The Mueller-Hillebrand falsifications
In a comprehensive study of the works of Müller-Hillebrand "Land Army of Germany 1933-1945" (1958), Rudiger Overmans "Military losses of Germany in World War II" (1999) and the chapter "Human losses of the enemy" Krivosheev (1993) on the topic of losses of the Wehrmacht and SS , the goals and objectives of both German fundamentalists are clearly identified. Both have built a competent system of falsifications, which is revealed by a whole chain of jewelry coincidences with an accuracy of up to a thousand people in millions of arrays.
Major General B. Müller-Hillebrand
It is strange that over the past decades, no one has come up with an inherently simple approach - expose the falsifications of both fundamentalists and you will go to the closed archives of the Bundeswehr. Otherwise, ask the question: "If these are not real archives, then why was it necessary to create such a competent falsification that could not be opened for more than six decades?"
The analytics itself is quite complex, so in this topic I will only present the end results. In the future, perhaps, I will post an analyst where the readers themselves will reveal all the falsifications, and I will only consistently indicate the quotes and tables where the next forgeries of both fundamentalists lie. I apologize for some dryness of the presentation, since according to his basic education he is a representative of the exact sciences, in connection with which the topic has not so much cognitive as practical historical value for determining the losses of the Wehrmacht and the SS for periods of war. I also apologize for the untimely answer to the questions, as I work closely on the schedule two in two.
What You Should Know About The Müller-Hillebrand Book "German Land Army 1933-1945".
If you want to take into account the real number of soldiers of the Wehrmacht and SS, who left the Wehrmacht and SS forever, then consider the following four points.
1 moment. Müller-Hillebrand underestimated the article "Killed" for the period from 1.9.1939 to 31.12.1944 exactly three times. Accordingly, in order to determine the real number of Wehrmacht and SS soldiers killed by the months of the war, you must open "Supplement A" of the book and multiply all data on the article "Killed" strictly by three.
The article "Killed" contains six sub-articles:
- "Those who died on the battlefield and died at the stage of sanitary evacuation";
- "Dead from wounds in the rear hospitals" (loss of the reserve army);
- “Missing” (servicemen, whose death in the encirclement and on the battlefield has not been recorded by anyone);
- "Died from Disease";
- "Fatalities from careless handling of military equipment and ammunition";
- "Shot by a military tribunal."
Thus, Müller-Hillebrand scrupulously counted the losses in all six sub-items, summed them up and then ... unceremoniously divided them into three, displaying the article "Killed" by month.
2 moment. The article "Missing" in "Appendix A" on periods of war contains strictly only prisoners of war soldiers of the Wehrmacht and SS. There are no unaccounted for killed on the battlefield, since they are all accounted for in the article "The Killed", and there are no deserters either - they are accounted for in a separate article, "Deserters and Convicts."
At the time point of 30.11.1944/176/300, an underestimation of 176 in the number of prisoners of war of Wehrmacht and SS soldiers occurs. This is a purely technical underestimation, since with a triple underestimation under the article "Killed" there is an overflow of 300, which was compensated by the author at the expense of prisoners of war of the Wehrmacht and SS soldiers in the ground forces on the Eastern Front.
With the identification of 176 hidden prisoners of war plus 300 "Missing", according to M.-Gillebrand, we clearly reach the number of 2 prisoners on both fronts from 870 to 404, which is obtained in a different independent way. Such a jewelry coincidence suggests that the “Missing” according to M.-Gillebrand are purely prisoners of war.
According to this article in "Appendix A" for months of war, the ratio is 1: 1, that is, a missing person is equal to a prisoner of war soldier of the Wehrmacht and SS.
3 moment. In order to understand the complete irrecoverable losses of the Wehrmacht and the SS by the months of the war, it is also necessary to take into account the disabled - the sanitary article "Commissioned for disability due to wounds, contusions, severe burns and frostbite" (hereinafter for the sake of brevity, the article "Disabled"). According to the Wehrmacht, the ratio of the article "Killed" to "Invalids" was:
- 5 / 733 = 000 for the period from 1 to 891;
- 1 / 157 = 000 from 418/400/2,7653 to 1.12.1944/30.4.1945/XNUMX;
- 6 / 890 = 000 - the averaged ratio for the entire period from 2.9826 to 2,9826 (for the RKKA, this averaged ratio was 1.9.1939: 30.4.1945).
*** Another 58 Wehrmacht and SS soldiers will die on the Eastern Front from 000 to 1.5.1945, reaching a total of 11.5.1945 "Killed" on both fronts.
Thus, in order to determine the irrecoverable losses of the Wehrmacht and the SS by the months of the war, you must multiply the "Killed" strictly by three, add the "Missing in action" to the result obtained, as indicated by M.-Gillebrand one to one, and also take into account " Disabled people "according to the above formula, depending on the period under review.
4 moment. To the amount received, it is necessary to add the sanitary article "Recognized as unfit for military service due to two or more wounds."
In the period from 1.9.1939 to 22.6.1941, during the conquest of Europe, several hundred thousand soldiers of the Wehrmacht and SS were injured. On the Eastern Front, they began to receive repeated wounds, which made them unsuitable for further service in the Wehrmacht and the military SS. The servicemen were sent to the paramilitary guards, to the industry.
From 1.9.1939 to 30.4.1945, this article amounted to 2 people, but given that repeated injuries began with the beginning of the Eastern Front, it can be calculated using a simplified formula:
2/000 000 days ~ 1 people per day, or approximately 410–1 per month (420–42600 days).
This article is not irrevocable, since, unlike the three previous articles, there is a rotation - a person is sent to the paramilitary security or to the industry, and the freed one comes to his place in the Wehrmacht and the SS.
The complete system of falsifications is rather complicated, but I have explained to you the basic principles of accounting for the losses of the Wehrmacht and the SS by the months of the war.
Example. Let's calculate the losses of the Wehrmacht and the SS for July 1941 on both fronts (see table in Appendix A).
1. 51 * 000 = 3 under the item "Killed" (according to the revealed coefficient of underestimation of three, under the item "Killed", for the period from 153 to 000).
2. 3 under the article "Prisoners of war".
3. 153 / 000 ~ 3.03 under the article “Disabled”.
4. 44 "Recognized as unfit for combat due to two or more wounds" (estimated value).
Thus, in July 1941, at least 250 people left the Wehrmacht and the military SS for good, of which 700 were irrevocable. At least, since it is also necessary to take into account the article "Commissioned due to acquired chronic diseases", as well as the article "Deserters and convicts" for this period.
I would like to draw your attention to the fact that "Killed" and "Prisoners of war" are not calculated values, unlike "Invalids" and "Unsuitable for combat due to two or more wounds." This is the data of Mueller-Hillebrand himself, but taking into account the revealed falsifications.
General balance of mobilized in the Wehrmacht and the military SS
Most of the research on the subject of human losses of the Wehrmacht and the SS is reduced only to the "Killed", "Prisoners of war" and "Invalids", that is, to irrecoverable losses. At the same time, five more articles are overlooked, according to which servicemen permanently retired from the Wehrmacht and the military SS.
Below I will give the full balance of those mobilized in the Wehrmacht and the SS, based on the identified falsifications.
21 - the total number of those mobilized in the Wehrmacht and the military SS, taking into account German citizens, citizens of the Third Reich outside Germany, citizens of European states outside the Third Reich, Soviet collaborators.
This number is divided into two groups - 806 Soviet collaborators and 000 German citizens, citizens of the Third Reich outside Germany, citizens of European states outside the Third Reich.
806 - servicemen of the Red Army and citizens of the USSR, of which:
357 - died in the course of hostilities with the Red Army, partisans of the USSR and Europe, allies, and were also captured and shot by a military tribunal from the summer of 000 to the summer of 1942 (then they began to send them to special camps of the NKVD, with the subsequent dispatch of soldiers and sergeants to settlements, and officers - in the GULAG);
449 - captured during the hostilities and sent to settlements and the Gulag, deserted from the Wehrmacht and the SS into the partisan movement of the USSR and Europe, retreated beyond the line of demarcation and were not surrendered by the allies.
Müller-Hillebrand and Rüdiger Overmans exclude Soviet collaborators from the following eight balance sheet items.
20 - German citizens, citizens of the Third Reich outside Germany, citizens of European states outside the Third Reich, of which:
16 - citizens of Germany;
4 - citizens of the Third Reich outside Germany, citizens of European states outside the Third Reich.
For eight items of the balance sheet, both fundamentalists painted only this composition, excluding Soviet collaborators.
1. Sanitary clause.
2 - “Recognized as unfit for combat duty due to the presence of two or more wounds and demobilized into industry, into the paramilitary guard from 000/000/1.9.1939 to 30.4.1945/XNUMX/XNUMX” (“Suitable for non-combatant service”). Lost to the army, but not lost to the economy.
2. Sanitary article. Permanent staffing of hospitals.
700 - "Wounded in hospitals at the time of the end of hostilities" on 000/30.4.1945/XNUMX.
The permanent staffing of hospitals was formed during the first two months of the war and was maintained in the range from 700 to 000 during the war. Nominally they are, but they are constantly absent at the front - one is discharged, and another immediately comes in his place.
3. Sanitary clause.
438 - "Commissioned for acquired chronic diseases in the period from 000 to 1.9.1939 with exclusion from the register." Lost to the army, but not lost to the economy, since chronic illness is not an obstacle to work.
4. Sanitary article (non-returnable article)
2 310 100 - "Commissioned due to disability with exclusion from the register" from 1.9.1939 to 30.4.1945, of which:
- 1 due to bullet and shrapnel wounds;
- 560 due to contusions (blind, deaf), severe fractures from a shock wave, extensive burns and frostbite.
People with disabilities are lost to both the army and the economy.
Article 5. Others (irrevocable article).
153 - "Not found deserters, sentenced to places of confinement" from 000 to 1.9.1939.
Lost both for the army and for the economy during the war.
Article 6. Prisoners of war (irrevocable article).
3 651 700 - "Captives during the hostilities" from 1.9.1939 to 11.5.1945, of which:
2 785 500 - on the Eastern Front for the entire period from 22.6.1941/11.5.1945/2 to 180/500/22.6.1941, (30.4.1945 605 000 in the period from 1.5.1945/11.5.1945/XNUMX to XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX and XNUMX in the period from XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX to XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX);
866 200 - on the Eastern Front for the entire period from 1.9.1939 to 30.4.1945.
The prisoners are lost to both the army and the economy during the war.
The hostilities on the Eastern Front ceased and a massive surrender began on 2.5.1945. No 4 were taken prisoner by the Allies on 209!
Article 7. Fatalities (irrevocable article).
6 - "Those who died in the course of hostilities for the period from 948 to 000" (those who died on the battlefield and the sanitary evacuation stage, died from injuries in hospitals, not recorded death in battle, died from diseases, died from careless handling with military equipment and ammunition, shot by the court of a military tribunal), of which partly by calculation method, but mainly on the basis of revealed falsifications:
5 - on the Eastern Front, including during periods of war:
741 - in the period from 000 to 22.6.1941
(690 - in the ground forces, 000 - in the Air Force, Navy);
4 - in the period from 010/000/1.12.1941 to 31.12.1944/XNUMX/XNUMX
(3 655 000 - in the ground forces, 355 000 - in the Air Force, Navy);
819 - in the period from 000 to 1.1.1945 (11.5.1945 to 761, 000 to 30.4.1945, but it was not possible to divide by the type of troops).
1 - on the Eastern Front, including by periods:
1 - in the period from 145/000/1.9.1939 to 31.12.1944/XNUMX/XNUMX
(906 - in the ground forces, 000 - in the Air Force, Navy);
233 - in the period from 000 to 1.1.1945, but it was not possible to divide by type of troops.
The dead are lost to both the army and the economy.
Article 8. Surrendered after 30.4.1945.
4 - the total number of those who surrendered after 100, of which:
391 800 - on the Eastern Front after 9.5.1945;
3 708 200 - on the Eastern Front (3 405 000 from 1.5.1945 to 9.5.1945, 303 200 after 9.5.1945).
They are not irrevocable, since they surrendered after the end of hostilities.
And here it is very interesting with Rüdiger Overmans!
While the historical community carefully studied the work of Rudiger Overmans, accepting his data in 4 dead soldiers of the Wehrmacht and SS as the most reliable, Overmans "got" the same historical community from the other side.
The fact is that 3 Wehrmacht and SS soldiers surrendered during the "period of the eclipse from 405 to 000", that is, during the period of the actual cessation of hostilities on the Eastern Front before the official surrender on 1.5.1945. So, Rüdiger Overmans first counts them as "Surrendered", and after the official surrender he re-counts them as "Prisoners in the course of hostilities."
Thus, the real number of 4 Wehrmacht and SS soldiers, "Captured in the course of hostilities until April 209, 000" and "Surrendered after April 30.4.1945, 30.4.1945" to the Americans and the British, soars to 7 in space.
At the same time, the French, Canadians and other "Captured" and "Accepted by surrender" of another 365 400 Wehrmacht and SS soldiers.
The total real number of 4 prisoners, "Captured during the hostilities from 574 to 400" and "Surrendered after 1.9.1939" on the Eastern Front, takes off to space 30.4.1945.
The re-registration of 3 Wehrmacht and SS soldiers in the Anglo-Saxon captivity was carried out by Rüdiger Overmans at the expense of three balance sheet items:
1. 700 - "Wounded in hospitals at the time of the end of hostilities on 000/30.4.1945/XNUMX";
2. 438 - "Commissioned for acquired chronic diseases in the period from 000 to 1.9.1939";
3. 2 267 000 - unaccounted for “Killed during the hostilities from 1.9.1939 to 11.5.1945”, which make up 2–6 sub-articles of the article “Killed” (Rüdiger Overmans took into account only the first sub-article - 4 681 000 “Fatalities on the battlefield and those who died during the sanitary evacuation "; 4 681 000 dead soldiers of the Wehrmacht and SS, 459 000 dead soldiers of the Wehrmacht and the SS, 178 000 dead in paramilitary formations, in total make up 5 318 000 of all dead and dead in captivity according to Rüdiger Overmans).
Losses of the parties in the Great Patriotic War
Irrecoverable losses of the parties from June 1941 to June 1943 (dead, disabled and prisoners of war) were:
10,3 million soldiers of the Red Army (3,9 million dead, 1,3 million disabled, 5,1 million prisoners) plus 0,9 million militias (0,4 million dead, 0,5 million prisoners of war)
3,9 million Wehrmacht and SS troops (2,7 dead, 0,9 million disabled, 0,3 million prisoners of war) plus 0,6 million Germany's allies (dead and captured).
Thus, the ratio of losses for the specified period:
11,2 million: 4,5 million ~ 2,5: 1 in favor of Germany.
Irrecoverable losses of the parties for the period from July 1943 to May 1945, the remaining 22 months of the war (dead, disabled and prisoners of war) were:
5 million soldiers of the Red Army (3,5 million dead, 1,2 million disabled, 0,3 million prisoners of war)
7 million Wehrmacht and SS troops (3,2 million dead, 1 million disabled, 2,8 million prisoners of war) plus 1,1 million German allies plus 1,1 million Volkssturm (data on the Wehrmacht and SS, taking into account 0,33 million Soviet collaborators in them).
Loss ratio for the specified period:
5 million: 9,2 million = 0,55: 1 in favor of the USSR.
The overall final ratio of irrecoverable losses, according to the principle "All against all", was in favor of the enemy:
1,19: 1 for the dead;
1,19: 1 for prisoners of war;
1,17: 1 for disabled people.
Germany lost the war at cost per unit of soldier and equipment.
The cost price and training time of the initial professional staff in 1941 turned out to be so large that two years before the Kursk Bulge, Germany was not able to rebuild the economy and personnel training in such a way as to make up for the volume and quality of the loss of the XNUMXst professional staff on the Eastern Front.
The last color was collected at the Kursk Bulge, where it was ground into the dead, disabled, prisoners of war and unfit for combat due to repeated wounds.
The extensive type of economy of the USSR versus the intensive type in Germany turned out to be more advantageous. The losses of all the Armed Forces of the USSR were only 20% higher than the losses of all the Armed Forces adversary, but the cost of these resources turned out to be several times cheaper than the enemy's resources, which made it possible to mobilize bоmore manpower and more equipment.
Germany, in general, did not count on the mass conscription of the civilian population, since everything was supposed to be done at the expense of the forty-first professional staff, which was prepared for 4 years and tested for another 2 years on the battlefields. Even in XNUMX, they got out of total mobilization at the expense of allies and Soviet collaborators from the prisoner of war camps, realizing that the quality of the conscript-burgher would be significantly lower than the professional staff, and the mass conscription would cause discontent among the population with the ruling elite of Germany. A simple burgher was ready to work for a victorious war, but not to fight and die himself!
The tasks of the Blitzkrieg in 1941 were not fulfilled, primarily due to large losses in the combat strength of German divisions while maintaining the number of support units, as well as the inflexibility of the economy and the reserve army to replenish these losses!
The reasons for the defeats of the Red Army in 1941 lie, first of all, in the professionalism of the Wehrmacht army, which simple mobilized Soviet workers, collective farmers and employees knocked out before the summer of 2,5, albeit in a ratio of 1: XNUMX.
And let at least one country in the world repeat this ratio - ten ordinary citizens against four trained and tested army professionals!
The Kursk Bulge was a fundamental change in all respects, including the ratio of casualties. And if in the future, in the places of the breakthrough, the Red Army suffered losses comparable to the Wehrmacht, then with access to the operational space it more than compensated for its losses with enemy prisoners of war.
A new, strongest land army of its time entered Europe, firmly pushing the Wehrmacht and the military SS into the background.