, which is also explosive. Moreover, the cadmium of solar cells poisons the soil during their operation and the process is accelerated when they get wet. Quote from a report by the Stuttgart Institute for Photovoltaics:
                        "Contrary to previous assumptions, pollutants such as lead or carcinogenic cadmium can be almost completely washed out of solar module fragments in a few months, for example, by rainwater."

                        And, the icing on the cake: recycling solar panels is an extremely energy-consuming process! Simply put, "the game is not worth the candle." As practically everywhere, where mankind climbs with its "brilliant ideas", it turns out much worse than when using what has already been invented by nature. Burning the same gas is much more environmentally friendly. Heating with wood with proper organization of forestry - too.
                      2. VLR
                        31 March 2021 05: 37
                        At the same time, about "Global Warming":
                        It was already quite recently by historical standards and humanity felt great. They are frightened by the melting of the Greenland ice, but Greenland, discovered by the Normans, was indeed a "Green Country", Eric the Red did not deceive anyone. Yes, he would have simply been killed by the Norman settlers, having seen Greenland as we see it. This island froze over later. And Amsterdam, Venice, other seaside cities were not under water at that time. It was much worse for mankind during the Little Ice Age. Viking settlements in Greenland were blocked by glaciers as a result of the cold snap, and their inhabitants died. Living conditions in Scandinavia deteriorated so much that there was no time to sail to America. And in Russia, during a cold snap, there were three lean years in a row, one of the consequences was the Time of Troubles.
          2. Liam
            Liam 30 March 2021 11: 30
            Quote: VlR
            At least that's what they write

            You can write differently and in different places. Indicate how many birds die each year for different reasons and what% of them are due to "wind turbines" I'm sure your sources have such figures. Naturally, if these are not sources writing nonsense about 1000 corpses on windmill)
          3. Catfish
            Catfish 30 March 2021 15: 29
            Valery, thanks. smile I especially liked the comparison of the two princes, Valerio and Sergei. good

            Although Borghese can hardly be blamed for cowardice.
            As for "Novorossiysk", I read from Nikolai Cherkashin that in the Hall of Fame of the Italian Maritime Academy (I don't remember the city), where the names of the heroes of the Italian fleet are carved on the plates, there is a picture depicting "Cesare" in full swing, and on the opposite wall there is a canvas with two saboteurs riding a "torpedo".
            Hint? hi
        2. Liam
          Liam 30 March 2021 11: 49
          Quote: Free Wind
          ... Do you know how many beneficial insects break on the hood and windshields of cars, and birds too .. They are so beautiful, they are wonderful creatures.

          There is a study on this topic by the staff of the Department of Agricultural Economics under the leadership of Ruiqing Miao, Auburn University, Auburn (Alabama)) here -presunto-killer-degli-uccelli / there is a link to pdf with detailed results).

          According to them, each of the 49.000 wind turbines in the United States kills 1 to 3 birds per year, which is about 150.000 per year at the maximum.
          For comparison:
          Electric wires kill 23 million a year, 200 million cars and 600 million crash on windows and other parts of high-rise buildings. Cats account for another 1,3 billion a year, of which 221 million are the work of domestic pussies)
  11. Cure72
    Cure72 30 March 2021 10: 15
    The long-awaited sequel !!!
    Thank you!
  12. vladcub
    vladcub 30 March 2021 11: 51
    [quote = knn54] Valery, as always, a plus.
    Even A. Dumas did not pass by the Calabrian bandits. [/ Quote
    Luigi Vampa, "Count of Monte Cristo", I don't remember if he is from Sicily or not?
    1. GUSAR
      GUSAR 31 March 2021 22: 19
      "Cherubino and Celestini Calbrian bandits". Also found simply "Calabrian Bandits". A. Dumas