Military Review

Bosporan Kingdom. The last war with the empire

115

Fragment of a scene depicting two warriors. Taman relief


At the very beginning of the XNUMXst century AD, there was a relative calm in relations between Rome and the Bosporus kingdom. The empire ceased to exert direct pressure on the region, and the ruling elites of the Northern Black Sea region, in turn, ceased to strive to get out of the influence of their powerful neighbor.

The rise to power of King Aspurg only strengthened the relationship between the powers. Not being a member of any of the earlier ruling dynasties, he was forced to look for a powerful ally who, at least formally, could confirm the legitimacy of his presence on the throne. The result of this alliance was the temporary stabilization of the life of the society of the states of the Northern Black Sea region and more or less reliable protection from external enemies.

However, the breath of the Great Steppe and its countless number of peoples continued to excite the imagination of the rulers of the Bosporus. The inexhaustible military power of the nomadic barbarian hordes was too much of a temptation to simply ignore, and by the middle of the XNUMXst century AD, the banner of war was once again raised over the steppes of Crimea and Taman.

The lust for power and ambition again dragged the Bosporus kingdom into the struggle with the mighty Rome. But first things first.

Barbarian and friend of the Romans on the Bosporus throne


The origin of Aspurg is not known for certain. There is a version that Dynamia, the granddaughter of Mithridates VI Eupator and the Bosporus ruler, who played an important role in the Northern Black Sea region at the turn of the epochs, brought him to power. Some historians believe that, wishing to enlist the support of a militarily strong nomadic group of Aspurgians, she adopted one of the barbarian princes, thereby opening the way for him to the throne.

Aspurg himself ascended the throne in A.D. 14. e., having previously visited Rome in order to conclude a treaty of friendship and obtain legal approval for being in power.

Bosporan Kingdom. The last war with the empire
Aspurg is the king of the Bosporus. Copper coin.

In the role of the king of the Bosporus, he showed himself to be a skillful commander, an energetic politician and a subtle diplomat. With the support of Rome and the enormous military resources of the nomadic world, he took active steps to strengthen the borders and expand his sphere of influence.


Reconstruction of the residence of the governor of the king

On the western borders, Aspurg managed to conclude a defensive alliance with Chersonesos, as well as to conquer the Scythians and Taurus, significantly reducing their raids on Greek settlements. In the east, he restored the fortifications of key territories of the Bosporus kingdom and established peaceful relations with the motley nomadic tribes of the region.


Examples of Bosporan fortifications at the beginning of our era

The ambitious ruler did not forget about his own dynastic position. In the late 20s - early 30s of the XNUMXst century A.D. e. Aspurgus married Hypepiria, a representative of the Thracian ruling clan. This marriage gave him the right to formally become the legal heir to the ancient Bosporan dynasty of the Spartokids, which ruled in the region for about three hundred years. From this union, Aspurgus had two sons - Mithridates and Kotis, who later assumed power in the kingdom.

The stabilization of the situation in the Northern Black Sea region found its response in strengthening the relations of the Bosporus kingdom with Rome, for which Aspurg was the best fit. He fully met the criteria that were presented to the rulers of states friendly to the empire: he was a fairly popular figure for the population of the kingdom, had a subtle political instinct and at the same time obediently followed the will of the rulers of Rome.

The significant trust on the part of Rome in relation to Aspurgus was most likely manifested in the granting of the title of a Roman citizen to him and his descendants, expressed in the adoption by the Bosporan kings of the name Tiberius Julius, which became dynastic for local kings until the XNUMXth century AD.

Mithridates and Rome are incompatible concepts


Aspurg passed away in 37 AD, at a time when power in Rome passed from Tiberius to Caligula. With the arrival of a new emperor, uncertainty arose in the regions regarding their further status and level of autonomy, including the Northern Black Sea region, for which Caligula had his own plans.

As for the succession to the throne after the death of Aspurg, the opinions of scientists differ somewhat. Some believe that the power for some time was taken by Gipepiria, who ruled the state until the age of majority of the direct heir to the throne - Mithridates VIII. Others, not denying that Aspurg's wife was in power, are inclined to believe that the eldest son, who was supposed to become king, simply could not take the throne, since he was at that time as an honorary hostage in Rome, where he received the appropriate education and passed the process of introduction into the imperial culture. The practice of keeping the children of controlled states in the capital was widespread at that time.

As mentioned earlier, Caligula had separate views of the Black Sea kingdoms. Initially, he did not plan to transfer the Bosporan throne to the heirs of Aspurg. His idea was to unite the Bosporus and Pontic kingdoms under one leadership for a closer and more convenient control over the territories. Polemon II, the grandson of Polemon I, who was already trying to carry out the idea of ​​Rome, but was killed by the very Aspurgians, whose name was taken by the deceased king of the Bosporus, was prophesied to be the ruler of the united lands.

Fortunately, the empire quickly realized that the unification of states could cause new unrest in the Northern Black Sea region, which could well have resulted not just in an uprising, but, given the close ties of the ruling house with the barbaric world, in a full-scale conflict. Therefore, the stake in the reign was nevertheless made on Mithridates VIII, and Polemon II was given control over Cilicia, a region previously belonging to his grandfather.

Returning to his homeland and accepting the throne, Mithridates VIII at first zealously demonstrated loyalty and friendship to his patron, supporting all the initiatives that were so rich in the reign of Caligula. In this, the young king was hardly different from other rulers of states friendly to Rome. However, it is likely that even then he was thinking about conducting a more independent and independent political activity from the empire.

Like his great ancestor, Mithridates VI Eupator, the new ruler of the Bosporus kingdom relied on the huge military resources of the nomadic world in the neighborhood. While in power, he actively flirted with the Scythians, regularly sending them gifts and assurances of strong and mutually beneficial friendship, while not forgetting about his eastern neighbors - the numerous Sarmatian tribes with whom the ruling circles had fairly close relations.


Images of warriors. Stasovsky crypt. On the right is a photograph. On the left is a drawing from a photo. At the end of the XNUMXst century BC. e. - I in n. e. the theme of battle scenes and armies was quite common

Nevertheless, Mithridates VIII was in no hurry to enter into confrontation with Rome. Apparently, perfectly aware of the power of the legions of the empire, he was waiting for the right moment to embody his ambitions. After the assassination of Caligula and the establishment of Claudius on the throne, he even sent his brother Cotis as a goodwill ambassador to assure the new emperor of loyalty to Rome. However, Cotis had his own views on the situation and, having arrived in the capital of the empire, tried to convey to Claudius the real state of affairs and the situation on the northern shores of the Black Sea.

The historian Cassius Dio has this to say about this:

Mithridates decided to turn things around and began to prepare for a war against the Romans. When his mother opposed this and, unable to convince him, wanted to flee, Mithridates, wanting to hide his plan, but continuing his preparations, sends brother Kotis as an ambassador to Claudius with friendly expressions. Kotis, disdaining ambassadorial duties, opened everything to Claudius and became king

The betrayal of Kotis led to a round of aggravation of relations between the Bosporus and Rome. Realizing that it was pointless to conceal intentions, Mithridates VIII openly announced a new political course and, judging by the notes of Cornelius Tacitus in relation to Claudius, carried out a number of anti-Roman actions on the territory of the state.

... he (note of Claudius) was driven by the bitterness of the insults inflicted on him and the thirst for revenge.

It is likely that the Bosporus ruler, in order to confirm his intentions against Rome, deliberately destroyed statues and objects of art associated with the imperial rule.

Bosporan War 45-49 AD e.


To suppress the uprising in the rebellious state and to establish Cotis on the throne of the Bosporan kingdom, Claudius instructed the governor of the province of Moesia - Aulus Didius Gallus. A military group of at least a legion was formed against Mithridates, to which were added several cohorts of arrivals from Bithynia, an auxiliary cavalry detachment and several detachments of soldiers recruited from the local population.


Equestrian battle scene. Stasovsky crypt

The gathering point of the military group was, most likely, Chersonesos. Further, the army of Rome, without any difficulty, ousted Mithridates VIII from the European part of the Bosporus (the Crimean peninsula), forcing him, together with the army, to leave the Kuban steppe. To maintain the power of the new ruler, several cohorts were left to help him under the control of Gaius Julius Aquilla, while the main army left the territory of the kingdom.

After the loss of the capital, the rebellious king was not at all going to add weapon... Most likely, he did not hope for strong support in the Crimean part of the country, relying mainly on the troops of friendly barbarians. Mithridates VIII for some time moved through the territories of the Kuban region, so that, according to Tacitus:

... to anger the tribes and lure deserters to them.

Accumulating an impressive army, he put Cotis and Aquilla in a difficult position. It was pointless to wait for the moment when the rebellious king would gather a horde and return to the territory of Crimea, but he did not want to climb into the cauldron of aggressive barbarian tribes without support. Therefore, according to the records of the same Tacitus, the Roman-Bosporan coalition began to look for allies among the nomadic tribes.

... not counting on their own strength ... they began to seek outside support and sent ambassadors to Eunon, who ruled the Aorse tribe.

Such a move, obviously, was due to the lack of strong cavalry among the Romans and supporters of Cotis, which was fundamentally necessary in the upcoming battles.

Potential allies in the future campaign, most likely, were not chosen by chance. According to a number of historians, the Sirak tribes, which acted as the main military force of Mithridates, and the Aorse tribes were in a long-standing confrontation, and the fact that the nomads nevertheless joined the alliance played a role not so much the benefits of relations with Rome and the Bosporus, but rather long ago. rivalry between two nomadic groups.


Reconstruction of the image of a cataphractaria on a silver vessel

After reaching agreements, the united army moved deep into the territories of the nomads. On the way to the country of the Danarians, where the donkey Mithridates, the Roman-Bosporan army fought several successful battles and without any difficulty approached the city of Uspa, the capital of the rebellious king's main allies.

Situated on a hill, the main city of Shirak appears to be quite populated. It was surrounded by ditches and walls, but not of stone, but of woven rods with earth poured in the middle. The height of these structures is not known for certain, but, based on similar structures, it is unlikely to exceed four meters. Despite the simplicity and primitiveness of these structures, the Roman-Bosporan army did not manage to take the city outright. Having failed, immediately for a day, the advancing troops blocked the approaches to Uspe, filled the ditches and erected mobile assault towers, on which, without any obstacles, they threw the defenders with burning torches and spears.

The next day, rejecting the peace proposals, the Romans took the city by storm and massacred it. The mass extermination of the Sirak capital made their leader doubt the advisability of a further war, and he, according to Tacitus:

... gave hostages and prostrated himself before the image of Caesar, which brought great glory to the Roman army.

This outcome of the case was quite satisfactory for the winners, since, despite the successes, everyone understood perfectly well that it was extremely difficult to completely subjugate the nomads.

The rebellious king's exodus


Having lost the support of his main allies, Mithridates VIII was eventually forced to surrender. The former king resorted to the mercy of the leader of the Aorses, Eunon, who made the emperor agree not to lead the captive in a triumphal procession and save his life. Claudius agreed to the proposed conditions and was brought to Rome as a prisoner, lived there for almost twenty years, until he was executed for participating in a conspiracy against the emperor Galba. Apparently, Roman education once brought Mithridates not only the light of civilization, but also the shadow sides of the life of the empire.

War 45-49 AD e. was the last attempt of the Bosporus kingdom to secede from Rome and pursue an absolutely independent autonomous policy. And although none of the wars ultimately succeeded, all of them, in one way or another, contributed to the fact that the empire in relation to the Northern Black Sea region subsequently formed a more balanced policy that took into account the interests of the vassal state.

Sources:
1. Cornelius Tacitus “Annals. Book XII "Translation - A.S. Bobovich Ladomir Publishing House 1993
2. Yu.A. Vinogradov, V.A. Goroncharovsky "Military история Bosporus Kingdom "Publishing house" Lomonosov "2017
3. V.M. Zubar, A.S. Ruslyaeva "On the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus" Publishing house "Stilos" 2004
4. S.Yu. Saprykin "Bosporus kingdom at the turn of two eras." Publishing house "SCIENCE" 2002
5. Cassius Dion Kokkeian. “Roman history. Book XL "Publishing house" Nestor-Istoriya "2014
Author:
Photos used:
wikipedia.org; antic-art.ru; archeo.com; krimoved-library.ru
115 comments
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  1. Hunter 2
    Hunter 2 29 March 2021 04: 26
    +9
    Excellent Yegor, the end of the Bosporus cycle turned out to be interesting and dynamic! The transition from an independent to a vassal State was unfortunately logical! The military and political significance of Rome and the Bosporus kingdom is incomparable, another mistake in my opinion is reliance on mercenaries and allies, who, in turn, have their own interests!
    I was surprised to read about the war with "monuments", the actual destruction of the Enemy's culture is the first step towards war.
    The Bosporan ruler, in order to confirm his intentions against Rome, deliberately destroyed statues and art objects associated with the imperial rule

    The cycle of Articles is DELETED, written in a good style, special thanks for the sources and illustrations, thanks for the work done! We are waiting for new publications! hi
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 March 2021 04: 44
      +11
      The author progresses from article to article, which is very good for the audience !!!
      Thank you Egor, we look forward to continuing!
      1. Hunter 2
        Hunter 2 29 March 2021 04: 57
        +8
        Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka

        Thank you Egor, we look forward to continuing!

        Vlad hi Well, I really want to read about Tmutarakan, I think Yegor has materials (Historically, geographically and politically) related topics!
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 March 2021 05: 20
          +6
          Quote: Hunter 2
          Vlad Well, I really want to read about Tmutarakan, I think Yegor has materials (Historically, geographically and politically) related topics!

          Good morning Alexey!
          I hope that we will reach Tmutarakan,
          After typing the answer, I thought about the etymology of this word. In the late transcription it turns out - "ten thousand cockroaches" !!! laughing
          You can start sculpting different revelations in the style of ren-tivi.
          1. Hunter 2
            Hunter 2 29 March 2021 05: 25
            +5
            Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka

            After typing the answer, I thought about the etymology of this word. In the late transcription it turns out - "ten thousand cockroaches" !!! laughing
            You can start sculpting different revelations in the style of ren-tivi.

            laughing you are thinking hard belay
            Go on ... the original name of Hermonassa! drinks
          2. Korsar4
            Korsar4 29 March 2021 05: 38
            +6
            And they settled in the Russian-speaking community. We even moved overseas.
      2. PhilipKDick
        29 March 2021 07: 08
        +17
        Hello. Thanks for the feedback. However, the title of the article seems to have misled you.
        Having ceased to fight with Rome, and having adopted its policy, the Bosporus kingdom did not cease to exist and did not become a province of the empire. It was still a separate kingdom. wink

        There will be one more article. It will cover a fairly wide period of time, up to the moment when the Bosporan Kingdom disappears from the maps.

        Thank you.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 March 2021 13: 40
          +1
          Quote: PhilipKDick
          There will be one more article. It will cover a fairly wide period of time, up to the moment when the Bosporan Kingdom disappears from the maps.

          That is, almost to the founding of Constantinople! Not bad! Will wait!!!
          1. Richard
            Richard 29 March 2021 17: 24
            +3
            The Roman-Bosporan army fought several successful battles and without any difficulty approached the city of Uspa, the capital of the Siraks, the main allies of the rebellious king.

            Where the city was located is unknown, but Appian noted that it was three days' journey from the city of Tanais, located in the area of ​​the mouth of the Don.
            Siraki, after the displacement of the Scythians, possibly their partial destruction and assimilation, settled in the IV century. BC. in the northern part of the Kuban, bordering in the south with the Meotian tribes, in the north with the Aors (a Sarmatian tribe related to the Syraks). In the number of warriors, as noted by ancient authors, the Shiraki were significantly inferior to the Aorses, which may indicate their small number in comparison with the Aorses.
            From that time on, the Shiraki began to actively interact with the opponents of the Scythians - the Meots. This led to the gradual synthesis of the two cultures and the emergence of a mixed population on the line of their contact, as well as the advancement of the Sirak population in the II century. BC. in the Trans-Kuban region.
            Siraki, like the Aorses, were not marked by anything significant in history, except for their participation in some battles of the Bosporan wars, the defeat of the Scythian kingdom and mercenaries in the wars in Asia Minor and Transcaucasia.
            a photo Sirak cavalry on Trajan's column
            1. Richard
              Richard 29 March 2021 17: 26
              +4
              In one of these Bosporan wars in 49 BC. the Siraks, led by Tsar Zorsin, together with the Meots, sided with the supporters of the independence of the Bosporan Kingdom from the Roman Empire. The Aors became their main opponents. In this war, the Aorsa, together with the Romans, stormed the capital of the Siracs, Uspa, and massacred its population.
              After this crushing defeat, their influence on the life of the region practically disappears. A smaller part of the Siraks was Hellenized and became part of the population of the Bosporus kingdom. The overwhelming majority settled among the Meots and gradually dissolved among them. The third part migrated to the east. The last two groups of Siraks, along with the Meotian tribes, became one of the ancestors of the Kasogs, and later the Circassians and partly the Ossetians. Aorses, related to the Siraks, were completely absorbed by the assimilated Alans.
              a photo A bearded Sarmatian warrior - sirak, presumably the king Zorsin (wasps) armed with a spear. He wears a tight-fitting jacket and trousers, decorated along the seams, the cloak is fastened to the shoulder with a round brooch. Detail from a metal horn, 59st c. AD, Kuban. Source: http://lemur9529.ru/node/XNUMX
              1. Richard
                Richard 29 March 2021 18: 00
                +4
                the city of Uspy - the capital of the Sirak


                a photo settlement Uspy

                The contours of the shaft can still be seen on an unseeded field. The area of ​​the settlement was about 13 hectares. On its territory, the remains of 14 residential hills were found, located in two rows from west to east. In the central part, opposite the entrance gate, there was a long building (wall length of at least 20 m), built of adobe bricks and covered with boards and reeds, where the public cattle were probably kept. The city was located on the banks of the Fata, surrounded by cliffs, swamps and a huge forest,
                from the side of the swamps, it was protected by clay palisades.
                From 1930 to 1944, the Kuban archaeologists M.V. Pokrovsky and N.V. Anfimov investigated the ground necropolis of this settlement. For fourteen years of work, 213 burials were discovered. Household items, weapons, ornaments found in the burials reflect almost 800-year history of the tribe that has lived in this place since the XNUMXth century. BC e. to the II century. n. e. The bones of domestic animals are often found on the site and in the graves: pigs, sheep, horses, as well as grains of millet and wheat.
                Thanks to the finds near the Kubansky farm and from the Nikolayevsky burial ground (Krasnogvardeyskoye village), we know that during the formation of the culture, the Shiraks led a sedentary lifestyle, built unfortified settlements, were engaged in agriculture and cattle breeding, weaving and pottery. The materials of the burial ground speak of the social stratification of society, in which the warriors-horsemen were already singled out into a special elite group. In the monuments of the subsequent time, this group of warriors-riders becomes even brighter and richer, it was in their burials that expensive jewelry, weapons, dishes, items captured on long campaigns or looted in wars were located.
                Finds from the earliest period of the Sirak culture were also found in the village of Nekrasovskaya, where, when examining the mound in 1908, Professor N.I. Veselovsky found a burial with bronze arrowheads.
  2. Korsar4
    Korsar4 29 March 2021 05: 49
    +7
    There's something about it. How long can a man named Mithridates obey Rome?

    The main thing is not to draw parallels with the October Revolution and the names of subsequent rulers.
    1. depressant
      depressant 29 March 2021 09: 29
      +9
      Sergei, and you are a provocateur! ))))
      Suggest not to think about the white monkey? Well, it was once. “Don't think about the white monkey!”, The psychologist orders, and no effort of will is enough for a person to suppress thoughts about her.
      In fact, the first thing that comes to mind after reading the article is the analogy with modern political space. Only then did they ride horses, and now they move on tanks. Otherwise, why raise the layers of history? To be sure: there is nothing new under the Moon! And maybe dig up some useful political trick.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 29 March 2021 10: 53
        +4
        Konstantin also noted this.
        However, what harm do my rare hairpins do?
        Although the benefits of them are also very controversial.
        1. depressant
          depressant 29 March 2021 11: 19
          +6
          The benefits of your "hairpins" are enormous - it focuses attention on the right things, leading it in the direction in which the benefits of studying history become especially clear. For example, a number of snide analogies were highlighted for me. But we agreed not to name events and names, right? )))
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 29 March 2021 11: 28
            +5
            “As you name the yacht, so it will float” (c).
            1. depressant
              depressant 29 March 2021 12: 46
              +6
              Here is a historical theme, it is about the past, and it is somehow inconvenient to call her ship a vulgar name)))
              And I got involved in the battle on the topic of Sobchak. I went here, then I run there, but I got worn out)))
              It would be necessary to stop.
            2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 March 2021 13: 50
              +4
              Quote: Korsar4
              “As you name the yacht, so it will float” (c).

              The essence of the cat's hunting soul, no matter where it ended up in your home, either from the nearest garbage dump or from a breeder with a pedigree of five pages, has not been changed! She will find a way to eat a parrot, catch fish from an aquarium, or tip a glass of sour cream onto your dress! Even if you are personally sure of the decency and upbringing of "Pusi-Musi", it is not a fact that your wallpaper behind the armchair agrees with you !!! laughing
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 29 March 2021 14: 37
                +4
                Yes. Avoid having cats in a house with parrots and hamsters.
                And sour cream is stored in the refrigerator. And not left unattended.
                1. depressant
                  depressant 29 March 2021 15: 15
                  +5
                  Sergey, you are boring! Romantic people even name volcanoes after cats. For example, Popocatepetl. Which in translation from Mexican means "Volcanic caldera in the shape of a cat's butt".
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 29 March 2021 15: 42
                    +3
                    Yes. Also boring often.

                    And when the Marquis leaves footprints in the form of pyramids next to the tray, I think that it should have been called Pharaoh.
                    1. depressant
                      depressant 29 March 2021 16: 05
                      +5
                      Do you think the pharaohs were so big? And what we see in Egypt is just petrified organic matter?
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 29 March 2021 16: 16
                        +2
                        No. This is already a matter of geometry. And not planimetry.
                        And any Majesty takes a place about the same as his servant. The only question is time.
                    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                      Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 March 2021 18: 10
                      +3
                      Quote: Korsar4
                      Yes. Also boring often.

                      And when the Marquis leaves footprints in the form of pyramids next to the tray, I think that it should have been called Pharaoh.

                      Well, yes Makdo (Nikolai Mikhailov's cat) sounds! Nikolay was not ashamed with the name of his favorite !!! Although Sergey you have a chance to fix everything by baptizing the next domestic mustache modestly, but with a claim - God !!! laughing
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 29 March 2021 19: 26
                        +4
                        This is overkill. We are not in Ancient Egypt. However, their mythology is of little concern. Unless the Goddess Hathor is curious.

                        And that is because of Sycamore, in the first place.
                  2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                    Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 March 2021 18: 15
                    +3
                    Quote: depressant
                    Sergey, you are boring! Romantic people even name volcanoes after cats. For example, Popocatepetl. Which in translation from Mexican means "Volcanic caldera in the shape of a cat's butt".

                    Lyudmila Yakovlevna - I'm afraid that in your example there is a minimum of romance, but there is a maximum of a "gift" in a hiking boot from the pet of the discoverer of the volcano !!!!
                    I will smile! I've been calling a friend for a long time, what are you doing - I'm wiping the sofa with a cat! Do not understand? The cat marked the place, I sat down - now we figure out who is the owner of the apartment !!!
                    1. Phil77
                      Phil77 29 March 2021 18: 58
                      +4
                      Greetings, Vlad! Well, and how did the * disassembly * end? laughing
                      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                        Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 March 2021 19: 23
                        +4
                        Quote: Phil77
                        Greetings, Vlad! Well, and how did the * disassembly * end? laughing

                        The cat won, the man got divorced two years later !!! laughing seriously not kidding !!!
                        The cat and a couple of dozen chinchillas stayed with the owner.
                      2. Phil77
                        Phil77 29 March 2021 19: 25
                        +4
                        I thought so! laughing Victory for the representative of the furry people. laughing
                      3. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 29 March 2021 19: 32
                        +5
                        The question for whom should men root for in this situation?
                        Eh, cat owners. Where is the male solidarity?
                      4. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 29 March 2021 21: 12
                        +3
                        Where is the male solidarity?
                        She went to "uchi-pusi".
                      5. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 29 March 2021 21: 48
                        +4
                        "More terrible than Wrangel
                        Everyday life "(c).
                  3. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 29 March 2021 21: 06
                    +4
                    Uh-huh. For chinchillas.
                2. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 29 March 2021 19: 28
                  +5
                  What a joke. It's not Emma the dog.
        2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 March 2021 19: 36
          +5
          Quote: Korsar4
          Yes. Avoid having cats in a house with parrots and hamsters.


          Well, Sergei is a debatable question! About seven years ago, we had a scumbag Dzungarian hamster who chased Sonya in a ball. True, their acquaintance did not work out from the very beginning. When Olesya showed the mouse to the cat, the cat managed to slap the first one a couple of times in the head. After that, a scumbag or just a shell-shocked hamster on his head, seeing a cat out of his plastic ball, tried to ram it in it.
          True, he finished very sadly, he was sent to an orphanage for orphans. There he was eaten by a kitchen cat, who did not understand such a joke "a mouse in a ball" !!!
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 29 March 2021 19: 42
            +5
            This is the sad result of the hamster biography.
            Hamsters - separately, felines separately.

            A colleague ran away from work on Saturday: the rosella parrot flew out of the cage. And the dogs were ready to arrange a hunt, which is usually successful.

            But in this case, there were no casualties.
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 March 2021 19: 58
              +5
              Quote: Korsar4
              But in this case, there were no casualties.

              “Popka sat on a floor lamp without half his tail and called the watchdog with expletive words that he heard from Uncle Pasha's one-legged neighbor. Watchdog, sincerely indignant at the situation, simultaneously tried to bark and catch his tail with his teeth and half of the remaining misunderstanding of the swearing parrot ”!!!
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 29 March 2021 20: 06
                +4
                Wonderful. Where is this from?
              2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 March 2021 20: 14
                +3
                Quote: Korsar4
                Wonderful. Where is this from?

                From my fairy tales for my daughter, probably already like 15 years ago. The day before, I was sorting through the diaries, stumbled upon, read and now quoted.
              3. Korsar4
                Korsar4 29 March 2021 20: 19
                +5
                What talents.

                When the second daughter was small, before school there was a story with the tail of a budgerigar. Then she took a pen and wrote about this and other things "Scientific discoveries about birds and animals."

                There were aphorisms:
                “Ducks gather in flocks. Together, so to speak. "
                “When the sparrows chirp, it seems that there are only sparrows around”, etc.
              4. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 29 March 2021 21: 15
                +3
                You have talented girls! We are waiting for sparkling aphorisms from the youngest.
              5. Korsar4
                Korsar4 29 March 2021 21: 49
                +4
                Yes. The girls are good at me.
              6. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 29 March 2021 22: 04
                +3
                I envy. Bazhin girls do not breed.
              7. Korsar4
                Korsar4 29 March 2021 22: 08
                +4
                Here, probably, a fatalist. It turned out what was supposed to come out.
              8. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 29 March 2021 22: 22
                +3
                It is, yes. As Alla Borisovna sang: "The stuffing cannot be turned back."
              9. Mordvin 3
                Mordvin 3 29 March 2021 22: 26
                +4
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                As Alla Borisovna sang:

                Exactly? I don’t remember that ..
              10. Korsar4
                Korsar4 29 March 2021 22: 28
                +4
                "And you can't stop time for a moment" (s).
  • Hunter 2
    Hunter 2 29 March 2021 19: 48
    +6
    There is no story sadder in the world than an eaten hamster in a ball ... like a bone in a cutlet recourse
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 March 2021 20: 22
      +6
      Quote: Hunter 2
      There is no story sadder in the world than an eaten hamster in a ball ... like a bone in a cutlet recourse

      I saw this cat, a brazen mustachioed muzzle on the railing at the catering unit in the form of two impressive balls and one hanging sausage (tail). When I passed by, he did not even flinch, only followed me with an impudent red gaze. But only he heard a light child's footfall, the cat was blown off the railing in the blink of an eye. To be honest, I still do not understand where he went. It was a moment ago, and now the trace is gone.
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 29 March 2021 21: 09
    +4
    So they reached "spherical hamsters in a vacuum" ...
  • parusnik
    parusnik 29 March 2021 06: 15
    +6
    Hmm, sorry, the series is over. Thank you to the author for the work done
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 29 March 2021 07: 54
    +13
    I'll add an illustration.

    Staters of Mithridates VIII.
    Thank you, Egor!
    1. PhilipKDick
      29 March 2021 08: 11
      +7
      Hello. Thanks a lot!
      Couldn't find these coins.
      1. Mordvin 3
        Mordvin 3 29 March 2021 08: 17
        +2
        Quote: PhilipKDick
        Couldn't find these monets

        Our classroom woman was fond of numismatics. And there were such coins.
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 29 March 2021 10: 05
        +7
        I was just lucky. The Hermitage recently hosted the Iron Age exhibition, all the photos in my comments under your materials were filmed there. The stars came together for the second time.
      3. kalibr
        kalibr 29 March 2021 16: 27
        +3
        You, Yegor, are friends with Anton. He has a lot of great photos!
      4. Richard
        Richard 29 March 2021 18: 03
        +4
        Thank you, Egor. Great article!
    2. Hunter 2
      Hunter 2 29 March 2021 08: 26
      +8


      And I have one. Mithridates 6 Eupator 109-63 BC
    3. Korsar4
      Korsar4 29 March 2021 10: 54
      +6
      Is the entire world currency in Anton's storerooms or is something left not covered?
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 29 March 2021 11: 09
        +6
        Oh no! But the topic "Kings and cabbage" "fascinates me very much.
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 29 March 2021 11: 26
          +5
          The main thing is that photographers do not catch the moment of the carve-up.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 29 March 2021 12: 44
            +6
            How can you miss such a chance?!?!?!
            Epic photo masterpiece !!! "Nogare and Marigny share the Templar gold."
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 29 March 2021 14: 33
              +1
              So what? Did it help them a lot?
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 29 March 2021 14: 53
                +2
                Yes, about like the Poles Andria.
        2. Hunter 2
          Hunter 2 29 March 2021 11: 31
          +6
          Cool coin, numismatist's dream! I can’t even roughly determine its cost, it’s a rarity! In the evening I'll go through Western antique auctions - I'll try to name the price!
          Greetings Anton.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 29 March 2021 12: 00
            +7
            Good afternoon, Alexey! Both coins are from the State Historical Museum collection.
            1. Hunter 2
              Hunter 2 29 March 2021 12: 04
              +6
              I figured it out by the numbers what There are also in private collections, the market for antique coins is very well developed, sometimes in private collections there are specimens that any Museum of the World will envy!
      2. Hunter 2
        Hunter 2 29 March 2021 11: 34
        +6
        Quote: Korsar4
        Is the entire world currency in Anton's storerooms or is something left not covered?

        We, humble numismatists, collect copper and rejoice at silver wink ... What Anton exhibits are numismatic Masterpieces in Super Collectible Condition! At least hold in your hands belay and they won't give it crying
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 29 March 2021 13: 30
          +5
          We, humble numismatists, collect copper and rejoice at silver
          France, until the capture of John II the Good, did not mint its own gold coin. In England, the first gold sovereigns were minted under Henry VII.
          1. Hunter 2
            Hunter 2 29 March 2021 13: 37
            +3
            Anton, however, the gold coins there had an excellent circulation (Roman, Greek, All Oriental). It's like the Fed Matrasnikov - there is an opportunity to do something cheaper and declaratively set the course, so you need to use it!
            In general, this is a very interesting topic - there is enough material for a dozen articles hi
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 29 March 2021 13: 49
              +4
              In general, this is a very interesting topic - there is enough material for a dozen articles
              I think more. Even if we do not directly touch on the financial systems of separately taken states, the economic crisis of the High Middle Ages alone will pull at least a couple of materials. But there are also private commodity-money relations, which is called "how much did a chicken cost in Paris in 1400".
              1. Hunter 2
                Hunter 2 29 March 2021 13: 53
                +3
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                only the economic crisis of the High Middle Ages will pull a couple of materials, at least. But there are also private commodity-money relations, which is called "how much did a chicken cost in Paris in 1400".

                And for one chicken we gave two sturgeons! recourse
                Numismatics and Statehood have always gone hand in hand! A very interesting topic! It's a pity no one has tackled it yet!
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 29 March 2021 14: 23
                  +4
                  "It's nothing that in Europe they give one fifty kopeck for our ruble, it will be worse if they start giving in the face for our ruble" (C)
                2. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 29 March 2021 15: 40
                  +3
                  A melon in Moscow was valued as a goose or a couple of piglets. Snegirev wrote about this. Yes, and it turned up for me. I inserted it.
              2. Hunter 2
                Hunter 2 29 March 2021 14: 21
                +2
                Anton, I'm afraid if you go to the chicken ... it's not like a dozen - a hundred articles will not get rid of. It would be nice for a start to track the minting of gold coins (there were always few of them), then smoothly switch to silver ... and if it drags on - and I'm sure that it will take too long to move on to copper, bronze, alloys (antique ones were very often made of electrum and not only). The Power of the Ruler is the chasing of his own Coin! It will turn out just Awesome series of articles!
          2. Sergey Sfiedu
            Sergey Sfiedu 29 March 2021 19: 24
            +3
            France, until the capture of John II the Good, did not mint its own gold coin.
            - Procopius of Caesarea (the time of Justinian 1) writes with indignation that the Franks became so bad that they began to mint gold coins not with a portrait of the divine emperor, with a portrait of their own king!
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 29 March 2021 19: 50
              +3
              I strongly doubt that Procopius of Caesarea could distinguish sycamber from burgundy, and both of them from Aleman.
        2. Korsar4
          Korsar4 29 March 2021 14: 35
          +3
          Collect 10 copper coins and exchange them for something. Or get to know the Dog from Ogniv.
          1. Hunter 2
            Hunter 2 29 March 2021 14: 44
            +4
            good Sergey - Test! The funniest thing is that the value of the Coin does not depend on the metal of manufacture, there are Coppers - which cost much more than Gold Coins, given the conversion to mass ... a gram of coinage, if I am not mistaken, is (in the period) 17 times more expensive than a gram of coin Gold. Rarity ... Everyone wants to have something Well, just Exclusive!
            Who would take up the Series of articles about Money, everything revolves around them, Wars, Politics, and of course the Economy!
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 29 March 2021 15: 02
              +5
              Who would take up the Money Series
              I could have taken it, but there is no certainty that it will be published. "What is cooked must be eaten." (WITH)
              1. Hunter 2
                Hunter 2 29 March 2021 15: 09
                +5
                You shouldn't think so, we have all sections dancing around Money! From News to History! Take it, I will help as much as I can!
              2. Hunter 2
                Hunter 2 29 March 2021 15: 14
                +4
                I will even put up three special prizes for the best comments on articles (if the site rules allow). Real Coins, the best commentators will be chosen by voting!
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 29 March 2021 15: 38
                  +3
                  For an article? This is how you can interest the greedy and curious.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 29 March 2021 15: 48
                    +5
                    It was about comments. At the same time, in this situation, it is also possible from the opposite: "into the load" to "Damned Kings" - "Virgin Soil Upturned".
                    1. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 29 March 2021 16: 15
                      +4
                      Virgin Soil Upturned is good in itself. "Small Earth" is another matter. This is how the circulation is realized.

                      I thought - an interesting selection can be made about the price of spices at different times. And how they were used.
              3. Korsar4
                Korsar4 29 March 2021 15: 37
                +3
                I just thought that the target photo with comments before the article unfolds. Popular, of course.
              4. kalibr
                kalibr 29 March 2021 16: 31
                +5
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                I could have taken it, but there is no certainty that it will be published.

                Write to the management, Anton, be convincing, open up perspectives and ... I'm sure it will. And there is ... well, I already wrote to you about this ...
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 29 March 2021 18: 36
                  +6
                  Write to management, Anton, be convincing, open up perspectives
                  All this, Vyacheslav Olegovich, makes sense to do with at least minimal monetization of labor costs. However, the administration of the resource refused to pay for materials of freelance authors more than a year ago. I, in turn, wrote to you about this too. Moreover, at the moment the editorial board refuses to use long series of articles on historical subjects, even of previously proven "freelancers". I know at least one such precedent. So now the popularized history of the Polotsk principality, presented in excellent language, was "behind the scenes" for the audience of the site. It's a pity...
                  1. Hunter 2
                    Hunter 2 29 March 2021 18: 49
                    +6
                    Quote: 3x3zsave

                    All this, Vyacheslav Olegovich, makes sense to do with at least minimal monetization of labor costs. However, the administration of the resource refused to pay for materials of freelance authors more than a year ago. I, in turn, wrote to you about this too. Moreover, at the moment the editorial board refuses to use long series of articles on historical subjects, even of previously proven "freelancers". I know at least one such precedent. So now the popularized history of the Polotsk principality, presented in excellent language, was "behind the scenes" for the audience of the site. It's a pity...

                    Yes, how is it belay In History - the maximum number of views and readings. Moreover, articles of many years ago are being snatched out. What then is the VO administration going to publish, fried news of one day ??? The paradox, however. If not for History and Armaments, the number of site visitors would have decreased by a third, at least. Holivara is full everywhere, there is a minimum of quality work. Tin.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 29 March 2021 19: 13
                      +6
                      The paradox, however. If not for History and Armaments, the number of website visitors would have decreased by a third, at least. Holivara is full everywhere, there is a minimum of quality work. Tin.
                      This is also noted by some employees of the resource. However, I will note ... The largest number of views per day are collected by those sections to which our small company will not allow even an old, sick with plague, leprosy and Dengue fever, a homosexual pedophile who signed a consent to efthanasia. For it is a sin to make fun of a living organism.
                  2. kalibr
                    kalibr 29 March 2021 21: 57
                    +2
                    Quote: 3x3zsave
                    turned out to be "behind the scenes" for the site's audience. It's a pity...

                    Did not know. Well, there is also "Secrets ..."
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 29 March 2021 22: 14
                      +1
                      I don't think the author will format this text under "Secrets ...". He'd better write a couple of materials with 100 thousand printed characters "on the table". And, yes, this is not about me, I am a more unprincipled and mercantile animal.
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 29 March 2021 16: 25
            +6
            Collect 10 copper coins and exchange them for something.
            "Serve up the homeless pigs' house!" (WITH)
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 29 March 2021 19: 24
              +2
              "Children cry, parents pay" (c).
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 29 March 2021 19: 57
                +3
                "It'll cost Daddy Dorset an extra five hundred dollars." (WITH)
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 29 March 2021 20: 05
                  +3
                  "Corruption, gentlemen, will destroy this country" (c).
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 29 March 2021 20: 14
                    +3
                    "When a merchant sails on a fragile little boat across a stormy sea, a smuggler crawls along a perch over an abyss solidly, with dignity: people earn money!" (WITH)
                    1. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 29 March 2021 20: 15
                      +3
                      “I don’t care about it:
                      I know - what - how much ”(c).
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 29 March 2021 20: 29
                        +3
                        "Odessa, Privoz.
                        - Madam, how much is your fish?
                        - Two-handled.
                        - What's so expensive ?! Is she alive?
                        - No, she's already dead.
                        - Do you collect her for her funeral? "
                      2. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 29 March 2021 21: 45
                        +2
                        “- What am I eating? I eat sturgeon
                        Simple Russian food "(c).
                      3. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 29 March 2021 22: 01
                        +3
                        "- I've never tasted a sausage ...
                        - Ha! I didn't even see! What is it, square with holes?
                        No, it is round, but inside it is delicious! " (WITH)
                      4. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 29 March 2021 22: 07
                        +3
                        "It's good to roam the world
                        With a caramel on the cheek "(c).
                      5. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 29 March 2021 22: 20
                        +3
                        "It's a pity you don't have a tangerine." (S)
                      6. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 29 March 2021 22: 27
                        +3
                        "Half a grain a day:
                        This, of course, is not enough ”(c).
                      7. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 29 March 2021 22: 39
                        +3
                        "Take a lot of bricks,
                        About five pieces ...
                        That would be a nice house!
                        But where can I get them? "(C)
                      8. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 30 March 2021 03: 37
                        +3
                        "The pig's house must be a fortress" (c).
  • knn54
    knn54 29 March 2021 08: 27
    +4
    Thank you Egor.
    Wasn't Aspurgus the son of Dinamia and the aged Asander, the illegitimate son of the last king of the Spartakids, who was killed during the rebellion of Savmak?
    If we consider that under Mithridates7 the Pontic kingdom received a second wind, then, as a familiar doctor says, "after the second breath, artificial breath often occurs" ...
    And yet another interesting period was in the Caucasus, in Asia Minor. The old kingdoms disappeared, new ones appeared - Bactria. Parthia, Kushans, Great Armenia, etc., Those were the enemies of Rome. then allies.
    Often shocks arose (the balance collapsed) after the next Roman expansion into this region.
    1. PhilipKDick
      29 March 2021 08: 36
      +7
      Hello. The question of gender remains open.
      Until reliably confirming materials have not been found, in general, any hereditary drinking is possible.
      Thank you for your feedback.
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 29 March 2021 11: 09
    +7
    Regarding the storming and seizure of the capital of the Syracs, I really liked Uspa, I was really impressed by the logic outlined by Tacitus:
    The next day, the besieged sent ambassadors, asking to spare the townspeople of the free state and offering the victors ten thousand slaves. These conditions were rejected, since it would be an inhuman cruelty to kill those who surrendered, and it would be difficult to guard such a multitude: let it be better if they fall according to the law of war; and the soldiers who entered the city with the help of stairs were given a signal for a merciless massacre.

    Here, in my opinion, there is even nothing to comment on. Roman troops very subtly, in my opinion, avoided accusations of "inhuman cruelty". laughing
    1. PhilipKDick
      29 March 2021 11: 31
      +6
      Hello.
      I was also pleased.
      Moreover, according to the Roman military tradition (as far as I remember, I do not presume to assert), if the city was taken by storm, the storming soldiers could loot and appropriate the loot on a legal basis.

      They also made a lot of money.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 29 March 2021 12: 34
        +5
        Good afternoon.
        The storming of the city with its subsequent plundering is always accompanied by great destruction and loss of material values. A Roman commander could well have taken ten thousand slaves, killed them in front of the astonished city, after which, to the sound of flutes and cymbals, entered the city with a ceremonial step and plundered it already substantively and orderly, so to speak, thoughtfully and methodically.
        But this is "inhuman"! Just like that - take and kill ten thousand useless people. What will the world community say? The Parthian ambassadors will express their "deep concern" at the violation of the democratic rights and freedoms of the Siraks ... The Himyarite kingdom will send a note about the inadmissibility of genocide against the small peoples of the Caucasus ... In honor of the memory of the victims of the Assumption Massacre, the German barbarians will conduct a flash mob with drinking beer and public excrement in the central squares of their villages ... Was this the Roman commander afraid?
        I think no.
        Probably, even then in Rome there were human rights organizations like "Barbaros vitas momenti sunt", otherwise how to explain such concern of the Romans about their reputation, after all, after the assault, the gain from robbery is significantly reduced than if the city is occupied without a fight, and the Romans are pragmatic people.
        smile
        Okay, jokes, but the logic is really great. Like "it's not us villains, this is life like this" ...
        1. PhilipKDick
          29 March 2021 12: 42
          +5
          I am not a great specialist in Roman culture, but in my humble opinion, the Romans of the period of the empire had a very serious set of tools in the field of political technologies.
          Broadcasting to modern concepts - PR, speechwriting, ideological and censorship committees in Rome worked like a well-oiled machine, backed up by an impressive military force.
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 29 March 2021 13: 26
            +5
            I'm not a great specialist either. smile
            The period of my fascination with the Roman Empire ended twenty years, or even more, ago, and I cannot say that this hobby was serious. So, curiosity, no more. However, even then it was clear to me that behind the successful wars of conquest of Rome there was painstaking and thoughtful preparation - intelligence, diplomatic, political, including (and maybe even in the first place), in the domestic political arena.
            How reliably the evidence of Tacitus being discussed is a debatable question, he wrote his work fifty years after these events, as far as I understand, and how accurately he could convey the motivation for decision-making is a dark matter. But if you believe his message, then the Roman commander clearly tried, as they say, to "save face" in a rather delicate situation and the question immediately arises - in front of whom?
            Of course, it is quite possible that it was not he who tried to "save face", but Tacitus himself, but then the same question: in front of whom? Vryat di in front of neighboring states, then in front of the Roman public? But who in Rome could be interested and not indifferent to the fate of some barbarians?
            In general, in my opinion an interesting topic for reasoning.
  • Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 29 March 2021 11: 25
    +4
    And if you figure it out, the Bosporus kingdom, into a province of Rome, did not turn into its province, but in fact retained its sovereignty, army, and its own dynasties.
  • ccsr
    ccsr 30 March 2021 13: 54
    +2
    I am citing a test that is not entirely related to the wars of the Bosporus kingdom, but something is being clarified about the Black Sea Scythians and the history of their appearance.
    "Siberian Tutankhamun" with a golden sword: why he became a sensation
    "They came to the Black Sea region from Central Asia."
    But the sensation was not the wealth of the burial, but the fact that the Scythians, who were considered a purely Black Sea people, were discovered in Tuva. Moreover, the Arzhan burial, which dates from the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries BC, was made earlier than similar burials in the Black Sea region.
    According to the head of the expedition K. Chugunov,
    "The finds in the Arzhan-2 mound have no analogies in archeology. All samples of the components of the Scythian triad are so highly developed that initially we could not even imagine that they were created earlier than in the XNUMXth century BC. Thorough analysis of the" royal "burials, and burial grounds that did not belong to the representatives of the Scythian nobility, showed: they were created later than the XNUMXth century BC. This overturns ideas about the Asian nomadic culture: about the origin and development of Scythian art, which surpasses in terms of development even the contemporary art of Archaic Greece, you can speak in a completely different way. The antiquity of the finds suggests that the Scythian tribes came to the Black Sea region from Central Asia. "

    https://zen.yandex.ru/media/armshistory/sibirskii-tutanhamon-s-zolotym-mechom-pochemu-on-stal-sensaciei-6009ce1646ad05621832e313?&utm_campaign=dbr&disable_feed_under_article=false