Military Review

Prospects for the development of the Polish Navy

21

Soviet-built submarine Orzeł pr. 877


The ship composition of the Polish Navy needs to be modernized as soon as possible. Most of the ships, boats, submarines and vessels are old and therefore need modern replacement. The command has already drawn up and approved the main plans for the modernization fleethowever, their implementation may be associated with known difficulties.

Actual problems


The payroll of the Polish Navy includes approx. 50 pennants for various purposes. There are diesel-electric submarines, frigates and corvettes, torpedo boats, mine defense ships and boats, as well as a wide variety of various auxiliary vessels and boats.

The Polish submarine forces include only three diesel-electric submarines: one ship of the Soviet project 877 and two German boats of the Kobben type (a variant of the Type 205 project for Poland).

The largest in the surface forces are the two Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates received from the United States in the early 19s. They are complemented by the corvettes Kaszub and Ślązak, built according to different designs. There are three Orkan-class missile boats. The amphibious fleet includes five ships of the Lublin project with the possibility of transporting people and equipment, as well as laying mines. The most numerous in the Navy are minesweepers - 2017 ships of five different projects, including the new Kormoran, which entered service in XNUMX.


Two frigates of the Oliver Hazard Perry class - the largest ships of the Polish Navy

The main feature and problem of the Polish Navy is the age of the equipment. So, the minesweeper Czajka, built back in 1966, continues to serve. The frigates "Oliver Hazard Perry" were built in the second half of the seventies and then served in the American fleet for about 20 years, after which they were transferred to Poland. 18 Polish pennants began service in the eighties. After 2000, it was possible to receive only five surface ships and vessels, as well as two submarines.

Plans for the future


In 2017-19. The Polish command drew up and approved several guiding documents defining the development of the Navy in the short and medium term. One of them stipulates construction measures until 2032, while the other covers the period from 2021 to 2035.

According to these plans, by the middle of the next decade it is necessary to reorganize the structure of the Navy, revise their numbers and implement a major shipbuilding program. As a result of these processes, strike forces will appear in the fleet, including submarines, frigates, corvettes and patrol boats - three units of each class. The strike force will be supplemented with a pair of coastal missile divisions. Mine sweeping forces will be reduced to 3 modern combat units, but their further increase is not excluded.


Patrol ship Ślązak

Support forces will undergo a similar modernization. They will include a staff ship, reconnaissance ships, universal transports, a tanker, a survey ship, 2 rescue ships, tugs, etc.

Thus, in the next 10-15 years, the payroll of the Polish fleet will be reduced to two dozen ships, i.e. almost doubled compared to current figures. The main contribution to this reduction will be made by the decommissioning of obsolete minesweepers built during the Warsaw Pact. At the same time, it will be necessary to abandon some of the surface ships and all submarines - less old and numerous, but determining the combat qualities of the Navy.

Due to the specifics of the Baltic Sea, the Polish command plans to abandon relatively large ships, such as the frigates Oliver Hazard Perry. The emphasis will be placed on ships of smaller size and displacement, more fully consistent with the restrictions of the Baltic. It is expected that this will allow obtaining the required combat capability and at the same time reducing construction and maintenance costs.

Underwater orders


Already in 2023-26. all three existing submarines must develop the assigned resource, and during this period they are planned to be withdrawn from the combat composition of the fleet. The program for their replacement has been worked out over the past several years and is facing certain difficulties: Poland does not have the ability to independently build submarines and has a limited budget.


Lublin-class landing craft on exercise

As a temporary measure, it is proposed to purchase from one of the foreign countries used submarines with suitable characteristics. Such ships will make it possible to write off the old diesel-electric submarines, but preserve the submarine forces. At the same time, by 2024, it is planned to select a foreign supplier, who will be ordered to build new submarines. They will be completed and commissioned only by the end of the decade.

At the moment, the Polish command is comparing the samples presented on the international market. Projects of French, German and Swedish shipbuilders are being studied. The possibility of building ships by joint efforts with the involvement of Polish shipyards, which have no experience in the field of submarines, is being considered.

Surface construction


The main plans and hopes in the context of the surface forces are associated with the corvettes / patrol boats of the Gawron type - a modified version of the MEKO A-100 project. It was originally planned to build 7 such ships, but in 2012-13. the program was sharply cut. Due to the excessive complexity and growing cost, it was decided to finish building only the lead ship Ślązak, and according to a simplified design. However, this did not change the situation. The corvette, turned into a patrol ship with reduced capabilities, was accepted into the Navy only in 2019.


Minesweeper Czajka - the oldest ship of the Polish Navy

The obsolescence of the surface forces makes one remember old projects. The possibility of building new patrol boats according to the existing type is being considered. The fleet needs at least two of these pennants. The prospects for the patrol / frigates of the new Miecznik project remain unclear. It is being developed with the participation of foreign specialists, but construction has not yet begun. It is expected that a contract for three such frigates will appear in 2022-23, and the ships will be delivered by 2030.

In 2017, the Polish Navy received the Kormoran minesweeper of the project of the same name. In 2019 and 2020 the laying of two more ships of this type took place. According to the initial plans, they were supposed to begin service in 2020-21, however, the actual dates are shifting to the right. Until 2022, three remote-controlled underwater vehicles from the Swedish company Saab will be purchased for the new minesweepers.

The plans for the development of auxiliary forces provide for the preservation of a part of the existing ships, which retain a sufficient supply of resources. The construction of new ones will also be launched. The main part of such tasks is supposed to be solved by the forces of its own shipbuilding industry. At the same time, part of the vessels and a lot of components for them will have to be purchased abroad.

Naval perspectives


The current state of the Polish Navy leaves much to be desired and tends to gradually deteriorate. In the foreseeable future, the fleet will have to write off old ships and vessels, the further operation of which turns out to be impossible or impractical. The proposed modernization measures are able to solve this problem, but only partially.


Head minesweeper type Kormoran

Based on the results of the observed and planned processes, by 2025-30. the quantitative indicators of the IUD will noticeably decrease. Such losses will be partially compensated by the construction of new pennants with improved combat qualities and fully meeting current requirements.

The scope of current and future construction is significantly limited by the financial capabilities of the Polish fleet. Until 2025, it is planned to spend approx. PLN 10-12 billion (USD 2,5-3 billion). Whether it will be possible to find additional funding to order more ships is unclear.

Thus, Poland found itself in a specific position. The existing industrial and financial capabilities do not correspond to the military-political tasks being set. Therefore, the command has to look for ways out and even make sacrifices. In the coming years, it is planned to exchange quantity for quality and more complete compliance with the tasks set. Whether such a policy will justify itself will become known in a few years.
Author:
Photos used:
Polish Ministry of Defense, Wikimedia Commons
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  1. Hunter 2
    Hunter 2 29 March 2021 04: 35
    +7
    If we exclude the three Baltic tigers, the Polish Navy is the weakest in the region and has no particular prospects! The Poles, to please the European Union, ruined their shipbuilding without the possibility of its revival, there he deserves! There are many ambitions - there are no opportunities! In accordance with the well-known saying “a woman (Poland) with a cart - it’s easier for a mare” - It will become a little freer in the Baltic!
    1. Egoza
      Egoza 29 March 2021 04: 56
      +4
      Quote: Hunter 2
      The Poles, to please the European Union, ruined their shipbuilding without the possibility of its revival, there he deserves!

      We sold our fleet and all the sailors. Who knew that such a powerful financial aid would be so destructive for many industries?
      1. Hunter 2
        Hunter 2 29 March 2021 04: 59
        +6
        Quote: Egoza

        We sold our fleet and all the sailors. Who knew that such a powerful financial aid would be so destructive for many industries?

        And what splendid BDK (775 projects) were built for the USSR! Russia still uses them!
        Now, together with the non-brothers, queue up for inflatable boats ...
        1. Uncle lee
          Uncle lee 29 March 2021 05: 12
          +3
          Quote: Hunter 2
          what magnificent large landing ships (775 projects) were built

          Thanks to Lesha Walesa, he was destroying the Gdansk shipyard!
          1. The comment was deleted.
          2. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 29 March 2021 08: 04
            +4
            Thanks to Lesha Walesa, he was destroying the Gdansk shipyard!

            Haberdashery and cardinal - this is power!
            (The drunken electrician and the CIA are power!)
    2. ROSS_51
      ROSS_51 29 March 2021 17: 30
      +1
      Quote: Hunter 2
      If we exclude the three Baltic tigers, the Polish Navy is the weakest in the region and has no particular prospects! The Poles, to please the European Union, ruined their shipbuilding without the possibility of its revival, there he deserves! There are many ambitions - there are no opportunities! In accordance with the well-known saying “a woman (Poland) with a cart - it’s easier for a mare” - It will become a little freer in the Baltic!

      Renovated last fall in Gdansk at the shipyard. The work is in full swing, only the fur coat is wrapped up .. There is a queue at the docks, they drive huge tankers, they have to wait .. Near the shipyard they are building something of a small displacement military, it looks like watchdogs. A pair of freshly built saplaevs were underway.
      A crisis? She .. they haven’t heard about this, they work there .. quickly, efficiently, professionally. And they have a lot of work.
      And the fact that they get rid of scrap metal is right. In this Baltic puddle, NATO ships cannot be pushed through anyway ..
      PS Damn, I seem to have missed the vaccination of urapatriotism .. ((
    3. Lara Croft
      Lara Croft 30 March 2021 21: 30
      0
      Quote: Hunter 2
      If we exclude the three Baltic tigers, the Polish Navy is the weakest in the region and has no particular prospects!

      He and the Department of Internal Affairs were inferior to the NNA of the GDR, and the PNR never built frigates and destroyers, at the end of the "Soviet power" the PNR Navy had 1 EM and 1 FR, all Soviet-built, as well as the RCA and AKA they were drunk probably due to the lack of him missiles after 89 years .... several "Pomor" MD (out of 11) were allocated for the defense of the coast of the NDP ...
      And now Poland does not need large navies, they are in NATO, they would manage with corvettes and patrol ships, and minesweepers, frigates for the Poles are even too much, the Americans seem to have presented them, after all, in the first wave of new "democracies" Poland entered NATu ...
      The Poles, to please the European Union, ruined their shipbuilding without the possibility of its revival, there he deserves!

      .... then let them say thanks to one well-known port electrician from the "Freedom" movement, so they got rid of both shipyards and coal mines ....
  2. Free wind
    Free wind 29 March 2021 06: 59
    +1
    It seems Poland is not going to fight. with no one. What's bad about it?
    1. Lara Croft
      Lara Croft 30 March 2021 21: 38
      0
      Quote: Free Wind
      It seems Poland is not going to fight. with no one. What's bad about it?

      This is how they will say in Brussels. They will tell Poland to allocate mine-sweeping ships to the NATO MTS compound in the Baltic Straits region, it will either have to be built or bought ... and they will be listed and on the balance sheet of the Polish Navy, and they will obey the joint NATO command in Europe ...
      The same is true with other forces and means allocated from the national armed forces of Poland ... there it is for everyone ... they just demand less from the rogue and that's it ...
  3. knn54
    knn54 29 March 2021 07: 37
    +1
    Today (as I understand it) the Polish fleet is sinking. Considering that the fleets of Denmark and the FRG base their formations in the North Sea, the NATO "looking" for the Baltic has poor prospects.
    1. Mountain shooter
      Mountain shooter 29 March 2021 08: 04
      -2
      Quote: knn54
      , then the NATO "overseer" of the Baltic has poor prospects

      Either NATO flirts with the Swedes with all their might. IMHO, the Swedes will be limited to rhetoric. In case of a mess, stand on the sidelines.
  4. Niko
    Niko 29 March 2021 08: 09
    +3
    Yes, the Poles don't have much fun, but to be honest, the Russian flow in the Baltic also has nothing to be proud of.
  5. Constanty
    Constanty 29 March 2021 08: 16
    +3
    Polish submarine forces include only three diesel-electric submarines: one ship of the Soviet project 877 and two German boats of the Kobben type (variant of the project "Type 205" for Poland).


    a variant of the Type 205 for Poland did not exist.
    The Cobben ships are Type 207, a variant of Type 205 for Norway.

    In addition, the Polish fleet is dying. It is a type of military that requires years of planning and funding beyond the ruling party, and in our country every election is a change. This makes it difficult to pursue a stable policy in relation to the fleet.
  6. xomaNN
    xomaNN 29 March 2021 11: 58
    0
    Remembering the rather developed in the 70-80s. shipbuilding industry in Poland, is satisfied with the fact that the "bawlers" of the Gdansk shipyard (hello to Walesa!) have destroyed their factories. wassat And in those years, dozens of landing ships were riveted for the USSR Navy. BDK 775, etc. also go to the Russian Navy.
  7. bk0010
    bk0010 29 March 2021 12: 20
    +1
    To operate the Oliver Perry, you need to have ships in the fleet that can cover them from aircraft and other enemy ships. Does Poland have such ships?
  8. Aleksandr1971
    Aleksandr1971 29 March 2021 14: 24
    0
    The head minesweeper of the Kormoran class is a strange name for a Polish ship.

    During WW2, there was the legendary German raider Kormoran. Maybe the Poles named their minesweeper after him?
    1. Lara Croft
      Lara Croft 30 March 2021 21: 47
      0
      Quote: Aleksandr1971
      The head minesweeper of the Kormoran class is a strange name for a Polish ship.

      Built at the national shipyard in Poland ... in Gdansk ....
      Kormoran minesweepers have a non-magnetic steel hull, full displacement - 850 m. Ship length - 58 m, breadth - 10,3 m, draft - 2,7 m. Crew - 45 people, plus space for six more people. The power plant includes two MTU 8V 396 TE74L diesel engines with an output of 1360 hp, and there is also a Schottel STT 170 AMAG thruster with an output of 135 hp. Full speed - 15 knots, cruising range at full speed - 2500 miles, autonomy of 10 days.

      Outwardly more like a corvette

      https://topwar.ru/163596-v-polshe-spustili-na-vodu-vtoroj-tralschik-proekta-258-tipa-kormoran.html
      1. Aleksandr1971
        Aleksandr1971 31 March 2021 15: 54
        0
        Soon all warships will be similar to each other and will differ only in displacement. Now, without stealth, technology is nowhere.

        But this does not explain the name of the Polish minesweeper.
      2. TermNachTer
        TermNachTer 10 June 2021 13: 29
        -1
        What the hell is stealth to a minesweeper - architecture?))) From whom will he hide? From mines?)))
  9. faterdom
    faterdom 29 March 2021 17: 35
    0
    You need to take the Zumvolts, it's cool
  10. TermNachTer
    TermNachTer 10 June 2021 13: 28
    -1
    The prospects are exciting - a slow but steady movement in the direction of sludge, followed by cutting into metal. Taking into account the Pshekovsky hotelok in terms of air defense and air force, there simply will be no money left for the fleet))))