Military Review

Nuclear failure. How Siberian rivers did not enter the Caspian

123
Nuclear failure. How Siberian rivers did not enter the Caspian

And megatons in the mind



Exactly half a century ago - on March 23, 1971, three 127-kiloton nuclear charges were detonated simultaneously in three underground wells, 15 m deep, between the Kolva and Pechora rivers. Little is written about these explosions and blockbusters are not filmed. Although the harm from them was considerable. And in case of continuation it could turn out to be completely disastrous.

It exploded then near the villages of Chusovskoye and Vasyukovo in the Cherdynsky district of the Perm region. There, between Kolva and Pechora, a canal was planned to transfer water from the Kama basin and these deep rivers to the North Caspian.

However, the inhabitants of those villages, as well as the large nearby town of Krasnovishersk, no one thought to evacuate with the given, if I may say so, "work".

It is difficult to surprise Perm residents with explosions. Even so powerful. And then it was considered nothing more than an integral part of large-scale government projects.

As you know, there were serious plans for the transfer of northern rivers to the Lower Volga, as well as to the Caspian and Aral basins. The implementation of these projects, in contrast to the energetic plowing of virgin lands, did not take place either in the 70s or later.

But the disastrous consequences of those explosions, called "Taiga", turned out to be practically indefinite. However, everything could have turned out to be not only worse, but much worse - after all, in order to create channels through which it was planned to transfer the northern European rivers, it was supposed to produce up to 250 nuclear explosions!

"Taiga" - three in one


But in reality, only one series of three simultaneous explosions took place - on March 23, 1971.

The shaking was then felt by the villagers within a radius of 60 km. The soil was thrown through the flames by the explosion to a height of up to 300 m.After that, it began to fall down, creating a growing dust cloud, which rose to a height of about 1800 m.

At the same time, no data on the radiation consequences of the aforementioned explosion were disclosed by the relevant authorities. And even today, these data are only rarely found in purely "unofficial" publications.

And yet it is well known that you cannot hide a sewing in a sack.

Radioactive particles soon after the explosion spread to Finland and Sweden, where it was quickly recorded. And this was a violation of the Moscow Treaty Banning Nuclear Testing in Three Environments.

As you know, the treaty was signed by the USSR, the USA and Great Britain on August 5, 1963 in Moscow. Among other things, and therefore this project was closed by the fall of 1974. But his traces still remain in the same area of ​​the Perm Territory.


And the transfer of northern and western Siberian rivers was sanctioned by the plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU (December 9, 1968), instructing the State Planning Committee, the State Committee for Supply and 20 other Soviet departments to work out schemes and resource support for transferring the flow of the Pechora, Vychegda, Kama and tributaries to the Caspian-Lower Volga basin.

In parallel, the West Siberian Ob, Irtysh and Tobol were supposed to "retarget" to the Aral Sea. As prescribed by the party Central Committee, for:

“Sustainable water supply of vast low and waterless spaces, elimination of water scarcity in vast areas of the Caspian lowland, Western, Central Kazakhstan and the Aral Sea basin”.

The bill went to billions of rubles and ... millions of people


As noted by the head of the State Planning Committee of the USSR in 1949-1957. Maxim Saburov (1900-1977), ranked in 1959 among the "anti-party group of Molotov, Malenkov and Kaganovich, as well as Shepilov who joined them", such unpredictable projects

“We were collectively lobbied by the leaders of the Central Asian republics.

Instead of rational use of local water resources, elimination of errors in planning local water supply, and especially land reclamation, these figures began to promote the diversion of Russian rivers in unison.

Threatening disruptions in their regions of the implementation of national economic plans with "serious for the whole country social and, possibly, internal political consequences" in the same regions.

And the Politburo did not dare to conflict with all the heads of the Central Asian republics at once, including Kazakhstan.

I do not exclude that corruption "threads" from that region to the leading Soviet structures also contributed to the 1968 decision. "


From the VO dossier.
M.Z. Saburov was an advisor to I.V. Stalin on economic issues at the Yalta and Potsdam conferences of the allies (1945), headed the commission of the Council of People's Commissars (Council of Ministers) of the USSR on reparations in Germany and Austria 1945-1948.
In 1958-1966. - Director of heavy machine-building factories for the processing of plastics in the city of Syzran (Kuibyshev region).
Withdrawn from the Central Committee of the CPSU in 1961 for criticizing the decision of the 1961nd Congress of the CPSU (XNUMX) to remove the sarcophagus with Stalin from the mausoleum.
Honorary Member of the Albanian Party of Labor (1961-1991).
Since 1967 - retired republican (RSFSR) value.



It is interesting that Sergei Zalygin (1913–2000), a famous Russian writer, ecologist, and reclamation engineer, had a similar opinion:

“The transfer of rivers would cause indefinite and, moreover, irreparable damage to the economy, social sphere, and all components of the biosphere in vast regions of Russia.

And the problem of water shortage in Central Asia is being solved through the introduction of water-saving technologies, integrated development of water resources in that region. "

The background of those projects was, according to the accurate assessment of the writer, still

“And the fact that, if the projects were carried out, the ministries of land reclamation and water management of the USSR and the RSFSR, they would begin to master huge amounts of money.

They would have sufficed them for ten years.

In pursuit of such money, they went to lie, forgery and speculation, as well as to "link" with the Central Asian authorities.

In those departments, they only thought about how to quickly get such a huge amount of money for the "transfer" and use it.

Moreover, those departments had, in general, up to 200 organizations, and they have at least two million employees. "

Radioactivity? Forget


As for the aforementioned explosion in the Perm region, with its "help" a channel 700 m long and 380 m wide, with a depth of 11-15 meters, was formed. Due to the fall of the ground, a wide parapet was formed around the canal.

In the future, the project, we repeat, did not come true. But a lake appeared in the bed of that channel. It is called that:

"Nuclear".

Despite the "name", the lake remains a popular fishing spot. And the shores are still popular with mushroom pickers (see Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Amsterdam (NLD), 2011, Vol. 102; 2012, Vol. 109).

In the summer of 2009, the St. Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene named after V.I. Ramzaeva conducted a study of radiation pollution in the area of ​​those explosions.

Dots with an increased background of gamma radiation were found, caused mainly by the isotopes of cesium - 137Cs and cobalt - 60Co. Isotopes of niobium - 94Nb, europium - 152Eu and 154Eu, bismuth - 207Bi, and also americium - 241Am (a product of beta decay of plutonium - 241Pu) were also found in the area of ​​the explosion.

According to this research institute, in 1979 the calculated dose rate of gamma irradiation in the same place was 95% due to the contribution of cobalt - 60Co. In 2039, it will be mainly (90%) provided by cesium - 137Cs.

Such estimates are indirectly confirmed by the National Association of Oil and Gas Services (RF). According to her data dated May 27, 2019, in the same area of ​​the Perm Territory

"In some areas, an increased level of radioactive radiation is still recorded."

Without any explanation.

At the same time, this output is kind of mixed:

"In general, the background radiation is within the normal range there."

Well, very laconic pragmatism ...
Author:
Photos used:
usr22.ru, stalinline.ru, Ihistory.ru, comandir.com
123 comments
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  1. Far B
    Far B 25 March 2021 05: 26
    +44
    "The turn of the Siberian rivers" is just a beautiful name. Nobody was going to unfold any rivers, because it is physically impossible (at least until fantastic technologies of terromorphization become a reality, and before that, as before the Moon, cancer). It was supposed to transfer water. In Siberia, there is indeed a surplus of them due to the permafrost territories. If such a project could be implemented, the Central Asian republics and Siberia itself would have won. But, as I said above, while terramorphic technologies do not work. Under the Soviet Union, they tried to adapt a peaceful atom for this business, but quickly realized that this was not an option - and the work was curtailed. Which, incidentally, speaks of the complete adequacy of the Soviet leadership. And in the days of Marked and Co., they fanned hysteria by making a bogeyman out of the project, a horror story from the series: "Just look at these commies with a cold all over your head! No, you need to throw them off, and put capitalism in their place." Well, they did. Now, in general, there are no serious projects, in any direction - not to mention the real work on the implementation of these projects. Only balls, like Rogozinsky "in five years we will fly to Mars, here she is."
    1. Dart2027
      Dart2027 25 March 2021 05: 37
      -20%
      Quote: Dalny V
      Under the Soviet Union, they tried to adapt a peaceful atom for this business, but quickly realized that this was not an option - and the work was curtailed. Which, incidentally, speaks of the complete adequacy of the Soviet leadership.

      Are atomic explosions on their territory adequate? All lobbyists for this project had to be fired without trial or investigation, that would be adequacy.
      1. Far B
        Far B 25 March 2021 05: 45
        +26
        Are atomic explosions on their territory adequate?
        And whose territory was the Semipalatinsk test site? and New Earth? And the Americans in Nevada blew up the bonby - also, as it were, not on someone else's territory. And all the rest ... You separate the flies from the cutlets. At that time, the peaceful atom was only being adapted to civilian life. By trial and error, because there is no other way.
        1. Dart2027
          Dart2027 25 March 2021 05: 58
          -11%
          Quote: Dalny V
          A Semipalatinsk test site

          Do you know the difference between a weapons testing range and a country's territory in general?
          Quote: Dalny V
          At that time, the peaceful atom was only being adapted to civilian life. By trial and error

          If a person learns to work with a hammer by hitting himself on the head, then this is not "trial and error, but inappropriate behavior.
          1. Far B
            Far B 25 March 2021 06: 04
            +7
            Are you:
            Do you know the difference between a weapons testing range and a country's territory in general?

            Also you, minutes earlier:
            Are atomic explosions on their territory adequate?

            Consequently, it is assumed that the landfill should be located outside the territory of the country in general. What does not suit you in yours the premise?
            If a person learns to work with a hammer by hitting himself on the head, then this is not a "trial and error method, but inappropriate behavior
            And who was they hit on the head with a hammer? Are the civilians affected, or do you just want to think so?
            1. tasha
              tasha 25 March 2021 06: 09
              +10
              And who was they hit on the head with a hammer? Are the civilians affected, or do you just want to think so?
              Calm down, please. You can read, for example, about the explosion "Globus-1".

              "One of the explosions, Globus-1, was made on September 19, 1971 in the Kineshemsky district of the Ivanovo region. Residents of the nearby village of Galkino (located 4 km from the explosion site) were confronted with the fact that in this place they would search for oil with the help of an underground explosion. People were asked to cross-seam the windows and go outside at the right time. The charge was laid in a well drilled in the summer at a depth of 610 meters, but the calculations were wrong. After the explosion, hot gases, water, contaminated sand and clay escaped. Part of the radioactive water An attempt was made to drill an exploration well in this place, as a result of which liquid and gases were released again. The well was drowned out and a sign of a restricted area was placed within a radius of 450 meters. In 1977 a year ago, the contaminated soil was bulldozed and dumped into drilling fluid pits along with contaminated clothing and materials. "
              1. Far B
                Far B 25 March 2021 06: 17
                0
                Calm down please
                Yes, I, as it were, do not fight in hysterics)))
                I will repeat what I already wrote above:
                At that time, the peaceful atom was only being adapted to civilian life. By trial and error, because there is no other way
                In the village of Galkino, was any of the local population injured in the explosion? Or did you quote for the sake of a catchphrase?
                1. tasha
                  tasha 25 March 2021 06: 30
                  +14
                  Yes, I, as it were, do not fight in hysterics))). Or did you quote for the sake of a catchphrase?
                  It's not about hysterics, it's about respect and politeness. It's so easy for you to be rude, I envy.
                  In the village of Galkino, was any of the local population injured in the explosion?
                  Please do not be lazy, but look for more materials about these explosions. What do you think, if a part of the radioactive products from an explosion falls into the surrounding area and gets into the water - will there be consequences? They wrote, of course, that "Unsuspecting villagers used a bulldozer, a water pump, generators, even parts of ground structures abandoned on the spot, collected mushrooms and berries near the explosion site. Soon two boys died of" meningitis " Is there oil. Once a cow gave birth to a two-headed calf, and women began to suffer from miscarriages and premature births. In terms of blood diseases and oncology, the region quickly became the leader. " But you understand, there is no documentary evidence and no one has seriously studied the consequences of the explosions. The program was just curtailed quietly ...
                  1. Far B
                    Far B 25 March 2021 06: 39
                    -10%
                    What do you think, if part of the radioactive products from an explosion falls into the surrounding area and gets into the water - will there be consequences?
                    Sorry, but I seem to have formulated the question clearly: "someone from the local population suffered at explosion? "Not from the consequences! And I deliberately chose this formulation, because the consequences from any large-scale human activity take place, and you can't get away from it.
                    1. tasha
                      tasha 25 March 2021 06: 57
                      +11
                      It’s not true, at first you wrote: "And who was hit on the head with a hammer? The civilian population suffered, or you just want to think so?" I wrote to you that the explosions had consequences, in the form of the ingress of radioactive products into the water and onto the territory. After that, you took the position "Well, no one died in the very explosion" ... You know, something seems not like "The forest is being cut - the chips are flying" and "And what is this?" ...
                      the consequences of any large-scale human activity take place
                      Activity activity is different. Sometimes you have to think ...

                      This is my 3500 comment, so I stop active on VO. Write something - I will read it, but I cannot answer, unfortunately. hi

                      Not for you, but for the KSA reader:
                      Again, from the article, outside the USSR, radioactive isotopes were recorded in the atmosphere, and not in the form of precipitation.
                      In the article: "Radioactive particles spread to Finland and Sweden shortly after that explosion, where it was quickly recorded." As it was recorded, it is not written in the article. And part of the explosion products, as you rightly noted, falls out of the atmosphere sooner or later.
                      1. Far B
                        Far B 25 March 2021 07: 07
                        -7
                        It is not true, at first you wrote: "And who did they hit on the head with a hammer?"
                        The allegory about the "hammer on the head" was invented by my opponent, not me. I used it - exclusively in the context, which implies the restriction "suffer in an explosion". Be careful.
                        Sometimes you have to think ...
                        Exactly laughing
                    2. Dart2027
                      Dart2027 25 March 2021 09: 38
                      +1
                      Quote: Dalny V
                      did any of the local population suffer in the explosion? "Not from the consequences! And I deliberately chose this wording, because the consequences of any large-scale human activity take place

                      That is, you have chosen this wording in order to avoid uncomfortable questions about the consequences.
              2. Jager
                Jager 25 March 2021 18: 40
                0
                There, in our time, they carried out reclamation
            2. Dart2027
              Dart2027 25 March 2021 09: 35
              -3
              Quote: Dalny V
              Therefore, it is assumed that the polygon

              As I already wrote
              Quote: Dart2027
              You don't know the difference between a weapons test site and a country's territory in general.
              If you follow your logic, then shooting on a range should be equated with shooting on the streets.
              Quote: Dalny V
              And who was they hit on the head with a hammer? Civilians suffered

              Read the article
              Radioactive particles soon after the explosion spread to Finland and Sweden, where it was quickly recorded. And this was a violation of the Moscow Treaty Banning Nuclear Testing in Three Environments.
              That is, the spread of the infection has reached all the way to other countries.
          2. Plastmaster
            Plastmaster 25 March 2021 18: 48
            +4
            So what do you wear, eat, ride something? This is also the result of trial and error. In my opinion, you just have the USSR, stepped on a corn.
            1. Dart2027
              Dart2027 25 March 2021 19: 17
              0
              Quote: Plastmaster
              So what do you wear, eat, ride something? This is also the result of trial and error.

              Are errors in the construction of a bus and errors in the use of weapons of mass destruction events of the same order?
        2. Intruder
          Intruder 27 March 2021 04: 11
          -7
          At that time, the peaceful atom was only being adapted to civilian life. By trial and error, because there is no other way.
          Well, yes - it's better to tell the families of the liquidators and the population of Pripyat, especially those who were born on the night of the Chernobyl disaster, or before it, and grabbed all the "hot charms" of the peaceful atom in the maternity hospital, with children's lungs !!! My little brother is 147 km away, from that place, running on a glowing coal, he still wears well the charms of this very peaceful atom, and then they wrote all sorts of nonsense, such as: "juvenile rheumatoid arthritis" and other "apotheosis", from medicine ... By the way, there is also an acquaintance directly from Pripyat, who was born that night ... he has "beautiful" modified forms of the auricles, the elves would take them for their own wink , disabled since birth ... what
          1. svp67
            svp67 27 March 2021 04: 14
            +3
            Quote: Intruder
            By the way, there is also an acquaintance directly from Pripyat, who was born that night ... he has "beautiful" modified forms of the ears, the elves would have taken it for their own

            These CHANGES were laid down for him nine months before his birth ... Here you are not quite looking there.
            1. Intruder
              Intruder 27 March 2021 05: 03
              -6
              These CHANGES began in him nine months before his birth.
              Duc, and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was not built in 9 months, when there were the first launches!?, and the first problems with the design of the station ...:
              On May 16, 1975, by order of the director of the Chernobyl NPP, a commission was created to prepare and conduct the launch of the 1st power unit.
              From the beginning of October 1975, the first fuel assemblies began to arrive at the fresh fuel warehouse.
              Due to the lag behind the planned deadlines for critical positions of the unit start-up schedule, round-the-clock work was organized; on November 23, the director issued an order on the organization of continuous work on the graphite stacking of the 1st power unit.
              On May 15, 1976, in accordance with the requirements of the technical design and the SES, regular dosimetric control was established in the areas adjacent to the NPP.
              In October 1976, the filling of the cooling pond began. In the same year, in order to carry out the adjustment, as well as to ensure the repair of the power equipment of the turbine hall at the Chernobyl NPP, a production site of the Lvovenergoremont enterprise was organized.
              At the beginning of May 1977, a team of installers, builders, adjusters and operating personnel of the ChNPP began commissioning work at the 1st power unit.
              On June 8, 1977, in connection with the start of fuel assembly work, a strict regime zone (ZSR) was organized.
              On August 1, at 20:10, the first fuel assembly was loaded, and on August 14, at 11:55, full-scale fuel loading was completed.

              And here the "swallow" flew in and almost didn't bother:
              1. 79, However, according to the KGB of the USSR, during the construction of the second power unit, numerous deviations from the project and violations of construction technology were made;
              2. 3 (power unit): on September 9, 1981, a fire occurred at the power unit under construction;
              3. On September 9, 1982, after the mid-planned repair was performed during the test start-up of the reactor of the 1st power unit at a power of 700 MW thermal at the nominal parameters of the coolant, the fuel assembly was destroyed and the process channel No. 62-44 was ruptured. As a result of the rupture, the graphite masonry of the core was deformed, a significant amount of radioactive substances from the destroyed fuel assembly was thrown into the reactor space. The serious consequences of the accident are caused by the failure of the emergency protection and the long (within 20 minutes) retention of the reactor plant after the rupture of the channel at a power of 700 MW thermal.
              The rupture of the channel resulted in the release of a radioactive vapor-gas mixture from the reactor space of Unit 1 into the emergency condenser, the communication pipeline of the gas circuits of the units and further under the bell of the wet gas tank. In this part of the gas loop, a short-term pressure increase occurred, which led to the injection of up to 800 kg of water from the hydraulic locks into the reactor space of Unit 2, which was operating at the rated power. Due to the evaporation of the abandoned water, there was a sharp increase in pressure in the reactor space of Unit 2, which in turn led to the squeezing out of the remaining hydraulic locks from the side of the reactor space. The steam-gas mixture from the reactor space of block No. 2 was discharged under the bell of the wet gasholder and then through its emptied hydraulic seal together with the radioactive steam-gas mixture from the reactor space of block No. 1 into the ventilation pipe and the atmosphere. As a result of the release of radioactive substances, a significant area was contaminated. To eliminate the consequences of this accident, it took about 3 months of repair work. Channel 62-44 and the section of the core immediately adjacent to the destroyed channel are permanently out of service!
              It is especially interesting that in Pripyat itself, all these things were very well hidden, until 86 ... and people actually lived on the territory contaminated with all sorts of heavy "hot" things of the peaceful atom, such an excellent nuclear experiment on their own citizens ... great country!!!
              1. svp67
                svp67 27 March 2021 08: 04
                0
                Quote: Intruder
                Duc, and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was not built in 9 months, when there were the first launches!?, and the first problems with the design of the station ...:

                Duc, it is still not known where they were in those nine months
                Quote: Intruder
                ... 3 (power unit): on September 9, 1981, a fire occurred at the power unit under construction;

                So what? Was the nuclear fuel loaded at that moment? Was it burning?
                Quote: Intruder
                It is especially interesting that in Pripyat itself, all these things were very well hidden, until 86 ...

                Do not make me laugh. The people working at the station itself understood and knew about it. Or do you think that the cleaning of the territory was carried out by robots?
      2. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 25 March 2021 06: 31
        +11
        Quote: Dart2027
        Are atomic explosions on their territory adequate?

        Quite:

        After three years of fire ... ... The detonation of a nuclear charge was made on September 30, 1966, the result was fully achieved. The gas well was pinched by layers of rock, the fountain of flame extinguished 22 seconds after the explosion
        Nuclear charges were used to extinguish gas torches three more times:
        - "Pamuk", Kashkadarya region (May 21, 1968),
        - "Fakel", Kharkiv region (July 9, 1972, the goal was not achieved),
        - "Crater", Mary region, (April 11, 1972).


        And do not confuse an atomic explosion with a thermonuclear one.
        1. Dart2027
          Dart2027 25 March 2021 09: 36
          -5
          Quote: Vladimir_2U
          And do not confuse an atomic explosion with a thermonuclear one.

          He nevertheless does not become pure.
          1. Vladimir_2U
            Vladimir_2U 25 March 2021 09: 38
            +5
            Quote: Dart2027
            He nevertheless does not become pure.

            He's not that dirty so there is a difference.
            1. Dart2027
              Dart2027 25 March 2021 09: 47
              -6
              Quote: Vladimir_2U
              He's not so dirty

              Remember the saying about "not sweeter"? Here she fits perfectly.
              1. Vladimir_2U
                Vladimir_2U 25 March 2021 09: 58
                +7
                Quote: Dart2027
                Remember the saying about "not sweeter"? Here she fits perfectly

                Suitable, yes, but does not give a reason to wring his hands and run to the pond.
                1. Dart2027
                  Dart2027 25 March 2021 11: 26
                  -7
                  Quote: Vladimir_2U
                  but does not give a reason to wring your hands

                  That is, we agree with the fact that it was, to put it mildly, an unwise decision.
      3. qQQQ
        qQQQ 25 March 2021 08: 53
        +6
        Quote: Dart2027
        Are atomic explosions on their territory adequate?

        Not atomic, but thermonuclear. During the explosion, they have very little radiation, but practice has shown that not everything is as rosy as in theory and everything quickly turned off.
        1. Dart2027
          Dart2027 25 March 2021 09: 37
          0
          Quote: qqqq
          but practice has shown that not everything is as rosy as in theory

          Here I am about that.
        2. vadimtt
          vadimtt 25 March 2021 10: 45
          +8
          Heh, what's the difference, nuclear or thermonuclear with a power of 15 kt?
          There is only one problem here - a shallow underground explosion. Too much "secondary" dirt is formed and remains in the upper layers of the soil, and even part of it is taken out into the street, which is no good at all.
          1. qQQQ
            qQQQ 25 March 2021 11: 20
            +2
            Quote: vadimtt
            atomic or thermonuclear

            These are diametrically opposite processes, one is decay, and the other is synthesis, i.e. one destroys, the second creates.
            1. vadimtt
              vadimtt 26 March 2021 09: 36
              +1
              Okay then so - how to start the synthesis process? wink
              1. Klingon
                Klingon 26 March 2021 10: 24
                +1
                Quote: vadimtt
                Okay then so - how to start the synthesis process? wink

                very simple. Take a deuterium tank with a lithium shell. And set it on fire with a "match" - an ordinary plutonium charge wassat
              2. qQQQ
                qQQQ 26 March 2021 14: 02
                +1
                Quote: vadimtt
                Okay then so - how to start the synthesis process?

                Yes, the initiator is a simple atomic explosion, but the calculation was that its power is small enough for volumetric pollution, practice has shown that no.
                1. vadimtt
                  vadimtt 26 March 2021 15: 09
                  0
                  With such a secondary formation of radionuclides, as in an underground / aboveground thermonuclear explosion, it is simple to talk about the purity of the initiator
                  it's funny.
                  1. qQQQ
                    qQQQ 26 March 2021 16: 09
                    0
                    Quote: vadimtt
                    With such a secondary formation of radionuclides, as in an underground / aboveground thermonuclear explosion, it is simple to talk about the purity of the initiator
                    it's funny.

                    In principle, everything we are talking about here without calculated data is about nothing. When the decision on explosions was made, the mathematical calculations of the theoretical foundations of physicists were taken into account, most likely the physicists were mistaken somewhere, as a rule, mathematicians believe correctly. Practice has put everything in its place.
                    1. Konnick
                      Konnick 26 March 2021 16: 26
                      +1
                      as a rule, mathematicians count correctly. Practice has put everything in its place.

                      The force of a nuclear explosion cannot be accurately calculated, for example, during the first test of a thermonuclear bomb on Novaya Zemlya, the force of the explosion greatly exceeded the calculated values. Much depends on the manufacture of the charge. Two identical bombs can explode in different ways and the pollution from them will be different, the less the force of the explosion, the more pollution.
                2. Intruder
                  Intruder 27 March 2021 04: 20
                  0
                  Yes, the initiator is a simple atomic explosion
                  well, not quite so simple, if on the fingers:
                  1. First, the detonation of the initiator charge, which is inside the shell of the WB (miniature atomic bomb), occurs, the result of which is a powerful emission of neutrons and the creation of the high temperature required for the start of thermonuclear fusion in the main charge. A massive neutron bombardment of the lithium deuteride insert (obtained by combining deuterium with the lithium-6 isotope) begins;
                  2. Under the action of neutrons, lithium-6 is split into tritium and helium... The atomic fuse in this case becomes a source of materials necessary for the course of thermonuclear fusion in the detonated bomb itself;
                  3. A mixture of tritium and deuterium triggers a thermonuclear reaction, as a result of which the temperature inside the bomb rises rapidly, and more and more hydrogen is involved in the process. The principle of operation of a hydrogen bomb implies an ultra-fast course of these processes;
                  4. The sequence of the processes described above ends after the start of the reaction of deuterium with tritium. Further, it was decided to use fission of nuclei, rather than the synthesis of heavier ones. After the fusion of tritium and deuterium nuclei, free helium and fast neutrons are released, the energy of which is sufficient to initiate the onset of fission of uranium-238 nuclei. Fast neutrons are capable of splitting atoms from the uranium shell. Fission of a ton of uranium generates energy of the order of 18 Mt. In this case, energy is expended not only on the creation of a blast wave and the release of a colossal amount of heat. Each uranium atom splits into two radioactive "fragments". A whole "bunch" of various chemical elements (up to 36) and about two hundred radioactive isotopes is formed. It is for this reason that numerous radioactive fallouts are formed, recorded hundreds of kilometers from the epicenter of the explosion;
      4. 210ox
        210ox 25 March 2021 15: 06
        +2
        Similar projects have taken place in the United States. Take a ride, shoot the descendants of millionaires. You can also go to Australia, a very democratic country in relation to the aborigines. There, too, the Britons banged.
        1. Dart2027
          Dart2027 25 March 2021 15: 52
          -1
          Quote: 210ox
          Similar projects have taken place in the United States.

          AND? I am aware, but this does not mean that those who lobbied them in the USSR are all right.
          1. 210ox
            210ox 25 March 2021 15: 55
            +1
            Well then, go criticize the non-doing liberals. AND? What, Zarathustra does not allow? Then, in many countries, atomic explosions were at the service of the economy.
            1. Dart2027
              Dart2027 25 March 2021 15: 58
              -6
              Quote: 210ox
              Well then, go criticize the non-doing liberals.

              What for? The more such experiments in the USA, the better. Even now they are detonating atomic bombs on their territory and ruining the health of their citizens, I do not mind.
              1. sharp-lad
                sharp-lad 25 March 2021 21: 24
                +3
                They do not need to detonate atomic charges on their territory, the development of shale gas and oil is quite enough. hi
      5. victor50
        victor50 25 March 2021 20: 27
        +3
        Quote: Dart2027
        All lobbyists for this project had to be fired without trial or investigation, that would be adequacy.

        And to them add those who allow the predatory cut down of the taiga and, in general, forests. And these people are not in the past, which cannot be reached, but in the present. Get started! The flag is in your hands! It hurts just to look for the "unwise" in the past! Probably atomic explosions are bad. But the country did not feel the consequences from them in a global sense (perhaps, the nearest regions), but from the felling ... Do not you feel?
        1. Dart2027
          Dart2027 26 March 2021 18: 40
          -4
          Quote: victor50
          And to them add those who allow the predatory cut down of the taiga and, in general, forests.

          Do not remember, but how many were cut down in the USSR?
          1. victor50
            victor50 26 March 2021 19: 42
            +3
            Quote: Dart2027
            Do not remember, but how many were cut down in the USSR?

            You, apparently, do not remember this. If there were numbers you like, they would already be waving them! And if, as now, you would not see the forests. And I actually saw them disappear in many places. I saw the cut down forest planted by schoolchildren in the 30s. Do not play around - you know what it is about! There was no such thing as it is now, even during the war. And the war for the forest is a terrible disaster!
            1. Dart2027
              Dart2027 27 March 2021 06: 59
              -3
              Quote: victor50
              You, apparently, do not remember this. If there were numbers you like

              That's interesting to me.
              Quote: victor50
              There was no such thing as it is now, even during the war. And the war for the forest is a terrible disaster!

              It is then that everyone is doing just this, because there are no other things to do.
    2. Cowbra
      Cowbra 25 March 2021 05: 54
      +6
      Quote: Dalny V
      In Siberia, there is indeed a surplus of them due to the permafrost territories. If such a project could be implemented, they would have won

      NOT. The consequences of this at that time were not calculated at all, primarily because there was not even the possibility of this miscalculation, and the first sane assessments of this project began to be given strictly later - in the 90s, and then more or less roughly. In general, at least approximately it began to be used only from the 90s, all calculations before that were done at random! And from absolutely delusional premises.
      Look, for example, you mean that permafrost is a closed system. This is not the case. You remove the "excess" of water from there, what do you get? The first step is to change the environment, the permafrost will disappear from there, and what will come without water? Arctic DESERT. And this will give you climate change, and not micro or meso, but MACROCLIMATE.
      There is the most "humane forecast" - the complete extinction of the basins of the former rivers (this is not where the channel, but the catchment area, 1,5 million km in a square near only the Irtysh) and completely saline, and also extinct Central Asia. This is just the beginning, then the climate will change, first of all, precipitation (did you think you took the water away, but it will snow from somewhere?) Over all Siberia - and further to the Pacific Ocean, there is no Urals on the way. And then the European part of the snot will fly. True, first the Caucasus will wash away to the devil with this thrown over water.
      250 explosions - bullshit, matinee in kindergarten, compared
      1. Far B
        Far B 25 March 2021 06: 11
        +7
        the first sane assessments of this project began to be given strictly later - in the 90s
        Yes, yes, in the 90s, the Soviet period was given exclusively sane assessments. Well, don't tell my sneakers.
        There is the most "humane forecast" - the complete extinction of the basins of the former rivers
        There will be no extinction, much less complete. Do you have any idea how many million cubic meters of water thaws in the permafrost during the warm season? And to what latitudes does this permafrost in Siberia go down?
        This is just the beginning, then the climate will change, primarily precipitation
        Have arrived. Well, here - the rivers are not "redirected", but the climate is changing. Gutaret, global warming. Shaw so and so ?!
        1. Cowbra
          Cowbra 25 March 2021 06: 31
          +2
          Quote: Dalny V
          Yes, yes, in the 90s the Soviet period was given exclusively sane assessments.

          Mathematics does not evaluate "sane" or "insane". With the rest - look at the salt marshes around the Aral, and now realize - that millions of square kilometers of dead salt marshes were made by this mass of water, which was going to be moved from Siberia. So the volume is the same, but the problem is that in the Aral Sea the water moved LOCALLY, this is a change in the mesoclimate, but here it is globally, and this is already a MACROclimate, multiply the effect by orders of magnitude.
          You just think that ecology is Greta Tumberg and Greenpeace, but it is not. And all the methods there are based on higher mathematics, this is all - it is counted in numbers. And already - it is calculated. And everything that I said above is a fact. There, even the essence is not in volumes, it is enough JUST to knock off the balance - and do not care how much it thaws, if a part does not return. so the Aral and dried up
          1. Far B
            Far B 25 March 2021 06: 46
            +2
            Mathematics does not evaluate "sane" or "insane"
            In terms of climate, mathematics does not give one hundred percent results anyway. But what is there - if it pulls 60 percent, and thanks for that. Modeling probable [i] [/ i] impact results, no more. Takshta ...
            About salt marshes ... Aral, initially, a semi-saline lake. The water evaporated - the salt remained. Hence the salt marshes. How the absolutely fresh waters of Siberia can be leaned on here is a mystery to me.
            And all the methods there are based on higher mathematics, this is all - it is counted in numbers. And already - calculated
            You tell this to environmental scientists, yeah. Who still cannot even agree on whether the current global warming is anthropogenic, or if these are climatic fluctuations that are common for the planet. And by how many degrees (fractions of degrees) the average annual temperature will rise in ten years. Advanced mathematics in climatology is very advanced, yeah.
            1. Cowbra
              Cowbra 25 March 2021 07: 03
              +4
              Quote: Dalny V
              The Aral Sea is originally a semi-saline lake.

              Well, you know, the point is that I know what I'm talking about, you don't. I have a specialized education, and I have analyzed the Aral Sea in numbers more than once, and it was starting from the first estimates) So, don't care, salty or not salty Aral, there is no distilled water in nature, any evaporated lake will saline the soil.
              And environmental scientists do not argue about the cause of "climate warming" - I said about Greta Tumberg. Climate fluctuations are perennial, and even idiotic nonsense about CO2 in general, not a single scientist EXACTLY an ecologist, and not a Nobel Prize laureate for forest conservation, will not say in principle, because the world ocean - on the scale of the planet - is an unlimited depot of carbon dioxide. In principle, it is stupid for humanity not to saturate it
              1. Far B
                Far B 25 March 2021 07: 14
                0
                And environmental scientists do not argue about the cause of "climate warming" - I said about Greta Tumberg. Climate fluctuations are perennial, and even idiotic nonsense about CO2 in general, not a single scientist EXACTLY an ecologist, and not a Nobel Prize laureate for forest conservation, will not say in principle, because the world ocean - on the scale of the planet - is an unlimited depot of carbon dioxide. In principle, it is stupid for humanity not to saturate it
                drinks Horse Sensus.
                So, do not care, salty or not salty Aral, there is no distilled water in nature, any evaporated lake will saline the soil
                So they planned to transfer the waters so that the Aral would not dry up. Otherwise, this project simply wouldn’t have stuck to anyone.
                1. Cowbra
                  Cowbra 25 March 2021 07: 32
                  +3
                  Quote: Dalny V
                  So they planned to transfer the waters so that the Aral would not dry up.

                  So I immediately said that they were proceeding from delusional premises. And it was mentioned in the article - that water has not gone anywhere from the region. We just dropped it locally. Previously, there was "among the ARYKS and alleys (you see - there were alleys and water for them) a donkey goes for a walk." Then an uncle came, like Greta Thunberg and went to water the land, like a garden bed in the Non-Black Earth Region. Less evaporated from the ditch - he himself is in the shade, and the water goes along the ground to the roots. There is water there, it just stopped getting to the Aral Sea, it is spinning with such a small fan, but what is characteristic - the Aral Sea is now expanding backward, though it will take a long time ...
                  1. Far B
                    Far B 25 March 2021 08: 36
                    +1
                    So I immediately said - that from delusional premises they proceeded
                    Here, kaatsa for me, we speak different languages.
                    Prerequisites: 1. the Aral Sea is dehydrated; 2. arid regions of the USSR require additional water resources. Personally, I do not see anything delusional in either the first or the second points. Both are given.
                    Goal: "Sustainable water supply of vast areas of little and no water, eliminating the shortage of water resources in vast areas of the Caspian lowland, Western, Central Kazakhstan and the Aral basin." Again, the goal is dictated by good intentions, I personally do not see nonsense here.
                    The way to achieve the goal ... Well, this is a debatable question - delusional or not delusional. However, given that the USSR abandoned the project in the end, the discussion turns out to be pointless from the outset.
                    Although to this day messages are flashing here and there, from which it follows that the project is still not buried until the end, someone's minds are still upset. Besides, we sell fresh water to China, so ...
          2. Intruder
            Intruder 27 March 2021 04: 27
            -2
            There, even the essence is not in volumes, it is enough JUST to knock off the balance - and do not care how much it thaws, if a part does not return. so the Aral and dried up
            That is, they could not count it and he was PERDOKED! ??? request
            Although, if in your opinion:
            And all the methods there are based on higher mathematics, this is all - it is counted in numbers. And already - it is calculated. And everything I said above is a fact.
            winked Then, someone made a mistake, and it follows - fuck these mathematicians-bookkeepers, maybe we'd better leave these same ones:
            this is Greta Tumberg and Greenpeace, but it is not.
            ?? laughing wink
      2. NDR-791
        NDR-791 25 March 2021 07: 39
        +5
        Quote: Cowbra
        250 explosions - bullshit, matinee in kindergarten, compared

        I believe that this is not all. In this case, the water will flow through the post-nuclear canals, from the river to the river along a channel of 1000R. What broth will reach the Aral Sea? And then to the fields with tomatoes ... The consequences of atomic explosions by that time were well known and for a long time. So at the expense of the eternal etsich with nails for experimenters, I completely agree.
        1. vadimtt
          vadimtt 25 March 2021 10: 50
          +5
          Well, given the distance, volume and area - nothing really scary, because the canals are not dug entirely by the "nuclear" method, only where it is simply not possible to go through with ordinary equipment, in rocky soils. There, the Japanese in Fukushima dissolved two active zones in the ocean - and nothing, they catch fish with shrimps, as they did. wassat
        2. Pilat2009
          Pilat2009 31 May 2021 18: 00
          -1
          Quote: NDR-791
          like 1000R

          The difference between a clean explosion and a dirty one, you know? At the Chernobyl nuclear power plant there was a dirty explosion caused by the stuffing of the reactor. In Hiroshima, the initially affected took away the radiation from the explosion and thermal damage, the mutations came from them and not from the infected territory where people continued to live. Well, or those were percent 10 if there were 1000 roentgens there would be no one to help
      3. ANB
        ANB 25 March 2021 10: 19
        +7
        ... In general, at least approximately it began to be used only from the 90s, all calculations before that were done at random!

        Mathematical modeling was in full swing in the 80s. The boom has begun on this. And textbooks were published in the 60s.
        Just in the 90s, there was no one to do this in the Russian Federation.
        1. Cowbra
          Cowbra 25 March 2021 18: 05
          +2
          Estimate the volume. I will give you the same permafrost - you have removed water from, roughly speaking, the surface layer. In the next warm season, your permafrost is warmed to a greater depth - there is less water, the heat capacity of the soil is less, it warms up deeper, the water leaves from a greater depth. This is just for you to count, and everything is georeferenced. And also to the fact that the soil is different everywhere. And its composition, heat capacity, water cut or the factor of heat supplied per unit area is different.
          Dry soil, less water - your phytocenosis began to degrade, the bare soil floated first from water erosion, then flew away from the wind, carried away by the wind. These are two more models for you. Both are again georeferenced.
          So, you have three models of atasa, which you need to calculate only for the first summer of drainage. Then winter will come, everything will go in the reverse order, but count already taking into account wind and water erosion. and degradation of the plant community. on this all, superimposing also reduced precipitation.
          You think. a computer like Deep Blue that beat Kasparov - did the most difficult calculations, right? And when did he appear there? In the 80s once again - there was NOTHING to count it, in the 90s too - very slightly and quite approximately. It's only for Greta that everything is simple - everything is lost, we will all die if cows around the world are not slaughtered. As he says - well, just as he cuts off, and there is no need for highlighter. And here is a simple, relatively, calculation, and this is all preparatory, the water itself has not yet been counted. Until now, this is considered in very rough and approximate models - there are so many factors. that sea navigation is bullshit for kindergarten
          1. Jager
            Jager 25 March 2021 18: 56
            +1
            Completeness to you the fairy tale about the lack of computing power - initially the reaction of thermonuclear fusion was calculated using a slide rule and brains. By the way, the first computers were created and used precisely for these calculations. In order not to strain the entire department of the research institute with the solution of one equation.
            Now even super modern fighters are content with "poor" processors of the early 90s - for pure mathematics it is enough, the pilot does not need to draw maps in P-CAD.
            1. Cowbra
              Cowbra 25 March 2021 19: 34
              0
              Quote: Jager
              fusion reaction

              The vegetable oil bullshit. The addiction is mathematically simple. And fighters are just programmable bullshit.
              Let's run into one model the inter-and cross-dependent factors of acidity, salinity, water cut, hygroscopicity, density, surface tension on the ground - and calculate simple wind erosion from it. A special case, and you have triple logarithms, give it to the computer from the fighter - and he will hang himself. And this is complete garbage, generally at the level of a comma in the text.
              1. ANB
                ANB 25 March 2021 23: 41
                +1
                ... Let's run into one model the inter-and cross-dependent factors of acidity, salinity, water cut, hygroscopicity, density, surface tension on the ground - and calculate simple wind erosion from it.

                And where were you when I was writing my diploma?
                I had to simulate the movement of the submarine. And so what is just not modeled. My classmate covered the topic: modeling the LNPP accident.
                1. Cowbra
                  Cowbra 25 March 2021 23: 57
                  -1
                  In about the 90s I had a type of this, but it's easier there - an episode with water salinity. So, not even a diploma, like practice. Well, everything was simpler there - "For what you drew - there are not so many hydrographic vessels in Russia, so don't run out - delta phi along the delta ash when taking samples - and not brains!" wassat
          2. Intruder
            Intruder 27 March 2021 04: 40
            -1
            In the 80s once again - there was NOTHING to count it, in the 90s too - very slightly and quite approximately.
            Well, this is a bold assumption:
            1. In 1975 computer Cray-1, for: Los Alamos and Livermore laboratories;
            2. Cray-1 received in 1977 - National Center for Atmospheric Research of the USA;
            And the list of operators, at the time:
            - Los Alamos National Laboratory: 5 units. (development of nuclear weapons)
            - Livermore National Laboratory: 4 units. (development of nuclear weapons)
            - Sandia National Laboratories: 2 units. (development of nuclear weapons)
            - Laboratory of aviation weapons: 1 unit. (military research)
            - National Center for Atmospheric Research: 1 unit. (atmospheric research)
            - National Security Agency: 2 units. (intelligence processing, cryptographic analysis)
            - NASA Research Center. Ames: 1 unit. (aerodynamic research)
            - NASA Research Center. Lewis: 1 unit. (fluid dynamics)
            - University of Minnesota: 1 unit (basic research)
            PS And all these guys in the late 70s - in the early 80s, obviously they weren't playing chess with them, in the evenings with beer !? fellow laughing
    3. Mikhalych
      Mikhalych 25 March 2021 09: 45
      -4
      In the 90s, I read the opinion of scientists that if this project were implemented, the permafrost zone would reach the latitude of Kiev. Water, among other things, is a thermal energy accumulator. If this battery were removed from Siberia, the results can be easily calculated.
      As for the Asians, they, like predators, take the waters of the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. And why are the Caspian and Aral Sea shallow?
      hi
      1. Intruder
        Intruder 27 March 2021 04: 50
        0
        As for the Asians, they, like predators, take the waters of the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. And why are the Caspian and Aral Sea shallow?
        and not to hell to climb into the designs of nature, when Mankind from the pot - to the top, not a full 2,5 million years as a sight !!! winked
    4. Reader 2013
      Reader 2013 25 March 2021 20: 00
      -1
      You can turn, you can explode, they still did not understand that this would not help, these are climatic fluctuations, with which people cannot do anything
      In the 70s there was a song that the Caspian was getting shallow, it was necessary to block the kara baga sgol or whatever, 50 years later, the level of the Caspian rose by itself and drowned the coast and all the piers were flooded
    5. Proxima
      Proxima 25 March 2021 23: 39
      +1
      Quote: Far In
      "The Turn of the Siberian Rivers" is just a beautiful name. Nobody was going to turn any rivers

      It's nice to listen to an adequately thinking person. hi A little more fellow would be such on discussion platforms, but unfortunately ..
    6. smart fellow
      smart fellow 26 March 2021 08: 42
      0
      terromorphization

      Terraforming - from the words terra (lat. Terra) land and formation.
    7. Andrey Krasnoyarsky
      Andrey Krasnoyarsky 26 March 2021 13: 19
      +2
      Even the authors of the project for the transfer of Siberian water to Central Asia have realized the perniciousness of their ideas, but you stubbornly continue to believe in all this nonsense. What does permafrost and Siberian rivers have to do with it? They are not full of water due to permafrost. The Central Asian republics might have won, but about winning Siberia - this is already a big pitchfork along the big Ob. In fact, irreparable harm would have been done to the ecology of Western Siberia even if they had not dabbled in any atomic explosions. Criticism of the project began not during the time of Gorbachev, but even during the time of Brezhnev, because of her work was curtailed, and not because they did not cope with the "peaceful atom."
      1. Intruder
        Intruder 27 March 2021 04: 53
        0
        They are not full of water due to permafrost. The Central Asian republics might have won, but about winning Siberia - this is a big pitchfork along the big Ob. In fact, irreparable harm would have been done to the ecology of Western Siberia even if they had not dabbled in any atomic explosions.
        Exactly, I agree !!! All and sundry, always climb to the gifts of Siberia, mother, everyone wants to take it and take it away - just some kind of geo-marauding ... but nothing in return .., it's like a person who has lived for almost 40 years, in the south of Siberia, I say. .. angry
    8. mmaxx
      mmaxx 26 March 2021 18: 00
      -2
      Well, why was it necessary to do good to Central Asia for the account of Ivan, as always, a fool? Life has proved there is no need. Not within any limits. Let them figure it out. We are imperialists, we will stick with it.
    9. Akuzenka
      Akuzenka April 5 2021 12: 50
      0
      We can not disagree.
    10. Frol Frolov
      Frol Frolov 11 June 2021 20: 20
      0
      thanks for the sane comment.
  2. KCA
    KCA 25 March 2021 05: 37
    +7
    An article from the times of perestroika ecological fuss, when every third carried a "dosimeter" and "nitratometer" in his pocket, did the author read his article himself? Although why does he need it, as it is now called, the main thing is to hyip, at the very beginning he writes that the explosions were made in wells at a depth of 127 meters, and then, suddenly, he writes about the violation of the ban on nuclear tests in three environments - the atmosphere, under water and in space , an underground explosion at a depth of 127 meters violates which of the points?
    1. tasha
      tasha 25 March 2021 05: 58
      +3
      An article from the times of perestroika ecological fuss, when every third person carried a "dosimeter" and "nitratometer" in his pocket, did the author read his article himself? Although why does he need it, as it is now called, the main thing is to hyip
      No. stop

      Radioactive particles soon after the explosion spread to Finland and Sweden, where it was quickly recorded. And this was a violation of the Moscow Treaty Banning Nuclear Testing in Three Environments.

      1. Each of the Parties to this Treaty undertakes to prohibit, prevent and not carry out any test explosions of nuclear weapons and any other nuclear explosions in any place under its jurisdiction or control: ...
      b) in any other environment, if such an explosion causes a fallout of radioactive fallout outside the territorial boundaries of the State under whose jurisdiction or control such an explosion is carried out.

      I didn’t know, it turns out “from 1965 to 1988 the state program“ Nuclear explosions for the national economy ”was being implemented in the USSR. A total of 124 peaceful nuclear explosions were made, of which 117 were outside special test sites. 80 explosions fell on the territory of Russia, the rest - in the Kazakh, Turkmen, Uzbek, Ukrainian SSR. All explosions were underground. " request
      1. KCA
        KCA 25 March 2021 06: 14
        +2
        Again, from the article, outside the USSR, radioactive isotopes were recorded in the atmosphere, and not in the form of precipitation, what is the violation of the treaty? Of the 118 explosions, most were low-power, in the interests of geological exploration, as far as I remember
      2. Jager
        Jager 25 March 2021 18: 59
        +2
        Meanwhile, the Americans carried out the same nuclear explosions in Alaska.

        But liberals don't even know about it)
        1. Obliterator
          Obliterator 25 March 2021 20: 30
          -4
          Quote: Jager

          But liberals don't even know about it)

          And there is no need to translate arrows on them. Let the Americans worry about American explosions.
  3. Ryaruav
    Ryaruav 25 March 2021 06: 35
    -3
    science fiction adventurers are illiterate, it's good that it didn't work out, especially in the light of the events of the past 30 years
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 25 March 2021 06: 39
    +8
    Hmm ... yes, a cruel, totalitarian time ... And there was fish in the Kuban, and in each puddle there was, and different, at that time. Now ... buffalo carp, rudd, bleak, pelengas ... carp, tench, pike, bream, perch, catfish, pike perch, silver carp, grass carp (brought from the Far East to eat reeds, clean water bodies), sturgeon, Azov flounder, damn it, goby, both sea and river - the legend did not produce atomic explosions. , Kuban, you can't go out to sea, but you can jump over. Somehow it happened by itself, without nuclear explosions and isotopes.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 25 March 2021 07: 36
      +4
      Who was not too lazy to throw waste there - that's what happened
  5. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 25 March 2021 07: 53
    -7
    I liked the article for its cognition. I had never heard of these experiments before. Maybe it's good that they didn't go further? And what kind of "living water" would flow into the Caspian after 250 nuclear explosions?
    1. ivan2022
      ivan2022 25 March 2021 10: 01
      +3
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      I liked the article for its cognition.

      Me too. Another confirmation of the "national characteristics"!
      I only disagree with the fact that "it was done in the Soviet way." This was done in an anti-Soviet way, since it contradicted the Soviet laws of planned and scientifically grounded economic management. The author correctly cited the opinion of Saburov, who also hinted at the corruption component of the projects. It was, so to speak, "the first bell" of the future rasshrenachivaniya of the whole country ..... In the "country of slaves, the country of masters", where instead of law, corruption and personal interest to the detriment of the country, this is the only way everything is done.
  6. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 25 March 2021 08: 22
    +6
    Indeed, as in "Ogonyok" in 1988 he plunged. What does the opinion of the writer Zalygin have to do with the diversion of part of the runoff of the northern rivers? Only despite the fact that he once received a diploma of an ameliorator, then, supposedly, he understands? And the fact that Karaganda uses part of the Irtysh flow, and nothing has changed in the north, how is that? There was an opportunity to save the Aral Sea, but they did not. And now that's it.
    1. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 25 March 2021 17: 19
      +2
      Colleague Aviator, I say: "the author forgot to refer to the bazaar gossips" then it would be for sure: "competent and reliable information,"
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 25 March 2021 18: 37
        +1
        Many of the notes on VO are exercises for beginners and advanced graphomaniacs. It doesn't matter what, just to speak on the topic. The increased pissiness has just such a reason.
    2. mmaxx
      mmaxx 26 March 2021 18: 03
      -2
      Another savior of the Aral Sea. Dried up, oh well. It has dried out 20 times in its history.
      1. mmaxx
        mmaxx 27 March 2021 18: 02
        0
        ABOUT! Already cons ... What's this? Are there people in Russia who like to save the Aral Sea at their own expense? Which is not even in our country? And not ditched by us? The peoples of those countries are not going to save him and do not give a damn, but have benefactors turned up here?
  7. 2 Level Advisor
    2 Level Advisor 25 March 2021 09: 10
    +4
    "In 2039, it will be mainly (90%) provided by cesium - 137Cs."
    the logic is not entirely clear that everything is so scary .. The half-life of cesium is 30 years .. 2039 years will pass in 68 ... that is. about 20% will remain .. in addition, this is not Chernobyl and initially there were several times less radioactive isotopes ..
    those. I don't see anything catastrophic .. especially since even now- "in general, the background radiation is within the normal range».
    Although, to put it mildly, the "Peaceful Atom" program was not the smartest decision, it is extremely stupid to argue ... (250 "peaceful" explosions on the territory of the USSR, including, for example, the Stavropol Territory and many other regions) ..
  8. Blacksmith 55
    Blacksmith 55 25 March 2021 09: 12
    +2
    Good morning .
    With the edge of my ear, I somehow heard that in America there were some plans for the development of the "peaceful atom". I mean the same explosions, not nuclear power plants.
    If this is really so, can you tell us more about it?
    And the Soviet leadership, thank God, changed its mind.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 25 March 2021 09: 49
      +4
      With the edge of my ear, I somehow heard that in America there were some plans for the development of the "peaceful atom".
      America was the first in this matter. If interested, see my comment below.
    2. Jager
      Jager 25 March 2021 19: 12
      +2
      Industrial nuclear explosions were carried out in Alaska, detonated in Nevada.
      I want to say that almost all the nuclear explosions of the USSR were successful. Basically, this is the study of mineral resources and the intensification of oil and gas production.
      Three explosions were actually research explosions. Although even from the explosion in Kazakhstan "Chagan" it was clear that land-based industrial nuclear explosions are a dead end (and in fact, during explosions at a shallow depth, all nuclear rubbish is still thrown into the atmosphere).
      The creation of underground storage facilities for oil and gas with the help of the atom also ended in failure - radiation and the unstable behavior of voids with collapse of the vault.
  9. Undecim
    Undecim 25 March 2021 09: 42
    +18
    Recently, almost all of the site authors have been creating exclusively in the genre of throwing on a manure spreader.
    Since the 60s, many countries have been using nuclear and thermonuclear charges for non-military purposes.
    The first was the United States, which began working on various projects in 1959. In 1961, the Operation Plowshare program was launched. As part of the program, it was supposed to use nuclear explosions to expand the Panama Canal, build a canal through Nicaragua, create reservoirs and oil storage facilities, and gas production.
    In total, within the framework of the program, 27 nuclear explosions were carried out on the territory of the United States.
    In addition to nuclear, it was planned to use thermonuclear charges. In particular, Project Chariot envisioned the creation of an artificial harbor in Alaska using several thermonuclear charges.
    All programs in the United States were curtailed in 1977.
    Nevada still has the world's largest artificial crater, formed during the Sedan explosion in July 1962. The volume of the dumped soil is 12 tons.

    In the early 70s, a project was developed in Germany to build a canal from the Mediterranean Sea to the Qattara depression in the Libyan desert. The project provided for 213 explosions with a capacity of one to one and a half megatons.
    In Australia, options for the development of iron ore deposits using nuclear explosions were being worked out.
    So the USSR was not the first, and not the only one in this matter.
    1. Jager
      Jager 25 March 2021 19: 15
      +1
      At the same time, the Sedan turned out to be the "dirtiest" explosion in history.
    2. frog
      frog 26 March 2021 20: 28
      +1
      So the USSR was not the first, and not the only one in this matter.

      There is nothing to argue about here))) Unless you are looking for the homeland of elephants wink It is only interesting why the author did not mention that there should have been 5 explosions ...
  10. Olgovich
    Olgovich 25 March 2021 10: 06
    -10%
    A wild project, even just by design.

    it's good that there weren't enough funds ..

    And after all, there was already this time an example of an ecological catastrophe of virgin lands ...

    And, of course, one cannot but recall the bestial attitude towards people who find themselves on the territory, in fact, of the landfill.
    It was the same with Mayak
  11. Not served
    Not served 25 March 2021 14: 27
    0
    I was in the 86th year in the Cherdyn region. The kid was still visiting a friend in his homeland. So his uncle told how they looked at these explosions from the roof. But he said that the stripping work was carried out. But it turns out that they tried to carry out the transfer of rivers. And there were problems with fish even then without explosions. All river beds for many meters were covered with drifts from free rafting.
    And in the south of the Perm Territory, at about the same time, RP (formation fracture) was carried out with the help of a vigorous explosion for the sake of stimulating oil inflow at the existing fields. Therefore, there are radiation monitoring services for oil workers. Now all of this is owned by LUKoil.
  12. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 25 March 2021 16: 58
    -2
    "serious social and, possibly, internal political consequences for the whole country" in the same regions.
    And the Politburo did not dare to conflict with all the heads of the Central Asian republics at once "
    Was this known to all pensioners? Probably so "retired since 1967."
    "In pursuit of such money, they went on lies, forgery and speculation, as well as on the" link "by the Central Asian authorities" I DO NOT BELIEVE. This was NOT POSSIBLE at that time.
    The author also forgot to refer to the bazaar gossips and drunks.
    Colleagues, where does the site go: "Samsoniada", Apukhtin, Chichkin and where next?
    1. Dart2027
      Dart2027 25 March 2021 19: 21
      -1
      Quote: Astra wild2
      I DO NOT BELIEVE. This was NOT POSSIBLE at that time

      Read about "Cotton Business".
      1. victor50
        victor50 25 March 2021 20: 39
        +2
        Quote: Dart2027
        Quote: Astra wild2
        I DO NOT BELIEVE. This was NOT POSSIBLE at that time

        Read about "Cotton Business".

        These are slightly different years, for about 15 years. And the situation is different. Life in the USSR cannot be reduced, for example, only to the period of Stalinist repressions, or collectivization.
        1. Dart2027
          Dart2027 26 March 2021 18: 41
          -2
          Quote: victor50
          These are slightly different years, so for 15 years.

          After 15 years, a high-profile process took place, but the system itself appeared much earlier.
          There was corruption in the USSR, and such that ...
          1. victor50
            victor50 26 March 2021 19: 47
            -1
            Quote: Dart2027
            Quote: victor50
            These are slightly different years, so for 15 years.

            After 15 years, a high-profile process took place, but the system itself appeared much earlier.
            There was corruption in the USSR, and such that ...

            But these propaganda tales about the bright present are not needed! I know what it was like in the late USSR, especially in Brezhnev. They are children compared to the present. And if we take today's times, then about those we can safely say that she did not exist! She did not affect life as it is now! But some were even shot there (now bitter tears are sometimes shed over them in the media), and they did not change the laws under some especially gifted predators and corrupt officials, equating house arrest with detention! Anti-corruption fighters, your division!
            1. Dart2027
              Dart2027 27 March 2021 07: 00
              -1
              Quote: victor50
              I know what it was like in the late USSR, especially in Brezhnev. They are children compared to the present.

              Because she was carefully hiding from the population.
              Quote: victor50
              She did not affect life as it is now! But some were even shot there.

              Keyword of some.
          2. victor50
            victor50 26 March 2021 19: 50
            +1
            Quote: Dart2027
            15 years later, a high-profile trial took place,

            Yes, and there was no process, so on separate episodes. The investigation was not completed in full, perestroika and the collapse of the USSR ruined the case and the investigators, making them politicians.
  13. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 25 March 2021 17: 18
    +4
    In general, it is interesting how much the so-called "writers" did to destroy the USSR, here is the same Zalygin, promoting the prohibition of dumping part of the runoff of the northern rivers, different okudzhavkas and other Chingiz Aitmatovs (in the late 80s Aitmatov advocated the widespread introduction of the Kyrgyz language in Kyrgyzstan, but he taught his children at school with an English bias - KP then wrote), and Govorukhin noted with his "Russia, which we have lost." Abuladze's "repentance" is generally nonsense. And it worked.
    1. Moskovit
      Moskovit 26 March 2021 08: 04
      +2
      Zalygin was right. Not only would the environmental damage from this project be simply gigantic, but now we would donate our water to some unknown country. If you are so anxious to help the people of Central Asia, hire Tajiks.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 26 March 2021 08: 10
        -2
        Zalygin was right. Not only would the environmental damage from this project be simply gigantic, but now we would donate our water to some unknown country.

        Zalygin did everything to make the USSR collapse into a number of hostile states. What environmental damage from water intake for Karaganda? And the fence has been going on for about 40 years. There was nothing to promote these "writers", who did not hold anything heavier than a fountain pen in their hands. The results of their activities to ensure the collapse of the Great Country are evident.
        1. Moskovit
          Moskovit 26 March 2021 09: 37
          0
          The scale of the Karaganda region is incomparable with the consumption of water in the same Uzbekistan.
          Now China takes 10% of the Irtysh water, but wants all 20 or 25%. Kazakhstan and Russia are sounding the alarm. And you wanted us to deliver our water to Central Asia! Think about your home, otherwise you are worried about world problems, but we cannot put things in order.
  14. Victor Tsenin
    Victor Tsenin 25 March 2021 19: 34
    0
    > The agreement, as you know, was signed by the USSR, USA and Great Britain on August 5, 1963 in Moscow.
    When was it normalized?
    > Dots were found with an increased background of gamma radiation, caused mainly by isotopes of cesium - 137Cs and cobalt - 60Co. Isotopes of niobium - 94Nb, europium - 152Eu and 154Eu, bismuth - 207Bi, and also americium - 241Am (a product of beta decay of plutonium - 241Pu) were also found in the area of ​​the explosion.
    How elevated and how dangerous is it for mushroom lovers (oh yeah) and fish lovers (yeah!)?
    > Well, very laconic pragmatism ...
    And that is true, given all the facts.
  15. Ingvar7401
    Ingvar7401 25 March 2021 21: 10
    -2
    And nobody was shot? Sorry
  16. Gips
    Gips 26 March 2021 02: 48
    0
    The author is a dreamer. Likewise, Yakhina composes her pearls.
    1. Moskovit
      Moskovit 26 March 2021 08: 13
      0
      Dreamer? Do you know which region in Russia is the leader in the number of cancer patients? Bryansk. And Orlovskaya, Tulskaya and Kurskaya are also in the "top". Probably no need to explain why.
      1. Gips
        Gips 29 March 2021 02: 24
        0
        Explain?)) Dear, you need to explain the material to the students at school. And on VO you need to prove your material to the readers. Now prove your hints. And so that everything that you write is confirmed. The very minimum is links to serious scientific sources. No Vicky or Zen.

        "He called himself a load ...?"
  17. Plastmaster
    Plastmaster 26 March 2021 06: 59
    +1
    Quote: Dart2027
    of the same order

    So calculate how much of everything harmful was done during the extraction, production, operation. What harm was and is happening now for man, nature. And most importantly, they know about it and continue. And with the atom, they stopped in time, realized.
  18. U-58
    U-58 26 March 2021 10: 17
    -1
    An article about radiation or about turning rivers?
    With radiation, everything is clear. Moreover, at that time I just lived in those places.
    But the turn, in principle, would come in handy right now.
    Moreover, the channel can be closed if necessary.
    The Volga has become shallow, in the southern regions there is a systematic severe drought.
    So the idea is not terrible ..
  19. Klingon
    Klingon 26 March 2021 10: 29
    0
    Quote: Far In
    the first sane assessments of this project began to be given strictly later - in the 90s
    Yes, yes, in the 90s, the Soviet period was given exclusively sane assessments. Well, don't tell my sneakers.
    There is the most "humane forecast" - the complete extinction of the basins of the former rivers
    There will be no extinction, much less complete. Do you have any idea how many million cubic meters of water thaws in the permafrost during the warm season? And to what latitudes does this permafrost in Siberia go down?
    This is just the beginning, then the climate will change, primarily precipitation
    Have arrived. Well, here - the rivers are not "redirected", but the climate is changing. Gutaret, global warming. Shaw so and so ?!

    that's because of such short-sighted "figures" like you then there are sickly cataclysms. If you want to play "God", be so kind as to calculate the consequences of the impacts at least several tens of thousands of years in advance. And climatology, yes, it is very important, learn materiel laughing
  20. Basarev
    Basarev 26 March 2021 10: 45
    0
    River diversion, especially through nuclear explosions, is, of course, nonsense. But it is still necessary to save the waters of Asia. I believe that it is possible to water the Syr Darya again, make the Amu Darya navigable and re-pour the Aral. Or even a canal with the Caspian Sea. Otherwise, dust storms from there will continue to threaten southern Russia. That is, the considerations are the most practical, without idiocy like free support for Central Asian dictatorships.
  21. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 26 March 2021 12: 35
    +1
    and the fact that if the projects were carried out, the ministries of land reclamation and water management of the USSR and the RSFSR, they would start to use just huge amounts of money.

    They would have sufficed them for ten years.
    Well, what to take with a liar hack? In principle, he cannot have shame and conscience ... For a "specialist-meliorator" it may be a little strange, but we are talking about the USSR. In which there was such a special system, socialism was called. And in this system there were some features that the mind of the "writer" apparently could not master in any way.
    Yes, the ministries would receive a gigantic order. And a huge amount of "money". A small detail is that these were not the oligarchs of modern Russia who receive state money and steal it, as well as spend it freely on their Wishlist, getting off with various rubbish for the report. In the USSR, non-cash played a completely different role than money is playing now, no matter how difficult it is to imagine this for all kinds of "experts".
    All this money would have gone, suddenly, to the cause. To work. What would the leadership of the ministries get? Their salary would not have increased. It was simply impossible to steal something and not sit down. The heads of the ministries would have got an ADDITIONAL MOUNTAIN OF WORK. Monstrous mountain. A hell of a job. At the same time, no matter what the oak-like hack thought to himself, the lack of money in the ministries for such a project did not mean that they would disappear at all) They would have continued working (and the management would have received their salaries). Yes, a certain amount of all sorts of "deficits" would have grown. And for the sake of this, take on a project that threatened a heart attack in a couple of years? Hehe ...
    If you understand nothing, absolutely nothing about what you are writing about, they will notice it. Apparently this fact also did not catch on the smooth surface of the brain of this "writer".
  22. Oleg ratay
    Oleg ratay April 3 2021 17: 20
    0
    In fact, in a thermonuclear explosion with an equal power, the release of radioactive radiation is almost four times less, and the release of long-lived isotopes is much less than in a nuclear explosion.
  23. zimzinov
    zimzinov April 20 2021 21: 02
    0
    After the explosions at the Totsk test site in the Orenburg region, there were also many cancers and so on. And to the very idea of ​​transferring part of the Sib. rivers to the south, I personally feel fine. It was a good idea, but they didn't have time to implement it.