Military Review

Album "Album" - one of the greatest treasures of the Elizabethan era

194

The building in which the "Pious Society of Gunsmiths and Tinkers" is located. The main hall was built in the XIV century, although then, of course, the house itself was rebuilt, and more than once. In the Great Fire, he did not burn, in 1940 bombs destroyed the surrounding buildings, but he was not touched ... Well, he obviously patronizes the gunsmiths and tinkers!


"... and I wrote them in ink on this scroll ..."
(Jeremiah 36: 18)

History and documents. How often do historians face truly insoluble problems? For example, someone's armor or an interesting effigy was found. But they are not dated. Who made the armor, for whom, in what year. Yes, of course, their shape can tell a lot. Metallographic analysis will identify the metal, and by the similarity of the analyzes it will be possible to find out which workshop they came from. But ... there is no direct evidence. All indirect. That is why the album "Almain", created in the Royal armory the chamber in Greenwich, London, between 1557 and 1587, is of such great historical value. Indeed, on its pages, many impressive armor created by her masters are captured.

Content that pleases


The album contains 29 sketches of armor on 56 sheets, and each time we see a figure dressed in full armor, most of which can be clearly seen, and opposite it is an image of its additional details. That is, before us are drawings of not just armor, but headsets that could be easily turned into armor for light cavalry, infantry and into purely knightly armor for tournaments.

Album "Album" - one of the greatest treasures of the Elizabethan era
The cover of the "German Album" (this is how its old name is translated into modern language)

Several lost drawings left tantalizing prints on the back of other sheets, and they testify that this album was once larger. Some of the armor made according to his sketches have survived to this day, and some of them have minor changes compared to the original sketch. In addition, it was the armor in which people fought, and they fought not in a tournament, but in the bloody arena of the battlefield.


Armor of the "Earl of Worcester" for William Somerset, 3rd Earl of Worcester, circa 1570. Album "Album". © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Who is who from the Elizabethan court


The album originated in an era when Queen Elizabeth's courtiers fought for her favor with every display of devotion, courage and theatricality. Elizabeth encouraged rivalry between courtiers. And they paid up to £ 500 for an ornate piece of armor, which they also required a royal license to order.

Sir Robert Dudley


Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester and rumored lover of Elizabeth I, ordered several suits of armor from Greenwich. Dudley was known to his rivals as a "favorite" in connection with the queen. Elizabeth herself called him with her "eyes." Two drawings in the album are annotated directly to him, including one drawing with his emblem and lovers' knots - a clear hint of his "devotion" to the queen. Dudley hosted Elizabeth I at his Kenilworth Castle in 1575 as part of one of the most famous events of her reign - an expensive three-week festival of theater, dance, knightly tournaments, hunting, boating and fireworks. The virgin queen knew how to have fun, to be sure!


Earl of Leicester, armor of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester (detail), circa 1565. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Sir Henry Lee


Sir Henry Lee has been a Master of the Armory since 1580. As the organizer of the Joining Day knights - costly knights, poetry, music and feasting festivals aimed at honoring the queen - Lee needed to "show himself." Which he did, because his armor is one of the most striking in this album. For example, Lee's armor, circa 1585, is lavishly decorated with quatrefoils (a symmetrical shape consisting of four petals, usually semicircular, arranged like petals of a flower or four-leaf clover) and mimics the fashion for clothing with cuts that were needed to show even richer fabrics. under them. Under his armor, Lee wore green stockings and chasses, the colors of which were also used for the scabbard of his sword. A green quilted lining, probably of silk, can also be seen inside the burgoon's right cheek, its open light cavalry helmet.


Sir Henry Lee, Master Farmory, armor for Sir Henry Lee, master of the armory, circa 1585. As you can see, the set even included stirrups and an armored saddle with a horse mask. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Sir Christopher Hutton


The most generous customer was Sir Christopher Hutton. Hatton had at least three, and possibly four, pieces of armor in his album, parts of which have survived from all of them. It was rumored that, like Dudley, Hatton was Elizabeth's lover. Their correspondence was passionate and romantic. Hutton was free to spend money on art, and his orders for armor were quite costly, in addition, he also built Holdenby House and partially financed the travels of Sir Francis Drake. After his death, his heirs were left with an unfinished stately home and a debt of 42 pounds sterling. The lovers' knots engraved on them, tied to a Tudor rose, practically turned his armor into a love letter on steel.


Sir Christopher Hutton, armor for Sir Christopher Hutton (detail), 1578-1587. The horse mask - shaffron - is decorated with the owner's emblems. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Duke of Finland


The Greenwich workshop has occasionally served clients from all over the world. "Duke John of Finland, Prince of Sweden" was the son of King Gustav Vasa of Sweden and Duke of Finland from 1556 to 1568. He made several appearances at the court of Elizabeth at the beginning of her reign, in part in an attempt to marry the Queen and his father. He liked the life of the nobles in England. It was recorded that

"The Duke of Finland still rests here and moves from good to better every day, doing his best to have fashionable clothes and succeed in playing with 'tuns' (tennis)."

It is possible that the armor in the English style was ordered by him for self-assertion.

Artist and gunsmith


The drawings, which were probably used as working templates, were created by Jacob Halder, who was originally from Landshut, in southern Germany, and was first listed as Almains (that is, Germans) who worked at the Armory in 1558. Halder was a master gunsmith at Greenwich from 1576 to 1607 and died in 1608. We know that Halder created the drawings, because this was written about in two cases at once: “These drawings were made by me, Jacob". It is believed that under his leadership, the heyday of the Greenwich armor took place.


«These details were made by me, Jacob”, Note by master gunsmith Jacob Halder on the armor design for William Somerset, 3rd Earl of Worcester, circa 1570. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Etching, gilding and bluing


Many of the armors are featured in the album with a high degree of color and decoration. Most of these patterns are characteristic of armor from the 1570s and 1580s, when Elizabethan fashion became its most extravagant. The design of the armor was very different. Used arabesques, patterns of flowers and mythological figures. Moreover, sketches were often bought from jewelers and embroiderers.

The decorative techniques that allowed craftsmen to keep up with modern fashion included acid etching, gilding and bluing.

The etching on the armor was similar to the embroidery on the fabric. Acid etching created a characteristic surface decor contrasting with the smoother areas of the polished metal. It was also used, in particular, to decorate items that require durability, such as jewelry and document boxes, locks and keys. After acid treatment of the scratched pattern on the wax, it was removed, and then the resulting indentations could be gilded or blackened. This technique made it possible to decorate armor and objects with rich decor, without violating the structural integrity of the metal.


What's remarkable about that? Yes, legs, of course! Women hid them under fluffy skirts, but men showed their muscular, slender, beautiful, elegant legs to everyone. Moreover, they were covered with silk stockings! Young Man Among Roses, portrait miniature, Nicholas Hilliard, England, circa 1590. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Many of the drawings in the album are painted in a variety of colors. Armor designed to be crafted from plain steel is shown in white with light blue highlights. Many of them are deep reddish brown. Looking at the surviving armor, it seems that it shimmers in various shades of black and blue, which is a consequence of their heat treatment. But an X-ray analysis of the design of Lord Buckhurst's armor showed that the reddish-brown color is a film of iron oxides with traces of zinc and lead. Areas of blue were examined on Sir Henry Lee's stirrups and armor from 1587 and identified as a source of indigo-based paint.

Fashion leaders


The nobles who ordered the armor from the Greenwich workshop were without doubt the fashion leaders of their time. They were the main beneficiaries of luxury laws that regulated the cut, shape, materials and decoration of clothing according to the status of the individual. Well, their armor was just a kind of clothing.


Armor of George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland, Greenwich, circa 1587 Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Early sketches of the armor show a tendency towards a simpler design, with vertical stripes of ornamentation contrasting with patches of white polished metal. In the 1570s, a swollen and exaggerated belly known as a "pod" was common in both doublets and cuirasses. Tight-fitting stockings were tried to be exposed as high as possible to accentuate the long slender legs, which, incidentally, corresponded to the shape of the armor for protecting the legs, which repeated the natural profile of the entire leg.


George Clifford's armor (breastplate and shoulder pad) close-up. The gilded roses of the Tudors and fleur-de-lis, connected with a cord with loops, are clearly visible. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

The brightest armor of the 1580s is undoubtedly the armor of George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland, the surface of which was adorned with Tudor roses, heraldic lilies and lovers' knots. Clifford was the commander of the naval fleet, who made a name and fortune for themselves on privateer operations in the West Indies. His armor is in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and is the most impressive of the surviving Greenwich armor of the era.


George Clifford's Plate Armor Glove. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


And this is what her hand looked like! Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

The last drawing in the album, recently identified, is labeled "Sur Bale Desena" and refers to Sir Horatio Palavicino (Baldesina), a wealthy Italian merchant and diplomat who was knighted by Elizabeth I in 1587. Palavicino was an agent of Queen Elizabeth and was wealthy enough to lend her money. Preparing to defend Britain against the Spanish armada, he built and armed the ship at his own expense.

The armor, in which Henry Lee ordered to fight the Spaniards, has been preserved in one of the halls of the Pious Society of Armourers and Tinkers in London. There are no unnecessary details for the tournament in its design. All items are intended for use in combat. Much to Lee's annoyance, he was sent to guard the north of England in the wilderness. His armor is rather austere - an early hint of the later aesthetics of XNUMXth century men's fashion.


Sir Bale Desena, armor for Sir Horatio Palavicino (Valdesina), circa 1587. Armor below the knees was no longer provided! © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

However, they were still decorated with hop flowers and pomegranate fruits. In addition, the drawing tells us that they also had to be with red and green details, probably with an enamel finish, which is a surprising extravagance for armor designed for combat.


Armor for Sir Harry (Henry) Lee, Master of the Armory. Greenwich, 1587 © Pious Society of Armourers and Tinkers, London

Real works of high art


The album testifies not only to the tremendous skill of Greenwich's gunsmiths, but also to the costs that were invested by customers of high-quality armor. These ensembles were a kind of private yachts of our era, for they cost the owner something about 2 million pounds sterling in modern prices. Each of these armor was made strictly to individual order, reflecting the posture and figure of only its owner. It was expected that the knights would move smoothly and silently in armor, because all joints were adjusted in the most careful way. According to the Spanish writer Luis Zapata,

"It was indecent for the knights to move in armor that rattled like bowlers."

The armor preserved in museums has largely lost much of its color decor. Album "Almain" allows you to visualize what the armor of the Elizabethan era looked like in reality. And it was really quite unusual armor, decorated with engraved, blued and gilded ribbons, combined with richly colored silk and velvet, with dyed ostrich feathers on the helmet, in which their owner, sitting on a horse, properly dressed, became no longer a rider. , but turned into a monumental work of art.
Author:
194 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. polpot
    polpot 31 March 2021 18: 11
    +5
    Thanks for the great text and illustrations as always.
  2. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 31 March 2021 18: 18
    +8
    Charlie on Wednesday? laughing
    Very interesting. Immediately on the spot struck "... gunsmiths and brewers ...". How did one help others?
    And, of course, words of gratitude to Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    1. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 31 March 2021 20: 10
      +6
      The most amusing combination: "gunsmiths and brewers". Perhaps they were making armor and brewing beer along the way?
      1. kalibr
        31 March 2021 20: 13
        +6
        Quote: Astra wild2
        and brewers. "

        The error came out, Astra. We need "tinkers".
        1. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 31 March 2021 20: 47
          +4
          Thank you, now everything fell into place
        2. vladcub
          vladcub April 1 2021 07: 56
          +2
          Q. Oh, perhaps the translator dreamed of a British ale, or did he drink a little?
          Smile
      2. Hantengri
        Hantengri 31 March 2021 21: 44
        +6
        No, Sentyabrinka Hon, they did not brew beer, they used it internally. Well, just imagine: a smithy, heat, sweat in a stream, clients take out their brains (high-ranking ones, by the way) ... How can we go without something cold? So: the "brewers" are certainly a typo here, but their merit in the manufacture of armor is certainly there. )))
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 31 March 2021 22: 03
          +5
          Heirs of the Picts?
          1. Hantengri
            Hantengri 31 March 2021 22: 09
            +2
            Quote: 3x3zsave

            0
            Heirs of the Picts?

            Wai, why are the Picts right away? Where are those Picts and where are the German migrant workers in Greenwich!
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 31 March 2021 22: 18
              +5
              No, I understand the Central Asian onslaught, but honey, it's all North Atlantic. laughing
              1. Hantengri
                Hantengri 31 March 2021 23: 10
                +6
                The last Pict who knew how to make real honey was slaughtered by some cattle. R.L. Stevenson answers. tongue
  3. Bolt cutter
    Bolt cutter 31 March 2021 18: 35
    +14
    Godly Society of Gunsmiths and Brewers
    Rather tinkers than brewers, Mr. Shpakovsky.
    Worshipful Company of Armourers and Brasiers
    So in the original. Brasier is an artisan who worked with bronze and copper, who also repaired metal utensils (the prototype of the welder). Brewer- brewer. He repaired his soul after a scrape drinks
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 31 March 2021 18: 55
      +13
      Brasier - an artisan who worked with bronze and copper, also repaired metal utensils
      There is a wonderful, but obsolete, Russian name for this profession - scraping. Not to be confused with the nickname of the Pskovites. laughing
      1. Bolt cutter
        Bolt cutter 31 March 2021 19: 03
        +7
        brace
        Definitely accurate definition! In modern English, the memory of the artisans of those times is the term brazing.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 31 March 2021 20: 38
          +6
          Well, why "handicraftsmen"? Very professionals, and, moreover, the extra-class of their time! Handicraftsmen, this is: "a puddle, I solder," Babbage's machines "I fix" laughing
          1. Bolt cutter
            Bolt cutter 31 March 2021 20: 40
            +5
            "puddle, soldering," Babbage's machines "fixing"
            I drink gin and ale wassat And yes, in those days a professional was in demand.
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 31 March 2021 18: 59
      +10
      Yes, the remark is correct. The word brasiers appeared in the name after the coppersmiths 'guild joined the armourers' guild in 1708.
    3. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 31 March 2021 19: 10
      +2
      Shpakovsky has a document that he studied English. So according to this document - there are brewers!
      1. kalibr
        31 March 2021 19: 38
        +5
        Quote: Aviator_
        Shpakovsky has a document that he studied English. So according to this document - there are brewers!

        There is a document, Sergei, and more than one, and there are books and articles in English. But there is also such a banal thing as inattention. I looked in the wrong direction, got distracted by something, didn't check it again ... well, that happens. You've studied two languages, haven't you? But how many books have you written on them on your topic?
    4. kalibr
      31 March 2021 19: 35
      +5
      Yes indeed. Well ... and there is a hole in the old woman!
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 31 March 2021 21: 10
        +10
        These are little things. Many thanks for the sumptuous article. good
        And yet it is a pity that without brewers, it is much more piquant with them. smile
        Until I got to the comments, I read and understood everything, trying to understand when they drank beer, before trying on their armor, or after. wink drinks
        1. Bolt cutter
          Bolt cutter 31 March 2021 21: 30
          +6
          when they drank beer, before trying on their armor, or after
          During fitting! But before and after it was also not forbidden yes Moreover, ale in those days was rarely stronger than 4 turns (usually 2,5), and drinking water was really dangerous - infections could attack.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 31 March 2021 22: 05
            +8
            Well, let's be healthy! smile drinks

            1. depressant
              depressant April 1 2021 06: 48
              +4
              Well, Kostya! Well, a mocker! ))))
              And my favorite is George Clifford's summer armor glove. Something like "There is a horned goat after the little guys ... butts-butts-butts !!!" wassat ))))
              1. Catfish
                Catfish April 1 2021 15: 15
                +4
                Good afternoon, Luda. love
                He always took this glove off when it came time to drink a beer. smile drinks
                1. depressant
                  depressant April 1 2021 16: 20
                  +3
                  Good afternoon, Kostya! )))
                  And while he drank beer, the glove lived its own life: she also loved beer! And then they had to look for her on tables, in circles or under tables - in general, where the knight was worthy to take a nap.
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish April 1 2021 16: 25
                    +3
                    Such is the fate of all gloves at all times, the main thing is that the "Petsar of the growling" image "does not litter the ignition key from his Rossinant. laughing
        2. Korsar4
          Korsar4 April 1 2021 16: 31
          +4
          Everything is logical. Refuel with beer - and I'm ready to withstand the fitting.
          And then, there is always a reason to escape from this event. At least not for long.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish April 1 2021 16: 48
            +4
            At least not for long.

            But this already depends on the amount of beer taken on the chest. laughing

            Hello, Sergey! drinks
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 April 1 2021 18: 16
              +4
              Hi Constantine!
              Which knight will limit himself in beer? Is that a Frenchman.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish April 1 2021 18: 30
                +4
                "Measure in women and beer, he did not know and did not want" (c)
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 April 2 2021 11: 35
                  +2
                  “It's not beer that kills people,
                  Water kills people ”(c).
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish April 2 2021 15: 14
                    +2
                    "If there is no water in the tap, then you have drunk ..."
                    Well, everyone knows who is to blame and what that means. laughing
                    1. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 April 2 2021 21: 06
                      +1
                      Chernyshevsky?
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish April 2 2021 21: 27
                        +1
                        He was a smart man, immediately pointed his finger. wink
                      2. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 April 2 2021 22: 17
                        +1
                        "What is there to think, you have to shake" (s).
                      3. Catfish
                        Catfish April 2 2021 23: 27
                        +1
                        No problems! laughing

                      4. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 April 2 2021 23: 33
                        +2
                        The modern version of "Last year's snow was falling"?
                      5. Catfish
                        Catfish April 2 2021 23: 34
                        +1
                        I like the work of this artist, he is a cheerful person. smile
                      6. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 April 2 2021 23: 42
                        +2
                        Judging by the picture, he loved wild animals. He took care of their food.
                      7. Catfish
                        Catfish April 2 2021 23: 44
                        +1
                        How could it be otherwise.

                        "He does not demand, does not ask,
                        His yellow eye burns
                        Everyone brings him
                        And he says thanks. "(C)
                      8. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 April 2 2021 23: 59
                        +2
                        “And the people who crawl up the slope
                        They came to you not to bow ”(c).
                      9. Catfish
                        Catfish April 3 2021 00: 28
                        +1
                        And the people who crawl up the slope

                      10. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 April 3 2021 07: 06
                        +1
                        From branch to branch
                        Drops are quietly running down ...
                        Spring rain (c).
                      11. Catfish
                        Catfish April 3 2021 07: 09
                        +1
                        "The rain is quietly pouring down to me by the collar,
                        The trolleybus is in no hurry, and there are drops on the back,
                        Oh-oh-oh-oh, already warmed up ... "(c)
                      12. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 April 3 2021 07: 11
                        +1
                        "Last, accidental" (c).
                      13. Catfish
                        Catfish April 3 2021 07: 18
                        +1
                        "The last battle, he is the most important" (c)
  • Richard
    Richard 31 March 2021 18: 48
    +7
    Album "Almain", created at the Royal Armories in Greenwich

    I know at least three more Royal Armories in England
    1. Armory Tower of London

    2 the Henry VIII Armory in the Tower of London

    Royal Armories-Arsenal in Leeds


    1. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter 31 March 2021 18: 53
      +7
      The staircase of the Lida Arsenal. The museum is just superb. In Leeds itself, the riverside pub is beyond praise.
      1. Bolt cutter
        Bolt cutter 31 March 2021 18: 57
        +6
        Created by the Engineers of Victorian England (1863) Leeds corn exchange. From the inside - it looks very nice - a combination of metal and wood.
        1. Bolt cutter
          Bolt cutter 31 March 2021 19: 13
          +7
          A shopping arcade, practically unchanged since the days of Queen Victoria, is there. Victorians lived beautifully, yes .. Not all, really sad
      2. kalibr
        31 March 2021 19: 45
        +6
        I envy you if you have been there. I’m now unlikely to succeed ...
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 31 March 2021 20: 21
          +8
          It is not worth determining the future. What if Osprey invites you?
          Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
          1. kalibr
            31 March 2021 20: 49
            +4
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            What if Osprey invites you?
            Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!

            You know, Anton. Why would it suddenly? And they hadn't invited them before, but now - all the more there is no need for them. God grant them at least one more book to write ...
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 31 March 2021 21: 00
              +5
              You know, Anton. Why would it suddenly?
              I do not know!!! "Who wants - is looking for opportunities, who does not want - an excuse!"
              My beloved sister-in-law, a cardiologist-diagnostician, from Saratov (!), Suddenly, two years ago, she visited London ...
              1. kalibr
                31 March 2021 21: 07
                +4
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                suddenly

                Suddenly it's good. But then there was no virus ... And then ... I visited. It is understood that one. One and I can. But I have a family.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 31 March 2021 21: 56
                  +4
                  Don't flirt, Vyacheslav Olegovich. It was already. The classics. "I'm old, sick, girls don't like me" ...
        2. Bolt cutter
          Bolt cutter 31 March 2021 20: 26
          +7
          Visited (my photos) - 2.5 hours by train. A beautiful cozy city with inexpensive housing - you can live. Pubs with terraces on the river are just lovely again.
          I’ll hardly succeed now.
          Are you under sanctions? belay
          1. kalibr
            31 March 2021 20: 51
            +7
            Quote: Bolt Cutter
            I’ll hardly succeed now.
            Are you under sanctions?

            It's just corny there is no money. Our family has a tradition to travel only together. For three, neither my pension nor my earnings will be enough for this trip. Publishers don't work. No books, no royalties, no travel.
            1. Bolt cutter
              Bolt cutter 31 March 2021 20: 58
              +4
              Leeds is relatively inexpensive. If you cook yourself (in a rented apartment), it will be cheaper than even Turkey. Intercity buses are cheap - if you want to look around the area. Hungarian wizzair will bring you here inexpensively. Everything will be the way. In England, not as expensive as it is commonly believed, if you know what's what.
              1. kalibr
                31 March 2021 21: 08
                +4
                Quote: Bolt Cutter
                if you know what's what.

                And for this you need to visit it at least once. Now I also know where what is expensive and cheap in Paris and Zagreb ...
                1. Bolt cutter
                  Bolt cutter 31 March 2021 21: 15
                  +6
                  This information can be simply subtracted. The easiest methods to save money (in relation to England)
                  1. Intercity buses instead of trains are several times cheaper and often not slower.
                  2. Go in October-November (generally in the off-season) - the weather is quite good and the battalions of tourists are gone.
                  3. In your case, renting an apartment at a booking office not in the center, public transport is not bad.
                  4. Prepare yourself (and carry your own sandwiches with you) - prices in supermarkets are not higher than in Moscow.
                  5. Prohibition.
                  6. No special offers from local excursion hucksters!
                  Air tickets are now cheap, low-cost airlines are exploring the Russian expanses, so everything can be fit into a modest budget. Museums are almost all free.
                  1. kalibr
                    31 March 2021 21: 32
                    +4
                    Thank you very much, Alexey! We will think about it!
                    1. Bolt cutter
                      Bolt cutter 31 March 2021 21: 43
                      +3
                      You can also write an e-book about the adventures of an officer of Her Majesty in a city of Penza full of bloodthirsty Bolsheviks, where he gets creepy secrets at a creepy factory of something creepy, fighting off along the way from party sodomy wassat (simply put, a pop-historical novel) and send it to the Kindle online store. For some reason now everything Russian has become popular again. By the way, the topic of the British intervention is poorly disclosed here, but you will succeed. There are many English-speaking people in the world, and it is quite possible that you will be able to sell on a trip from the Hebrides to Cornwall. I'm serious.
                      1. kalibr
                        April 1 2021 06: 25
                        +4
                        Quote: Bolt Cutter
                        You can also write an e-book about the adventures of an officer of Her Majesty in a city of Penza full of bloodthirsty Bolsheviks, where he gets creepy secrets at a creepy factory.

                        I'd rather write how a tourist from Penza on a distant island in the Pacific Ocean is fighting transnational monopolies for the environment ...
    2. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter 31 March 2021 21: 35
      +4
      Tower of London
      This is most likely the same place as
      in the tower of london
      The tower of london
  • Alien From
    Alien From 31 March 2021 18: 53
    +8
    These are the materials you need to teach! Thank you Vyacheslav Olegovich good
  • Alexy
    Alexy 31 March 2021 19: 13
    +1
    Didn't understand how the armor in the pictures in the album is different?
    1. kalibr
      31 March 2021 19: 41
      +4
      Quote: Alexy
      Didn't understand how the armor in the pictures in the album is different?

      Drawing, of course. And the shape of the individual parts.
  • Undecim
    Undecim 31 March 2021 19: 39
    +7
    Sir Henry Lee has been a Master of the Armory since 1580. As the organizer of Joining Day knights - costly knights, poetry, music, and feasting festivals aimed at honoring the queen - Lee needed to "show himself." Which he did, because his armor is one of the most striking in this album.
    Here it would be worth clarifying that the Master of the Armories, with a capital letter, is the head of the royal armory. The position in the described times is very high and responsible. In 1671 it was abolished, but in 1935, when the Armory became a museum, it was restored.
    So Sir Henry Lee did not deny himself the armor "having abused his position". I even lost count. One kit per article.
    Here is another one.


    1. Undecim
      Undecim 31 March 2021 19: 42
      +5
      This is a set from the article.


      1. kalibr
        31 March 2021 19: 48
        +5
        As they say in Russia, Viktor Nikolaevich, his own hand is the lord!
      2. Undecim
        Undecim 31 March 2021 19: 48
        +5
        And this is the third.




        It turns out three sets.
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 31 March 2021 20: 01
          +7
          Some items from these kits are "live".

    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 31 March 2021 20: 28
      +4
      Corruption was not invented yesterday.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 31 March 2021 20: 32
        +6
        But all the applications were endorsed by the queen.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 31 March 2021 20: 43
          +5
          In this case, it makes sense to refer to the literary tale describing the meeting of B. Shaw with Queen Victoria.
        2. kalibr
          April 1 2021 12: 11
          +2
          She wanted to please him ...
  • bk0010
    bk0010 31 March 2021 20: 07
    +2
    What kind of stick are they all holding there?
    1. kalibr
      31 March 2021 20: 15
      +6
      Commander's wand. They all led the troops!
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 31 March 2021 20: 45
    +4
    Good evening, colleagues, Vyacheslav Olegovich.
    It's nice that we didn't have to wait long.
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 31 March 2021 21: 54
    +7
    Theoretically, in such armor on the battlefield, death or injury could only be threatened by a cannonball or a shot from a heavy musket at close range. No, of course, they could knock them down and thresh them with halberds for half an hour, like the reapers, a sheaf of wheat, or try to pin them with a misericord, lifting the visor, but, in general, no one needed it - it's easier to take prisoner and get a ransom. So the possession of such armor greatly increased the chances of surviving even in an absolutely hopelessly lost battle. It was only necessary to stay away from rivers, swamps, streams and other such landscape.
    I can imagine the thoughts of the owner of such armor, who gave his last money for it, got into debt, etc. in a real battle.
    The armor costs a million dollars!
    Don't hit! Not with a halberd!
    Pancake! this blow will cost me a hundred pounds of one fix!
    Where on the cuirass! You bastard! Another minus fifty pounds!
    What have I done to you? Don't be a six-man! Remember, you bastards!
    Here are the villains! Now the visor is backlash, dangles, I will ring like an Arabian cymbal!
    Well hold on! You pissed me off! I will hack-oo-oo-oo!

    laughing
    1. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter 31 March 2021 22: 15
      +4
      from a cannonball or a shot from a heavy musket at close range
      And the crossbow bolt? And the armor is almost intact laughing
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 31 March 2021 22: 21
        +5
        The crossbow bolt, even if it pierces something, is unlikely to reach the owner's skin. However, armor of this level was unlikely to break through from a crossbow. I still continue to hope that they are first of all very durable and only secondly - beautiful. smile
        1. Bolt cutter
          Bolt cutter 31 March 2021 22: 26
          +4
          They (bolts) were often solid forged. And the strength of the armor should not be exaggerated - metallurgy then was not at all at the level and then iron is far from modern steel.
          1. sniperino
            sniperino 31 March 2021 23: 40
            +3
            Quote: Bolt Cutter
            the durability of the armor should not be exaggerated
            Protection probably consisted in reducing the severity of the wounds inflicted by the enemy in order to quickly return the survivors to service.
        2. kalibr
          April 1 2021 06: 21
          +4
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          I still continue to hope that they are first of all very durable and only secondly - beautiful.

          There will also be about the hardening of armor ...
    2. kalibr
      April 1 2021 06: 20
      +4
      There is the royal armor, Michael, the king of Sweden - there will be more about him, on which the notches from sword blows and dents on the helmet are visible. But ... not fatal. So this iron really saved life!
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master April 1 2021 11: 09
        +3
        Quote: kalibr
        this iron really saved life!

        Of course, otherwise they would simply not have been made in this form, limited to some kind of props. And here they approached quite seriously and, I think, the metal for such armor went exclusively of the highest quality, the best workmanship. Therefore, they were worth such crazy money that they gave their owners confidence, while the rest of the armor to their owners was only hope. smile
        In addition, the master could answer for a frank marriage not only with a ruble, especially if this marriage becomes the cause of some kind of misfortune.
        But all the same, I still have the desire to beat this piece with a halberd. laughing
  • paco.soto
    paco.soto 31 March 2021 22: 40
    +5
    Neutral opinion: Vyacheslav, thank you for the interesting article! And from myself now "I am surprised - in fact, obscene" because I can just drop everything and go to any museums in my country. But it's more convenient for me to read your articles on the terrace.
    1. kalibr
      April 1 2021 06: 24
      +4
      Quote: paco.soto
      But it's more convenient for me to read your articles on the terrace.

      It's good. Walking brings the heat death of the universe closer!
      1. paco.soto
        paco.soto April 1 2021 12: 16
        +2
        It's good. Walking brings the heat death of the universe closer!
        Reply © ©

        With a smile: thank you for the dialogue.
        Offtop: in 92, in Wroclaw, we regularly organized family officers' meetings (culinary and drinking) in violation of the chain of command. And the wife of a colonel, of course, reproached us all for wasting time in the historic city. But! - and conducted wonderful seminars on history, I still remember with nostalgia.
        Regards to you.
        1. kalibr
          April 1 2021 12: 32
          +2
          And all the best to you! Incidentally, I really like Wroclaw. I was there in the diorama museum, in two cathedrals and ... ran around the city in order to keep up with the tour group. I saw a lot of interesting things and filmed a bunch of Wroclaw gnomes! Now there are a lot of them ...
  • Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 31 March 2021 23: 50
    +5
    The four most read are put at 18:00
    1. depressant
      depressant April 1 2021 06: 59
      +5
      Albert, during the period of starvation. At this time, everyone in the Moscow region is leaving work. I looked at such a glove in my mobile phone - I was scared myself and hunger from fright runs ahead of you, everything is easier for the stomach, and thoughts are cramped! )))
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar April 1 2021 07: 53
        +4
        Greetings! hi
        This is what the respected administration of the site is guided by! laughing
        1. depressant
          depressant April 1 2021 08: 18
          +3
          Yes!!! Probably on the eve of World Laughter Day. Dear colleague, ha ha to you! Happy Holidays! (((( crying ))))
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar April 1 2021 09: 08
            +3
            Happy holiday, dear forum users!
            May the Force be with you on this day!
            1. depressant
              depressant April 1 2021 09: 15
              +4
              Let me clarify: the power of laughter, or what kind of power? And then after all, there are dangerous, hehe!
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar April 1 2021 09: 19
                +4
                The power of the JIDai
                1. depressant
                  depressant April 1 2021 09: 22
                  +5
                  They settled in here too, Abraham's tribe! ))) And how to sign up for you? Where is grace given out? wassat
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar April 1 2021 09: 24
                    +3
                    At the Chabad-Lubavitch synagogue for permanent residence. However, you will have to take an oath of allegiance to Barbara Streisand.
                    1. depressant
                      depressant April 1 2021 09: 45
                      +2
                      Well, Barbara is extremely respected by me. But while you were preparing your too specific answer, I realized what is the strength of a true Jew - it is in amazing contact! Any individual of a given nationality, about whom Izya Katsman said "Yes!" With hatred to the poll. ("Doomed City") - this person is like a piece of the puzzle, which is the whole of humanity. This particle will always have an edge with which you can attach itself to any other person. And I'm like an elephant in a china shop. I spin around, crush everything around, making no attempts to contact and even avoiding anyone. I, like most Russians, live in my brain.
                      So let's drink to the fact that all of humanity ceases to be an elephant, but becomes a folded puzzle! good drinks
                      Hmm ...
                      1. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 1 2021 10: 10
                        +3
                        drinks Lechaim, Yamos ... fellow
                      2. depressant
                        depressant April 1 2021 10: 19
                        +4
                        For life, Albert, for life! So that she does not turn only into memories of how it was once ... well, in different ways. For the future.
                      3. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 1 2021 10: 21
                        +3
                        Memories are useless. It's good to live here and now)).
                      4. depressant
                        depressant April 1 2021 10: 46
                        +3
                        I totally agree! There is no past in my view. It is impossible to return it in the form in which it is remembered and longed for. And even if it were possible ... I had such a case, I will remember it for the rest of my life. I come home from Moscow for the holidays after my first year. I got from the station to the center by bus and, without waiting for my bus, went home on foot. And such, you know, a strange feeling seized me ...
                        The houses are squat, small, everything seems to be preserved or something. The preservation of the past in its unchanged form due to the much slower flow of provincial time than the capital, threw me in awe, the body resisted, the perception protested, the brain - to take away! I had to get used to it for three days. A normal person is directed to the future according to the passage of time, even if he is not aware of it. The demand to return the past is akin to an illness or a misunderstanding that the course of time has already changed a person, and a return to the conserved past will cause a painful shock to those who are eager to meet with him. Especially because you already know how the past ended. Nostalgia for the past is beautiful, but it is only history, a subject for analysis in order to exclude future mistakes. But the idea of ​​such an exhaust of historical analysis is in itself a mistake. Let's live forward, not braking!
                      5. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 1 2021 11: 03
                        +3
                        Bright childhood / youth should forever remain only vivid memories of youth.
                        Therefore, it is better not to return to your old house - it may turn out to be a shack, a nostalgic smell - musty, friends of youth - degenerate cattle.
                        We must look into the future.
                      6. depressant
                        depressant April 1 2021 11: 21
                        +3
                        What can I say, Albert ...
                        Just this -- (((( good ))))
                        But, it seems, on April Fool's Day, except for me, no one laughs. Well, Vyacheslav Olegovich's sadness is understandable: Penza is grieving all over the place, people in mourning bandages, not even gathering one at a time, quickly pass each other and sadly shake hands on the go (themselves! wassat ), the sadness about the fate of the beloved governor is immeasurable - but why did we hang our noses to the valley? Such beautiful armor! What is not a reason for joy? And the knights crammed into them were probably even more beautiful. Once I happened to see the BBC's reconstruction of the Crusades - there are such reconstructions, better than feature films. The knights there were completely handsome, all as one looked like Jesus)))
                      7. kalibr
                        April 1 2021 11: 36
                        +2
                        Quote: depressant
                        sadness about the fate of the beloved governor is immeasurable,

                        Ha, next to his house is a dental clinic where my wife treats her teeth! And the granddaughter goes to school ...
                      8. depressant
                        depressant April 1 2021 11: 52
                        +3
                        So how is it? The wife still heals her teeth, and the granddaughter is studying? ))) Heaven did not collapse on the affected Penza? And here, apparently, because of grief over your governor, ice and snow do not want to go down. Has nature missed its mark, bringing down on us what it should have brought down on your province?
                        You see, Vyacheslav Olegovich, by the first of April, usually in my village there are only small islands of snow in the shade of houses and a bright sun in the azure sky. And now - terrible muddy mountains, streams of water, flooded sidewalks, and under the water - ice, you don't know where to step, as if a mudflow mixed with an avalanche descended, a continuous cloudy shroud over the village. And the population is at a loss: for whom does nature call? We seem to have not arrested any important person)))
                      9. kalibr
                        April 1 2021 12: 09
                        +3
                        Quote: depressant
                        So how is it? The wife still treats her teeth, and the granddaughter is studying?

                        That's it. That he was, that he is not.
                      10. depressant
                        depressant April 1 2021 12: 30
                        +4
                        ..... empty space, empty space, emptiness, vacuum, space, skip, mizdryushka, zero, insignificance, nobody, zero, zero, small fry, fifth, riffraff, syavka, bump out of the blue, grain of sand, etc.
                2. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar April 1 2021 11: 55
                  +2
                  ??
                  They look like Jesus - were they Jews?
                3. depressant
                  depressant April 1 2021 12: 04
                  +4
                  Imagine, they are similar! Apparently, this is what the creators of the reconstruction wanted - they fought for the Lord! And indeed, filmmakers presented them as such - no words! Long wavy hair fluttering in the wind, noble beautiful faces filled with the whole spectrum of Christian virtues, a kind of all-forgiving softness on them ...
                  And you will look at the portrait faces of that time - now a toad, then a crocodile, or even a wolf! You look, and I think: but people have become better in general)))
                4. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar April 1 2021 12: 16
                  +2
                  Casting of actors - certainly got better))
                5. depressant
                  depressant April 1 2021 12: 23
                  +3
                  Yes, at the beginning of the 20th century, women were a kind of cellulite fat women with waists tightened until they faint, and now they are long, bony poles with faces that are indistinguishable from one another. To tell the truth, and then the faces were the same due to makeup, and now - due to special pumping)))
                6. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar April 1 2021 12: 51
                  +2
                  I do not agree - there are asterisks now
                  Margot Robbie, Nicole Kidman, Charlize Tyrone ..))
                  Next Door Girls Sucks - Agree
                7. depressant
                  depressant April 1 2021 13: 06
                  +4
                  Saw Kidman in a movie where she played a detective. Long legs braided by legs, long arms - by arms, it was awkward to look. This is despite the fact that I adore Kidman. But it's good that she's not filmed like that anymore. Every actress needs a suitable role. Charlize Theron is good! "The devil's advocate" is something!
                8. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar April 1 2021 13: 09
                  +2
                  Yes, this is her debut, if I'm not mistaken, on the big screen))
  • lopvlad
    lopvlad 31 March 2021 23: 58
    +3
    What kind of armor you don’t put on plundering the whole and your colonial countries, trading in slaves for hundreds of years.
    1. kalibr
      April 1 2021 06: 23
      +4
      Quote: lopvlad
      What kind of armor you don’t put on plundering the whole and your colonial countries, trading in slaves for hundreds of years.

      That's it! What did you try for? That's for the sake of this - to live in beauty and contentment!
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar April 1 2021 07: 55
        +4
        Greetings, Vladislav Olegovich! hi
        But this is outrageous - it was necessary to endow the aborigines with the benefits of civilization, to forbid them to sell prisoners and finally - to force them to build socialism! soldier
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku April 1 2021 10: 16
          +6
          But this is outrageous - it was necessary to endow the aborigines with the benefits of civilization, to forbid them to sell prisoners and finally - to force them to build socialism!

          As practice shows, the aborigines will still profuse all the polymers, and the suppliers themselves will not have enough for socialism ... request
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar April 1 2021 10: 35
            +5
            Hi, Nikolay! hi
            A couple of years ago, the Americans presented the Afghans with Lyamov Kashmiri goats for 40 euros - the climate is suitable, the people are familiar with the business, the grandmothers are good and everyone should be fine in the end.
            But the Afghans just ... ate these goats.
            On leaving Gaza, the Jews left the Palestinians with greenhouses with irrigation equipment, water computers, etc. For tens of millions of tanks.
            They didn’t even plunder them for sale - they just burned them! laughing
            Africans blame whites for famine on the continent - they brought medicines and founded modern medicine for them, which
            raised the population to a billion 200 million, while Africa, without hard work, to which the locals are unaccustomed, can feed no more than 400 million.
            Therefore - away from them all stop
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku April 1 2021 10: 59
              +6
              Hi, Nikolay!

              Albert, hello! drinks I agree with you on all points. yes Do you remember that the most advanced peizans of Melanesia created a cargo cult? wink Like, "a magician will suddenly arrive in a blue helicopter," and other buns. fellow
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar April 1 2021 11: 13
                +4
                And he will bring delicious meat of white pilots))
            2. Bolt cutter
              Bolt cutter April 1 2021 11: 10
              +4
              But the Afghans just ... ate these goats.
              No, not easy lol ... First fried
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar April 1 2021 11: 18
                +4
                laughing laughing
                Have you noticed that she was less supportive of the third? laughing
                1. Bolt cutter
                  Bolt cutter April 1 2021 11: 21
                  +4
                  Probably a rude dork wassat Not her type sad And can you imagine the cackle of drone operators and the question they face is what to write in the shift report?
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar April 1 2021 11: 25
                    +4
                    This is not recorded - he himself worked in the army with a similar indigenous population)).
                    1. Bolt cutter
                      Bolt cutter April 1 2021 11: 32
                      +5
                      I wonder what the mullahs (or whoever they have) of the Taliban think about such frank information about their organization? These three jihad warriors burned out the office good Better to smoke smile
                      1. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 1 2021 11: 37
                        +4
                        They will rape them demonstratively and edifying publicly, for educational purposes, of course.
                      2. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter April 1 2021 11: 43
                        +4
                        Aren't you going to throw stones? And in general, they have the same lamur only after marriage request
                      3. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 1 2021 12: 27
                        +4
                        They banned same-sex marriage.
                      4. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku April 1 2021 12: 37
                        +6
                        They banned same-sex marriage.

                        Alex is burning with napalm! good and you too, class! drinks
                        Oh, times, oh, morals! (I'm talking about the Taliban).
                      5. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 1 2021 12: 46
                        +5
                        Joffrey is a fidget, a pervert, all according to Freud))
                      6. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku April 1 2021 12: 47
                        +5
                        Joffrey is a fidget, a pervert, all according to Freud))

                        EMNIP, he also died a virgin ... No luck! request
                      7. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 1 2021 12: 54
                        +4
                        I do not think so
                      8. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku April 1 2021 13: 23
                        +4
                        I do not think so

                        Honestly, haven't watched the seasons with him laughing I only remember that he was sporting a crossbow there ... fellow
                      9. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 1 2021 13: 25
                        +4
                        After I stopped being a virgin for sure))
                      10. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku April 1 2021 13: 30
                        +5
                        After being a virgin for sure

                        That is, while there is no initiation - no crossbow for you? stop Need to earn a crossbow in bed? belay Wild people, Albert! laughing
                      11. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 1 2021 13: 33
                        +4
                        No way
                        He shot a girl of low social responsibility who came from the North to conquer the capital
                      12. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku April 1 2021 13: 42
                        +6
                        He shot a girl of low social responsibility who came from the North to conquer the capital

                        You said well ... Just like a seasoned lawyer. If we had it in St. Petersburg, he would have also dismembered it later, and, perhaps, even ate it. wassat It's just the climate!
                      13. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 1 2021 14: 42
                        +3
                        He was not far from a person living in a very depressed, incl. weather atmosphere))
                      14. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku April 1 2021 15: 59
                        +5
                        He was not far from a person living in a very depressed, incl. weather atmosphere))

                        The main thing is health and safety!
                      15. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 1 2021 16: 08
                        +3
                        Oh, you liked the theme of the dismembered))
                      16. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku April 1 2021 16: 19
                        +4
                        Oh, you liked the theme of the dismembered))

                        It's just the climate! I live in St. Petersburg ... request no, in fact, this phenomenon is just horror. negative But, as you can see, there are such characters among our citizens. No.
                      17. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 1 2021 16: 22
                        +3
                        What does the climate have to do with it?
                        A trial in Israel of gastro-beaters, who do not throw their grandmothers back for them, also wets and dismembers so that the transportation of biowaste is non-fouling
                      18. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku April 1 2021 16: 25
                        +5
                        Trial in Israel for gastrobeaters

                        I feel like an ignoramus ... Who is Triala? sad By the way, who plays the role of guest workers in Israel? wink
                      19. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 1 2021 16: 56
                        +3
                        Triad
                        Chinese
  • kalibr
    April 2 2021 08: 33
    +2
    Bear the burden of whites, -
    Do not straighten your back!
    Are you tired? - let it be about freedom
    You are only dreaming!
    Try or throw
    All work to hell -
    Everything will be indifferent
    Stubborn savages.
    1. depressant
      depressant April 2 2021 11: 39
      +3
      The same Kipling! "Bear the burden of the whites" - translated by Vyacheslav Rodionov:

      Among the tribes of strangers -
      Send your sons
      Serve for their good;
      Tired of working
      For afflicted people -
      Half demons
      So many children.
      Bear the burden of the Whites -
      Not daring to lose heart
      Neither malice nor pride
      Do not try to manifest;
      Accessible words
      Get them involved
      And for myself in that matter
      Don’t look for benefits.
      Bear the burden of the Whites -
      So that the noise of war is quiet
      And give food to the hungry
      And cure the sick.
      When victory is near
      See you please
      Like someone's laziness and stupidity
      Multiply everything by zero.
      Bear the burden of the Whites -
      Not the right of kings -
      Your destiny will be
      That labor that is more difficult for everyone.
      And what you built here
      While there was enough strength
      Let the monument be
      To all those who did not live.
      Bear the burden of the Whites -
      The bitter fruit of it:
      Scolding angry for caring
      Oblivion for the labors.
      Not once will you hear here
      From the same savages, -
      “Why should we go to the light?
      Our darkness is sweeter to us. ”
      Bear the burden of the Whites -
      Do not rot before people
      And screams of freedom
      Only weakness, damn it.
      And according to your actions
      And according to you
      Will give you a rating
      And to all your gods.

      Bear the burden of the Whites -
      And accumulate from a young age
      A wreath of cheap laurels,
      Stingy praise bouquet.
      But at the sunset of life
      Without any fuss
      Let your work be appreciated
      The same as you!

      Vyacheslav Olegovich, ((( love )))
      1. kalibr
        April 2 2021 17: 57
        +1
        Thanks! I love this poem.
  • kalibr
    April 1 2021 11: 43
    +5
    Quote: Krasnodar
    But this is outrageous - it was necessary to endow the aborigines with the benefits of civilization, to forbid them to sell prisoners and finally - to force them to build socialism!

    Good health to you! Only today I thought that the words "social justice" should be banned as socially dangerous. Let's build it at home - pah-pah and bring it down to us ... yes ... Or they will want it at home. For example, an Indian will say - a refrigerator or "Mathis" for my family. It is unfair that the Russians have and we do not. And then the Negroes in Africa will also demand the same ... And where to get 4 tons of fresh clean water to melt 1 ton of steel for all this "equality"? As a result, everyone will have to be soldered. As in the "Iron Caves" by Asimov. And will those who stand up for it today want it?
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar April 1 2021 12: 32
      +5
      They made another excrement in Israel - about social equality.
      Children from disadvantaged areas were transferred to elite schools in Tel Aviv.
      Let's look at how changing the quality of education will give them an equal chance with the offspring of millionaires, scientists, doctors and others.
      The bottom line:
      We didn’t study by ourselves, because not accustomed, and children with a competitive mentality were stupidly interfered with in good grades and personal achievements.
      For it is not being that determines consciousness, but mentality
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku April 1 2021 12: 46
        +5
        For it is not being that determines consciousness, but mentality

        The Marxists will tell you that there is no mentality, but there are living conditions created by the capitalists. stop
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar April 1 2021 12: 47
          +4
          That's right, because the arbeiter Haben kaynd Vaterland
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku April 1 2021 12: 49
            +5
            Arbeiter Haben Kind Vaterland

            Translate please! belay I'm not good at German fascist! stop I remember only about "arbayt maht fry" ... negative
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar April 1 2021 12: 55
              +4
              The proletarian has no homeland
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku April 1 2021 13: 23
                +4
                The proletarian has no homeland

                And what is there? belay class flair?
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar April 1 2021 13: 26
                  +3
                  Class struggle soldier
                2. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku April 1 2021 13: 34
                  +5
                  Class struggle

                  "The harsh years are passing
                  In the struggle for the freedom of the country.
                  Others come after them,
                  They will be difficult too. "(X \ f" Heart of a Dog ")


                  Yes, I do not agree! With both! fellow
                3. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar April 1 2021 14: 22
                  +4
                  Select and divide everything))
                4. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku April 1 2021 14: 46
                  +5
                  Select and divide everything))

                  In seven rooms! With your social servant! drinks
                5. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar April 1 2021 15: 07
                  +3
                  We choked them - choked them
                6. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku April 1 2021 15: 38
                  +4
                  We choked them - choked them

                  - .... Sharikov, I'll shoot you!
                  - They themselves will have revolvers ...
                7. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar April 1 2021 15: 44
                  +3
                  Wounded on the Kolchak fronts ...
                8. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku April 1 2021 15: 46
                  +4
                  Wounded on the Kolchak fronts ...

                  Badly wounded! laughing
                  “Are you an individualist anarchist?”
                  - I need a white ticket!
  • kalibr
    April 1 2021 15: 07
    +4
    Quote: Pane Kohanku
    but there are living conditions that the capitalists create.

    Recently I again read the "Short Course ..." I was amazed that its authors / author did not even understand the role of the natural-geographical factor. In fact, he was ignored ... PRINTED this, although world science has already proven the relationship between the phenomena of nature and society. And after that, these people still wanted something ... Ignorant ... However, what to say, if in the TRUTH of the beginning of the 50s they wrote how the cuckoo gave birth to a warbler and life arose in vitro!
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku April 1 2021 15: 36
      +6
      And after that, these people wanted something else ..

      After watching the video from Alex, I realized that I definitely could not prove anything to the class eastern proletarians from animal husbandry. Even if I am also a proletarian. After all, the class struggle is one thing, but the mentality is another.
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar April 1 2021 15: 52
        +3
        So what was the problem - the Alliances that were supposed to replace the state (according to Marx and Engels) wanted to create in the industrially developed societies of Germany, France, Great Britain and the United States, i.e. countries with more or less the same values, then only the mentality. The proletariat had to take power over the instruments of production, then increase the productivity of labor, and build a just social society on the exhaust - by increasing the material goods produced.
        In Russia, in order to become an industrially developed state, they carried out collectivization
  • depressant
    depressant April 1 2021 12: 59
    +6
    And in Russian schools, the implementation of the idea is as follows: according to the verdict of the Ministry of Education, children with disabilities were assigned to ordinary schools.
    The bottom line:
    We didn’t study by ourselves, because not accustomed, and children with a competitive mentality were stupidly interfered with in good grades and personal achievements.

    With only one amendment: they do not learn themselves and do not give to others.
    Teaching a child with disabilities is a huge work that requires special knowledge. Consequently, an automatic decrease in the level of training of all. And those and other children - a pity!
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar April 1 2021 13: 28
      +5
      In Israel, they still practice this, everyone understands the shortcomings, but they do nothing about it. For children are the sacred cow of Israel
    2. kalibr
      April 1 2021 15: 09
      +3
      Quote: depressant
      And those and other children - a pity!

      Well, that's up to the parents. You see, the class is full - take the child and put them where they are not.
  • Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku April 1 2021 12: 45
    +6
    my family has a refrigerator or Mathis.

    Some poor choice, Vyacheslav Olegovich! Smallish!wink You need to dream more pompously - there is an island there with its own harem for 50 beds ... a couple of hundred million dollars in cash to boot ... what It is imperative to visualize the dream data ... winked Somehow like this! repeat And not a bed less! stop
    1. kalibr
      April 1 2021 15: 09
      +3
      To overpower the refrigerator with Mathis - the navel will be untied!
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku April 1 2021 15: 37
        +3
        To overpower the refrigerator with Mathis - the navel will be untied!

        If you personally buy each Indian who wants to, then everyone will be untied. request
  • depressant
    depressant April 1 2021 08: 02
    +7
    This is what happens ... Today is World April Fool's Day? Well, ha ha to you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!)))) And ha ha to all present fellow citizens and tribesmen! wassat )))
  • lopvlad
    lopvlad April 2 2021 07: 41
    0
    Quote: kalibr
    It is for this - to live in beauty and contentment!


    want to follow in their footsteps, robbing and killing?
    1. kalibr
      April 2 2021 21: 11
      0
      Quote: lopvlad
      want to follow in their footsteps, robbing and killing

      Show whom you can rob and kill and not get on the bunk, and even with a profit ... so even tomorrow! And if you risk your life and freedom - thank you. So I want to, but I have no opportunity. But I can buy a goat. But I have no desire!
  • NF68
    NF68 April 1 2021 16: 17
    +2
    This armor is more reminiscent of the art of the Renaissance ..
    1. kalibr
      April 1 2021 16: 59
      +2
      Quote: NF68
      This armor is more reminiscent of the art of the Renaissance ..

      So this is the Renaissance. High Renaissance.
      1. NF68
        NF68 April 1 2021 17: 02
        +1
        Quote: kalibr
        Quote: NF68
        This armor is more reminiscent of the art of the Renaissance ..

        So this is the Renaissance. High Renaissance.


        The Renaissance was a fine art.
        1. kalibr
          April 1 2021 21: 29
          +2
          Quote: NF68
          The Renaissance belongs to the fine arts.

          She belonged to EVERYTHING - literature, painting, sculpture, architecture!
          1. depressant
            depressant April 2 2021 11: 46
            +2
            You shouldn't use such difficult concepts as "architecture". They would just say "architecture". The compatriot must be protected.
            1. kalibr
              April 2 2021 17: 55
              +1
              Quote: depressant
              You shouldn't use such difficult concepts as "architecture".

              It seems to me that you cannot imagine an easier one.
              1. depressant
                depressant April 2 2021 19: 11
                +3
                Well, if a compatriot believes that the Renaissance concerns only the fine arts, then ... However, yesterday was April 1.
                In Zen I found an article where it was told in all seriousness that to deepen Russian-Chinese cooperation and to facilitate it, a commission was created to remake the Russian alphabet: the first letter should be "I"! Like, as the latter, it reduces the importance of the personality of the Russian person, suppresses self-consciousness, etc.
                I bought it! And to me - from April 1, reader!
            2. Phil77
              Phil77 April 2 2021 18: 25
              +3
              Oh, Lyudmila Yakovlevna! I do not agree with you! Listen to the music of this word! ARCHITECT! Wonderful how beautiful!
              Now go back to * architecture *? Is there a difference? In my opinion, there is definitely a place to be. Here with all due respect, but ... hi
              1. depressant
                depressant April 2 2021 18: 51
                +1
                Seryozha, good evening!)))
                Architecture ... The sonorous syllable "zod" seems to beat backhand! As a "middle name". And the following letters are lost, become unimportant, forming a suffix and an ending. And a fragile line with ups and downs AR - KHI - TEK - TU - RA ... A complex structure of several floors, consisting of many rooms, their suites and outbuildings is architecture. Something whole is architecture. I imagine it so myself.
                1. Phil77
                  Phil77 April 2 2021 18: 57
                  +3
                  AR-KHI-TEK-TU-RA! And before your eyes immediately appear * Khrushchev * five-story buildings, ** Brezhnev * nine-twelve-story buildings, typical houses of culture, schools, clinics, shops. Have not forgotten anything? AND THE ARCHITECT !!! Palaces, estates , at home. Temples, finally!
                  This is an individual approach to the customer. Creativity with a capital letter! hi
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 April 3 2021 08: 04
                    +1
                    You can't say "Wooden architecture".
                2. Phil77
                  Phil77 April 2 2021 18: 59
                  +2
                  That's about, somewhere like this, my friend!
                  1. depressant
                    depressant April 2 2021 20: 04
                    +3
                    Yes, in the word "architect" I hear something sacred ... I see Kizhi. Such churches were built by the artel in one day. And also a tower. Architecture - I see a drawing board, a soulless architect bending over a Whatman paper, the buildings are monsters, even those that are given by you, even those that are in China or the Emirates. All of it collapses overnight, everything is against a person. I'm retrograde.