Military Review

Spacesuit "Berkut" AA Leonov for spacewalk

45

Like all domestic spacesuits, the spacesuit for the first spacewalk was developed at the Zvezda enterprise (now, JSC NPP Zvezda).


When developing the spacesuit, it was decided to use the classic "soft type" design. And the new spacesuit received the symbol "Berkut".

Two functions were assigned to the Berkut spacesuit at once. The first is rescue. In case of depressurization of the QC or failure of the coolant. And the second is direct spacewalk. Thanks to this, SC "Berkut" has turned out to be universal.

In the future, these functions in stories Russian cosmonautics have never been combined, finally dividing the space suits according to their purpose into "rescue" and "for extravehicular activities."

Structurally, the spacesuit had an external power shell and an internal one - a sealed main and sealed reserve, as well as a nylon gasket with an internal ventilation system. The cosmonaut's heat protection was carried out using screen-vacuum insulation.


Unlike all previous spacesuits, the Berkut SC for the first time in the history of domestic spacesuit construction had an operating overpressure of 400 hPa. While the 270 hPa mode was a backup. And the transition to it was allowed in an emergency and for a short time. What, in fact, was used by A.A. Leonov during the return entrance to the gateway.


During the development of the SC "Berkut", constructive solutions were applied (shell of the case with a power system, sleeves and gloves), which were successfully tested at SK-1 for Yu.A. Gagarin and other cosmonauts who flew on the Vostok spacecraft and the experimental S-10 - the first spacesuit prototype for the Vostok spacecraft.

The pressure helmet of the spacesuit was made on the basis of the GSH-9 pressure helmet, which was used on the Sokol aviation spacesuit.

The pressure helmet of the spacesuit was attached to the neck ring of the spacesuit shell. The GSh had a metal helmet and an opening glazing shield (porthole).

A light filter was built inside the helmet, which was lowered using a special handle.


The astronaut's insurance during the spacewalk was provided by a special halyard 7 meters long. The halyard consisted of a steel cable, a shock-absorbing device, an emergency oxygen supply hose, and an electro-halyard for medical, technical sensors and telephony.

The spacesuit of the Voskhod-2 commander P.I. Belyaeva had exactly the same design. Due to this (if necessary) the Voskhod-2 ship could be completely depressurized, and P.I. Belyaev had the opportunity to go into the airlock and provide assistance to A.A. Leonov.

But, unlike the SK A.A. Leonov, SK P.I. Belyaeva did not have an autonomous coolant. And its power supply was carried out from the onboard coolant of the Voskhod spacecraft.

Knapsack coolant SK "Berkut"


Knapsack coolant SK "Berkut" KP-55 was developed and manufactured by SKB-KDA (Orekhovo-Zuevo). The knapsack was put on immediately before the spacewalk and was attached to the spacesuit using a harness.


The knapsack had 3 two-liter oxygen cylinders under a pressure of 22 MPa. The cosmonaut switched on the oxygen supply manually using a remote control.

The capabilities of the knapsack coolant ensured the operability within 45 minutes. While A.A. Leonov in a vacuum was 23 minutes, and in open space - 12 minutes.


The knapsack had a standard mode of oxygen supply with a flow rate of 16–20 l / m, a purge mode during sluice with a flow rate of 25–30 l / m, and an emergency mode with a constant supply of up to 30 l / m in the event of a leak.

An important factor that ensured A.A. Leonov into open space, it was that "Zvezda" was developing the "Berkut" spacesuit in parallel with the "Volga" airlock. And the joint work of the designers made it possible to ensure the maximum compatibility of these products.

Subsequently, on the basis of the Berkut spacesuit, the Yastreb spacesuit was developed - the first spacesuit intended directly for extravehicular activities.
Author:
Photos used:
https://zen.yandex.ru/media/id/5ec81fa81c6c0b05eff079c2/skafandr-berkut-aa-leonova-dlia-vyhoda-v-otkrytyi-kosmos-602c22ee16b98878e1d33ad1
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  1. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 21 March 2021 11: 17
    +1
    The General Staff had a metal helmet and an opening glazing flap (porthole).
    Seriously, a helmet? Is this a slang or an official name?
    1. Bshkaus
      21 March 2021 15: 45
      +6
      Seriously, a helmet? Is this a slang or an official name?

      Seriously (see the guide for fitting equipment and the description of the helmet design).
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 21 March 2021 15: 55
        +2
        Quote: Bshkaus
        (see the guide for fitting the equipment and the description of the helmet design)

        Well, where can I look at it, there is only hope for your articles! )
        1. Bshkaus
          21 March 2021 19: 33
          +5
          Well, where can I look at it, there is only hope for your articles!

          These are no longer my articles))) I really apologize for the careless picture, I took it in a hurry. "Kaska" is available not only on the GS, but also on the ZS. the concept of "helmet" means an integral structure, which includes a helmet, shock absorber, headphones, light filter, etc. and in the description of "Helmet" in all three products is item 1)))
          By the way, regarding the difference between the pressure helmets under the VKK and the spacesuit: the GSh for spacesuits does not have an exhalation check valve. the spacesuit has a single environment, and the pressure is released through a common pressure regulator.


          1. Vladimir_2U
            Vladimir_2U 22 March 2021 03: 12
            +1
            Thanks for the photo, everything is perfectly readable, that's why I love VO for the fact that there are excellent authors and commentators! After all, I wouldn't look for it on purpose, but here you are. hi
          2. Intruder
            Intruder 22 March 2021 04: 27
            +1
            By the way, regarding the difference between the pressure helmets under the VKK and the spacesuit:
            a small question, just wondering if there was a difference in the sealing systems of the face shield of the GSh spacesuit, in comparison with the VKK !? If it was, then how was it implemented, under the condition of vacuum and reduced atmospheric pressure, plus temperature differences ???
            1. Bshkaus
              22 March 2021 11: 00
              +3
              a small question, just wondering if there was a difference in the sealing systems of the face shield of the GSh spacesuit, in comparison with the VKK !? If it was, then how was it implemented, under the condition of vacuum and reduced atmospheric pressure, plus temperature differences ???
              the differences were. This is an interesting story in which I am now trying to figure it out and at least somehow classify the helmet by design. But what are the differences: 1- the method of attaching the glass itself to the rim, or rather the fastening technology. 2-the closing mechanism itself, ave. As in GSh-6 or with an arcuate lever-type rim through the entire front part as in GSH-9 and GSH Berkut (see photo of the article) 3- integral helmet like GSH-6 or from a face hermetic ring, face shield and helmets where all the elements are removable like the GSh-4
              1. Intruder
                Intruder 22 March 2021 15: 50
                0
                the differences were. This is an interesting story in which I am now trying to figure out and at least somehow classify the helmet by design.
                Well, I understood the elements of closure with their mechanisms, read many things on this topic, found, so to speak, for my work alone, in a private area! Here I have a purely practical interest, so as not to step on the "old rake" with a known result in reality !? There is simply such an interesting question about the quality / reliability of sealing with other parameters .., specifically for a face shield in high-altitude flight, above 4 km., With a face mask of the respiratory system integrated into the helmet or helmet itself, and if there is interesting information from You, I want to ask you to write to me in HP, so that the moderator does not strain idle! ???
                Thank you and Respectfully,
                hi
                1. Bshkaus
                  23 March 2021 07: 50
                  +2
                  It's just that there is such an interesting question about the quality / reliability of sealing with other parameters ... specifically for a face shield in high-altitude flight, above 4 km., With a face mask of the respiratory system integrated into the helmet or helmet itself, and

                  In the 50s, they dabbled in this: they made masked and maskless spacesuits. Maskless (modern) ones are filled entirely with oxygen, in masked ones oxygen was only for breathing, and the SC itself was inflated with air. The last time they tried to implement such a principle was on the "Baklan" spacesuit for the Tu-160, but it was hacked to death by physiologists. So they did it according to the usual scheme. Now I want to review the GSh for the SI-1 and SI-3M and SI-5 spacesuits, I wrote about them at the very beginning of the cycle. Dolgov died in such a general staff. I did not plan to spread it here, but I will share the materials in a personal.
                  As for the leaks, they don't care about them in the spacesuit and the General Staff. The extra liter is easily compensated. There is no difference, there will be enough stock for 15 or 18 minutes, if parachuting lasts 10))). But with a face mask, yes, there any loose fit is critical ((
                  1. Intruder
                    Intruder 23 March 2021 14: 43
                    0
                    I did not plan to spread it here, but I will share the materials in a personal.
                    Thank you very much, I will be very grateful!
                    As for the leaks, they don't care about them in the spacesuit and the General Staff. The extra liter is easily compensated. There is no difference, there will be enough stock for 15 or 18 minutes, if parachuting lasts 10)))
                    Well, in my project it is critical (not such large volumes of the main and respiratory reserve ...), the time spent at an altitude is more than 30 minutes and this is not a parachuting mode, so there is a difference !!!
                    I will wait for HP, if it does not complicate !!! I've got beer ... drinks
                    1. Bshkaus
                      23 March 2021 15: 47
                      +2
                      Well, in my project it is critical (not such large volumes of the main and respiratory reserve ...), the time spent at an altitude is more than 30 minutes and this is not a parachuting mode, so there is a difference !!!

                      Are you going to jump on the stratospheric balloon?
                      1. Intruder
                        Intruder 23 March 2021 18: 01
                        +1
                        Are you going to jump on the stratospheric balloon?
                        No, this is already in the past, although I flew my 120/80 hours on a delta / heat ball .. !!! wink
                        Let's say so (so as not to fire up the office here and the entire project as a whole wink , otherwise the lawyers will then be dragged into the courts with the NDA signed by me ... laughing am )
                        something from the area of ​​these systems:
    2. Simargl
      Simargl 21 March 2021 18: 58
      +1
      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      Seriously, a helmet?
      Seriously. Helmet and helmet are one and the same.
      For example, a worker is required to wear a helmet. But under the helmet you can put on ... a comforter.
      But it is customary to call a helmet a protective covering of the head without protection of the face.
      ... but it is not exactly.
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 22 March 2021 03: 14
        0
        Quote: Simargl
        Seriously. Helmet and helmet are one and the same.

        Yes, in general, it is understandable, I just remember that "A warrior has a helmet, and a helmet at a construction site"))), that's why I asked, and thanks for the comment. hi
  2. Alien From
    Alien From 21 March 2021 11: 35
    +4
    Thanks to the author, great article cycle hi
    1. Pete mitchell
      Pete mitchell 21 March 2021 12: 14
      +4
      Quote: Alien From
      Thanks to the author, great article cycle hi
      Keep it up, autumn is informative
  3. Avior
    Avior 21 March 2021 11: 38
    -1
    ... The cosmonaut's heat protection was carried out using screen-vacuum insulation.

    Sometimes you can read the opinion that in space the problem of heat removal from the astronaut, since in a vacuum heat is transferred only by radiant transmission, and the spacesuit is heated in the Sun. I wonder how things are really with the thermoregulation of space suits for spacewalking?
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 21 March 2021 11: 49
      +4
      Well, the spacesuit is also heated not convectively, but due to the radiation of the Sun, and it is white. The problem is to dump inner heat. I believe that thermoregulation is carried out due to the heat capacity of the coolant. Dumping 80 W of radiation (and such is the thermal power of a person at rest) is problematic due to the size of the required radiator.
      1. Avior
        Avior 21 March 2021 11: 58
        +1
        Screen-vacuum insulation - it is unclear whether it protects the astronaut from overheating or hypothermia?
        Of course, in 45 minutes the problem is not in the most acute way, but in principle?
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 21 March 2021 15: 09
          0
          Screen-vacuum thermal insulation (EVTI) protects the astronaut from external heating, the problem is to cope with your personal warmth.
        2. Simargl
          Simargl 21 March 2021 15: 42
          +2
          Quote: Avior
          Screen-vacuum insulation - it is unclear whether it protects the astronaut from overheating or hypothermia?
          Rather, it isolates people the inner shells of the spacesuit from external heating by the rays of the sun, so that the heating is not so intense and the rate of temperature change is minimal.
      2. Bshkaus
        21 March 2021 15: 49
        +2
        I believe that thermoregulation is carried out due to the heat capacity of the coolant. Dumping 80 W of radiation (and such is the thermal power of a person at rest) is problematic due to the size of the required radiator.

        In general, yes, but the Berkut was cooled by the flow of oxygen. physical activity was relatively small, and the time spent in a vacuum was small. In general, at the dawn of cosmonautics it was a big problem, the heat output by air is limited, a maximum of 200-250 W, and in fact (from observations during EVA training), the heat release during physical work in astronauts reaches short-term peaks of 300 watts and more. Here you cannot do without a suit of water cooling.
        1. Simargl
          Simargl 21 March 2021 19: 18
          +1
          Quote: Bshkaus
          In general, yes, but the Berkut was cooled by the flow of oxygen. physical activity was relatively small, and the time spent in a vacuum was small.
          I figured out the numbers a little higher. Very rude.

          Quote: Bshkaus
          In general, at the dawn of astronautics it was a big problem, the heat output by air is limited, a maximum of 200-250 W
          At the dawn of astronautics - when is this?
          The first spacewalks between us and the Americans were technically about the same (the design of spacesuits), except for the coolant on our backs, on their chests (but for the first time they even got confused with a manual propulsion device) and the helmet was rotatable ( like the Berkut - I don't know, but hardly). On the Moon, they added thermoregulation channels to the suit and coolant for continuous EVA.

          Quote: Bshkaus
          heat release during physical work in cosmonauts reaches short-term peaks of 300 W or more
          Peak and more can be, and the average is hardly more than 200 watts. Those who have taken bicycle ergometry know (you need to add about 80 W to the indicators).

          Quote: Bshkaus
          Here you cannot do without a suit of water cooling.
          I repeat: I made rough calculations above. On them, without harm to health, without cooling systems, you can work on EVA for no more than an hour. After 5 hours meat from bones will lag behind it will be really bad.
        2. ycuce234-san
          ycuce234-san 21 March 2021 22: 21
          0
          Here you cannot do without a suit of water cooling.


          Peltier elements will also be promising in the future for this. They are not perfect yet and they can probably only be used to cool the water in the suit for now.
          Well, astronauts' umbrellas and naskafandrovye cloaks-capes can also be used. Currently, reflection-controlled metasurfaces and metamaterials are being developed - something that did not exist in the era of designing most of the spacesuits and reflective coatings of satellites.
          1. Simargl
            Simargl 21 March 2021 22: 46
            0
            Quote: ycuce234-san
            Peltier elements will also be promising in the future for this.
            What for? They bluntly move heat from one side of the plate to the other. Modern tubular systems drive the coolant - it is convenient, safe and simple. And the element of thermoregulation of the coolant can be any.
            The problem is dumping that heat: a fan in a vacuum is useless.

            Quote: ycuce234-san
            Well, astronauts' umbrellas and naskafandrovye cloaks-capes can also be used.
            The entire spacesuit, except for glass, is covered with a screen-vacuum protection, i.e. this very "umbrella".
            1. ycuce234-san
              ycuce234-san 21 March 2021 23: 08
              0
              Modern tubular systems drive the coolant - it is convenient, safe and simple.


              For reasons of convenience, for example, having a mechanical system is like having a working air conditioner in your back pack during the working day. The system is simple and well-tested - but noise and vibration during long work will be tiring and annoying. And Pelte is, in essence, a thermocouple and you can put its hot end directly into a vacuum, finally making a radiator for a spacesuit. If these are threads or thin ribbons, then you can try to make the spacesuit more compact and flexible.
              And about protection, progress is knocking at the door. Metasurfaces can have very good reflection and it is time to start developing a new generation of such sunscreens (otherwise you will have to catch up again, as usual) - the time has almost come for this, since metamaterials and metasurfaces are actively being introduced into optics, including mirror-reflective materials.
              So we get the concept of a new scaffold - with a radiator and a solid rather than liquid heat exchange system, with a modern screen-vacuum protection based on the technology of metasurfaces with ultra-high reflection.
              1. Simargl
                Simargl 22 March 2021 01: 18
                0
                Quote: ycuce234-san
                but the noise and vibration during long-term work will be tiring and annoying.
                Yeah. There, the entire ISS vibrates and makes noise, but here it is just some kind of motor. The drivers are not aware that it is possible to arrange a strike. You do not seem to know that people work in the worst conditions.

                Quote: ycuce234-san
                And Pelte is, in essence, a thermocouple
                This is NOT a thermocouple.

                Quote: ycuce234-san
                you can put its hot end directly into vacuum
                Firstly, you can't - you need a heat pipe, and secondly, it doesn't work that way.

                Read scientific literature. Fantastic - it's for fun.
                1. ycuce234-san
                  ycuce234-san 22 March 2021 07: 30
                  +1
                  You do not seem to know that people work in the worst conditions.


                  That's because in our country they think so - then good consumer goods are not produced.
                  But what to say - probably you yourself know how motorists respond about the comfort of domestic cars, for example.
                  Well, the unwillingness to do something new until life forces you; eternal weaving in the tail. The next generation of spacesuits will be made in the West, and then all this technique will become morally obsolete; the cosmonauts will look like ancient Roman legionaries with pilums and gladius ... The same space tourists will laugh at them if they are offered to fly using such an old-time technique.
            2. Vladimir_2U
              Vladimir_2U 22 March 2021 03: 16
              +2
              Quote: Simargl
              a fan in a vacuum is useless.
              No, this is a wonderful gyroscope! laughing
      3. Intruder
        Intruder 22 March 2021 04: 42
        0
        Reset by radiation 80 W (and this is the thermal power of a person at rest)
        somehow small, you wrote:
        Sitting, at rest - 100 W;
        Moderate load - 160 watts.;
        Slow standing operation - 130 W.
        If we assume that the astronaut, when entering the open ..., even if he does not move, is still in tension, with a relatively weak muscle load, then the range will be from 100 to 130 W.
        due to the size of the required radiator.
        I mean, a small copper cooler with a fan does a great job with 130W. and even 160 W., without any special problems preventing overheating of the crystal and its degradation, in modern desktop processors, like this
        (at air temperature: +24 - 25 in the room), and there is a guaranteed subzero temperature, plus liquid LSS, effectively drives heat through it, however, due to cooling by radiation of heat (in vacuum, there is no gas to take heat immediately wink ), the total surface area of ​​the plates will have to be increased several times, but even this for a spacesuit, not such large geometrical dimensions!
  4. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 21 March 2021 11: 39
    +1
    Respect to the author for another excellent article. It is only unclear why the history of space technology is given in the "opinions" section.
    1. Bshkaus
      21 March 2021 15: 50
      +1
      It is only unclear why the history of space technology is given in the section "opinions"

      The "author" can no longer answer this question, apparently, this is the way it is)))))
  5. Troll
    Troll 21 March 2021 11: 53
    +1
    Sometimes you can read the opinion that in space the problem of heat removal from the astronaut, since in a vacuum heat is transferred only by radiant transmission and the spacesuit is basking in the sun. I wonder how things really are with the thermoregulation of space suits for spacewalking?

    This is not an opinion, this is a fact.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 21 March 2021 15: 16
      +1
      In one of the first issues of the "Kvant" magazine (I think, for 1971) there was an article by A.L. Stasenko "This" terrible "space cold", where in simple language the problems of ensuring the temperature regime of the equipment on board spacecraft were described. Professor Albert Leonidovich Stasenko is now over 80, but he successfully works at TsAGI and teaches at MIPT.
      1. Avior
        Avior 21 March 2021 18: 10
        0
        I thought about the problem of "space cold" thanks to science fiction, specifically Heinlein "I have a spacesuit, I'm ready to travel"
        But since now the author has come to the topic of such a spacesuit, I decided to clarify.
        Thanks to everyone who commented on this topic, and a special thanks to the author for the whole cycle.
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 21 March 2021 18: 38
          0
          I thought about the problem of "space cold" thanks to science fiction,

          And I read Stasenko's article in Quantum as a schoolboy.
          1. Avior
            Avior 21 March 2021 23: 59
            -1
            Later I read Heinlein, during the war he was engaged in the design of high-altitude spacesuits for pilots, and used his experience and knowledge in a book.
        2. Simargl
          Simargl 21 March 2021 19: 48
          0
          Quote: Avior
          Over the problem of "space cold"
          Rather heat balance.
          The body (in the sense of not only human, but any object) receives energy depending on the optical properties and energy density and radiates, again from the optical properties and temperature. Accordingly, if it receives more than it gives, it is heated. And vice versa.
          In a spacesuit, the working fluid is heated (dumped) and dumped.
        3. Vladimir_2U
          Vladimir_2U 22 March 2021 03: 18
          0
          Quote: Avior
          "I have a spacesuit - I'm ready to travel"

          There it seems like the heroes froze either on Titan, or on Pluto, i.e. had contact with a natural radiator.
          1. Avior
            Avior 22 March 2021 07: 50
            +1
            There is a description of the details at the beginning, when the hero won the suit and put it in order.
            Even today, people talk about "cosmic cold." But there is a vacuum in outer space, and if the vacuum were cold, how would a thermos work? Vacuum is nothing, it has no temperature. He's just a good heat insulator.

            http://loveread.ec/read_book.php?id=30771&p=7
            1. Vladimir_2U
              Vladimir_2U 22 March 2021 08: 13
              0
              Quote: Avior
              There is a description of the details at the beginning, when the hero won the suit and put it in order.

              But there is also about Pluto:
              What kind of water is there? Methane? And the snow? Solid ammonia? There were no tables at hand that could be used to determine which substances took which form: solid, liquid or gaseous - with this monstrous cold "summer" on Pluto. I only knew that in winter it is so cold here that there are no gases or liquids left - only a vacuum, like on the Moon.
              Although the atmosphere, according to the book, was at that time.
              1. Avior
                Avior 22 March 2021 08: 27
                0
                The spacesuit was there for working in orbit, that is, it was not very suitable for those conditions
    2. Simargl
      Simargl 21 March 2021 15: 52
      0
      Quote: Troll
      This is not an opinion, this is a fact
      Fact is fact, and my feet are freezing.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 21 March 2021 17: 28
        0
        You eat a lot of meat (from a joke)
        1. Simargl
          Simargl 21 March 2021 19: 51
          0
          You can apply New Guinea technology - tie it up where you need it.