Military Review

The battle for refractories: little-known chronicles of the rear of the Great Patriotic War

51

Site of open-hearth furnaces of the Ural Tank Plant No. 183 in Nizhny Tagil. Source: waralbum.ru


Strategic resource


It is difficult to overestimate the production of high-quality steel for the military-industrial complex in war conditions. This is one of the most important factors in the success of armies on the battlefield.

As you know, one of the first to receive high-quality armory steel was learned by the metallurgists of Krupp.

The Germans took over the Thomas manufacturing process at the end of the XNUMXth century. This method of smelting steel made it possible to remove phosphorus impurities from the ore, which automatically increased the quality of the product. High-quality armor and weapons steel during the First World War often ensured the superiority of the Germans on the battlefield.

To organize such a production, new refractory materials were required, which lined the inner surfaces of the furnaces. The Germans used the latest magnesite refractories for their time, withstanding temperatures of more than 2000 degrees. Such substances of higher refractoriness are based on magnesium oxides with small admixtures of aluminum oxides.

At the beginning of the XNUMXth century, countries with technologies for the mass production of magnesite refractories could afford to produce high-quality armor and gun barrels. This can be compared to a strategic advantage.

Lower in terms of fire resistance were the so-called highly refractory materials that withstand temperatures from 1750 to 1950 degrees. These are dolomite and high-alumina refractories. Fireclay, semi-acid, quartz and dinas refractory materials can withstand temperatures from 1610 to 1750 degrees.

The battle for refractories: little-known chronicles of the rear of the Great Patriotic War
Steel casting in the third open-hearth shop of MMK, June 1942. Source: m.gubernator74.ru

By the way, technologies and sites for the production of magnesite refractories first appeared in Russia back in 1900.

Satka magnesite refractory brick in 1905 was awarded a gold medal at the World Industrial Exhibition in Liege. It was produced near Chelyabinsk in the city of Satka, where a unique magnesite deposit was located.

The periclase mineral, from which the refractories were made at the factory, was of high quality and did not require additional enrichment. As a result, the magnesite refractory from Satka was superior to analogs from Greece and Austria.

Bridging the gap


Despite the quite high-quality magnesite bricks from Satka, until the 30s, the main refractories of Soviet metallurgists were dinas materials from clay. Naturally, getting a high temperature for smelting weapons-grade steel did not work out - the lining of the open-hearth interior crumbled and required extraordinary repairs.

There was not enough Satka brick, and in the post-revolutionary period, the main production technologies were lost.

At the same time, the Europeans went ahead - for example, the Austrian Radex magnesite was distinguished by excellent fire resistance.

The Soviet Union purchased this material. But it was impossible to get an analogue without a secret of production. This problem was taken up by a graduate of the Moscow State Technical University. N.E. Bauman Alexey Petrovich Panarin. At the Magnet plant (formerly the Satka Combine) in 1933 he headed the Central Plant Laboratory. And five years later, he launched mass production of periclase-chromite or chromomagnesite refractories for open-hearth furnaces.

At the Zlatoust Metallurgical Plant and the Moscow Hammer and Sickle, Panarin's refractory replaced the outdated dinas.


Panarin Alexey Petrovich. Source: gubernia74.ru

The technology, which had been developed in the laboratory of "Magnezit" for several years, consisted in a special composition and particle size.

Previously, the plant produced conventional chrome-magnesite bricks, consisting of magnesite and chromium iron ore, in a 50/50 ratio. The secret revealed by Panarin's group was as follows:

“If we add chromite ore in coarse granulometric grains with a minimum content of fractions less than 0,5 mm to an ordinary magnesite charge, then even with a 10% addition of such ore, the thermal stability of the brick increases sharply.

As the addition of chromite ore of coarse granulometry increases, the stability of the brick grows and reaches a maximum at a certain ratio of components. "

Chromite for the new refractory was taken at the Saranovskoye mine, and periclase was continued to be mined at Satka.

For comparison, an ordinary "pre-revolutionary" magnesite brick withstood temperatures 5-6 times lower than Panarin's novelty.

At the Kirovograd Copper Smelting Plant, chromium-magnesite refractory in the roof of a reverberatory furnace withstood temperatures up to 1550 degrees for 151 days. Previously, refractories in such furnaces had to be changed every 20–30 days.

By 1941, the production of large-scale refractories was mastered, which made it possible to use the materials in large steel-making furnaces at temperatures up to 1800 degrees. An important contribution to this was made by the technical director of "Magnezit" Alexander Frenkel, who developed a new method of fastening the refractory material to the roofs of the furnaces.

Refractories for Victory


At the end of 1941, the metallurgists of Magnitka did the previously unthinkable - for the first time in stories mastered the smelting in the main large-capacity open-hearth furnaces of armor steel for tanks T-34.

The main supplier of refractories for such an important process was Satka "Magnezit". It is unnecessary to talk about the difficulties of wartime, when a third of the factory workers were called to the front, and the state demanded that the plan be overfulfilled. Nevertheless, the plant was doing its job, and Panarin in 1943

"For mastering the production of highly refractory products from local raw materials for ferrous metallurgy"

was awarded the Stalin Prize.

In 1944, this metallurgist-researcher will develop a technology for the production of high-quality magnesite powder "Extra". This semi-finished product was used to prepare a pressed refractory used in the especially important production of armored steel in electric furnaces. The temperature limit for such refractories reached 2000 degrees.


Construction of a complex of the Komsomol blast furnace No. 6 at the Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Plant in 1943. Source: m.gubernator74.ru

But one should not assume that the example of the generally successful Magnezit plant extended to the entire refractory industry of the Soviet Union.

A particularly difficult situation developed in the Urals, where practically all the country's tank building was evacuated in 1941-1942.

The Magnitogorsk and Novotagilsk metallurgical plants were reoriented to the production of armor, supplying products to Sverdlovsk Uralmash, Chelyabinsk Tankograd and Nizhny Tagil Tank Plant No. 183. At the same time, the metallurgical plants had their own production of refractories from local raw materials.

For example, in Magnitka, the Dinas and Fireclay Plant produced 65–70 thousand tons of bricks per year. This was not enough even for their own needs, not to mention supplies to other enterprises.

The first difficulties arose when tank factories began to build their own heating and thermal furnaces. The Ural metallurgy already barely had enough refractories, and then the hull production of tank factories required high-quality materials for lining the furnaces.

There was no talk of any chromomagnesite refractories here - this material was in short supply, and even exported in exchange for American Lend-Lease. At least this is mentioned in a number of sources. Ural historians write that Panarin's expensive chromomagnesite could go abroad in exchange for scarce ferroalloys for tank armor. But there is no direct evidence of this yet.


Conveyor assembly of T-34 tanks at the Ural Tank Plant No. 183 (now Uralvagonzavod) in Nizhny Tagil. Source: waralbum.ru


Workers at the towers of T-34 tanks in the shop of the Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works. Source: waralbum.ru

Tank factories mostly relied on dinas refractory material produced by the Pervouralsk plant. But, firstly, it was produced only 12 thousand tons per month, and, secondly, metallurgists took the lion's share.

The expansion of production at the Pervouralsk plant went very slowly. And by the middle of 1942, only 4 new kilns appeared. The rest were either not ready, or generally existed only in projects.

Refractories for open-hearth furnaces of tank factories often came of poor quality, not in full and at the wrong time. Only for the repair of Uralmash furnaces in the fourth quarter of 1942, 1035 tons of fire-resistant bricks were required, and only about 827 tons were received.

In 1943, the open-hearth shop of Uralmash, in general, almost stopped due to the lack of refractories for repair.

The quality of the refractories supplied throughout the war left much to be desired. If under normal conditions the dinas brick of the open-hearth furnace could withstand 400 heats, then in wartime it did not exceed 135 heats. And by March 1943, this parameter had dropped to 30-40 heats.

This situation clearly demonstrates how the lack of one resource (in this case, refractory) can seriously slow down the work of the entire defense industry. As the candidate of historical sciences Nikita Melnikov writes in his works, in March 1943 three open-hearth furnaces of Uralmash were stopped and carried out a full cycle of repair work. It took 2346 tons of dinas, 580 tons of chamotte and 86 tons of scarce magnesite.


Defense metallurgical plant workers pour molten metal into a mold. Source: waralbum.ru

By the middle of 183, at tank plant number 1942, the situation was developing in a similar way - steel production lagged behind mechanical assembly. And we had to "import" the T-34 hulls from Uralmash.

One of the reasons was the lack of refractories for the repair of open-hearth furnaces, which in the spring of 1942 were working at their limit. As a result, only 6 out of 2 open-hearth furnaces were in operation in the fall. The production volumes were restored only in the second half of 1943.

The situation with refractories in the structure of the Soviet defense complex during the Great Patriotic War clearly illustrates the complexity of the situation in the rear of the country.

A chronic shortage of, in general, not the most high-tech product directly affected the pace of production of armored vehicles.
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  1. svp67
    svp67 27 March 2021 04: 35
    +7
    moreover, it was exported in exchange for an American Lend-Lease.
    What exchange. Lend-lease separately, our deliveries are separate.
    And it is worthwhile to ponder the meaning of the article again and understand that any innovative product is just a small peak, and the lower, the more and more is required for its production, these are new industries, geology, chemistry, etc., and so on. ..but everything is based on developed science.
    1. bya965
      bya965 27 March 2021 06: 32
      +21
      During the war, 30% of all world scientific publications were in Russian. I also met foreign scientists who all knew or studied Russian.
      If you want to do science, learn Russian. Then the naglo-Saxons fussed
    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 27 March 2021 06: 36
      +15
      Hello!
      Quote: svp67
      What exchange. Lend-lease separately, our deliveries are separate.

      Eugene is right in this case, our refractories were included in the reverse lend-lease list. We didn’t receive money for its deliveries.
      1. Avior
        Avior 27 March 2021 10: 01
        +4
        The supplies of materials and other things were not included in Liz's return land, it was a regular sale for money
        Reverse Lend Lease was carried out by American equipment maintenance services in the USSR
        ... as of September 2, 1945, the reverse lend-lease from the USSR amounted to $ 2. Including articles:

        Facilities and Equipment - $ 56
        Testing, Reconditioning etc. of Defense Articles - $ 2
  2. avia12005
    avia12005 27 March 2021 05: 07
    +9
    Brilliant Soviet engineers, designers and organizers. It was thanks to them that the Red Army had the weapon of Victory. These are not chubays.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 27 March 2021 07: 02
      +16
      Quote: avia12005
      Brilliant Soviet engineers, designers and organizers. It was thanks to them that the Red Army had the weapon of Victory. These are not chubays.
      .
      The genius of a brick is a definition that should cause a smile, but starting to build his house due to poverty, he wrote out two KRAZ used open-hearth bricks.
      So dinas, chamotte and magnesite are not empty words for me. For two decades, there are only two cubes left, but the household always comes in handy from the bottle and the paths to the laying of the barbecue and the inner walls.
      Dinas is the weakest and most worn-out brick - it crumbles from moisture and frost. Shamotte, especially Pervouralskiy, even half a century old, is as good as new. Magnesite ingots are the unrivaled material for small slabs.
      It's sad that everything is under the snow, otherwise I posted a couple of photos with stamps from the Zlatoust, Pervouralsky and Sitka brick factories.
      1. GTYCBJYTH2021
        GTYCBJYTH2021 27 March 2021 09: 10
        0
        Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Quote: avia12005
        Brilliant Soviet engineers, designers and organizers. It was thanks to them that the Red Army had the weapon of Victory. These are not chubays.
        .
        The genius of a brick is a definition that should cause a smile, but starting to build his house due to poverty, he wrote out two KRAZ used open-hearth bricks.
        So dinas, chamotte and magnesite are not empty words for me. For two decades, there are only two cubes left, but the household always comes in handy from the bottle and the paths to the laying of the barbecue and the inner walls.
        Dinas is the weakest and most worn-out brick - it crumbles from moisture and frost. Shamotte, especially Pervouralskiy, even half a century old, is as good as new. Magnesite ingots are the unrivaled material for small slabs.
        It's sad that everything is under the snow, otherwise I posted a couple of photos with stamps from the Zlatoust, Pervouralsky and Sitka brick factories.

        The sleeper is creosote, yes, in the summer it stinks, the worm and rot does not eat it, but ... It was infa that with doses of creosote, a tube was treated and cancer ... There was not enough brick for everyone = wood, in abundance ... Even The Chinese were filled with round timber ..... hi
      2. ammunition
        ammunition 27 March 2021 13: 28
        +6
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        Sitka brick factories

        Satka plant "Magnezit". .. Combine, that is - a full 100% production cycle, from the extraction of magnesite and dolomite and up to the finished products in the wrapper.
        -----------------
        Before "perestroika", the Satka Combine produced 2 million (two million) tons of refractory products. Fire. bricks and products of any geometry, and refractory powders. Up to 50% of the production went abroad. All over the world. Due to the good quality.
        But! laughing Due to the unattractive name of the criminals in Moscow - "brick factory", workers and residents of Satka lived well .. until the year 2004-2005. And only then did the Moscow criminals catch on and laid their paws on the "Magnezit" Combine. Realized .. that up to $ 200 million in net profit .. only from the export of refractories .. "ownerless" sad .. And the good time for the city of Satka ended .. the ice palace remained unfinished .. and the chess palace .. and much more. Salaries fell fourfold .. And production too. Now a year is produced .. 200 (two hundred thousand) tons of products and powders. alas .. Effective managers .. they are so "effective" fellow
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 27 March 2021 13: 41
          +3
          The population of Satka is really sorry, however, such a "scythe" hit many monotowns of the Urals. Recall only Asbestos, Sukhoi Log and many others. Some, like Atig, have completely lost their factories. For example, on the territory of the Atig plant where bicycles were made, today the Chinese "pour" cheap slates.
      3. ycuce234-san
        ycuce234-san 27 March 2021 21: 18
        +1
        Frost resistance is increased by hydrophobization of brickwork.
  3. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 27 March 2021 07: 18
    +16
    I want to thank the author for this amazing article.
    I, like most probably, have heard about these bricks. I know their application. In general terms.
    But their history, numbers and how they were lacking in the war ...
    Hats off, dear author! You have presented the most wonderful material today!
    1. Alien From
      Alien From 27 March 2021 08: 46
      +11
      I join, the article is useful and informative hi thanks to Eugene!
  4. Zufei
    Zufei 27 March 2021 09: 12
    +5
    For comparison, an ordinary "pre-revolutionary" magnesite brick withstood temperatures 5-6 times lower than Panarin's novelty.

    Did the Soviet brick withstand 10000-12000 C °?
    1. Avior
      Avior 27 March 2021 10: 12
      +7
      The author wrote sloppily
      It was about the service life at high temperature - it withstood more in time, and not at temperature
    2. ammunition
      ammunition 27 March 2021 14: 31
      +8
      Quote: Zufei
      Did the Soviet brick withstand 10000-12000 C °?

      No, the Soviet brick withstood 5-6 times more heats. It's probably ... just an inaccurate word in the article.
      By the way !! 40 years ago, the Satka brick withstood 5000 (five thousand) cast iron melts in a blast furnace. Compare - 50 swimming trunks and 5000 swimming trunks. With 50 heats, the blast furnace had to be repositioned after 2 months. Huge expenses. And with 5000 heats, the blast furnace was stopped once every 7 years for preventive maintenance ... and re-laid after 20 years.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 28 March 2021 00: 39
        +3
        Satka brick withstood 5000 (five thousand) cast iron melts in a blast furnace
        You wrote nonsense about Satka brick in a blast furnace.
        The blast furnace operates continuously, the resistance of the blast furnace lining is not measured by melts. Magnesite refractories are not used for lining blast furnaces.
  5. Sergey Valov
    Sergey Valov 27 March 2021 10: 13
    +4
    Very interesting article, thanks to the author. Once again I was convinced that because of such seemingly trifles as refractory bricks, entire industries depend.
    1. garri-lin
      garri-lin 27 March 2021 12: 54
      +6
      In principle, there are no trifles. Especially with limited resources in general. In the 90s, I personally encountered a situation when, due to a shortage of nails, a team of concrete carpenters was idle for several days. In all the construction shops of the town, all the nails were bought. Enough for half a day. It would seem a trifle. And nowhere to take.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 27 March 2021 13: 48
        +4
        Quote: garri-lin
        In principle, there are no trifles.

        Yesterday I toured five stores and only in the last one I found and bought an ordinary awl. The store management was looking for my purchase in their bins for about twenty minutes !!! It turns out that over the fifteen years of the existence of their outlet and the computer accounting of its goods, I was the first who bought it. However, me and their price surprised 25 rubles!
        They said thank you to me and the remaining 9 of his brothers were bought by the store sellers themselves !!!
        1. Free wind
          Free wind 27 March 2021 13: 59
          +1
          Just sharpen a screwdriver, an electrodine, it will be faster. Al is not destiny. By the way, a faceted point pierces the material much easier than just a round, sharpened sting under the needle.
          1. garri-lin
            garri-lin 27 March 2021 17: 44
            +1
            It depends on what kind of awl. Previously, he worked with leather at an amateur level. A good durable awl with a diameter of 1,5-2 mm is a rarity. The electrode will not work. Such a thin and at the same time long screwdriver is also a rarity.
          2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 27 March 2021 17: 51
            +1
            A screwdriver is also a tool, it's a pity to spoil one thing by doing another. I don't keep electrodes in my apartment, but the house has an awl and more than one. I'm not sure about the electrode, it bends at least once. And the problem with the handle. I would still have to go to the village to grind a pen.
          3. Sergey Valov
            Sergey Valov 27 March 2021 19: 39
            +1
            Thanks for the screwdriver idea. I have a few bad ones, now I'll make them into an awl drinks
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 27 March 2021 23: 17
              +1
              Quote: Sergey Valov
              Thanks for the screwdriver idea. I have a few bad ones, now I'll make them into an awl drinks

              Dear Sergey. If you have a drill or screwdriver with a large chuck. Clamp the screwdriver handle into the chuck. And you can pull out a good awl on an abrasive wheel or emery. True, this only applies to Phillips screwdrivers ..
              1. Sergey Valov
                Sergey Valov 28 March 2021 08: 32
                +1
                Your advice is interesting but difficult to follow, plus my rounds are 16mm maximum. For a start, I will try to grind a screwdriver just on a stone, holding it in my hands.
                1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                  Kote Pan Kokhanka 28 March 2021 13: 03
                  0
                  Then do not bother making an awl with a quadrangular puncture.
                  Regards, Vlad!
            2. Avior
              Avior 28 March 2021 00: 36
              +3
              Controversial idea
              Often, only the tip is hardened to screwdrivers, and the metal on the screwdriver itself is much softer
              When resharpening, the tip may not hold well
              hi
              1. Sergey Valov
                Sergey Valov 28 March 2021 08: 29
                +1
                Anything can happen, I'll try.
                1. Avior
                  Avior 28 March 2021 08: 40
                  +1
                  No, the awl will work out, it's no problem, it's just a matter of what quality of the metal will be and how long the tip will keep sharp sharpening
                  1. Sergey Valov
                    Sergey Valov 28 March 2021 08: 42
                    +1
                    I understand, but you need to try good
              2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka 28 March 2021 13: 07
                +1
                Quote: Avior
                Controversial idea
                Often, only the tip is hardened to screwdrivers, and the metal on the screwdriver itself is much softer
                When resharpening, the tip may not hold well
                hi

                As a worker-peasant version - after sharpening, the tip can be heated with a gas heating pad and immersed in oil or water. Hardening normally will not study anyway, but it will last longer.
                1. your1970
                  your1970 28 March 2021 22: 22
                  -3
                  Quote: Avior
                  Often to screwdrivers only the tip is hot,

                  Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
                  after sharpening, the tip can be heated with a gas heating pad
                  - the very kindness - suggest heating screwdriver blade - burnerWhat will be left of the handle? fool a piece of fused plastic?
                  1. ROSS_51
                    ROSS_51 29 March 2021 18: 51
                    -1
                    Quote: your1970
                    Quote: Avior
                    Often to screwdrivers only the tip is hot,

                    Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
                    after sharpening, the tip can be heated with a gas heating pad
                    - the very kindness - suggest heating screwdriver blade - burnerWhat will be left of the handle? fool a piece of fused plastic?

                    Heat the tip of the screwdriver yourself. A man about the sting of an already turned awl says that there will be much less heat transfer. Read carefully and you don't have to drill your temple with your finger.
                    1. your1970
                      your1970 29 March 2021 22: 02
                      -1
                      Quote: ROSS_51
                      Read carefully
                      - I have quoted the entire text. If people do not have enough words to express thoughts, well ...
        2. garri-lin
          garri-lin 27 March 2021 17: 49
          +2
          Also a great example. And if you look for a boot awl-hook, then just do figs you will find.
      2. Sergey Valov
        Sergey Valov 27 March 2021 19: 00
        +3
        "In principle, there are no trifles" - I completely agree. Until the 70s. each aircraft design bureau tried to design everything independently, down to the refueling fittings. As a result, it was impossible to refuel the Su that landed on the airfield where the MiGs were based. Moreover, this idiocy even spread to the air defense training ground in Krasnovodsk. They brought their own hoses to the shooting.
        1. Free wind
          Free wind 28 March 2021 00: 58
          +1
          During the war, it was the same thing, To call this phenomenon other than sabotage. It's somehow difficult for me. The Americans had unification in service.
          1. Sergey Valov
            Sergey Valov 28 March 2021 08: 28
            +1
            This is not sabotage (a fool with initiative is more dangerous than any saboteur), this is the lack of professionalism of the Air Force leadership, which must monitor and eliminate such problems.
          2. Sergey Valov
            Sergey Valov 28 March 2021 08: 48
            +3
            My father once told a nibble and a half-loss about the fundamental difference between the French unit and the American one (not fundamentally which one). French is beautiful, compact, slick - but it is impossible to disassemble it without a dozen special keys and screwdrivers. American outwardly rough, angular, but can be disassembled with one ordinary wrench.
  6. Undecim
    Undecim 27 March 2021 13: 31
    +9
    The author raised an interesting topic, but the article contains many technical inaccuracies.
    Until the 30s, the main refractories of Soviet metallurgists were dinas materials made of clay.
    First, dinas refractories are not made from clay, they are made from quartzite.
    Secondly, at the beginning of the thirties, the main refractories in Soviet metallurgy were chamotte, of which 1931 tons were produced in 689. Dinasovs in 000 produced 1931 tons.
    Periclase, chromite-periclase and periclase-chromite are practically not produced.
    In addition, the author was too carried away by refractoriness, but for the metallurgical process this is far from the only property. In addition to refractoriness, the material must have high thermal stability, slag resistance to slags of a certain process, mechanical strength and abrasion resistance, dimensional stability over the entire temperature range.
    It is not easy to obtain such a material even today, with the most modern equipment, and in the 30s Soviet refractory workers started the process practically from scratch.
    1. ammunition
      ammunition 27 March 2021 16: 45
      +1
      Quote: Undecim
      It is not easy to obtain such a material even today, with the most modern equipment, and in the 30s Soviet refractory workers started the process practically from scratch.

      " ..already in 1905 g... at the XNUMXst World Exhibition in Liege (Belgium), the products of the "Magnesite Partnership" (Satka) were awarded a gold medal ... "
      So - already in 1905 Satka magnesite refractories were of excellent quality. In addition, already in 1901, 10% of the world's magnesite production was mined in Satka. -))
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 27 March 2021 16: 57
        +2
        What did you want to tell me about?
        1. ammunition
          ammunition 27 March 2021 17: 45
          +1
          Quote: Undecim
          what did you want to talk about?

          The fact that Soviet refractories did not start from scratch. winked
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 27 March 2021 18: 00
            +5
            The 1905 medal was just history by the 1930s, as were 10% of the world's production, of which the lining cannot be made. The scientific base was practically absent. Soviet periclase refractories did not catch up with RHI in quality by 1991 either.
  7. ycuce234-san
    ycuce234-san 27 March 2021 21: 20
    +1
    Steel casting in the third open-hearth shop of MMK, June 1942


    The steelmaker is very lightweight - apparently the special overalls of metallurgists were also in short supply.
  8. TermNachTer
    TermNachTer 27 March 2021 22: 51
    +3
    An interesting article, although I'm not a metallurgist)))
  9. The popuas
    The popuas 28 March 2021 02: 30
    0
    Magnitogorsk refractory plant now buys magnesite in satka this so-called sintered ... for open-hearth furnaces, and in china it buys fused magnesite for oxygen carpet furnaces
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 28 March 2021 21: 33
      -1
      for oxygen carpet furnaces
      There are no such ovens. There is an oxygen converter.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. The popuas
        The popuas 29 March 2021 06: 46
        +1
        Sorry to hurry ... hi
  10. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 28 March 2021 11: 17
    +1
    That is, the main problem was a landslide decline in the quality of products from manufacturers of refractories. Question. Why did this happen? We look at the production technology. Are highly skilled workers required for brick making? Do they sharpen bricks on sophisticated machines? Are the most sophisticated technologies being studied and used? No. You don't need anything like that.
    Forming a brick and laying it in a furnace are routine, constantly repeated, simple operations for which any person can be trained. Even a child. It's just that his labor productivity will be several times lower than that of an adult, since there is not enough strength. In general, the fact that some of the workers were taken to the front cannot be the reason for the decline in quality. What happened then?
    A simple thing happened. First, it looks like technologists have been sent to the front. Person 5-10. Those people who set up the production process. Their management was unable or unwilling to prove the value of these people, to get a reservation for them. Most likely, the reservation was, but it was given to someone else. In the absence of these specialists, the management of brick factories was unable to either establish discipline or organize production.
    A tenfold decrease in product quality is a complete failure of the production management. Collapse. Not for the first (and not for the tenth) time in the research of military production, we see how the Soviet authorities blindly fail everything that was entrusted to him. Alas, Stalin did not manage to really well establish the technology of production of bosses. The administrative vertical of the USSR turned out to be ineffective, and the measures taken could not save it from degeneration, especially when the main Stalinist system of influence - the fear of personal reprisals - was removed. In the end, this destroyed the USSR. A very sad story ...

    And by the way. The article should be called "The battle of the stupid and selfish bosses AGAINST refractories"
    1. The popuas
      The popuas 29 March 2021 06: 45
      +1
      I don’t know why the quality fell during the war years, but in some aspects I agree with you! Let's move on to our time .. in 2008, the resistance of bricks in steel-pouring ladles reached 130 heats! A letter came from kkts - this is an oxygen-converter shop that they do not need such a brick! Because there is nothing to keep people busy! As a result, the quality was dropped to 70 heats in CCC and up to 50 heats in espc! Something like this. And they dropped it by adding refractory scrap from dumps to the mass, at the same time lowering the cost.