Military Review

Effective and effective. Lancers of the Russian army

77

Painting by B.V. Villevade "An Episode from the Foreign Campaigns of the Russian Army 1813-1814". In the foreground, second from the right, is the Uhlan of the Life Guards Regiment


At the turn of the XVIII-XIX centuries. in Europe, a new type of light cavalry, the lancers, became widespread. Cavalrymen of this kind had a number of important features and advantages over other cavalry, which contributed to their rapid appearance and spread in all countries of the continent. In the Russian army, Uhlan regiments existed almost throughout the 1917th century. and were finally disbanded only after the revolutions of XNUMX.

Exchange of traditions


The term "ulans" (from the Turkic "youth") was first used in relation to the Tatar formations of the army of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In the XIV century, against the background of the collapse of the Golden Horde, many Tatars moved to the territory of Poland and Lithuania. Such immigrants entered service in the Lithuanian army, where special cavalry regiments were formed from them. In the XVII century. they were officially named the Uhlans.

The Polish-Lithuanian Tatars preserved the military traditions of the Golden Horde, which influenced the appearance and capabilities of the Uhlan regiments. They were light cavalry, armed with pikes, bows, and shields. Over time, bows and arrows gave way to light firearms. Such equipment allowed the lancers to solve a wide range of tasks, from reconnaissance in the rear to strikes against infantry on the battlefield.


Ulan-officer of the Borisoglebsk regiment, 1815. Drawing by L. Kiel from the book "The uniforms of the Russian army"

In the XVIII century. Poland created its uhlan regiments, and it was her cavalry that later influenced other armies. Polish lancers have formed a number of new traditions. So, it was in Poland that the Uhlan cap with a hemispherical cap and a square top was created. Also, the Polish lancers were the first to put on a uniform with wide lapels, covering almost the entire chest. Later, such jackets "became fashionable" in other troops.

The pan-European trend towards the creation of Uhlan regiments is associated with the suppression of the Kosciuszko uprising, after which many Polish soldiers fled to France. In 1796, on the initiative of General J. Dombrowski, two Polish legions appeared in the French army. A few years later, they were supplemented with the first Uhlan regiment, created and equipped according to Polish traditions.

Effective and effective. Lancers of the Russian army
Ulan of the 8th Voznesensky Regiment, postcard 1914 Graphic Wikimedia Commons

Soon, the Polish lancers of the French army showed themselves well in the Italian and Spanish campaigns - and attracted the attention of the commanders of other countries. Over the next few years, their own lancers appeared in all the main states of the continent. The appearance of the Uhlan regiments had a positive effect on the combat capability of the cavalry - they successfully supplemented the cuirassier, hussar and dragoons.

The Russian Army


It is curious that light cavalry with pikes appeared in the Russian army long before the general "fashion" for the lancers. The first three regiments of recruited pikemen were formed in 1764 to serve in Novorossiya. At the same time, as can be judged, they were not subjected to serious foreign influence in terms of structure, weapons and tactics.

Formally, the Russian uhlans appeared in 1803. Not long before that, in St. Petersburg, they met the Austrian diplomatic mission, which included a lancer officer. Its spectacular appearance and bearing impressed Tsarevich Konstantin Pavlovich, and he convinced Emperor Alexander I to start forming his own Uhlan regiments. The first such unit was created on the basis of four hussar regiments, from which they took two squadrons.


Generals of the 2nd Life-Dragoon Pskov Regiment and the 11th Chuguevsky E.I.V. regiment in front and front uniform. Drawing by P.K. Gubarev from the reference book "Changes in the uniforms and armament of the troops of the Russian Imperial Army since the accession to the throne of the Sovereign Emperor Alexander Nikolaevich"

Before World War II, they managed to form five Uhlan regiments, incl. one as part of the Life Guards. In 1812, five more were created to compensate for the losses of the army. In 1816-17. the second Life Guards regiment and several other formations began service. Most of the Uhlan regiments were concentrated in the western part of the country, closer to the border. Some of the regiments served in other regions, up to the Urals.

In 1827, a new stage of reforming the structure of the lancers began; new shelves appeared and existing ones were transformed. In the following decades, the uhlans reached the maximum number in their stories, after which the contractions began. In 1864, a continuous numbering of the line regiments was introduced, from the 1st to the 14th.

For several decades, many Uhlan regiments provided border protection and participated in all major conflicts on several occasions. This service continued until 1882, when the cavalry reform was carried out. Ulan regiments, with the exception of the Life Guards, were transformed into dragoon regiments. In 1908, the reverse transformations were carried out, as a result of which 17 Uhlan regiments appeared in the army. At the same time, the structure, equipment and tactics remained the same - like those of dragoons.


Ulan from the 10th Odessa Regiment in a ceremonial uniform, 1913. Photo by Wikimedia Commons

Since 1914, the uhlans took an active part in the First World War, but the stabilization of the front and engineering barriers increasingly limited their work. In 1918, the uhlans, along with a number of other structures, were finally abolished due to obsolescence and inconsistency with the plans for the development of the newly built army.

Lance and pistol


The first uhlan uniform was created according to the type of foreign one. She was distinguished by a "Uhlan-style cap" with a square top and a sultan, as well as a uniform with wide lapels. Also included were trousers with cavalry boots. The main colors of the uniform are blue and dark blue. Some elements were made in different colors, which served as insignia, which made it possible to determine the rank and belonging to the regiment.

In the last period of its existence, after the recovery from dragoons, the supply of the lancers had a marching uniform, the same throughout the cavalry. It included a cap or hat, a khaki jacket or a tunic, blue harem pants and boots. For weapons intended for the waist and shoulder belts. The lower ranks wore shoulder straps with the regiment's encryption.


Review of the Life Guards Ulansky E.I.V. regiment, Peterhof 1908 Photo Wikimedia Commons

In the first years of their existence, Russian uhlans were armed with sabers and pikes of the established pattern - for attacking infantry, cavalry or other enemy. On the picks there were flags, the color of which determined the belonging to a particular regiment. Later, the equipment was supplemented with flintlock pistols, which expanded the combat capabilities. Such a complex of weapons remained unchanged until the middle of the XNUMXth century. A few years before the reform, with the transformation into dragoons, cavalrymen were armed with revolvers.

After the reform, the composition of the armament changed again and was almost not corrected in the future. The lancers met the First World War with the Dragoon saber arr. 1881/1909 and revolvers "Nagan". Other types of pistols were allowed, but they had to be purchased at their own expense. The lower ranks were armed with a dragoon saber and a "Cossack" rifle mod. 1891 Part of the soldiers received pikes and revolvers. After the outbreak of the war, due to supply-line problems, the uniformity of equipment and weapons was disrupted.

Troops of the past


Lancers in the traditional sense appeared at the beginning of the XNUMXth century. They quickly showed their high potential and their advantages over other types of cavalry, which contributed to their widespread use and rather long service. In different countries, the Uhlan units in their original form continued to serve almost until the Second World War. However, after that, they also abandoned the morally obsolete cavalry.

It should be noted that the Uhlan units still remain in some armies, but this is, rather, an honorary name for the preservation of traditions. Modern foreign lancers no longer wear spectacular uniforms, are not armed at all with pikes and move on armored vehicles, and not on horses.
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  1. Far B
    Far B April 1 2021 04: 12
    +8
    it was in Poland that the Uhlan cap with a hemispherical cap and a square top was created
    With a keak purpose? No, well, just wondering. There must be some purely pragmatic reason?
    1. svp67
      svp67 April 1 2021 06: 12
      +4
      Quote: Dalny V
      With a keak purpose? No, well, just wondering. There must be some purely pragmatic reason?

      Well, the first goal is to protect the head from a chopping blow. The second - in order to identify their own in the confusion of the battle
      1. Far B
        Far B April 1 2021 06: 25
        +2
        The second - in order to identify their own in the confusion of the battle
        This, after all, is unlikely. There is more color differentiation for this. pants more suitable. What for was it to fence a garden with such a complex hat design? Moreover, as the author points out, for all armies where there were Uhlans, the Uhlan caps were structurally very similar (if the term "Uhlan cap" was used). So, KMK, it was easier to paint the knobs in different colors - and voila. But it’s the design that interests me, not the color. After all, the practical benefit should also take place, not just like that, because there is nothing to do, they decided to puzzle the hat-making masters.
        1. svp67
          svp67 April 1 2021 06: 27
          +4
          Quote: Dalny V
          For this, the color differentiation of the pants is more suitable.

          When dust and dirt covers everything, and in a cavalry race and a wheelhouse this is a common thing, they are identified only by some specific objects. For this, the red ones, for example, cut the tails of their horses, until the full transition to budenovka
          1. Richard
            Richard April 1 2021 07: 06
            +5
            For this, the color differentiation of the pants is more suitable.

            Everything is much simpler - there was a differentiation of the suit of knights
            In the Uhlan regiments of the Republic of Ingushetia, the horses were selected in the following colors: 1-13,15 regiments - brown, 14th regiment - black, 15th and 17th regiments - red. However, in all the shelves the horses of the musicians had a gray color.
        2. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 April 1 2021 10: 30
          +2
          Colleague Dalny, you +, the correct question is: what is the initial meaning in such a Hat?
    2. Sovpadenie
      Sovpadenie April 1 2021 13: 26
      +5
      It is believed that the Uhlan shako and the Polish confederate (what a horror for the proud lords) originates from the "rogatyvka" - the Tatar four-cornered cap. In Poland, such hats were originally worn by the Tatars, from which the first Uhlan regiments were formed.
  2. riwas
    riwas April 1 2021 04: 45
    +4
    In the first years of their existence, Russian uhlans were armed with sabers and pikes of the established pattern - for attacking infantry, cavalry or other enemy. On the picks there were flags, the color of which determined the belonging to a particular regiment. Later, the equipment was supplemented with flintlock pistols, which expanded the combat capabilities. Such a complex of weapons remained unchanged until the middle of the XNUMXth century.

    In addition to edged weapons, the lancers also had firearms: two smooth-bore flint-bore pistols in saddle holsters and a shortened smooth-bore flintlock rifle or a fitting, which were attached to the saddle during the campaign, and in battle were suspended by means of a carbine to a lanyard sling. The metal parts of the weapon were either iron, such as the barrel, lock, etc., cleaned to whiteness (bluing was not used then in the arms business), or of yellow copper (bronze or brass), for example, butt and stock fittings. For cartridges, bullets, gunpowder, as well as weapons supplies, the liadanka served - a small handbag made of black hard leather with a copper plaque (coat of arms) on the lid, which was worn at the back on a bleached belt over the left shoulder. True, in November 1812, the rifles from all the cavalrymen were taken away for arming the militia and returned only in 1814.

    1. Ober-officer of the Life Guards Uhlan Regiment.
    2. Private of the Polish Lancers Regiment.
    3. Trumpeter of the Lithuanian Uhlan regiment.
  3. SVD68
    SVD68 April 1 2021 05: 15
    +9
    I did not see in the article what was the advantage of the Lancers over other types of cavalry. Except, of course, the beauty of the form, which impressed the generals and members of the royal families.
    1. Konnick
      Konnick April 1 2021 06: 29
      -4
      I did not see in the article what was the advantage of the Lancers over other types of cavalry

      The main advantage was the presence of pikes, which were used for the first strike in order to disrupt the formation of the infantry, and also the pike had an advantage over the saber at the moment of the descent of the cavalrymen.
      1. Flooding
        Flooding April 1 2021 07: 29
        +1
        Quote: Konnick
        The main advantage was the presence of pikes, which were used for the first strike in order to disrupt the formation of the infantry, and also the pike had an advantage over the saber at the moment of the descent of the cavalrymen.

        that is, in fact, by the PM, they became dragoons, partially armed with pikes?
        The lancers met the First World War with a dragoon saber arr. 1881/1909 and revolvers "Nagant". Other types of pistols were allowed, but they had to be purchased at their own expense. The lower ranks were armed with a dragoon saber and a "Cossack" rifle mod. 1891 Part of the soldiers received pikes and revolvers
        1. Konnick
          Konnick April 1 2021 08: 15
          +5
          In WWI, cavalry tactics changed. There were no frontal cavalry attacks, machine guns did not allow, oncoming battles of cavalry units were rare, everything was decided by artillery and infantry. After the infantry had captured the defensive line, cavalry regiments went into the breakthrough in order to finish off the retreating infantry and prevent them from gaining a foothold in the rear lines of defense. The cavalry became partly mobile infantry, i.e. dragoons, with the ability to pursue the enemy and the destruction of the running infantry with melee weapons. Even the cavalry guards, so stupidly sent to the front by the tsar, went on foot attacks, sometimes psychic, about which A.N. Tolstoy wrote about in "Walking through the agony".
      2. moreman78
        moreman78 April 1 2021 11: 57
        +2
        Quote: Konnick
        I did not see in the article what was the advantage of the Lancers over other types of cavalry

        The main advantage was the presence of pikes, which were used for the first strike in order to disrupt the formation of the infantry, and also the pike had an advantage over the saber at the moment of the descent of the cavalrymen.

        The lances were also in service with the hussar regiments, and in the RIA - and in the Cossack regiments!
        1. SVD68
          SVD68 April 1 2021 13: 12
          +2
          Quote: moreman78
          The lances were also in service with the hussar regiments, and in the RIA - and in the Cossack regiments!

          Moreover, the spades were given to the first rank or the first two ranks of cuirassiers. And then they took it away, tk. the desired effect was not obtained.
      3. not main
        not main April 1 2021 23: 39
        +2
        Quote: Konnick
        I did not see in the article what was the advantage of the Lancers over other types of cavalry

        The main advantage was the presence of pikes, which were used for the first strike in order to disrupt the formation of the infantry, and also the pike had an advantage over the saber at the moment of the descent of the cavalrymen.

        What's wrong? And what are the disadvantages for? Read Sholokhov's "Quiet Don", how the light cavalry attack is carried out!
      4. Ulrih
        Ulrih 1 June 2021 14: 05
        0
        : D: D: D Yes, and can you give a few examples of how exactly the pikes pierced the infantry line? It was the lancers.
    2. Sergey Valov
      Sergey Valov April 1 2021 09: 26
      +6
      "What was the advantage of the lancers over other types of cavalry" - And there was actually no difference. You can equip any kind of cavalry with pikes, the uniform is a tribute to fashion, the tactics of use do not depend on all this. In reality, all that remains is the training of personnel.
      1. SVD68
        SVD68 April 1 2021 13: 22
        +3
        Quote: Sergey Valov
        And there was actually no difference. Any kind of cavalry can be armed with pikes, the uniform is a tribute to fashion,

        So it seems to me that the lancers are just Polish irregular cavalry. Like the Cossacks. And then just a fashion that was introduced by the lover of the Polish Constantine.
        1. Obliterator
          Obliterator April 1 2021 22: 43
          +2
          Quote: SVD68
          So it seems to me that the lancers are just Polish irregular cavalry. Like the Cossacks. And then just a fashion that was introduced by the lover of the Polish Constantine.

          Polish Cossacks are Krakus, not lancers.
  4. svp67
    svp67 April 1 2021 06: 11
    +3
    In different countries, the Uhlan units in their original form continued to serve almost until the Second World War. However, after that, they also abandoned the morally obsolete cavalry.
    But not Poland, which entered this war with many Uhlan regiments.
  5. Richard
    Richard April 1 2021 06: 19
    +6
    In 1908-1914. the Russian army had the following Uhlan regiments:
    * 1st Ulan St. Petersburg Field Marshal General Prince Menshikov Regiment (since 1914, the 1st Ulan Petrograd Field Marshal General Prince Menshikov Regiment);
    * 2nd Leib-ulansky Kurland Emperor Alexander II regiment;
    * 3rd Lancer Smolensk Emperor Alexander III regiment;
    * 4th Kharkiv Uhlan Regiment;
    * 5th Lancers Lithuanian His Majesty the King of Italian Victor-Emmanuel III regiment;
    * 6th Volyn Uhlan regiment;
    * 7th Lancers of Olviopol, King of the Spanish Alfonso XIII regiment;
    * 8th Ulansky Voznesensky E. I. V. V. Kn. Tatiana Nikolaevna regiment;
    * 9th Uhlan Bug regiment of His Royal Highness Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria;
    * 10th Odessa uhlan regiment;
    * 11th Ulansky Chuguevsky E.V. G.I. Maria Feodorovna regiment;
    * 12th Uhlan Belgorod Imp. Austrian cor. Hungarian Franz Joseph I Regiment;
    * 13th Uhlan Vladimir Regiment; br> * 14th Ulan Yamburgsky E.I.V.V.K. Maria Alexandrovna regiment;
    * 15th Uhlan Tatar regiment;
    * 16th Novoarkhangelsk Uhlan regiment;
    * 17th Novomirgorodsky Uhlan regiment.
    In addition, the guard had two lancers of the guards regiments:
    * Life Guards Ulansky Her Majesty the Empress Empress Alexandra Feodorovna regiment;
    * Life Guards Ulansky His Majesty Regiment.
    1. depressant
      depressant April 1 2021 09: 01
      +5
      In fact, Dmitry, the shock of my understanding of history was caused by this:

      The term "ulans" (from the Turkic "youth") was first used in relation to the Tatar formations of the army of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In the XIV century, against the background of the collapse of the Golden Horde, many Tatars moved to the territory of Poland and Lithuania.


      I sincerely believed that "ulan" is from French! )))
      Truly today is April Fool's Day - over me!)))
      1. Richard
        Richard April 1 2021 09: 07
        +4
        Three years ago Andrei "Olgovich" described the history of the Lithuanian Tatars quite well.
        From him, in fact, I learned that ulan is a Turkic word denoting, according to Dahl's dictionary, a young Tatar horseman and derived from the Mongol ulagan - "red"
        Before that I thought, just like you, that the word is French
        1. depressant
          depressant April 1 2021 09: 12
          +6
          A couple of years ago, I did not stand here, at VO, especially on history, so I could not read it. But she could have guessed! Ulan-Ude, Ulan Bator, ... "Ulan" is young, young. So the names of these cities and others like them - Novgorod!
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master April 1 2021 11: 45
            +5
            Quote: depressant
            So the names of these cities and others like them - Novgorod!

            This is how, Lyudmila Yakovlevna, the malicious Fomenkov's "discoveries" are born. You were kidding (I hope smile ), and some may take it seriously.
            Ulan Bator is a red batyr, a red warrior, a red hero, and the word "red" in this case has the basic meaning of "communist", revolutionary, since the city got its name in the 20s. last century.
            A similar story is with Ulan-Ude. Ude is the name of the river (in Russian, Uda). Ulan - "red" in the sense of "revolutionary", "communist".
            So the first city in translation into Russian is Krasnogeroisk, the second Krasnoudinsk.
            I believe that when choosing a name for Ulan-Ude, our renamers faced a problem. Previously, the city was called Verkhneudinsk - it still did not go anywhere. If there were any direct associations with the word "ud", the adjectives "upper", "lower" somehow softened these associations. But the adjective "red", in relation to the noun "oud", would not sound softening, but on the contrary, it would sound quite emphatically defiant. It's like saying "crimson penis" now. smile
            As a result, the comrades were forced to switch to Buryat, so as not to disgrace themselves. Moreover, such a transition was fully consistent with the spirit of the times.
            smile
            1. depressant
              depressant April 1 2021 11: 56
              +4
              Misha, of course, was joking! tongue Today is April 1st! You can put forward any idiotic versions)))
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master April 1 2021 12: 22
                +4
                I have long understood that joking here is only possible when visiting strictly defined authors. Under the rest gather people serious, brutal warriors, gloomy veterans of couch wars, who are not up to jokes - they need to save their homeland, and this is a serious matter. smile
                You still go to Samsonov and joke there. laughing
                1. depressant
                  depressant April 1 2021 12: 35
                  +4
                  You shouldn't scare!))))
                  I went in, and nothing, alive! But you submitted an idea. I will study materials about Arkaim and put forward a version. And the people are like that: the more insolent the deception, the more people are ready to believe in it. For example, about the fact that Crimea ... oh, I will not say, they will beat! wassat
                  1. Trilobite Master
                    Trilobite Master April 1 2021 12: 52
                    +4
                    I'll throw some firewood. As a starting point for research.
                    Arkaim, Arokna, Arkel, Arkum. Find these points on the map, connect them with lines - what will you see? Here's what you see, then describe it. Truly I say - there will be a revolution in all sciences at once!
                    1. depressant
                      depressant April 1 2021 13: 08
                      +3
                      Let's do it! )))
                      Only, it seems, I have already met such a study somewhere in the depths of Zen. No matter how they accuse me of plagiarism, hehe!
                    2. Catfish
                      Catfish April 1 2021 16: 15
                      +5
                      Mikhail, hello, how did you forget about the Arctic ?! laughing

                      1. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master April 1 2021 17: 02
                        +4
                        Yes, how am I? ... recourse
                        Well, that's what colleagues are for, in order to prompt, direct, right? smile
          2. Catfish
            Catfish April 1 2021 16: 20
            +4
            Ulan Batyr in nature. smile
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master April 1 2021 17: 04
              +4
              So this is what you are - Cupid with arrows ... Eck, life in the north has patted you ...
  6. Richard
    Richard April 1 2021 06: 34
    +8
    A distinctive feature of the Russian uhlans was that all the ranks of the Uhlan regiments were given kitish-vitish in a marching uniform.
    Kitish-vitish (etiquette cord, one end attached to the top of the cap in the right corner, and the other looping around the neck) of the lower ranks of the Uhlan regiments is white or orange by the device, the non-commissioned officers have white-black-orange brushes. All officers have a kitish-vitish made of a silver cord with a St. George thread. Out of order and on foot, the kitish-vitesh's crutch is fastened to the button of his uniform.
    The picture shows an officer kitish-vitish russkis uhlan of 1908-1914

    In the picture, an officer of the Uhlan regiment with a group of non-commissioned officers (galloon trimming of the cuffs of the sleeves indicates the category of non-commissioned officers). Pay attention to the two kitish-vitish brushes descending to the chest from under the left shoulder strap. This is the distinctive sign of the lancer, worn in all forms of uniform.
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 April 1 2021 06: 39
      +8
      Good morning! Some photos.




      Above, of course, engraving. hi
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 April 1 2021 06: 44
        +7
        And this is the 2nd Kurland Uhlan regiment.
        1. Richard
          Richard April 1 2021 07: 07
          +6
          "... So go ahead, blue lancers!
          Hear the sounds of fanfare;
          Proudly wind in the wind sultans-
          We will deal a fatal blow! ... "
          (Anthem of the 10th Odessa uhlan regiment)

          a photo 10th Odessa lancers regiment in WWI

  7. odometer
    odometer April 1 2021 06: 42
    -4
    Bo fighting qualities and military spirit - pale in front of the linear Cossack army.
    1. Konnick
      Konnick April 1 2021 08: 24
      +6
      Bo fighting qualities and military spirit - pale in front of the linear Cossack army.

      Cossack troops are irregular units, with the exception of the ataman regiment of the tsarist convoy. The professional training of the equestrian units of the Russian army significantly exceeded the amateur Cossack training. For example, when the Cossack units of Shkuro and Mamantov collided with the cavalry units of the Red Army, formed from cavalry soldiers, members of the PVM, the Cossacks had no chance. The summer training of the Cossacks cannot be compared with the constant drill in the regular cavalry. And the spirit of the Cossacks now, as then, is one show-off.
      1. Senior seaman
        Senior seaman April 1 2021 09: 46
        +5
        Quote: Konnick
        The summer training of the Cossacks cannot be compared with the constant drill in the regular cavalry.

        In fact, the Cossacks also did active military service in the same way, but in addition, both before and after the service, they were annually sent to the May training camp. In addition, they served on their own horses and they simply did not need to be taught to stay in the saddle and use a saber. In this sense, the training of the Cossacks was higher.
        As for Messrs. Mamantov and Shkuro, their subordinates were too carried away by collecting trophies, which affected their combat effectiveness in a negative way.
      2. Richard
        Richard April 1 2021 11: 51
        +6
        Absolutely illiterate comment
        Cossack troops are irregular units

        Cossack troops are not irregular units, but subjects of state administrative jurisdiction of the Republic of Ingushetia.
        At the beginning of the XNUMXth century, these are:
        Don Cossack army, seniority - 1570
        Orenburg Cossack army, 1574
        Terek Cossack army, 1577
        Siberian Cossack army, 1582
        Ural Cossack army, 1591 (until 1775 - Yaitskoe)
        Transbaikal Cossack army, 1655
        Kuban Cossack army, 1696
        Astrakhan Cossack army, 1750
        Semirechenskoe Cossack army, 1852
        Amur Cossack army, 1858
        Ussuriysk Cossack army, 1865
        Irregular regiments exhibited by the Cossack troops were called so because they differed from the regular army in the way they were recruited and and in the way of service - they were recruited from only one class and carried compulsory service up to 60 years. Unlike regular regiments, which were recruited from the age of 18 and served from 3 to 5 years. According to the 1906 "Regulations on the terms of active service in the regular Vonsky parts of the Russian Empire", the term of active service is determined:
        1) for those accepted in the infantry and foot artillery units - at 3 years,
        2) for all other types of weapons taken over by the troops - at 4 years.
        3) Service life in the fleet - 5 years.
        Service in the army reserve was henceforth divided into 2 categories, of which the first, i.e. a younger contingent (from 24 to 31 years old) was assigned to the field troops, and the second, i.e. the older contingent (from 32 to 39 years old) was intended primarily for staffing reserve troops and rear services.

        Summer training of the Cossacks cannot be compared with the constant drill in the regular cavalry

        Summer camp? belay Cossacks served from 18 to 60 years old, moving from category to category:
        1st category (18-21) - 3 years of compulsory military service
        2nd category (22-30) - 1 year of compulsory military service every 5 years
        3rd category (30-40) - 6 months of compulsory military service 1 time in 10 years
        4th grade (40-60) - 3 months of military service 1 time in 20 years
        Cossack troops are irregular units, with the exception of the ataman regiment of the tsarist convoy

        belay the ataman regiment of the tsarist convoy never existed in nature. From the word ALL. You illiterately lumped together the Life Guards Ataman Regiment and SEIVK.
        Quite a weird comment from someone with the nickname Konnick:
      3. Sanya Terek
        Sanya Terek April 1 2021 15: 44
        +2
        Quote: Konnick
        Cossack troops are irregular units, with the exception of the ataman regiment of the tsarist convoy.

        Dear Konnick.
        1. The Russian Imperial Army included: the regular army, the army reserve, the Cossack troops and the Foreign troops. Cossack units were not officially part of the regular army, but nevertheless, each cavalry division had a Cossack regiment. The term of active military service in combat units or local teams for the Cossack combat rank was 4 years, as in the cavalry units of the regular army.
        2. "Ataman regiment of the tsarist convoy" in the Russian army never existed. There were four guards Cossack units:
        - His Imperial Majesty's own Convoy;
        - Life Guards Ataman of His Imperial Highness the Sovereign Heir to the Tsarevich regiment;
        - Life Guards Cossack Regiment of His Majesty;
        - Life Guards Consolidated Cossack Regiment.
        Quote: Konnick
        The professional training of the equestrian units of the Russian army significantly exceeded the amateur Cossack training ..

        And the assessment of the professional training of the "amateurs" was quite eloquently described by the head-captain De Witt: "The Red cavalry had an excellent command of the saber - it was almost entirely red cossacks, and the wounds of the Chechens were mostly fatal. I myself saw the severed skulls, I saw a cleanly severed arm, a shoulder severed up to the 3-4th rib, and so on. - only well-trained cavalry soldiers or Cossacks could cut like that. "
      4. Obliterator
        Obliterator April 1 2021 22: 59
        +3
        Quote: Konnick
        For example, when the Cossack units of Shkuro and Mamantov clashed with the cavalry units of the Red Army, formed from cavalry soldiers, members of the PVM, the Cossacks had no chance.

        The Cossacks had no chance in front of the carts with machine guns, and the horsemen who had saddled the horses of yesterday's workers were cut down for one or two.
  8. Moore
    Moore April 1 2021 06: 42
    +6
    Perhaps the most famous lancer was Nadezhda Andreevna Durova, the Polish Cavalry (Polish Uhlan) regiment. Ulans were allowed not to wear mustaches - hence her choice.
  9. Richard
    Richard April 1 2021 06: 45
    +6
    Wartime uniform (marching uniform).
    The marching form of the uhlans, like all other types of cavalry, except for the Cossacks. similar.

    Shoulder straps are similar in structure to dragoons, with the exception of edging - in all uhlan regiments it is uniform (dark blue).

    The colors of the shoulder straps of all the Uhlan regiments are either red, or yellow (Vladimirsky regiment), or dark blue

    On the shoulder straps of the lower ranks, the numbers of the regiments were applied in yellow or white paint, and in the first (chief) squadrons, instead of the number, the monogram of the chief of the regiment was applied.
    Ulan square-topped hats and epaulettes were part of the dress uniform. In most cases, with all other forms, the lower ranks, instead of the Uhlan cap, wore a peakless cap and shoulder straps instead of epaulets, officers a cap with a visor and also shoulder straps instead of epaulets.
    The color of the horses of peacetime in the Russian cavalry was usually regulated. The horses of the Uhlan regiments were selected in the following colors: 1-13,15 regiments - brown, 14th regiment - black, 15th and 17th regiments - red. However, in all the shelves the horses of the musicians had a gray color.
    Also, unlike the banners of the infantry, where the banner of the 1st company was at the same time the banner of the regiment, the standard of the Uhlan regiment was the standard of the 4th squadron.
    link:https://forma-odezhda.ru/encyclopedia/uniforma-kavalerii-russkoj-armii-1907-1914-gg/
  10. Richard
    Richard April 1 2021 06: 54
    +7
    Armament for the period 1908-1914
    Officers were armed with a dragoon officer's saber model 1881/1909 and 3-line revolvers arr. 1895 "Nagant" system in a brown leather holster. Instead of a revolver, it was allowed to acquire and carry revolvers or pistols of other systems at their own expense. The Smith & Wesson revolvers and the American Colt pistols mod. 1911 On the officer's bags, there is a gold or silver state emblem (back to the color of the instrument metal). The band is gold or silver without edging. The harness is covered with a harness braid on the device, the lining of belts is made of black leather.

    In the picture on the right, Dragoon officer's saber arr. 1881/1909 and a Smith & Wesson revolver.
    Out of order and out of service, officers were allowed to wear a cavalry officer's saber arr. 1827/1909 g.

    Lower ranks were armed with a 3-line rifle mod. 1891 of the Cossack model (similar to the Dragoon, but not equipped with a bayonet and is shot without a bayonet) or a carbine mod. 1910 on a brown belt, a dragoon saber of the lower ranks arr. 1881, but there are no bayonet mounts on the scabbard. 24 privates in each squadron are armed, in addition, with lances arr. 1862 or arr. 1910
    Feldwebel and non-combatant are armed instead of rifles or carbines with revolvers arr. 1895 "Nagant" system of a soldier model in a brown leather holster.
    With the outbreak of World War, in the face of an acute shortage of rifles for the army, it was decided to re-equip part of the squadrons in each regiment with revolvers instead of rifles, entrusting them with the service of protecting the rear, barrage detachments and reconnaissance. The rifles were partially withdrawn from the regiments, but the absence of revolvers in the arsenals forced this process to be suspended, and with the transition to trench warfare, when the Lancers were actually turned into infantry, rifles of various types and designs began to arrive in the Uhlan regiments. Some Uhlan regiments received Japanese Arisaka rifles.
    link:https://forma-odezhda.ru/encyclopedia/uniforma-kavalerii-russkoj-armii-1907-1914-gg/
    1. Richard
      Richard April 1 2021 06: 55
      +5
      Below in the figure is the marching equipment of an officer of the Uhlan regiment during the beginning of the World War. A checker on a shoulder strap, binoculars in a case and a revolver holster are attached to a waist belt. The checker belt is attached to the waist belt at the back. The revolving braided cord from the holster is pulled to the neck and looped around the collar. A field bag with long beads is attached to the waist belt on the right below the holster of the revolver. The tunic buttons are brown leather or wooden, trimmed with brown leather. This equipment is common to all cavalry regiments, except for the Cossack ones. For Cossack officers, equipment was attached differently.

      link:https://forma-odezhda.ru/encyclopedia/uniforma-kavalerii-russkoj-armii-1907-1914-gg/
    2. Obliterator
      Obliterator April 1 2021 23: 03
      +2
      Quote: Richard
      The Smith & Wesson revolvers and the American Colt pistols mod. 1911

      Revolvers were not included in the list of recommended weapons. The order indicated a list entirely of pistols, in particular Browning, Parabellum, etc.
      1. Richard
        Richard April 2 2021 04: 35
        +1
        Revolvers were not included in the list of recommended weapons. The order contained a list of all pistols,

        belay I would like to talk about this in more detail. yes
        I did not write this unfounded, but gave a link to the source.
        Likewise, I am waiting for the confirmation of your words.
        And mind you, unlike you, I do not minus smile
        I'm just waiting for confirmation.
        If he is not there, I myself will post the text of the order that you
        mention hi
        1. Obliterator
          Obliterator April 2 2021 08: 29
          0
          "Highest approved" order No. 74 of 1907. It was allowed to "have in service and generally on duty" to have a 3-line revolver arr. 1895, Browning pistol 9 mm caliber and Borchard-Luger pistol (parabellum) 9 mm caliber, and in addition, Browning pistols were allowed to be carried only out of order. caliber 7,65 and 6,35 mm. A little later, the list was expanded with a Colt M1911 pistol.
          By the way, there are no downsides to the quoted post, so the claims are unfounded.
          1. Richard
            Richard April 2 2021 09: 49
            0
            Your two posts clearly contradict each other
            Revolvers were not included in the list of recommended weapons. The order indicated a list entirely of pistols,

            It was allowed to "have in the ranks and in general on duty" to have a 3-line revolver mod. 1895,


            So in order number 74 of 07.02.1907/XNUMX/XNUMX there was still a list not "entirely of pistols", as you previously stated smile .
            and here, by the way, is the order itself for the military department No. 74 of 07.02.1907/XNUMX/XNUMX
            1. Richard
              Richard April 2 2021 10: 39
              +1
              Obliterator (Nikolay): Revolvers were not on the list of recommended weapons.

              The above order allowed have certain models of revolvers and pistols, and not recommended... This is not a royal affair.
              But in his article dated 03.07.1912/1908/XNUMX (from the "explanatory note to the charter of XNUMX") the chairman of the Defense Council of the Republic of Ingushetia, Adjutant General and Inspector General of Cavalry Owner Prince Nikolai Nikolaevich recommended to the officers of the Lancers regiments, it was the 4,2-line Smith and Wesson revolvers and Colt pistols arr. 1911 chambered for 44 Russian:
              “Despite its heavy weight, this weapon has good stopping power - it allows you to kill a horse with one shot, and is convenient to reload. It should be noted that the Nagant revolver is reloaded by a much more archaic method through a door that opens the drum chambers by turning it sideways - like the Colt revolvers from the early 1870s, which makes it not very convenient for cavalry.
              I strongly recommend in the cavalry regiments the system of socks for both a revolver and a pistol in a holster on a waist belt under the right hand; Abolish the revolving cord; Leave the Smith and Wesson revolvers as before, on a par with the 3-line revolvers of the Nagant, because, in addition to the excellent fighting qualities, in fact, as a firearm, this revolver in hand-to-hand combat of horsemen represents an equally excellent edged weapon in its massiveness and in the destructiveness of the blows it inflicts ".
              link: GPIB. War Ministry. Orders, regulations and circulars for the War Department ... [for 1908]. ... Detailed alphabetical index of orders by the military department with circulars
  11. Richard
    Richard April 1 2021 07: 41
    +4
    A characteristic obligatory feature of the Uhlan uniform is not a confederate uhlanka's headdress, as many think, but a decorative cord with tassels - kitish-vitish (or vitishket). The prototype of Vitishket was the so-called. "Vitez-kotes", which translated from Hungarian means "heroic knot". Actually, once it was a lasso, which the steppe people used to catch livestock and prisoners. Somewhere such a lasso was worn on the shoulder - and over time it was transformed into an Uhlan vitishket. But the hussar belt is believed to have gradually formed from a lasso wound around the waist.
    Among the Russian uhlans during the Napoleonic wars, vitishket was a cord with a length of approx. 7 meters with flat brushes at the ends, with 5 washers-gombs. He dressed in a special way: at first it folded in half and fastened under the left epaulette so that the brushes hung forward. Then a double cord went around the collar in front and behind, several times wrapped around the right shoulder and with its end loop was attached under the right lapel by the button. When the lancer was in a ceremonial hat and on horseback, then this loop was pulled over to a wooden crutch lined with leather at the bottom at the right corner of the cap - thus the lancers were insured against losing a bulky headdress at a gallop.

    For rank-and-file uhlans, kitish-vitish (including brushes and gombas) was made of instrument-colored cotton cord; the non-commissioned officers had brushes and gombas made of black-orange-white wool. For the officers, everything was made of metal threads with an admixture of black and orange colors.
    a photo Uhlan kitish-vitish of the WWI
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 April 1 2021 08: 13
      +5
      Dmitry, your wonderful comments and illustrations lead to at least a separate article on VO. hi
      1. depressant
        depressant April 1 2021 08: 51
        +5
        That's what literally amazes me in the photographs from the beginning of the last century, so it's the correctness of the facial features of Russian men - pure Slavs, no distortions! Whether it is a peasant, a tradesman or a worker. In the photographs of women of that time, this is not so noticeable, and the peasants regularly demonstrate the pure Russian breed. She's gone now. The faces were different.
        And Dmitry is a fine fellow with us! Seryozha, I support you!
        And ... Happy April Fool's Day, dear colleagues! This is if anyone has the strength to joke and laugh)))
        1. vladcub
          vladcub April 1 2021 15: 24
          +4
          Lyudmila Yakovlevna, and you from April 1.: "will have the strength to joke and laugh" and without life will be boring. There is almost always a reason for a joke, but not everyone sees it.
          1. depressant
            depressant April 1 2021 16: 26
            0
            Life will force, and everyone will start working on it (((lol )))
            Once, having come to VO, I recalled that they made fun of another French king, publicly eating a pear shaped like the head of a king. I was sternly reprimanded: they say, hey, what a! That every schoolboy knows. Does the current one know? So I think, what kind of fruit to buy and eat? There are no articles yet wassat
            1. vladcub
              vladcub April 2 2021 13: 26
              +3
              "over the next French king" Are you talking about Louis Philippe? In fact, he is from the younger "branch" of the Bourbons and positioned himself as: "the citizen king." Perhaps he did not like it, but the "rules of the game" obliged him to pretend that it was purple: "It is not a royal business to take offense at various tomboy
              1. depressant
                depressant April 2 2021 14: 18
                0
                He was not offended)))
      2. Richard
        Richard April 1 2021 08: 51
        +6
        I will not qualify for prose, you are a master of illustrations on the site.
        I just have to get on a stool and give out poetry laughing
        But without wine, what is the life of a lancer?
        His soul is at the bottom of the glass
        And who is not drunk twice a day,
        The one, I'm sorry! - not a lancer.
        M. Lermontov


        To Torzhok for winter apartments
        Lancers fly happily
        They all shout "Hurray" in the wake,
        Olenins shine in Torzhok,
        The lancers are invited to the ball,
        Champagne flows like a river
        But only one lancer does not drink.
        His name is Jemal - Eddin,
        He is Shamil Imam - the son
        Anatoly Chigaleychik


        Drunken lancers
        Sleep in front of the table
        Soft sofas
        Poured over with wine.
        Only the lover does not sleep
        Immersed in dreams, -
        Wait a bit,
        You will snore too.
        Alexey Apukhtin
        1854g.
        1. depressant
          depressant April 1 2021 16: 29
          +3
          Oh, Dmitry ... This is a joke of humor - I'm about Apukhtin? )))
          Mountain peaks
          They sleep in the darkness of the night;
          Quiet valleys
          Full of fresh haze;
          Do not dust the road,
          Sheets do not tremble ...
          Wait a bit,
          You will also rest.

          Lermontov based on Goethe)))
    2. saygon66
      saygon66 April 2 2021 17: 52
      +2
      - And the sergeant and the private have sabers of dragoons ... Look, on the scabbard for the bayonet!
  12. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko April 1 2021 08: 29
    0
    In WWI, machine guns were mowed down, all this beauty.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub April 1 2021 15: 17
      +5
      Machine guns mowed down everyone
      1. Daniil Konovalenko
        Daniil Konovalenko April 1 2021 15: 20
        +5
        And beautiful and not beautiful. laughing
  13. Senior seaman
    Senior seaman April 1 2021 09: 49
    +4
    The lower ranks were armed with a dragoon saber and "Cossack" rifle mod. 1891 g.

    And not a dragoon?
    1. Richard
      Richard April 1 2021 12: 27
      +4
      Ivan hi
      3-line rifle mod. 1891 Cossack model (similar to the Dragoon, but not equipped with a bayonet and is shot without a bayonet)
      So in the original source
      link: https: //forma-odezhda.ru/encyclopedia/uniforma-kavalerii-russkoj-armii-1907-1914-gg/
  14. Konnick
    Konnick April 1 2021 10: 23
    0
    Quote: Senior Sailor
    Quote: Konnick
    The summer training of the Cossacks cannot be compared with the constant drill in the regular cavalry.

    In fact, the Cossacks also did active military service in the same way, but in addition, both before and after the service, they were annually sent to the May training camp. In addition, they served on their own horses and they simply did not need to be taught to stay in the saddle and use a saber. In this sense, the training of the Cossacks was higher.
    As for Messrs. Mamantov and Shkuro, their subordinates were too carried away by collecting trophies, which affected their combat effectiveness in a negative way.

    Perhaps, but I want to give an example of how the 1st Saratov International Regiment and the Astrakhan Regiment, consisting of Hungarian hussars who had gone over from captivity to the side of Soviet power, smashed Dutov's Cossacks. The Cossacks were afraid to engage in saber battle with the hussars. Find, if you're interested, information about Laoisch Wienerman and Sandor Keller.
  15. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 April 1 2021 12: 04
    +2
    Good day. Author, I have two questions: 1) Are you saying that the fashion for the Uhlans came from Poland, perhaps it was worth placing an image of the Polish Uhlan? To visually compare
    2) "Generals of the 2nd Leb - Dragoon Pskov and Chuguev EI Regiment", was the Chuguev Regiment of the Ulan, and the Pskov Dragoon or both Dragoons?
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 April 1 2021 19: 12
      +4
      Do you want to see Polish lancers?



      1. Phil77
        Phil77 April 1 2021 19: 14
        +3
        Here's another. Photo of course later times than the Napoleonic wars.


        And here is the image, but somewhere nearby.
        1. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 April 2 2021 07: 45
          +1
          Indeed the similarity is great
  16. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 April 1 2021 12: 18
    -1
    "The cord is about 7 meters long" and why is it so long that he was going to climb the walls?
  17. vladcub
    vladcub April 1 2021 14: 17
    +5
    "whose color determined belonging to a particular regiment" like Lermontov's "lancers with variegated badges"?
  18. saygon66
    saygon66 April 2 2021 12: 12
    +1
    - It is worth noting that the length of the Uhlan peaks in the Russian and Polish armies during the Napoleonic wars were somewhat different ... The Polish pike was lighter and shorter, which allowed it to perform a larger number of techniques ...
    - "As for the pike, you must be able to use it extremely deftly so that it is useful - otherwise it will only confuse it ... To act with a pike, you need to be dressed as lightly and comfortably as possible, without tightening or stretching - like our unceremonious Cossacks ... "(C) Book. P. Bagration.
    - And this is probably how the work of the saber looked:
  19. Bogalex
    Bogalex April 28 2021 23: 08
    0
    "The first such formation was created on the basis of four hussar regiments, from which they took two squadrons." These four regiments were Akhtyrsky, Sumy, Izyumsky and Mariupol hussars. And formed from their squadrons - the Odessa hussar regiment, which by the imperial decree of September 11, 1803 was renamed into the "Life-Ulansky His Imperial Highness and Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich regiment". A regiment, that is, a military unit, not a unit.
    "Lancers <...> quickly showed their high potential and their advantages over other types of cavalry." Forgive me, but I did not understand this passage at all. What are these advantages over other types of cavalry lancers showed? Why, then, did they periodically convert all the cavalry into dragoons, and not into lancers?