Military Review

"The emperor died with an apoplectic blow to the temple with a snuffbox"

132
"The emperor died with an apoplectic blow to the temple with a snuffbox"
Monument to Paul I in Gatchina. The work of I. Vitali


220 years ago, the Russian Tsar Paul I was killed in his bedroom at the Mikhailovsky Castle. For a long time, the topic of Paul's murder was completely banned in the Russian Empire. According to the official version, he had an apoplectic stroke.

There was a joke in the capital:

"The emperor died with an apoplectic blow to the temple with a snuffbox."

This conspiracy was the last in the era of palace coups.

It was attended by almost the entire court elite, headed by Vice-Chancellor Nikita Panin, St. Petersburg Governor-General Peter Palen, the last favorite of Catherine II Platon Zubov and his brothers. It is possible that the son of the emperor, Alexander Pavlovich, was also aware of the conspiracy.

The slandered sovereign


Emperor Pavel Petrovich is one of the most vilified figures in the Russian stories.

His contemporaries did not understand him. The descendants, who looked at Paul through the eyes of his century, did not appreciate it.

And in noble circles it was customary to talk not only about immense despotism, but also about the insanity of the tsar. In him they saw only a tyrant, who was ready to exile the Horse Guards for poor alignment directly from the watch parade to Siberia. The dictator who forbade the word "citizen", the wearing of tailcoats and round hats characteristic of

"Godless French".

He ordered to paint all the barriers and sentry boxes of the empire in the color of the gloves of his favorite.

All these stereotypes were fully accepted first by Soviet and then Russian cinematography. The people were shown the tsar "fool", a mad despot.

Forgotten was his truly chivalrous character, as well as his kind and sympathetic soul. And the fact that he was a quick-tempered, but easy-going emperor.

The creators of the general picture of Paul's life also preferred not to remember that he spent almost his entire life in exile. Catherine the Great, who did a lot of good to the state and people, was like a stepmother for her son.

From childhood and adolescence, the Tsarevich endured the insults of the empress's powerful favorites, participants in the assassination of his father, Tsar Peter III, who openly sneered at him and defamed the memory of his father. They did not reckon with him, did not respect him.

In his youth, he thirsted for exploits, was full of knightly aspirations and repeatedly asked for war (and during the glorious reign of Catherine there were enough reasons for the Tsarevich to fight). But he was excommunicated from the front line.

He had to endure a lot, suffer. A deep breakdown occurred in his soul, which left a strong and tragic imprint on his entire character.

The Tsarevich saw the inside of the victorious, beautiful court of Catherine. His small and ascetic courtyard in Gatchina was a kind of antipode to the brilliant and magnificent Petersburg courtyard.

The little Gatchina guard (a kind of "amusing" Peter the Great) was a protest against the brilliant Catherine's guard and the orders of mother.

The Gatchina army consisted of 6 weak numbered battalions (200-300 men), 3 cavalry regiments, two squadrons each (Gendarme, Dragunsky and Gussar - 150-200 sabers each) and 1 artillery battalion (12 harnessed and 46 unloaded cannons). Up to 2 thousand people in total.

All the dissatisfied and losers from the regular army, its “dirty linen”, went here.

When Paul ascended the throne, the Gatchina army was disbanded, the Gatchina people were distributed among the guards.

Harsh, disciplined servicemen, "fruntoviks" made a strong contrast with the pampered metropolitan dandies and motes of Catherine's times. Many guardsmen served only formally, spending time in revelry and partying.

Pavlovian orders


Pavel Petrovich loved the navy and understood naval affairs well.

Much has been done in the organization, technical support and procurement fleet... Much of Paul's Naval Rite has survived to this day. The service and life of the sailors has been made easier.

He became the master of the Knightly Order of Malta, whose interests he took to heart. As a result, Russia could become the heir to the ancient knightly traditions of Europe, accept the best from the Order of St. John. And received a base in the Mediterranean Sea - Malta.

Paul adopted a new act of succession, which canceled the decree of Peter I, which provided for the sovereign the right to appoint an heir himself, which opened the way to the era of palace coups. And it could lead to chaos and dictatorship.

Also, the Pavlovian law gave preference to male heirs. The era of women empresses is over.

Pavel Petrovich began to put things in order in the nobility. Restored corporal punishment for nobles for various crimes. Nobles who evaded service were brought to justice. Also, the nobles were obliged to pay tax for the maintenance of local governments, etc.

Paul (like all sovereigns since the time of Catherine the Great) was aware of the danger and negativity of serfdom. Serfdom was dealt the first blow by the decree on the three-day corvee.

For the peasants, the ruinous grain service was abolished. The preferential sale of salt and bread from state stocks began in order to bring down prices.

It was forbidden to sell household people and peasants without land, to separate families. The governors were supposed to monitor the attitude of the landowners to the peasants, in case of violations - to inform the sovereign. The peasants received the right to file complaints about the oppression of the nobles and managers.

Pavel Petrovich pursued the most tolerant religious policy.

The position of the parish priests was eased. The Emperor allowed the construction of Old Believer churches in all dioceses. Paul had a special relationship with the papal throne, the Jesuit Order and the Order of Malta. Through them, Paul tried to influence Europe, preserve and restore the knighthood.

Foreign policy and the army


Pavel Petrovich first succumbed to Austria and England. He entered into a confrontation with France.

The immortal exploits of Ushakov in the Mediterranean and Suvorov in Italy and Switzerland glorified the Russians weapon.

However, the Master of the Order of Malta quickly figured out the hypocrisy and meanness of Vienna and London.

The Austrians and British wanted to crush revolutionary France with Russian hands. And they themselves wanted to capture areas and strategic points in Northern and Southern Europe, as well as in the Mediterranean Sea. Russians were used as "cannon fodder". At the same time, Russia and France then did not have any strategic contradictions that needed to be resolved with weapons. Moreover, the two powers could conclude a mutually beneficial alliance and limit the appetites of Austria and England.

Therefore, Paul refused to participate in the coalition against France.

In 1800, he was ready, together with France, to act against England. The idea arose of a grandiose march to India, which could crush the British positions in India. The Russian-French strategic alliance could destroy Britain's plans to create a world empire, global hegemony.

The sovereign revived the principles of the first armed neutrality. Thus, Northern Europe came out of the influence of England. A coalition of powers with their own fleets opposed England.

Paul's military activities were controversial.

On the one hand, the sovereign, instead of the rational "Potemkin" form, which abolished wigs and bouclés, introduced uniforms borrowed from outdated Prussian models. Great attention was paid to the outer side of the service (shagistika), drill.

On the other hand, a lot has been done and positive. The sovereign tried to establish order and discipline in the brilliant but disbanded Catherine's army and guards. The dandies and idlers, who neglected their duties and looked at service as a profitable and pleasant business, were shown and made to feel that service is above all service.

Military regulations introduced criminal liability of officers for the life and health of their subordinate soldiers. The privates were forbidden to be used as serfs, taken to estates, used outside of military service. The service life of the soldiers was limited to 25 years, previously the service was lifelong. For those dismissed for health or seniority at 25, pensions were introduced.

In the new Pavlovsk uniforms, for the first time, they introduced warm winter clothes (vests and an overcoat), they saved thousands of lives in future wars. In winter, sheepskin coats and felt boots were introduced for the sentries.

The townspeople were freed from the stand. They began to build barracks (previously they were only in the capital).

In the army, new units were created - cartographic (Depot of maps), courier (Courier corps), engineering (Pioneer regiment). The Military Medical Academy was established.

The Russian emperor was the first in Europe to introduce an award for soldiers - a silver medal "For Bravery". For the immaculate 20-year service, they were awarded the insignia of the Order of St. Anna (then the badge of the Order of St. John). The second (after Paul) ordinary soldier was awarded by Napoleon.

The emperor also introduced collective awards - distinctions to regiments. The first award was a grenadier battle, borrowed from Prussia, and complained to the regiments for distinction. Another reward was the inscriptions on the banners of the regiments that repulsed the enemy's banners. Also, the sovereign raised the value of regimental banners to regimental shrines. Previously, they were considered simple property.

It is worth noting that Tsar Paul, despite his severity and quick temper, loved a simple soldier. The soldiers felt it and responded in kind.

As noted by the Russian military historian A.A. Kersnovsky:

"The silent ranks of crying grenadiers, the silently wavering lines of bayonets on the fateful morning of March 11, 1801, were one of the most tragic paintings in the history of the Russian army."


"Vakhtparade under Emperor Paul I". A.N. Benoit

The death of the sovereign


The sovereign was killed on the night of 11 (23) to 12 (24) March 1801 at the Mikhailovsky Castle by a group of officers.

The killers were led by Nikolai Zubov and Leonty Bennigsen. The conspirators, after getting drunk, demanded that Paul renounce the throne in favor of his son, Alexander.

Pavel Petrovich refused.

M. Fonvizin:

“… Several threats that escaped from the unfortunate Pavel caused Nikolai Zubov, who was athletic strength.

He held in his hand a gold snuff-box and with a swing hit Paul in the temple with it, this was a signal by which Prince Yashvil, Tatarinov, Gordonov and Skaryatin fiercely rushed at him, snatched the sword from his hands: a desperate struggle began with him.

Paul was strong and strong; he was thrown to the floor, trampled underfoot, with a sword hilt they broke his head and, finally, crushed Skaryatin with a scarf ”.

The conspiracy took shape among the decayed aristocracy, which hated Paul for his "knightly" policy.

For the desire of the sovereign to call the nobility and high society to order and discipline.

His foreign policy also irritated him.

In St. Petersburg there was a strong pro-German party, in the interests of the German peace was the participation of Russians in the war with France.

Plus the interests of Britain.

One of the most important roles in the conspiracy was played by the British ambassador Charles Whitworthby the way mason.

He was the lover of Olga Alexandrovna Zherebtsova, sister of Platon Zubov. Through Zherebtsova, the conspirators received instructions and gold.

Thus, Britain thwarted the Russian-French alliance, the Indian campaign of the Russian army, the threat of the unification of the Nordic countries against England.

Pavel Petrovich's policy could significantly weaken the position of England, this monstrous spider swollen with blood and gold of hundreds of peoples.

Paul was the first to realize the terrible threat posed to Russia and the world from Britain. And he died.

Russian nobles, killing Paul, played a role English agents.

Alexander Pavlovich, Paul's son, was so intimidated and broken that none of the conspirators was punished.

And Russia again began to play the role of "cannon fodder" of Vienna, London and Berlin, getting involved in completely unnecessary and bloody wars with France (How Russia became the figure of England in the big game against France; Part 2).
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
132 comments
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  1. Far B
    Far B 25 March 2021 05: 09
    +3
    Forgotten his truly chivalrous character, as well as a kind and sympathetic soul
    Oh bida bida! Samsonov "knight" Ungern for "knight" Pavel Petrovich exchanged! Apostate.
    1. Cowbra
      Cowbra 25 March 2021 05: 30
      -6
      One is worth the other. Can we add more knights of the Reich to them?
      1. Far B
        Far B 25 March 2021 05: 35
        +1
        Do not prompt! And then, God forbid, the topic will go ...
    2. Abrosimov Sergey Olegovich
      Abrosimov Sergey Olegovich 25 March 2021 09: 56
      +3
      Quote: Dalny V
      Oh bida bida! Samsonov "knight" Ungern for "knight" Pavel Petrovich exchanged! Apostate.

      Quote: Dalny V
      Oh bida bida! Samsonov "knight" Ungern for "knight" Pavel Petrovich exchanged! Apostate.


      However, Valishevsky in his works also indicates and emphasizes precisely the KNIGHT'S character of the Sovereign Emperor Paul I
    3. vladcub
      vladcub 25 March 2021 12: 47
      +13
      Comrade, they forgot that among the Samsonovs, there are: a monarchist, a Bolshevik, a descendant of Ungern. There is both a "Tartarian" and a "seaman". In short, "Samsonov" has many faces
      1. Far B
        Far B 26 March 2021 01: 25
        0
        In short, "Samsonov" has many faces
        Mountain-like and hydrous? The ancient Romans are weaklings, their two-faced anus resting in the background laughing
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 26 March 2021 16: 27
          +2
          Shame on you, after all, they are "the best historians"
    4. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 25 March 2021 17: 33
      +2
      Colleague Dalny, do not worry: Ungern was a monarchist and will not be offended if someone from the "Samsonovs" glorifies the emperor
  2. svp67
    svp67 25 March 2021 05: 26
    +12
    Emperor Pavel Petrovich is one of the most vilified figures in Russian history.
    Well, he is not alone on this list ... There is also Petra, Anna ...
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 25 March 2021 09: 42
      0
      Quote: svp67
      Emperor Pavel Petrovich is one of the most vilified figures in Russian history.
      Well, he is not alone on this list ... There is also Petra, Anna ...

      Why is there ... "blacken" something?

      he himself "blackened". What is it worth: he sent to death in Central Asia, the Don army (22 people), whose task was to conquer Khiva and Bukhara and India-without ... maps, preparation, no supplies, but with this cidula:

      Remember that you it's only about the British, go from Indus on the Ganges, and there on the English... Approve Bukharia in passingso that the Chinese do not get it. In Khiva, release


      And this is not a movie "Ivan Vasilyevich is changing ..": "And take Kazan on the way back," but seriously!

      This man was, first of all, the Master of the Order of Malta, and only then the Emperor of Russia. And the author completely misinterpreted Paul's movements in foreign policy: he was not looking for the benefits of Russia, but, in spite of them, he defended his beloved Malta: the French captured Malta, he fiercely fought with the French, captured it by the British, he turned 180 degrees and opposed him.

      According to Vigel's memoirs, the generals who delivered the news of his death to Moscow on Palm Sunday, "Everyone who met was greeted and greeted as if with their eyes":
      This is one of those memories that time can never consume: mute, universal joy, illuminated by the bright spring sun. Returning home, I could not get any sense: acquaintances constantly came and went, everyone spoke at the same time, everyone hugged, as on the day of Bright Sunday (c)


      And the author has no words about this ... request
      1. knn54
        knn54 25 March 2021 10: 13
        +4
        The British did not "forgive" Paul for accepting the title of Master of the Order of Malta. And they found like-minded people in the face of the overweight guard, which Paul could have sent to war.
        According to the memoirs of people close to Alexander 1, the emperor's people were constantly oppressed by participation, albeit indirect, in the murder of his father.
        PS In our time, the version of death would be a snuffbox with AI.
        And yet, Ivan the Terrible, Pavel Alexander 3-are they the only victims of the British ???
        1. antivirus
          antivirus 26 March 2021 17: 51
          0
          how did Nicky 2 live? knowing all this and even about other countries - the age of newspapers and telegraph has come.
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 25 March 2021 12: 51
        +6
        Olgovich, this "Samsonov" does not know this, and some other will know only this
      3. Serg koma
        Serg koma 25 March 2021 19: 13
        0
        Quote: Olgovich
        Why is there ... "blacken" something?

        Why do the minuses fly belay - for "... it's up to the British only ..." laughing
  3. WILL
    WILL 25 March 2021 05: 52
    +2
    An alternative version of the story from the Samsonovs' group of authors, amusingly, even read it.
    The last phrase even amused
    And Russia again began to play the role of "cannon fodder" of Vienna, London and Berlin, getting involved in completely unnecessary and bloody wars with France
  4. apro
    apro 25 March 2021 05: 59
    +16
    This is all clear ... but somehow the question escapes ... and someone from the house of the Romanovs repented for the death of Paul ??? after all, he is the legitimate emperor, no one has overthrown him, and he himself has not renounced. How does today's monarchist public perceive the murder of the emperor ?? ? as a worthy action. why can you do that? and the memory of the emperor is honored as an innocent victim or a murdered and devoted?
    1. Gardamir
      Gardamir 25 March 2021 07: 40
      +17
      from the house of the Romanovs repented for the death of Paul ???
      Good question. Therefore, I would like to ask you why Kolya number two is a passion-bearer, and Pavel is no one to call?
      1. apro
        apro 25 March 2021 08: 04
        +17
        Quote: Gardamir
        Why is Kolya number two a passion-bearer, and no one to call Pavel?

        Probably the wrong ones were killed. And not so.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 25 March 2021 11: 59
          +13
          Probably the wrong ones were killed. And not so.

          I will add a little - for the Old Believers, Paul was then practically a saint, a separate prayer was read for the repose of his soul. The reason is simple - he allowed the Old Believers to open their churches. That is, in some way, "released from the underground." hi
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 25 March 2021 13: 45
            +6
            We have an "Old Believer" and he will confirm. If without fun, then Paul, as it were, began to equalize the rights of the Old Believers and the "Nikonians"
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 25 March 2021 14: 32
              +8
              If without fun, then Paul, as it were, began to equalize the rights of the Old Believers and the "Nikonians"

              Svyatoslav, welcome! drinks Here, rather, it is not really about the equation, but about a "step towards" - he allowed to open his temples. what
              In general, if we talk about the church, then we can mention that Paul had a very interesting relationship from childhood with Father Plato. yes The Father was his teacher of the Law of God. The little Tsarevich was afraid of him, and before the exam he jumped nervously, lamenting: "Oh, I'm afraid, I'm afraid!" However, he passed the exam very well, as witnessed by the regal mama, who expressed her pleasure. Later, Father Platon became Metropolitan of Moscow, and quarreled with Paul a lot after his accession to the throne, starting with the coronation ... But the Father is reflected on the monument "1000th Anniversary of Russia" in the Novgorod Kremlin!
              1. vladcub
                vladcub 25 March 2021 15: 45
                +7
                Actually, the "regal mama" is herself a Lutheran by birth, until the end of her life she did not learn to speak Russian purely. So it's not yet a fact that the Tsarevich learned the Law of God well
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 25 March 2021 16: 02
                  +7
                  So it's not a fact that the Tsarevich learned the Law of God well

                  The fact of the matter is that the Tsarevich was brought up by "Russians" and Russians. His first teacher was Semyon Poroshin, from his words it is known about this exam. Poroshin did not live a long life, but left "Notes" - in fact, a diary describing everyday activities with the boy. Let's just say - the teacher put his soul into his student exactly. good Most frequently repeated entry: "I studied very well"... The notes were published in the 19th century, can be found on the internet, I found. By the way, it was Poroshin who told little Pavel about the "Maltese Cavaliers", which he was extremely fascinated with. More than thirty years will pass, and the childhood dream will come true - Paul will become the Grand Master of the Order of Malta ... yes
        2. Catfish
          Catfish 25 March 2021 15: 55
          +12
          There were simply no Bolsheviks then, and you would have written Pavel as a great martyr.
          1. The comment was deleted.
    2. bober1982
      bober1982 25 March 2021 08: 16
      +4
      Quote: apro
      today's monarchist public perceives

      The thing is that such a monarchical public simply does not exist, if it does exist, it is only in a sick imagination.
      Once they asked our great elder John Krestyankin ..... when, father, will the tsar be in Russia? to which he replied ....... except maybe Chinese.
      No need, comrades, to excite yourself unnecessarily.
      1. apro
        apro 25 March 2021 08: 25
        +4
        Quote: bober1982
        No need, comrades, to excite yourself unnecessarily

        Quote: bober1982
        The thing is that such a monarchical public simply does not exist.

        Beaver. Judging by the squeals in the comments on the website. About the execution of citizen Romanov, the former tsar of the empire, this is not true.
        And judging by what the upper Russian tusovka is doing, assigning titles to itself and elevating to the nobility for a fraction of a little ... then the question of the return of serfdom is not far off.
        1. bober1982
          bober1982 25 March 2021 08: 40
          -7
          Quote: apro
          judging by the squeals in the comments on the website about the execution of citizen Romanov.

          This was not an execution, but a ritual murder, from which later all the Togarisch disowned.
          Stalin, by the way, then basically killed the whole group of regicides.
          1. apro
            apro 25 March 2021 08: 44
            +6
            Quote: bober1982
            but ritual murder,

            Oh how. And whose ritual was it ??? what remliga?
            Quote: bober1982
            from which then all the Togarischi disowned.

            Why, you, the Soviets, didn’t overturn your verdict. They didn’t hide it.
            1. bober1982
              bober1982 25 March 2021 19: 04
              -2
              Quote: apro
              Oh how. And whose ritual was it ??? what remliga?

              Pavel Petrovich was killed for the same rituals, as Nikolai Alexandrovich - according to Satanist rules. There is such a letter! as one showman says (just kidding)
    3. knn54
      knn54 25 March 2021 13: 56
      +6
      There was such an anecdote: Alexander III instructed Pobedonostsev, his teacher and advisor, to check the rumor that the father of Paul I was not Peter III, but Sergei Vasilyevich Saltykov, the first lover of the future Empress Catherine II. Pobedonostsev first told the emperor that, in fact, Saltykov could be the father. Alexander III was delighted: "Thank God, we are Russians!" But then Pobedonostsev found facts in favor of Peter's paternity. The Emperor, however, rejoiced again: "Thank God, we are legitimate" ...
      1. depressant
        depressant 25 March 2021 17: 27
        +5
        Catherine II did not like her son Paul, which is indirect evidence that Paul I was legitimate, the son of Peter III. But she adored bastard Alexei Bobrinsky. After all, he was born by her from the beautiful Grigory Orlov, later a prince. But fate was cruel to the prince. It is hard to believe that the loss of a woman you love can go crazy. Catherine was the loss. But not at all a reigning person.
        1. Serg koma
          Serg koma 25 March 2021 19: 34
          +1
          Quote: depressant
          But she adored bastard Alexei Bobrinsky

          “And you were not afraid to marry an unworthy husband” - Catherine II about her “adored” son.
          1. depressant
            depressant 25 March 2021 20: 18
            +2
            Yes, Bobrinsky was a playboy)))
            But he determined the degree of his outrages exactly such that the mother, annoyed, forgave. And, you know, the attitude of the mother towards the child is not always, but often determined by the attitude towards his father.
        2. Richard
          Richard 25 March 2021 20: 57
          +5
          It's hard to believe that the loss of a woman you love can go crazy.

          Orlov himself, thought differently winked
          On November 15, 1782, Harris wrote about Grigory Orlov's illness:
          “On June 16, 1777, 43-year-old Grigory Orlov married his 18-year-old cousin Ekaterina Zinovieva, but the marriage did not last long. The wife died in Lausanne in June 1781 at the age of incomplete 22 years of consumption, after which Orlov went mad and fell into childhood. Currently, two very dissimilar subjects excite the Empress ... The state of Prince Orlov and his senseless speeches touch her to tears and depress her so much that until the end of the day she cannot do anything or even find rest in entertainment. Sometimes she has to listen to his whims and the most painful words, and a few days ago, in the throne room, he suddenly cried out that it was remorse that had robbed him of his mind, and that participation in a very old case brought on him the righteous judgment of heaven... Prince Orlov's insanity deeply saddened her. She says that never in her entire life has she experienced such a cruel and painful shock as from this terrible incident, which befell her oldest favorite. "
          Link.: A.I. Turgenev. Russian court in the 2005th century. St. Petersburg, Art, 978. ISBN 5-210-01590-7-381. P. XNUMX.
          1. depressant
            depressant 25 March 2021 22: 28
            +4
            Yes, this is such a sadness ... But the lovely Katya Zinovieva and Grigory Orlov did not want to marry - a close relationship. So Katya insisted! And it didn't matter that she was 18, and he was 43 - she insisted. There was a really deep feeling on her part. Orlov was a handsome man and he was significant, surrounded by an aura of state demand, important and needed - a true nobleman. Falling in love with this is not a sin. So this story got stuck in my memory. And yet, despite the depth of the feelings involved in it, there is some kind of aftertaste with a touch of awkwardness. Maybe from the discrepancy between the power of the character and the indecency of his further weakness in the form of loss of reason.
            1. Richard
              Richard 25 March 2021 23: 22
              +5
              So Katya insisted! And it didn't matter that she was 18, and he was 43 - she insisted. There was a really deep feeling on her part. Orlov was a handsome man


              Katya insisted - that's for sure yes
              Yes, but not the one you are writing about, but the Empress of All Russia smile wassat
              Yes, not only insisted, but also in anger ordered that Orlov before marriage "for the shame inflicted", "so as not to evade it," annually paid the Zinovievs "100 thousand rubles, and the same amount in precious stones." Orlov delayed this marriage for 5 years, referring to the fact that the church forbade marriages to such a degree of kinship .... But greed eventually won out. So in his work "Hofmeisters, ladies of state and maids of honor of the Russian court of the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries."
              (Additional and notes: A. B. Lobanov-Rostovsky]. - St. Petersburg: type. V. S. Balasheva, 1872. - 128 p.) Writes Pavel Fedorovich Karabanov - a major connoisseur of Russian history and antiquities, an expert in the field prosopography, author of the "Russian genealogical book".
              The fact is that the "wonderful" (as you call him G. Orlov), As directly indicated in the treatise "On the Damage of Morals in Russia" book. Shcherbatova:
              “Grigory Orlov, his thirteen-year-old cousin Yekaterina Nikolaevna Zinovieva, became weak, and although he married her afterwards in order not to pay her family, the huge seven-year fine“ for shame ”imposed on him by the empress for this shameful act, did not cover up the vice his own, for he had already done his deed publicly, and in the very marriage he violated all sacred and civil laws ”( link: Shcherbatov M.M. SPb., 1898. T. 2. Pp. 229).

              How do you write -
              "it was a really deep feeling."

              Well, as they say - no comment hi smile
              1. depressant
                depressant 25 March 2021 23: 45
                +5
                You see, Dima, in what different ways we know this story)))
                That is why I had a certain painful feeling as a manifestation of instinct - something that is akin to an internal polygraph that did not allow comparing the relationship between young Katerina and an adult Orlov - no, not with Romeo and Juliet, but with the famous case of Griboyedov - Nino Chavchavadze. There was also almost a girl there. But this girl then spent her whole life in mourning for her deceased husband and did not look at a single man. So she was left alone.
  5. parusnik
    parusnik 25 March 2021 06: 23
    +10
    It seems that there will be a series about all kinds of "knights" of the white movement, kings, courtiers .. Ideas, monarchism, holy: Orthodoxy, autocracy, narodnost. A new, old project. laughing The author, a trip to India at that time, is pure adventure. Although, for you, to cross the mountains, like two fingers on the asphalt. The rest is just not talking. laughing
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 25 March 2021 10: 20
      +14
      The author, a trip to India at that time, was pure adventure.

      Alexey Anatolyevich, hello! Interestingly, in the instructions for the campaign, Paul commanded to go through Khiva and free our own captives. As you remember, the issue with the thieving Khivans was resolved only in the second half of the 19th century.
      I do not like to leave comments under Mr. Samsonov ... But, if he already took up my favorite historical character, then we will analyze it in fact.
      The dictator who banned the word "citizen", wearing tailcoats and round hats

      The decrees on the clothes of the emperor were clearly precedent. Prohibiting round hats, he indicated the wearing of cocked hats. It was impossible to wear shoes "with cords" (laces), but it was necessary - with buckles!
      He ordered to paint all the barriers and sentry boxes of the empire in the color of the gloves of his favorite.

      It seems that the color of the barriers was worked out by Pavel in Gatchina. The story about the gloves of the favorite refers to to the color of the Mikhailovsky Castle - there is such a legend.
      In his youth, he thirsted for exploits, was full of knightly aspirations and repeatedly asked for war (and during the glorious reign of Catherine there were enough reasons for the Tsarevich to fight). But he was excommunicated from the front line.

      In his youth, yes. But in adulthood he was allowed to go to the Russian-Swedish war of 1788-1790, and he was present during the hostilities. In the words of a contemporary: "and even cannonballs flew over his head." Before leaving for the army, Pavel left his wife a touching message-order ...
      The townspeople were freed from the stand. They began to build barracks (previously they were only in the capital).

      True. Moreover, even for the Gatchina troops, Pavel increased the number of Good Doctors in the army.
      The Emperor allowed the construction of Old Believer churches in all dioceses.

      After the death of the sovereign, the Old Believers prayed separately for him. They remembered the kindness shown to them.
      For the desire of the sovereign to call the nobility and high society to order and discipline.

      How to say ... in recent years, Paul has become unbearable - petty, suspicious, extremely hot-tempered. Sablukov writes that his comrades, going on guard, always kept a certain amount of money with them. Because one could run into the emperor's wrath at any moment and go to another place. I think the situation was rather nervous.
      But at the same time, the Horse Guards and Transfiguration were reliable. The soldiers were pleased with the emperor - he generously distributed meat and money.
      The killers were led by Nikolai Zubov and Leonty Bennigsen.

      The role of Count Palen is not mentioned. In general, he was the leader of the conspirators, and he had to lead his detachment to the castle. but supposedly ... got lost in the Summer Garden. Than letting others do all the dirty work for themselves.
      crushed Skaryatin with a scarf. "

      According to various recollections, it could have been a scarf from both Marina and Pavel himself. But, in general, what's the difference, whose scarf, if the job is done ...
      Something like this! drinks
      1. Daniil Konovalenko
        Daniil Konovalenko 25 March 2021 10: 43
        +6
        Interestingly, in the instructions for the campaign, Paul commanded to go through Khiva and free our own captives.
        The decree was apparently drawn up in the spirit, I order: to send a military force to knock out the Crimean khan from the Izyum highway, and along the way take Kazan. Thank you for the information, some things I did not know, sometimes the comments are more interesting to read than Samsonov's articles.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 25 March 2021 10: 57
          +8
          The decree was apparently drawn up in the spirit, I order: to send a military force to knock out the Crimean khan from the Izyum highway, and along the way take Kazan. Thank you for the information, some things I did not know, sometimes the comments are more interesting to read than Samsonov's articles.

          Daniel, greetings! drinks I can't find this decree offhand, but it is in this book:

          Here is an interesting historical article about the hike, PDF file, download for health or read online:
          https://riss.ru/documents/431/b13aa06f1aa345a2a3120104ca92fe9b.pdf
          Page 207 of the journal:
          Paul I also took into account the fact that during the campaign, the army of Ataman Orlov would have to solve problems that were not characteristic of the irregular cavalry. Thus, the storming of Khiva and Bukhara was clearly envisaged. In the rescripts from Paul I to Orlov, it was written, in particular, "to approve Bukharia so that the Chinese do not get it, and release so many thousands of our captive subjects in Khiva," which, of course, was impossible without the military defeat of these robber nests.
          Page 209:
          the emperor's phrase in one of his letters to Orlov: "To approve Bukhara so that the Chinese do not get it."
          Yes you are right. The forum is sometimes much more interesting than the articles themselves. Thank! drinks
          1. Daniil Konovalenko
            Daniil Konovalenko 25 March 2021 12: 04
            +3
            drinks Thanks a lot for the links hi
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 25 March 2021 12: 32
              +8
              Thanks a lot for the links

              From books. There is Schilder (General Historian) - the basic book. There are memoirs of contemporaries.
              I recommend Sablukov's notes. Nikolai Alexandrovich wrote with an open mind. A man of interesting fate, slandered before the emperor at the very last moment. About the night of the regicide, he wrote what he had heard from others, so he rightly lied about the fact that the emperor argued with Zubov for half an hour. We must understand that everything was decided in minutes ...
              https://knigogid.ru/books/800310-zapiski-na-sablukova-o-vremenah-imperatora-pavla-i-i-o-konchine-etogo-gosudarya/toread?update_page
              Also from the books I recommend:

              Do you know that Pavel loved theater very much in Gatchina? That he wanted to build there the knightly fortress city of Ingerburg? Then you are here! drinks
              This book is extremely interesting:

              The author cites there not only materials about Peter, but also about Paul. Numerous memories. Although not without errors - for example, he repeats the common "terrible tale" about the opening of Paul's grave. In fact, the grave was not opened! stop
              3 cavalry regiments, two squadrons each (Gendarmes, Draguns and Hussars - 150-200 sabers each)

              Just Ivanov mentions the words of Rostopchin. Next is the version of the graph. When dear mamma Pavel had a blow, Nikolai Zubov was sent to Gatchina (Wikipedia mistakenly writes - Valerian). Pavel at this time rode through the parks. Zubov dispatched two Gatchina hussars along two different roads to search for him. The question is that the Gatchina hussars were from Little Russians. One did find Pavel and said about the visit.
              - How many of them?
              Hussar heard the Russian expression "one like a finger", but he understood the meaning in a peculiar way, so he answered:
              - One, yak dog!
              - Well, with one more you can handle! - Pavel said, crossed himself, and went to meet with his future murderer.
              The presence of a large number of Little Russians among the Gatchins is also confirmed by the memories of the guards. Like, "what kind of people, what kind of manners, we have blue noble blood here, and you stuffed these in our guards ..." laughing
          2. Richard
            Richard 25 March 2021 23: 53
            +3
            I can't find this decree offhand

            Hello Pane hi
            Donskoy Ataman Orlov Vasily Petrov
            ORDER
            The British are preparing to make an attack by the fleet and the army on me and on my allies - the Swedes and the Danes. I am ready to accept them, but you need to attack them yourself and where the blow can be more sensitive to them and where they are less expected. India is the best place for this. It's three months from us to the Indus, from Orenburg, but from you there is a month, but only four months. I entrust this entire expedition to you and your army, Vasily Petrovich ... All the wealth of India will be your reward for this expedition.
            Emperor Paul I
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 26 March 2021 09: 44
              +3
              Hello Pane

              Good day! Yes, just such a text! drinks
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 25 March 2021 13: 57
        +5
        "got lost in the Summer Garden," the poor man has never been there, but in a hurry he forgot the compass.
        Comrades from St. Petersburg, was it really possible to get lost in the Summer Garden?
        Or is it an excuse for primary school age?
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 25 March 2021 14: 38
          +9
          Comrades from St. Petersburg, was it really possible to get lost in the Summer Garden?

          Let's just say it is very problematic. But Palen decided to do it. yes
        2. Mihaylov
          Mihaylov 25 March 2021 14: 57
          +4
          Quote: vladcub
          Comrades from St. Petersburg, was it really possible to get lost in the Summer Garden?

          I've never been so drunk hi
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 25 March 2021 16: 04
            +4
            Or maybe he met the ghost of the national hero Susanin?
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 25 March 2021 16: 11
              +7
              Or maybe he met the ghost of the national hero Susanin?

              Interestingly, the retired Count of Palen drank himself into oblivion on the evening of each anniversary of the regicide ... No. Therefore, we reject the version with Susanin! drinks
              Yankovsky brilliantly played the Count ...

              And Sukhorukov - I think the best role ... good
            2. Mihaylov
              Mihaylov 25 March 2021 16: 24
              +4
              Quote: Sea Cat
              Or maybe he met the ghost of the national hero Susanin?


              In the Summer Garden.

              We started with half a liter
              And they ate a gallon.
              Let's go and for some reason swayed
              The Hermitage has a column.

              They plucked a swan in the pond,
              They drove around the Summer Garden,
              And after marble Ice
              Broke down the fence.

              Venus nude figure
              Like a drunk, they put it on the bench.
              Psyche was tied up with Cupid, -
              They lowered it into the Swan Canal.

              In general, until they woke up,
              They behaved like pests.
              It's good that they did not smell
              No cops, no parents. wassat
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 25 March 2021 17: 09
                +7
                Let's go and for some reason swayed
                The Hermitage has a column.

                Was Anton the second? Admit it, Sergei! laughing
                1. Mihaylov
                  Mihaylov 25 March 2021 17: 11
                  +2
                  Quote: Pane Kohanku
                  Was Anton the second? Admit it, Sergei!

                  No, no, and in general, such exploits of mine have long remained in my student past! drinks
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 26 March 2021 12: 39
                    +4
                    No, no, and in general, such exploits of mine have long remained in my student past!

                    Sergey, I missed it yesterday, today I want to add. I disagree with the conclusions of Mr. Samsonov.
                    Let's take a look at the points.
                    Russian nobles, killing Paul, played the role of British agents.

                    Russian nobles, killing Paul, played for themselves. hi Albeit with the participation of English money and the English instigator. But! In recent years, the nobles were in a very nervous atmosphere - no one knew who would be subject to the emperor's wrath today or tomorrow. The reasons were different. To Paul's credit, he was very easygoing. Then he could reward. The "Maltese Cross" handed out generally to the right and to the left! fellow
                    Alexander Pavlovich, Paul's son, was so intimidated and broken that none of the conspirators was punished.

                    The young tsar's first shock passed very quickly. Here mother played a role. She clearly insisted that everyone should be "morally punished." The leaders and the most active participants in the conspiracy were expelled from St. Petersburg. Count Palen received notification of this all of a sudden. I arrived at Alexander's one morning, got out of the carriage, and they were already carrying a paper towards him - to go to their place in the Baltic states. Palen said nothing, silently turned around and climbed back into the carriage ...
                    Of all the conspirators, only Bennigsen achieved the greatest success in his career. The rest went into oblivion ...
                    And Russia again began to play the role of "cannon fodder" of Vienna, London and Berlin, getting involved in completely unnecessary and bloody wars with France

                    And, as usual, the author draws a pretentious geopolitical conclusion, "pulling poor, poor Paul onto the globe"! wink What is already quite familiar to read ...
                    1. Mihaylov
                      Mihaylov 26 March 2021 12: 45
                      +3
                      Quote: Pane Kohanku
                      The Russian nobles, killing Paul, played for themselves.

                      I suppose, in the spirit of the traditional palace coup of the 18th century.
                      I generally have an analogy on the role of the nobility of the 18-19th centuries in Russia (I don't know how appropriate) with the Polish-Lithuanian gentry, though from a slightly earlier time (17th century): an increase in the liberties of the nobility in both cases did not lead to anything good ... hi
                      1. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 26 March 2021 13: 09
                        +4
                        I suppose, in the spirit of the traditional palace coup of the 18th century.

                        In fact, yes. But, I would venture to suggest, if you give the author free rein, next time he will pull the Decembrists onto the globe, "who also played the role of British agents."
                        (I do not know how appropriate) with the Polish-Lithuanian gentry, though a little earlier times (17th century)

                        I do not have your education, but I will note the main discrepancy - we had a single government and a single ruler. Polish large magnates (in fact - appanage shtetl princes), on the other hand, engaged in quarrels among themselves. The effect was visible towards the end of the 18th century, but this taught nothing to the noble ones.
                      2. Mihaylov
                        Mihaylov 26 March 2021 14: 27
                        +3
                        Quote: Pane Kohanku
                        I do not have your education,

                        I am in this period (18-19 centuries), to be honest, not at all.
                        Polish large magnates (in fact - appanage shtetl princes), on the other hand, engaged in quarrels among themselves. The effect was visible towards the end of the 18th century, but this taught nothing to the noble ones.

                        One of the main reasons, if not the most important, of the collapse of the speech of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth: Magnateria, together with the unbelted gentry, brought the country to the end. Naturally, their private interests began to diverge sharply from the interests of the state, which we can observe in our nobility from the second half of the 18th century. hi
            3. Catfish
              Catfish 25 March 2021 17: 11
              +7
              We started with half a liter
              And they ate a gallon.


    2. parusnik
      parusnik 25 March 2021 15: 46
      +2
      hi Greetings, my commentary, I dedicated the campaign to India, that it was not feasible, during the reign of Paul, from the word at all. Moreover, at the same time to conquer Khiva. laughing
      the issue with the thieving Khivans was resolved only in the second half of the 19th century
      .. If, memory serves, it took more than 20 years to resolve the issue.
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 25 March 2021 16: 19
        +5
        .. If, memory serves, it took more than 20 years to resolve the issue.

        It was finally taken by Kaufman in 1873. Prior to that, Perovsky tried to walk unsuccessfully in 1839-40.
        1. parusnik
          parusnik 25 March 2021 16: 22
          +3
          Here, here ... Perovsky did not work out very well, almost like General Herman, who went to Anapa.
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 25 March 2021 16: 26
            +5
            Here, here ... Perovsky did not work out very well, almost like General Herman, who went to Anapa.

            As far as I understand, in the 60s of the 19th century, the issue of Central Asia was approached consistently and scrupulously. Even the Aral military flotilla was created. Apparently, before that all the main forces were taken away by the Caucasus.
            1. Aviator_
              Aviator_ 25 March 2021 18: 54
              +4
              Quite right, and from 1865 to 1867 Tashkent was ruled by the Orenburg governor-general. In 1867, the Turkestan General Government was created with the center in Tashkent. The natives were allowed to manage only at the volost level, all the positions above were occupied by clerks sent from Russia. Their appearance was such that Saltykov-Shchedrin even wrote a work called "The Tashkent people".
            2. parusnik
              parusnik 25 March 2021 20: 39
              +1
              No, just took into account the mistakes of Perovsky
  6. vladcub
    vladcub 25 March 2021 15: 51
    +3
    Lesha, good day.: "A trip to India at that time, pure gamble" Samsonov does not care about such details. They can abolish mountains
    1. parusnik
      parusnik 25 March 2021 16: 24
      +2
      Yes, and judging by all his articles, he abolishes many things, by the way, Kresnovsky is taken as the basis of the article.
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 25 March 2021 16: 45
        +2
        Kresnovsky, I don’t know such a historian. I'll go to Vika to "interrogate"
        1. parusnik
          parusnik 25 March 2021 20: 31
          +1
          A.A. Kersnovsky, mixed up letters, always like this
  • smaug78
    smaug78 25 March 2021 12: 33
    0
    Adequate article from Samsonov. What happened?
  • vladcub
    vladcub 25 March 2021 13: 48
    +4
    Quote: bober1982
    Quote: apro
    today's monarchist public perceives

    The thing is that such a monarchical public simply does not exist, if it does exist, it is only in a sick imagination.
    Once they asked our great elder John Krestyankin ..... when, father, will the tsar be in Russia? to which he replied ....... except maybe Chinese.
    No need, comrades, to excite yourself unnecessarily.

    ""Who it? Why don't I know "(c)
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 25 March 2021 17: 09
      +5
      "Who is this? Why I don't know"

      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 25 March 2021 17: 11
        +5
        "Who is this? Why I don't know"

        - No, who are you ?!
        - And who are you?
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 25 March 2021 17: 23
          +3
          - And who are you?


          Like who? One of the directors Vasilievs, m in his, General Markov's division, uniform.

          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 25 March 2021 17: 37
            +5
            General Markov division, uniform.

            There you can find a discrepancy in form with the Markovites. But the "image of the cinematic enemy" turned out very well! good Since childhood, this scene is the most intense, vivid and memorable in the entire film. drinks
            But in the role of the White Guard armored car (by the way, the Cossacks in Lbischensk did not have one), the Soviet Ba-27 starred. The turret, similar in shape to the MS-1, the cannon has been removed, and a second Maxim machine gun is installed instead.

            and here is the original armored car:
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 25 March 2021 17: 57
              +4
              There you can find a discrepancy in form with the Markovites.


              This form is often confused with Kornilovskaya, but in fact, there was a lot of amateur performances there. I saw different photographs and different drawings.

              Kornilovites and Markovites.

              Georgy Vasiliev.

              Do you recognize?
              1. depressant
                depressant 25 March 2021 19: 15
                +4
                Nice drawings! Personalities are seen. Did you get it yourself, Konstantin? I would not be surprised if personal creativity)))
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 25 March 2021 19: 48
                  +4
                  Luda, good evening. love
                  No, these are not my works. If you can find drawings of Annenkovites on the net, there - yes, such faces, and everything from nature, from photographs, of course.
                  Here's my captain - Drozdovets, I don't even remember what year the drawing was. smile
                  1. Ryaruav
                    Ryaruav 25 March 2021 20: 34
                    +3
                    Semi English Semi French uniform this Drozdovtsa has
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 25 March 2021 20: 36
                      +4
                      Cover English, color French? smile I don’t remember exactly, but it seemed to be copied from Mollo’s book, it was a long time ago.
                      1. Ryaruav
                        Ryaruav 25 March 2021 20: 41
                        +2
                        yes, the jacket is clearly British, but the Brita have a red top (boiled crayfish), and the Franks have blue pants even 1914-1916
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 25 March 2021 21: 01
                        +4
                        With the Britons it is true - "boiled crayfish", but already in the Anglo-Boer (if I am not mistaken) they switched to khaki.

                        But the French have red trousers.
                      3. Ryaruav
                        Ryaruav 25 March 2021 21: 03
                        +2
                        I'm sorry, I forgot it was wrong here
                      4. deddem
                        deddem 25 March 2021 21: 31
                        +2
                        Yes, the famous French red pants in the color "guarantors".
                        Evil tongues say that they abandoned them only because such a shade was obtained only with Bayer aniline paint, which suddenly became scarce with the outbreak of war.
                      5. Catfish
                        Catfish 25 March 2021 22: 20
                        +2
                        The British changed the color of their uniforms to khaki for purely utilitarian reasons. They were thinking faster than the French. wink
                      6. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 26 March 2021 09: 40
                        +3
                        The British changed the color of their uniforms to khaki for purely utilitarian reasons.

                        Uncle Kostya, you're right, it happened during the Boer War. The Boers shot very well ... hi
          2. depressant
            depressant 25 March 2021 22: 01
            +5
            Wow! What a face!
            Good evening, Kostya))) I dabbled in still lifes more and more, from nature. My mother managed to save several of my watercolors. It’s too late now, but tomorrow, out of curiosity, I’ll find and look at them, at my past. Since the beginning of a new era, I have not been honored to take up a brush and paints. Life has changed so that the once powerful thrust has disappeared completely. The whole circle of previous interests has dissolved in the wild complexity of difficulties created by someone, in front of which an ordinary person is powerless. Some live for change, yearn for it, but not me. And now, looking at your drawing and others, I remembered my old life, it is like a dream in which details are gradually erased and drift away.
            And only one of my "creation" is constantly in front of me - a small oil icon, the Mother of God with the Baby Jesus. It is framed by my father. And on the back there is an inscription in his hand - 1992. And then everything broke.
            And so, I look and remember, but only when I look)))) I prefer to look into the future, not wanting to change the present wassat
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 25 March 2021 22: 18
              +4
              I prefer to look into the future, not wanting to change the present


              Lyuda, well, you, really, maybe it just makes sense to abruptly change course, or just get out of the drift. After all, your situation is not the same as in my old drawing. smile

              1. depressant
                depressant 25 March 2021 22: 44
                +4
                My situation is worse, Kostya, and let's not talk about it. Let's enjoy a good article, wonderful comments, drawings and cartoons! Let life bloom! )))
                And the historical events of past centuries - they are also her flowering, or rather, flowers dried between the pages of the book. You open it, see it and rejoice.
              2. Catfish
                Catfish 25 March 2021 23: 16
                +6
                Well, maybe a drawing from my Dembel album will amuse you at least a little. smile
                We have always tried to stick exclusively to the letter of the Charter. laughing soldier
              3. depressant
                depressant 25 March 2021 23: 30
                +2
                You have a light pen, Kostya! Or it looks like an ink drawing. But, rather, a pencil 2M)))
              4. Catfish
                Catfish 25 March 2021 23: 48
                +3
                Ink and feather, signature was in pencil, then circled around with a ballpoint pen, already at home. Ballpoint pens, like lighters, were the first items in the army that you poked around. There were few of them then, especially foreign ones. smile
                Today these three years are remembered as a fun adventure, but there was, of course, anything. But why burden the memory of all the bad, when you can live without it.
                All the time I remember the words of the blind girl from "Day of the Triffids" John Wyndham "Life is beautiful, even this." love
            2. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 26 March 2021 10: 00
              +3
              We have always tried to stick exclusively to the letter of the Charter.

              Are you on the right in the picture? Painfully similar ... drinks
            3. Catfish
              Catfish 26 March 2021 16: 38
              +2
              Well yes. "Any living creature that has moved a hundred meters away from the master's house is nobody's" - uttered my friend from Ussuriysk Alik, and rushed to the goose like a panther. And I decided to practice shooting, but it didn't work out. He immediately twisted the neck of a goose, and our cooks plucked and cooked it in the field kitchen. The goose was delicious. smile
            4. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 27 March 2021 14: 22
              +3
              "Any living creature that has moved a hundred meters from the master's house is nobody's" - uttered my friend from Ussuriysk Alik

              Do you remember that there are two army postulates: "In the army there is no concept of" stolen ", there is the concept of" profuked "and" He whistled quietly and left - called, found ". laughing By the way, you portrayed yourself very accurately - however, I bow! good drinks
            5. Catfish
              Catfish 27 March 2021 17: 51
              +3
              Kolya, hello! Guests. We sit. We drink. We have a snack. Everything is fine! drinks
            6. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 27 March 2021 20: 54
              +3
              Kolya, hello! Guests. We sit. We drink. We have a snack. Everything is fine!

              Hello Uncle Kostya! Live well - you and Maria. I wish you happiness and health. We all love and appreciate you! drinks ... I'll go and strain a little ... repeat Although on Wednesday I was for your health - I also had a "yes"! wink
            7. Catfish
              Catfish 28 March 2021 14: 17
              +3
              Woke up. I'm getting drunk. Who would know what happened at night ... laughing drinks
            8. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 29 March 2021 14: 48
              +1
              Woke up. I'm getting drunk. Who would know what happened at night ...

              If you are talking about your behavior, then your wife and guests. lol But .. if your spouse doesn't speak - run, Uncle Kostya! fellow
            9. Catfish
              Catfish 29 March 2021 16: 24
              +2
              I joked, in two weeks I slept for the first time at night, and I did not suffer from insomnia. But you won’t drink vodka every day, I’m sitting here, drinking tea. smile
            10. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 29 March 2021 16: 40
              +1
              But you won’t drink vodka every day, I’m sitting here, drinking tea.

              You are doing it right! drinks and I've recently switched to Ivan tea. yes
            11. Catfish
              Catfish 29 March 2021 16: 50
              +2
              Here Maria indulges in green tea, I prefer Indian tea, more from Soviet stocks. drinks
            12. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 29 March 2021 16: 53
              +1
              I prefer Indian, more from Soviet stocks.

              Are you serious? From the Soviet ?! With an elephant ?? belay
              What is the expiration date? wink
              I remember that as a child, some kind of picture was on the packaging ... crying
            13. Catfish
              Catfish 29 March 2021 17: 07
              +2
              I have a different package and the tea is excellent. good
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 25 March 2021 19: 27
    +2
    Konstantin, did the Kornilovites have the K-96 as a statutory weapon? In the Russian army, a revolver was authorized, and Browning was an additional weapon.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 25 March 2021 19: 51
      +3
      No one had a Mauser on either side of the front line. But in tsarist times, gentlemen officers were allowed to arm themselves with the "recommended" short barrels at their own expense. Already in the Civil ... smile
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 25 March 2021 20: 02
        +1
        In the Red Army there was some sort of a hodgepodge of weapons. Although in fairness, in the conditions of GW it is difficult to expect otherwise
  • Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 26 March 2021 12: 25
    +2
    This form is often confused with Kornilovskaya, but in fact, there was a lot of amateur performances there. I saw different photographs and different drawings.

    Confused. Although the form tends to be more Markovian.
    But during the civil war, many dressed up, who in what way. For example, General Annenkov. As far as I understand, he was a notorious sadist ... negative
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 26 March 2021 16: 40
      +2
      Yes, Annenkov, of course, is still that person, he inherited pretty well.
  • Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 29 March 2021 14: 59
    0
    Georgy Vasiliev.

    It seems that this is also he - he allowed himself a "little prank". Like Ryazanov, he almost always gave himself a cameo role in his own films.
    Vasiliev is on the left.

    Then the pseudo-Markovites take the gun "on hand", as you rightly showed in your picture.

    If you remember, the Pavlovsky regiment marched like this at the parades under the tsar. The rest - guns on the shoulder.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 29 March 2021 16: 30
      +2
      Vasiliev is on the left.


      Yes, it's him with a stack in his left hand.

      "They go beautifully! - The intelligentsia ..." (c)

      Somehow, in my youth, I thought about the place of the intelligentsia in the Civil War. good
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 29 March 2021 16: 46
        0
        Somehow, in my youth, I thought about the place of the intelligentsia in the Civil War.

        And before you, a certain V. Lokhankin thought about his place in the history of the Russian intelligentsia. wink
        "They're coming beautifully! - The intelligentsia ..."

        If we take the officer corps, then it was just the "telegents" who destroyed it during WWI. request But even among them there were geniuses. The future Marshal Vasilevsky generally studied at the seminary, and dreamed of becoming an agronomist or land surveyor, but, in the wake of patriotism, he enlisted in the army ... One of the private results of this rash act - Konigsberg changed his name to Kaliningrad! fellow drinks
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 29 March 2021 16: 52
          +2
          Well, for the comparison with Vasisual, my sincere thanks and gratitude. laughing Whoever I was compared to for my long and unrighteous life, somehow it did not reach this character. request
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 29 March 2021 17: 04
            +1
            Well, for the comparison with Vasisual, my sincere thanks and gratitude.

            I didn't compare! stop I just mentioned that Vasisualy was thinking about the Russian intelligentsia! wink
          2. Catfish
            Catfish 29 March 2021 17: 09
            +2
            Okay. smile
            "Oh, I have this intelligentsia, there is zero sense from it, but everyone has their own opinion" (c) laughing
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 25 March 2021 19: 20
    +1
    In my opinion, there is a fairly large similarity in the tower.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 25 March 2021 20: 08
    +2
    Was any of the Vasilievs white? Actually, I don't know their biography
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 25 March 2021 20: 34
      +4
      I read about this somewhere, and I served with General Markov, but I won't give my hand to cut off. smile
  • Pavel57
    Pavel57 25 March 2021 16: 34
    +2
    Quote: apro
    This is all clear ... but somehow the question escapes ... and someone from the house of the Romanovs repented for the death of Paul ??? after all, he is the legitimate emperor, no one has overthrown him, and he himself has not renounced. How does today's monarchist public perceive the murder of the emperor ?? ? as a worthy action. why can you do that? and the memory of the emperor is honored as an innocent victim or a murdered and devoted?

    Good question, but for the Romanovs' house
    it's nothing.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 25 March 2021 19: 12
    +2
    “The emperor died with an apolixic blow to the temple with a snuff-box” someone correctly said “there is nothing secret, so that it does not become obvious,” and with the murder of Paul. The last thing Alexander needed was to tell the details, and the details were known
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 25 March 2021 19: 40
    +2
    "she was like a mache for her son" in fact, I read somewhere, perhaps on the website, that Pavel is not the son of Catherine 2. Either she gave birth to a girl, or a dead child, and Elizabeth needed an heir and she ordered to change baby.
    In fairness, among us there are so-called "cuckoos" who are indifferent to children. Perhaps she was: "cuckoo" or really the baby was changed?
  • Ryaruav
    Ryaruav 25 March 2021 20: 30
    +3
    history is rewritten for themselves by almost all those in power and only true historians convey the truth from the memoirs of contemporaries who did not destroy
  • Tests
    Tests 26 March 2021 13: 02
    +1
    Mihaylov (Mihaylov), in the 80s of the 20th century? When was the Summer Garden destroyed?
    1. Mihaylov
      Mihaylov 26 March 2021 14: 29
      +2
      Quote: Tests
      Mihaylov (Mihaylov), in the 80s of the 20th century? When was the Summer Garden destroyed?

      Not my poems, as you understand hi
  • balabol
    balabol 26 March 2021 20: 31
    +2
    One of the comments asked if the conspirators could get lost in the Summer Garden.
    In the current one, certainly not. In the complex that was the Summer Garden at the time of Paul 1, perhaps.
    At the end of the 18th century, the Summer Garden occupied the territory of the Summer Garden itself, which we know today, the Mikhailovsky Castle, the Maple Alley and the Mikhailovsky Garden. In the literature, they are designated as 1, 2, 3. On the territory of the present Mikhailovsky Garden, of course, there was no complex of the Russian Museum. The area was used to house a vegetable garden, greenhouses, outbuildings, possibly stables, warehouses, etc.
    It is unlikely that aristocratic conspirators often found themselves in those parts to confidently pass the entire route at night without losing a minute. This is assuming that they made their way through this part of the park.
    The Summer Park itself, which is now the Summer Park, was also different. The last restoration to some extent gives an idea of ​​what happened then. Tapestries, green labyrinths, pavilions, they were not an English park with a perspective, but an area that allows you to create the feeling of a suite of green halls (in summer, of course), to give you the opportunity to retire. There was no foliage that winter day, but darkness, bushes and labyrinths, drifts. Not the best time for a walk.
    An interesting detail connected with the monuments to Paul 1. Two sculptures to Paul 1 in Gatchina and Pavlovsk, installed in front of the palaces, were not evacuated during the Great Patriotic War. However, the Nazis did not take them away like many other sculptures, did not melt them down on colored scrap, but left them in their places. Some sources indicate that there was a guard post at the monument in Gatchina.
    The inscription on the pedestal did not give two opinions about the depicted object, but for some reason the Germans left the monument intact. Perhaps for the respect and love that Paul 1 had for Frederick the Great.
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 27 March 2021 14: 29
      +1
      It is unlikely that aristocratic conspirators often found themselves in those parts to confidently pass the entire route at night without losing a minute. This is assuming that they made their way through this part of the park.

      Vladimir, what a pity you came just now! good I was not aware of such subtleties ... belay It would be interesting to look at the maps of that time, and the route of the Palen detachment ...
      Perhaps for the respect and love that Paul 1 had for Frederick the Great.

      It is interesting that Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky himself accompanied Paul on that trip to Prussia, to whom the Germans rendered individual enormous honors. Frederick even awarded Pyotr Alexandrovich with the order - the former victorious enemy! drinks
      With respect, Nicholai hi
      1. balabol
        balabol 27 March 2021 22: 52
        +2
        Good afternoon, Nikolai.
        I can’t help you about Palen's route, but for the maps the following:
        1. Map of 1790. The square of that very Big Summer Garden is visible. Buildings, planting labyrinths and other oddities of the Catherine parks. But there is still no Mikhailovsky (Engineering) castle. In its place is still the Summer Palace of Elizabeth Petrovna, where Paul 1 himself was born. According to one of the legends, Paul I said: “I want to die where I was born” - demolished the dilapidated palace and ordered to erect a Castle, surround it with moats, etc. (on this topic you can read a lot).
        2 On the second map from 1810 there is already a castle, the surrounding ditches and channels and the terrain around it has changed somewhat (although there is not enough detail as on the first map). After Paul's death, the area did not change much, no large buildings were carried out.This place was considered cursed, the castle was not used by the imperial family), so the map more or less corresponds to the fateful day.
        3. If about the little things, then one more story. The mentioned color of the favorite's gloves is a historical fact. During the restoration of the Mikhailovsky Castle, the scientists faced the question of coloring. Found a mention in the documents that the emperor wished to see the color of "Swedish glove reindeer suede". Hence the favorite's glove. And the color is nice.
        Cards:
        http://retromap.ru/forum/viewtopic.php?f=104&t=8963
        http://retromap.ru/1418046_59.938762,30.328617
        Regards, Vladimir
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 29 March 2021 11: 46
          +2
          I can’t help you about Palen's route, but the maps are as follows

          To be honest, I did not even know about the existence of a site with retro-cards, for which I am grateful.
          According to one of the legends, Paul I said: "I want to die where I was born" - demolished the dilapidated palace and ordered to erect the Castle

          One of the legends says that the archangel Michael appeared to the sentry, who communicated his wish to build a castle in this place. As is well known the phrase of Paul: "Here I was born, here I want to die."
          This place was considered cursed, the castle was not used by the imperial family)

          Yes, I completely agree.
          Hence the favorite's glove

          Lopukhina-Gagagina's glove.
          An interesting picture of the early 19th century:

          The history of the monument is also interesting. He was clearly opposed to the dearest mama ...
          Thank you so much, Vladimir! It has been a long time since I have spoken so well for Pavel, even though I have been with you and everyone! drinks
          1. balabol
            balabol April 4 2021 00: 32
            +2
            Thanks for your kind words.
            Every time I pass by the monument to Peter 1, I read "Great-grandfather - great-grandson" - an inscription that speaks of the most complicated relationship between Paul and Catherine. Without old man Freud, it’s impossible to figure it out.
            The marble for the Mikhailovsky Castle was taken from the stocks prepared for the completion of St. Isaac's Cathedral, and the Tauride Palace was also stripped off - its rich interior decoration was used to equip the interiors of the castle. (Hello mommy too).
            Like an evil fate - some time after Paul's death, the interiors of the castle, son Alexander ordered to be dismantled and used for his own needs.
            And finally, the prophetic letters on the facade (they were restored during the last comprehensive restoration) - 47 letters and at the age of 47 Paul 1 died.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku April 5 2021 01: 06
              +3
              Every time I pass by the monument to Peter 1, I read "Great-grandfather - great-grandson" - an inscription that speaks of the most complicated relationship between Paul and Catherine. Without old man Freud, it’s impossible to figure it out.

              It is enough to be an unloved son ... And for the relationship to come to a boiling point. Vladimir .. It's scary, in fact! People shouldn't do that ... recourse
              And here is a fact that I personally noticed. wink Historian Ivanov (see the book above) cites a message that Catherine the day before her death advised Tsarevich Alexander and his wife to visit Italian opera.
              But the memoirs of A.M. Turgenev, who for some time was the orderly of the newly reigned Paul:
              "The Tsar <...> here deigned to drive up to the Opera House (a large wooden theater where Italian opera was performed) <......>
              ...... His Majesty, pointing to the theater, deigned to command Arkharov (note - the military governor of St. Petersburg), "that his (theater) sir, was not!"

              For a couple of hours, the building seemed to be gone. The same Turgenev: "500 or more workers leveled the place."
              Coincidence? No, I think I took it down to the defiance of the deceased mama. Well, he didn’t like Italian opera, and Catherine didn’t like it very much! drinks
              Come back often! drinks We have great topics for communication!
        2. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 29 March 2021 14: 42
          0
          Regards, Vladimir

          And more - come more often. Sincerely. yes
  • Fat
    Fat 28 March 2021 20: 20
    +2
    Alexander, words are already getting a little heavy.
    I can only say one thing:
    Thanks, Captain Evidence!
  • deddem
    deddem 29 March 2021 15: 15
    +2
    Quote: Sea Cat
    The British changed the color of their uniforms to khaki for purely utilitarian reasons. They were thinking faster than the French. wink


    The French figured it out pretty quickly, before the war they ran in the troops as many as three different sets of experimental khaki uniforms: Boer, Reseda and Detail (in fact, the blue uniform, which was urgently introduced after the July hecatomb, is a slightly modified "Detail".).
    The reform was banned by the top leadership, in complete unanimity with the parliamentarians, who branded the khaki uniform as ... "degrading human dignity."
    By the way, hence the giggles of Boussinard about "the shape of the color of the horse Mr.."