Military Review

How Russia helped create an independent Greece

58
How Russia helped create an independent Greece
I. Aivazovsky. "Battle of Navarino"


Russia played a decisive role in the fate of Greece. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1828-1829. The Ottoman Empire suffered a crushing defeat. In the Caucasus, Russian troops took Erzurum and reached Trebizond. At the Danube theater, Diebitsch's army took Silistria, defeated the Turks at Kulevche, crossed the Balkan Mountains and took Adrianople with a swift throw, posing a threat to Constantinople (Adrianople is ours! Why the Russian army did not take Constantinople). Heyden's squadron in the Mediterranean was preparing to break through to the Dardanelles.

Unfortunately, Emperor Nicholas I followed the lead of the overly cautious Russian Foreign Ministry (its leadership pursued a pro-Western policy, fearing to anger London and Vienna). The Russian army and navy were stopped on the approaches to Constantinople-Constantinople. The centuries-old task of freeing the Second Rome and the strait from the Ottomans was not solved. However, according to the Adrianople peace, Turkey recognized the independence of Greece, while maintaining the payment of the annual tribute to the Sultan, Serbia, Moldova and Wallachia received autonomy. In 1830 Greece became officially independent.

Greek question


In the 1770th century, the Ottomans conquered Greece and made it their province. Some islands in the Ionian Sea, Crete and the hard-to-reach regions of the Peloponnese lasted longer, but they were conquered in the XNUMXth century. In the XNUMXth century, the Sublime Porta began to lose its former military and economic power. The Greeks looked with enthusiasm at Russia, which again and again crushed the Turks. In XNUMX, Morea (Peloponnese) rebelled, the Greeks were supported by Russia. The Greeks asked Catherine II to help the country gain independence. The uprising was suppressed.

However, under Catherine the Great, the "Greek Project" ("Dacian") was born in St. Petersburg. He assumed the defeat of the Turkish Empire, a partial division between Russia, Austria and Venice, the restoration of the Greek monarchy. It was also proposed to revive the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople and put at the head of her grandson Catherine - Constantine. "Dacia" ("Byzantium") became a Russian protectorate, the task of liberating the Christian and Slavic peoples of the Balkans was completely solved. Russia received the keys to the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus, closed the Black Sea from any potential enemy, and received free access to the Mediterranean Sea. Bulgaria, Serbia and Greece became our allies.

Obviously, Ushakov and Suvorov could well have carried out an operation to defeat Turkey and capture Constantinople and the straits. It is clear that such plans aroused fears in France, England and Austria, where they were afraid of the strengthening of the Russians and their exit to the Mediterranean Sea. At that moment, Russia received a unique opportunity to resolve this issue in its favor. There was a revolution in France. All Western powers, including Austria and England, were bound by the war with the French for a long time. Russia had the opportunity to calmly conduct the Bosphorus and Constantinople operations. There are even signs that such an operation was being prepared. But Catherine died. And Emperor Pavel Petrovich started all foreign policy from scratch.

Shackles of the Sacred Union


Sovereign Paul I quickly figured out that the alliance with England and Austria was a mistake. Has radically changed the policy. He entered into a confrontation with England. It is possible that he would have returned to the Greek project of his mother, but he was killed. His son Alexander I again returned to an alliance with Austria and England against France, which was disastrous for Russia. Accordingly, the urgent and most important strategic task (the Strait Zone) was forgotten for a long time.

If Alexander did not get involved in the European wars, which gave us nothing but terrible human and material losses, then Russia could easily solve the Turkish and Greek issues, the problem of the Straits in its favor. Napoleon, by the way, hinted at such a possibility, the scope for negotiations was wide (especially as England would intensify the onslaught on France). There were chances later. It was possible just at the end of 1812 - beginning of 1813. stop at the border, as Kutuzov advised, not to climb into Western Europe. The war in Europe could have lasted another 5-10 years without the Russians, while Austria, Prussia and England would have defeated Napoleon's empire. And during this time we could deal with Turkey without haste, noise and dust. Solve the issue of the straits. Nobody would dare to interfere. France would fight almost all of Europe. Austria would be frightened by a hostile Russia in the rear while there is a war with France. England would only have to threaten.

In addition, Alexander bound himself with the fetters of the Holy Alliance. In 1815, Prussia, Austria and Russia entered into a Holy Alliance in Paris. Its essence is the preservation of borders, the eternal conservation of regimes and thrones in Europe. In St. Petersburg they forgot the ancient wisdom that everything flows and changes. Moreover, the Holy Alliance was not only unviable, but also contradicted the national interests of the Russian state and people. It was the Austrian Empire that swallowed more than it could hold, and dreamed of maintaining stability at any cost. And the issue of Russia's national security in the southern strategic direction has not been resolved. That is, it was in the interests of Russia to continue pressure on Turkey, and not to keep the Ottoman Empire intact. Alexander transferred the principle of legitimacy and inviolability of borders to Turkey. As a result, this led to serious mistakes and failures in the Turkish, Balkan policy of St. Petersburg.


Metropolitan Herman blesses the banner of the rebels in the monastery of Agia Lavra. Painting by Theodoros Vrizakis, 1865

Greek revolution


Meanwhile, under the influence of the French Revolution, the Greek national liberation movement was developing. In 1814, Greek patriots in Odessa founded a secret society "Filiki Eteria" ("Philike Hetaireia" - "Friendly Society"), which set as its goal the liberation of Greece from the Turkish yoke. The organization and structure were largely borrowed from the Carbonari (secret political society in Italy) and the Freemasons. In 1818 the center of the organization was moved to Constantinople. The organization has spread to Asian and European Turkey, Greece, Greek communities in Europe. With the help of wealthy Greek communities and hoping for military and political support from Russia, the organization was preparing an uprising.

The conspirators included a core of Russian officers of Greek origin. In 1820, the organization was headed by Alexander Ypsilanti. He fought in the Russian army against Napoleon (lost his arm in the Battle of Leipzig), since 1816 - the adjutant of the Russian emperor, since 1817 - major general and commander of the hussar brigade. That is, if the Russian sovereign wished, and Petersburg would actively begin to implement its Greek plan, then we would get a pro-Russian Greece. The Greek army with our officers, armed and trained by Russian specialists. But the principle of legitimism bound Petersburg.

On February 24 (March 8), 1821, Ypsilanti (he had previously left the Russian service), crossing the Russian-Turkish border, from Iasi appealed to the Greek people with an appeal for an uprising. Several thousand rebels gathered around him. In the second half of March, the uprising engulfed Greece (Greek Independence Day is celebrated on March 25). The entire Peloponnese, part of mainland Greece and part of the islands in the Aegean Sea rebelled. Ypsilanti tried to raise an uprising in the Danube principalities and from there to break through to Greece. But he was defeated, retreated to Austria, where he was arrested.

In response, the Ottomans pogrom Christians in Constantinople. Among the dead were several church hierarchs, including Patriarch Gregory, who was hanged at the gate of the Patriarchate. However, the uprising in Greece widened. The insurgents were joined by detachments of local militia created by the Turks. Ali Pasha Yaninsky rebelled in Albania. The fleet played an important role in the hostilities. A significant part of the Greek merchants armed their ships and engaged in privateering. Only the inhabitants of the three islands - Hydra, La Spezia and Psaro - put 176 ships. Greek sea robbers not only captured Turkish ships, but also attacked villages on the coast of Asia Minor. The Turkish fleet devastated the Greek coast. In the same 1821, the Turks defeated the city of Galaxidi.

The National Assembly, which met in January 1822 at Piadou, declared the independence of Greece, elected a legislative council and adopted a constitution (statute). True, there was no unity in the leadership of the Greeks, many leaders were more engaged in intrigues than fighting the Turks. So the struggle for power turned into two civil wars (against the background of the confrontation with Turkey). In the first, military leaders ("field commanders") fought against wealthy landowners who were in alliance with the shipowners. In the second, landowners faced shipowners.

In the spring of 1822, the Turkish fleet landed troops on the island of Chios. The Ottomans began a savage massacre. The Orthodox Archbishop was hanged on the Turkish flagship. On the shore, the Turks impaled Christians, erected pyramids from cut off heads, etc. The Ottomans also captured several more islands, where they staged a massacre. In the summer of 1822, the Turkish army tried to capture Morea, but was driven back. In February 1825, the troops of his Egyptian vassal under the command of Ibrahim Pasha (dependence was formal) came to the aid of Sultan Mahmud II, who devastated most of the Peloponnese and, together with the Turkish army, captured the city of Mesoloigion in April 1826. Greece was turned into a desert, thousands of people were killed, starved to death or sold into slavery.


Intervention by great powers


Ottoman atrocities caused a great uproar in Europe. Many donations came from Europe and the United States to the Greek rebels. Many European volunteers and adventurers flocked to Greece. Greece's struggle for independence has become the main topic of the European public. The great powers also began to stir. The war between the Greeks and the Turks hit Russia's trade. After the War of 1812, the economic growth of the south of the empire began. Odessa in 1817 received the status of "free port" - a free economic zone. The city has become a major international trade center. 600-700 ships came to the port annually. Ships also went to Taganrog, Mariupol and other ports. Almost all the ships belonged to the Greeks, most of whom were citizens of Turkey, and some of them were Russian. Now the Ottomans intercepted and plundered Greek ships. The trade of other European countries also suffered heavy losses.

England in 1814 captured the Ionian Islands, which were previously occupied by the French. The British wanted to take control of all of Greece. In the "Greek question" London feared only Russia. But the government of Alexander withdrew itself from the "Greek question", piously believing in the principle of legitimism, so London decided to intervene. In the spring of 1823, London recognized the Greek rebels as a belligerent country and began funding them. European military specialists have already reached out to Greece.

The new Russian Tsar Nicholas I decided to pursue an independent policy, not to be bound by the interests of Western "partners". In 1826, the Anglo-Russian Petersburg Protocol was signed. According to him, Greece received the right of independence, but the sultan retained supreme power over it, and the Greeks paid an annual tribute. Turkish lands were transferred to the Greeks for a certain ransom. Constantinople took part in the elections in Greece, but all the persons chosen had to be Greeks. The Greeks received complete freedom of trade. France, linked to Greece by trade, joined the agreement. Austria and Prussia (our "partners" in the Holy Alliance), fearing the strengthening of the Russians in the Balkans, reacted negatively to the agreement.

In the summer of 1827, Russia, England and France, on the basis of the Petersburg Protocol, signed a convention in London on the formation of an autonomous Greek state. The proposals of the great powers for reconciliation were rejected by the Porta. Ibrahim Pasha continued to drown the uprising in blood. The allied fleet was sent to the shores of Greece. In October 1827, the allied fleet burned the Turkish-Egyptian fleet in the Navarino Bay. The main contribution to the defeat of the enemy was made by the Russian squadron of Heyden (How the Russian squadron destroyed the Turkish-Egyptian fleet under Navarin). The Russians took the brunt of the enemy's blow and destroyed most of the enemy's ships. The naval power of the Ottoman Empire was significantly weakened.

After that, the Western European powers did not take any active steps to further military pressure on Turkey. England and France even apologized to Istanbul over the Navarino incident. Disputes began over the future of the Porta. The West was afraid of the strengthening of Russia in this region. England wanted to get Greece under her wing and at the same time confront Turkey with Russia. French troops were sent to Greece, the Ottomans left Morea. Istanbul, taking advantage of the differences among the great powers, declared war on Russia. The Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829 began.

The Russian army defeated the Turks and brought freedom to Greece.

Unfortunately, after the previous mistakes of St. Petersburg, independent Greece began to orient itself in its policy towards France and England.
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
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  1. bya965
    bya965 26 March 2021 04: 20
    -4
    I hope the readers of the "Military Review" know the story well. Therefore, I will write only the conclusions.

    That the Greeks, that the Bulgarians, our Orthodox brothers. They immediately and consistently betrayed their liberators.
    Some under the Anglo-Saxons, some under the Germans.
    Unfortunately, after the previous mistakes of St. Petersburg, independent Greece began to orient itself in its policy towards France and England.


    My great-grandfather, a Don Cossack, received an order and awards for Bulgaria for which he built a house, in which I spent part of the summer with my grandmother.

    Here are the words from the falsified "Veles book":
    And then the Red Dawn came, stringing precious stones on her decoration. And we greeted her from our hearts, as Russians, and not as Greeks, who do not know about our gods and speak evil out of ignorance. But we have the name of glory, and we proved that glory on the iron of the enemy, when we came to their swords. And even the bear stopped to hear that glory, and the galloping Alans stopped and then spoke to others about the Russians:

    "They would not have started killing if there was no need - and the Russians are proud of this, and the Greeks are fighting for the sake of their lust. And they give bread not like the Greeks who take, but they themselves conceal anger at the giver." And about the glory of that eagles cry in all directions, for the Russians are free and strong in the steppes.
    1. WHAT IS
      WHAT IS 26 March 2021 05: 42
      +2
      That the Greeks, that the Bulgarians, our Orthodox brothers. They immediately and consistently betrayed their liberators.
      Some under the Anglo-Saxons, some under the Germans.

      "After their release, they will begin their new life, I repeat, precisely with what they will beg for themselves from Europe, England and Germany, for example, a guarantee and protection of their freedom, and even though Russia will be included in the concert of the European powers, but they in defense of Russia they will do this. They will certainly begin with the fact that inside themselves, if not outright out loud, they will declare to themselves and convince themselves that they do not owe Russia the slightest gratitude, on the contrary, that they barely escaped the lust for power of Russia under the conclusion of peace by the intervention of a European concert, and Europe did not interfere, so Russia, taking them away from the Turks, would swallow them immediately, "meaning the expansion of the borders and the foundation of the great All-Slavic empire on the enslavement of the Slavs to the greedy, cunning and barbaric Great Russian tribe" "
      F.M. Dostoevsky. Writer's diary. 1877.
    2. Flooding
      Flooding 26 March 2021 07: 30
      -2
      Quote: bya965
      Orthodox brothers

      Quote: bya965
      betrayed their liberators.

      Quote: bya965
      My great-grandfather, Don Cossack

      Quote: bya965
      words from the falsified "Veles book"

      I don't seem to have missed anything
      1. Flooding
        Flooding 26 March 2021 07: 42
        -3
        still missed
        exactly, I wanted to ask:
        but what does the mentioned book have to do with it?
        and what is falsified in it?
        authorship? the words? ideas? paper?
        or all at once?
      2. Flooding
        Flooding 26 March 2021 07: 49
        +1
        Isn't it sad when a person citing a neo-pagan publication talks about "Orthodox brothers"?
        1. bya965
          bya965 26 March 2021 08: 33
          -1
          Isn't it sad when a person citing a neo-pagan publication talks about "Orthodox brothers"?

          My answer is rude, but correct. So the Orthodox are not our brothers (+ Ukraine, Georgia).
          For me, Kalmyks are brothers, Mordovians are brothers, Buryats are brothers (remember the Second World War) and so on.
          For me brothers, who will not betray, but to which god or spirits, how they live in a family or how they hold a spoon, it is their culture and I respect it as a Russian.

          And about the falsified Veles book, I can tell you a very muddy story.
          Srach I don't want to breed. But about the Greeks (merchants, what to take from them) is well written, sincerely. So he brought it.
          1. Flooding
            Flooding 26 March 2021 08: 38
            +3
            Quote: bya965
            But about the Greeks (merchants, what to take from them) is well written, sincerely. So he brought it.

            who wrote it?
            whose words did you cite?
            Or did you like it anyway?
            so I do not presume to quote muddy books
            there is great doubt that they are able to add clarity to the question
            1. bya965
              bya965 26 March 2021 08: 50
              +1
              so I do not presume to quote muddy books

              Immediately, I do not offend the feelings of believers.
              I believe that everyone lives as he can and there is no need to impose anything on him, although
              now they are constantly imposing something on us, advertising, our government and
              strangers and different believers.

              I cannot read Jewish books and a Greek remake.
              I don’t understand anything there (this is the softest word), I’m probably just a stupid person.
              1. Flooding
                Flooding 26 March 2021 08: 53
                +1
                I have not received an answer.
                and did not expect
                Quote: bya965
                now something is being imposed on us all the time

                do not pull the "Veles book" by the ears in the commentary to the article on Greek independence
                Or do you call your imposition something else?
                1. bya965
                  bya965 26 March 2021 09: 33
                  0
                  Or do you call your imposition something else?

                  Yours, just cling to the words.

                  Mine clearly characterizes the Greeks, as well as other traders, for example, the Armenians. Only a few months have passed.
                  The Russians had farmers, artisans and warriors. There were no merchants.
                  After the adoption of Orthodoxy, the soldiers began to overwrite, the people of the type rose to fight the invader, and so on.
                  1. Flooding
                    Flooding 26 March 2021 09: 36
                    +3
                    Quote: bya965
                    Mine clearly characterizes the Greeks

                    can be clearly characterized only by facts
                    but definitely not in lines from the falsification you mentioned
          2. Flooding
            Flooding 26 March 2021 08: 43
            -1
            Quote: bya965
            So the Orthodox are not our brothers (+ Ukraine, Georgia).
            For me, Kalmyks are brothers, Mordovians are brothers, Buryats are brothers (remember the Second World War) and so on.
            For me brothers who will not betray

            who will not betray is a brother in spirit, in arms
            but there is a brotherhood by blood.
            and even if there is enmity with him, blood is not water
        2. BAI
          BAI 26 March 2021 08: 42
          0
          And with Orthodoxy in general it is a dark matter. One of the largest Orthodox holidays - the feast of the Protection of the Mother of God (which is widely celebrated in Russia) - is celebrated in honor of the defeat of the Russian squads from the Byzantine Greeks.
          1. Flooding
            Flooding 26 March 2021 08: 49
            0
            Quote: BAI
            the feast of the Protection of the Mother of God (which is celebrated on a large scale in Russia) - celebrated in honor of the defeat of the Russian squads from the Byzantine Greeks.

            what do you know about the campaigns of the Russian squads against Constantinople in 910?
            1. bya965
              bya965 26 March 2021 09: 11
              0
              what do you know about the campaigns of the Russian squads against Constantinople in 910?

              I understand everything, the wiki has already rubbed this moment, it was previously described in detail. And the holiday of the Intercession is no longer clear how it arose.
              But now, with the blessing of His Holiness Patriarch Alexy II of Moscow and All Russia, in 2004 a television series about the thousand-year history of the Russian Orthodox Church was filmed for the first time.

              I even set the time for you where to look.


              I'll add more firewood for you. Orthodox clergy, why the hell did you forbid regularly plunging into the ice-hole (except for baptism) and playing chess?
              But they did not support the Russian people, for example, when he raised anti-alcohol riots (then the Jews were selling vodka, having bought a license for this from the tsarist government) in the middle of the 19th century.
              1. Flooding
                Flooding 26 March 2021 09: 25
                0
                Quote: bya965
                I understand everything, the wiki has already rubbed this moment, it was previously described in detail.

                there are times when it is important to stop on time
                you missed it safely

                Quote: bya965
                And the holiday of the Intercession is no longer clear how it arose.

                then why rub bikes and spread false rumors?
              2. Flooding
                Flooding 26 March 2021 09: 30
                +1
                Quote: bya965
                Orthodox clergy, why the hell did you forbid regularly plunging into the ice-hole (except for baptism) and playing chess?

                did you read this in the Veles book?
                how the peasants, after the harvest, were going to play chess for their souls and minds in the evening, and the local priest would disperse them, "Shoo, scoundrels!"
                you are on fire
                1. bya965
                  bya965 27 March 2021 06: 51
                  -2
                  did you read this in the Veles book?
                  how the peasants, after the harvest, were going to play chess for their souls and minds in the evening, and the local priest would disperse them, "Shoo, scoundrels!"
                  you are on fire

                  You are probably an adult and we are not a gateway.

                  In this military hole, overcoming oneself, everyone is obliged except for children, the sick and the elderly. But people became strong-willed and free, and not slaves of God. The church has banned.

                  On Sunday, instead of the temple (and not the harvest), the people played chess. It was rampant, the church forbade it.

                  In general, the Russian people have never strongly believed (mostly women and cowardly people, as now). How many churchgoers are there now?
                  The authorities forcibly drove the law and the ruble into the church. (read the royal laws)

                  As a son of a dog I say, the Cossacks had a cross, so what. There were practically no temples, the priests did not go on hikes. Like I'm Orthodox, so what.

                  I was born in a great country, I was taught correctly. I think with my head.
                  1. Flooding
                    Flooding 27 March 2021 07: 10
                    +1
                    Quote: bya965
                    In general, the Russian people have never strongly believed (mostly women and cowardly people, as now).

                    tell this to the veteran priests who were ordained after military campaigns.
                    It is funny and sad at the same time
                    you betray your cowardice and your lack of culture.
                    samurai obeyed their master as obedient slaves in everything, and did not consider it shameful for themselves. and no one could accuse them of cowardice.
                    practically the same applied to the military classes in other countries.

                    and then a generation of couch fighters grew up, talking about things beyond their understanding.

                    Quote: bya965
                    As a son of a dog I say, the Cossacks had a cross, so what. There were practically no temples, the priests did not go on hikes

                    I don’t know whose son you are, and I don’t want to know
                    temples were in every village
                    Cossacks kept the Old Believer faith for a very long time. if they were not zealots of the faith, then they could quickly be persuaded to a new rite

                    Quote: bya965
                    On Sunday, instead of the temple (and not the harvest), the people played chess

                    terrible nonsense
                    not worth the attention
                    1. bya965
                      bya965 27 March 2021 07: 46
                      0
                      tell this to the veteran priests who were ordained after military campaigns

                      My grandfather was not even baptized.
                      https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Щеглеватых,_Иван_Михайлович

                      Do not prescribe to yourself what was not.
                      One of the strange and unpleasant traits of believers is to cling to any achievements, victories, or successes. The custom has been going on since ancient times. For example, Sergius of Radonezh advised Dmitry Donskoy not to fight the Tatars, but to pay tribute, as in the old days. But through a series of ideological machinations, Sergius of Radonezh later turned into almost the main winner of the Horde.

                      The Orthodox willingly cling to the victory of the atheistic USSR over Germany, spreading myths about how Stalin personally sent his pilot to carry over Moscow an icon of some (in different myths names are different) Mother of God, as well as other lies about the fact that the Battle of Stalingrad allegedly began with a prayer service, and Konigsberg helped our troops take the Mother of God, seeing whom the Germans fled in fear.
                      There was also a legend about a certain nun who allegedly sewed a spacesuit for Gagarin. To their bewilderment about this myth, the believers explained that she became a nun later, and when she sewed, she was an employee of a secret research institute.

                      Orthodox myth-making is growing, expanding, acquiring a new scope and new genres. Now it is also pseudo-documentary. It's easier to lie, documentaries are more believable than fiction. Artistic things have long been mastered by Orthodoxy (Tsar, Admiral, Pop, Ostrov and other film-making), but people have little faith.




                      1. Flooding
                        Flooding 27 March 2021 07: 49
                        0
                        Quote: bya965

                        My grandfather was not even baptized.
                        https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Щеглеватых,_Иван_Михайлович

                        how does this cancel what I wrote about?
                        Quote: Flood
                        tell this to the veteran priests who were ordained after military campaigns.

                        in no way, one does not exclude the other
                        and you, I can see, are a fan of posting posters and other people's sayings
                      2. bya965
                        bya965 27 March 2021 07: 55
                        +1
                        in no way, one does not exclude the other
                        and you, I can see, are a fan of posting posters and other people's sayings

                        Well. I take it in quotes and don’t assign other people's merits. I am ambidex therefore poor at expressing thoughts in human languages.

                        The hat is off. Better to wet it beforehand.
                      3. Flooding
                        Flooding 27 March 2021 07: 58
                        +1
                        Quote: bya965
                        I'm ambidex that's why I'm bad at expressing thoughts in human languages

                        this is not only a problem of ambidextrous
                        try to express yourself in non-human languages
                        suddenly someone will understand
        3. BAI
          BAI 26 March 2021 12: 22
          +1
          Priest Alexander Pikalev:
          The very fact of the existence of this holiday in the Russian Orthodox calendar destroys the false stereotype that Orthodoxy is a kind of national faith, a national tradition ... the fact is that this holiday is incorrectly associated with the Saracens' attack on Constantinople. But the Byzantine chronicles of that time do not contain any mention of the attack of the Saracens. The chronicles reveal in detail the life of the Blakherna Palace, the relationship between the emperor and the patriarch, court intrigues, the betrayal of some courtiers who went over to the side of the Arabs (one of them was the same patrician Samon who tortured St. Basil the New), the piety of the monks ... to Constantinople. Of the major military operations of these years, only the unsuccessful attempt by the Byzantine army to drive the Arabs out of Crete and Syria can be noted.

          But what event could frighten the inhabitants of Constantinople so much? The answer may be as follows: about this time, an embassy arrived in Constantinople from Kiev from the ruler Oleg ("Prophetic"), who had recently made a daring predatory raid on the Empire. The ferocious Vikings of Oleg and the Slavs led by them, whose devastating invasions were firmly noted in the memory of the Greeks, were no less terrible than the Arabs.

          In 911, a peace treaty between Russia and Byzantium was signed. We do not know what events accompanied the negotiations and signing, but it is possible that it was the general anxiety of the Greeks that caused the appearance of the Mother of God, from which it followed that She intercedes before the Lord for the Greek Orthodox kingdom.

          Despite the fact that this event took place on the Byzantine land, this holiday was not included in the Greek calendar, but it was adopted and approved in Russia, thanks to the holy prince Andrey Bogolyubsky, the son of Yuri Dolgoruky.

          Thus, it turns out that on the feast of the Intercession, the Russian Orthodox Church celebrates, among other things, the defeat of the Slavic (pagan) weapons, the weapons of our ancestors by the power of God and the intercession of the Most Holy Theotokos.
          1. Flooding
            Flooding 26 March 2021 12: 30
            0
            Quote: BAI
            We do not know what events accompanied the negotiations and signing, but it is possible that exactly the general anxiety of the Greeks and caused the appearance of the Mother of God

            You see, yes?
            No
            Quote: BAI
            the defeat of the Russian squads from the Byzantine Greeks

            in 910, historians do not know
            this is a fiction or an unconfirmed guess

            I.e
            Quote: BAI
            dark thing

            not with Orthodoxy, as you wrote
            and with the possession of the material by some citizens
  • pytar
    pytar 26 March 2021 10: 23
    +6
    I hope the readers of the "Military Review" know the story well. Therefore, I will write only the conclusions.

    Unfortunately, they do not know. All that "knows" is "we freed them, and they are ungrateful, they have always betrayed us"... With emotional coloring "compensate" for their lack of knowledge! And in order to draw conclusions, you need to know and make judgments, on the basis of causal - effect relationships!
    That the Greeks, that the Bulgarians, our Orthodox brothers. They immediately and consistently betrayed their liberators.

    The reasoning is an example - the mantra "betrayed" has taken root well, helpfully swept away by propaganda! The influence of Russian politics with its specific interests, often conflicting with the interests of these peoples and countries, is not taken into account in any way. No.
    Here are the words from the falsified "Veles book":

    What does she have to do with it? request
    1. Andrey Korotkov
      Andrey Korotkov 26 March 2021 11: 42
      +1
      pytar - at least our politicians did not express themselves as your Prime Minister V. Rodoslavov about our fallen soldiers when the 2nd Balkan War ended well, not in your favor. With all due respect to the Bulgarian people.
      1. pytar
        pytar 26 March 2021 16: 25
        -1
        pytar - at least our politicians did not express themselves as your Prime Minister V. Rodoslavov about our fallen soldiers when the 2nd Balkan War ended well, not in your favor. With all due respect to the Bulgarian people.

        Dear Andrey, hi in the history of all nations, without exception, there are pages of ups and downs!
        Wars were won, and there were also defeated. Heroes gave birth, and there were traitors! Culture was created and lost by falling into darkness. I will repeat again - everyone will have complaints against everyone. And there is no sense, because everyone has their own opinion and it can be correct in its own way. Relationships are guarded, on the positive, on what is in common! yes
        1. Andrey Korotkov
          Andrey Korotkov 26 March 2021 19: 53
          +2
          Well, if in a globally historical moment then - you are right, but there is a proverb among many peoples, who do not remember the past, they have no future. Sincerely.
  • rocket757
    rocket757 26 March 2021 06: 11
    0
    HISTORY!!!
    Stories are different, there are many stories !!!
    And now what?
    And now live the way it is.
    Cost their ancestors and ..... and neighbors and others, but God be their judge.
    1. pytar
      pytar 26 March 2021 10: 30
      +1
      HISTORY!!! Stories are different, there are many stories !!!

      Dear Victor, hi the story is ambiguous, you are right! Each has its own, the view from one tower is different from the other towers!

      And now what? And now live the way it is. Be worth your ancestors and ... and neighbors and others, God be their judge.


      In history there is something that divides, and there is much that is positive! If the bias is on the negative, the result will be the same! Everyone has some kind of claims, insults and accusations! The path is more correct - to look for common ground, the positive is actually much more! In spite of all the contradictions, the Orthodox peoples have a common spiritual and mental foundation! Not being able to ruin the relationship on his buzz is the main problem! hi
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 26 March 2021 10: 39
        +3
        Quote: pytar
        The path is more correct - to look for common ground, the positive is actually much more!

        I always urge you to move forward, develop yourself, invite others to participate in this!
        It is foolish to repeat constantly that there is something that hinders us, separates ...
        We live on the same planet, and if anything, we will all fly away together either to the stars or to the tar-tarars!
        For me personally, it is too late for the stars, but for my descendants, EVERYONE, I wish to follow this path!
        Truth, it is either nearby, or ... no need to drive it around some corner, it is harmful / dangerous.
        Best regards soldier
        1. pytar
          pytar 26 March 2021 16: 33
          -1
          I always urge you to move forward, develop yourself, invite others to participate in this!

          I think this is very correct! good Reproaches lead to nothing good! Themselves are not saints ...
          I watch the peoples of the West, which we scold so terribly, have been consumed for centuries, how many wars there have been, but they were able to work out on the basis of a common one! Are we lower in spiritual development? Why can't we? request It is not the West that is to blame, but ourselves!
      2. Flooding
        Flooding 26 March 2021 12: 18
        0
        Quote: pytar
        Everyone has some kind of claims, insults and accusations! The path is more correct - to look for common ground, the positive is actually much more!

        Nowadays, many people prefer to use already established patterns instead of thinking about perspective.
        And they do not understand that this is the right way to encircle the country with a hostile camp.
        Why Help NATO?
        1. pytar
          pytar 26 March 2021 16: 35
          -3
          Nowadays, many people prefer to use already established patterns instead of thinking about perspective. And they do not understand that this is the right way to encircle the country with a hostile camp. Why Help NATO?

          I will subscribe to your words! hi Everything is exactly said! good
          Fenced off means he will be bent in the environment! Never led to good!
  • parusnik
    parusnik 26 March 2021 07: 42
    +4
    Unfortunately, Emperor Nicholas I followed the lead of the overly cautious Russian Foreign Ministry (its leadership pursued a pro-Western policy, fearing to anger London and Vienna).
    The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is separate, Nicholas I is separate, a poor "empire" and did not know that in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs the 5th column dug in and shit, crap Russia. laughing laughing
    1. depressant
      depressant 26 March 2021 11: 19
      +3
      Alexey Anatolyevich, in fact, we are talking about the half-heartedness of the measures taken:

      The sacred union was not only unviable, but also contradicted the national interests of the Russian state and people. It was the Austrian Empire that swallowed more than it could hold, and dreamed of maintaining stability at any cost. And the issue of Russia's national security in the southern strategic direction has not been resolved.


      This policy of half-heartedness was and remains at the heart of the actions of our Foreign Ministry, which expresses the opinion of the political authorities. Why so, if we talk about Nicholas I. Yes, he, Nicholas, perhaps without realizing this, was the 5th column. No matter how I tried to figure it out, it is impossible to consider the German dynasty of the Romanovs Russian. They themselves considered themselves to be a Russian dynasty, German queens used to wear kokoshniks - there are photos on the Internet. But these people were never able to separate themselves from the West completely and firmly in the position of Russian national interests. Kokoshnik is just a pathetic attempt to imbue with a mentality, initially a stranger. That is why the Romanovs were doomed. But they also left such a legacy that you still can't wash it off - their destructive business survived, lives and flourishes. You say not so? And where are our interests not surrendered?
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 26 March 2021 14: 12
        +2
        love Lyudmila Yakovlevna, everything is much simpler, the old thought, in a new way, the tsar is good, the boyars from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs are bad smile
        1. depressant
          depressant 26 March 2021 15: 03
          +2
          But that's not how I argue. The boyars and the tsar are one bundle. Was and is. As then, so now. After all, the retinue makes the king. And small states ...
          Here is Greece, the cradle of human civilization. Or the same Bulgaria. So what? A small oppressed state settles in, is looking for a profitable owner, with whom you can bargain, and then someone climbs with liberation from a bad owner, because of their power scaring away all potential ones, but not offering themselves in exchange for the exiled. Like, now you are free, feed yourself. And who needs such a liberator? What a unity of religions there is! And what "brotherhood"?
          1. parusnik
            parusnik 26 March 2021 16: 36
            +1
            Like, now you are free, feed yourself.
            Naked but free. laughing And where and naked, but free, to go, to the panel. Rough, but true.
          2. pytar
            pytar 26 March 2021 16: 51
            +2
            Here is Greece, the cradle of human civilization. Or the same Bulgaria. So what? A small oppressed state settles in, is looking for a profitable owner, with whom you can bargain, and then someone climbs with liberation from a bad owner, because of their power scaring away all potential ones, but not offering themselves in exchange for the exiled. Like, now you are free, feed yourself. And who needs such a liberator? What a unity of religions there is! And what "brotherhood"?

            Dear, Lyudmila hi Let me disagree with your reasoning! They are fundamentally wrong!
            first - All states, without exclusion, are pursuing their policies from their own interests! And nothing else! Friendship can be between people! Friendship in interstate relations does not exist, although politicians constantly talk about it. This is a pure test of demagoguery! As for the unity of religion and ethnic, cultural affinity, they are a significant factor, as they contribute to the development of relationships, in the presence of interests!
            Second - Proceeding from the first, all states are looking for opportunities to develop, to go forward! Therefore, everyone is interesting, those who are more economically and politically developed! And do not defend people who want to live better! The right decision is to develop your country so that it becomes more attractive to other countries and peoples! To be an example!
            The third - Liberation, in the sense of this word, means to give freedom of decision! So that the liberated one himself decides how he wants to live! They will force him to live according to your charter, this is different ... Replacing one tyranny with another, albeit softer, is not a good idea ...
            I wish you and all Russians health, peace and prosperity! hi
            1. depressant
              depressant 26 March 2021 17: 42
              +1
              Peter ...))))
              Well, where did you see the condemnation on my part? It was not there! The policy of a small state is different from that of a large one. Tribes merge into a nation, small states adjoin large ones. And only dwarf countries, of which there are 5 in Europe, truly freely choose who to be friends with. And the little ones - with the one who conquered them or who puts pressure on them in the form of an offer of allied relations. All this is natural. The foreign policy of the Romanov dynasty is unnatural.
              1. pytar
                pytar 26 March 2021 18: 02
                +2
                Well, where did you see the condemnation on my part?

                I apologize if I misunderstood you! love
  • Olgovich
    Olgovich 26 March 2021 07: 46
    +3
    Liberating Greece and the Balkans, Russia, of course, pursued its geopolitical interests, but a sincere desire to help the Orthodox played a crucial role.

    And the fact remains: those who were not released by Russia were massacred in 1915-1921.
    1. pytar
      pytar 26 March 2021 11: 16
      +2
      Liberating Greece and the Balkans, Russia, of course, pursued its geopolitical interests, but a sincere desire to help the Orthodox played a crucial role.

      No doubt! hi Politics is guided by interests, but a simple soldier will fight bravely and die if destined, when highly noble ideas are motivated! A normal, common person is not particularly encouraged by explaining that it is in the interests of the state to occupy the straits. But for their fellow believers, both Christians and Mohamedans are fighting!
  • BAI
    BAI 26 March 2021 08: 37
    +2
    So after all, Greece is now celebrating the anniversary of the liberation from the Ottoman yoke. Article by date or coincidentally?
    1. Richard
      Richard 26 March 2021 09: 42
      -1
      Not only Greece
      143 years ago - March 3, 1878 - a peace treaty was signed in San Stefano between the Russian and Ottoman empires, which put an end to the Russian-Turkish war. The result was the appearance on the world map of new independent states - Bulgaria and Montenegro, and international shipping on the Danube was also opened. This date is extremely significant for a number of Balkan states: Serbia, Montenegro, Romania, but the most important anniversary of the signing of the document remains for the Bulgarian society. In this state, March 3 is officially considered Independence Day and is a non-working day.
      And here is how the Serbs commemorate the Russians who fell in that war on this day
      1. pytar
        pytar 26 March 2021 17: 32
        +4
        143 years ago - March 3, 1878 - a peace treaty was signed in San Stefano between the Russian and Ottoman empires, which put an end to the Russian-Turkish war ... This date is extremely significant for a number of Balkan states ... but the most important anniversary of the signing the document remains for the Bulgarian society. In this state, March 3 is officially considered Independence Day and is a non-working day.

        March 3, Day of the Liberation of Bulgaria from the Ottoman yoke, is the national holiday of Bulgaria!


        But it was not always so! I'll tell you about one of the curiosities coming from the USSR!
        March 3 is celebrated from 1879 until ... 1946! After the announcement of the People's Republic, the communist authorities, on orders from Moscow, announce this celebration "remnant of Great Bulgarian chauvinism"!!!!! and it is not celebrated anymore! At the same time, the Bulgarian communists, under the influence of their Soviet friends, are beginning to prepare for the demolition of the memorials of the Russian-Turkish war, as they are considered ideologically contrary to communism! This happened already in Soviet Russia, the Bolsheviks destroyed a huge number of monuments to Russia. emperors and state. leaders under the guise of - the fight against the monarchist heritage! But our communists did not succeed in this nasty business! They realized in time that the Bulgarian people would not accept such actions! I will continue on the topic of March 3 ... Under Todor Zhivkov, the authorities are slowly rehabilitating this holiday. By the decision of the Politburo at the BKP since 1978, this day begins to be celebrated, but not as an official holiday. And you yourself understand that it was impossible to raise the flag of the Russian Empire and honor Emperor Alexander II then.
        And after the onset of Democracy, the National Assembly / Parliament / in 1991 declared March 3 the national holiday of the Republic of Bulgaria. hi
        1. iouris
          iouris 26 March 2021 20: 31
          -1
          But until 1991 Bulgaria did not join NATO.
          1. pytar
            pytar 26 March 2021 20: 36
            -1
            But until 1991 Bulgaria did not join NATO.

            More precisely, until 2004, joined NATO 14 years after the collapse of the ATS. At a time when the Russian Federation and NATO were very friendly ... bully
            1. iouris
              iouris 26 March 2021 20: 59
              -1
              Russia and NATO were friends against Russia.
              1. pytar
                pytar 27 March 2021 12: 04
                0
                Russia and NATO were friends against Russia.

                It turns out that the problem is purely internal. Then there is nothing to blame the outside world for your internal problems.
          2. alatanas
            alatanas 26 March 2021 20: 43
            0
            Bulgaria has joined NATO since 2004, and Bulgaria gained independence in 1908.
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. Rita Aletdinova 1999
        Rita Aletdinova 1999 29 March 2021 01: 42
        -1
        What were the cons for you? You wrote the pure truth!
    2. parusnik
      parusnik 26 March 2021 14: 14
      +2
      Article by date or coincidentally?
      "Coincidence? I don't think so." smile
      1. iouris
        iouris 26 March 2021 21: 01
        0
        Maybe for Mishustin's visit? By the way, a convenient event for negotiations about something with Britain.
  • iouris
    iouris 26 March 2021 20: 30
    +1
    Catherine even named her grandson Constantine, however ... Greece joined NATO. Can Russia finally join Turkey? Peskov already communicates perfectly in Turkish. And no one speaks Greek.
  • Seal
    Seal 5 May 2021 17: 32
    0
    Unfortunately, Emperor Nicholas I followed the lead of the overly cautious Russian Foreign Ministry (its leadership pursued a pro-Western policy, fearing to anger London and Vienna).

    Nesselrrode, of course, is not a good person, but in this case ???
    In 1830, in Carlsbad, he saw Metternich, who showered him with reproaches for supporting the Greek uprising; Nesselrode admitted, at least according to Metternich's story, the whole truth of these accusations and agreed that the revolution, started by the Greeks, is most dangerous for Russia.

    Next.
    In the XNUMXth century, the Ottomans conquered Greece and made it their province. Some islands in the Ionian Sea, Crete and the hard-to-reach regions of the Peloponnese lasted longer, but in the XNUMXth century they were also conquered.

    The Ottomans in the XNUMXth century could not and did not conquer any Greece. For there was no Greece in the XNUMXth century. There were some small fiefdoms of the former crusaders, that is, Western Europeans and Venetians in the Iberian Peninsula. Crete, well, that part of it that resisted the Ottomans was also a Venetian possession. Athens (Duchy of Athens) was ruled by the banking family Nerio, from memory like a Florentine banking house. There were also microscopic remains of the Roman Empire (Byzantium).
    In the spring of 1822, the Turkish fleet landed troops on the island of Chios. The Ottomans began a savage massacre. The Orthodox Archbishop was hanged on the Turkish flagship. On the shore, the Turks impaled Christians, erected pyramids from cut off heads, etc.

    Five hundred Cossacks took part in this massacre under the command of the chieftain of the kosh Semyon Moroz and the army sergeant major Loch. By the way, Moroz is a native of the city of Kiev, and Loch is a noble Polish gentry, a native of the Right Bank. In this case on Chios Koshevoy and folded his wild little head.
    The details of the participation of the Cossacks in the massacre have not reached us. There are several descriptions of the events on Chios left by the surviving Greeks. But they did not know the Russian language and did not distinguish between the Cossacks among the Turks.
    What makes you think. If the koshevoy of the Zaporozhye army was killed on Chios, then judging by this fact, there was not only a massacre there. A pretty decent battle.
    Moreover
    It should be noted that a few local and numerous Jews from Smyrna (Izmir) tracked down the unfortunate Chians and in the footsteps of the Turks took part in the massacre, shouting "freedom, freedom, get freedom from the scimitar." Chios Andreas Mamukas (1801-1884), a participant in the events who was captured, but escaped - later a deputy of parliament and a writer - wrote about the Jews of Smyrna: "this Christian warring nation rushed to rob and destroy with irrepressible hatred."