Military Review

Pilsudski's Russophobic policy led Poland to disaster

96
Pilsudski's Russophobic policy led Poland to disaster
Signing of the Riga Peace Treaty 1921


The Riga Treaty was signed 100 years ago. Soviet Russia lost the war to Poland and was forced to cede the territories of Western Belarus and Western Ukraine. Also, the Soviet side undertook to pay reparations to Poland and transfer large material cultural values.

Failure of the "Greater Poland" and "Red Warsaw" projects


Soviet-Polish war 1919-1921 ended with the defeat of Russia.

This was due to two main factors.

Firstly, the Red Army was tied up on other fronts, the main enemy was the White Guards. Poland used a favorable factor to implement its plans to create a new Rzeczpospolita.

Secondly, Poland was actively supported by the Entente, especially France.

Warsaw failed to realize its ambitious plans to create a Greater Poland

"From sea to sea"

(from the Baltic to the Black Sea).

The Red Army inflicted a number of serious defeats on the enemy and reached Warsaw and Lvov. Hopes were born for the creation of "Red Warsaw", and behind it, and Berlin.

Due to a number of objective reasons and mistakes of the Soviet high command and the command of the Western Front, led by Tukhachevsky, the Red Army was defeated near Warsaw, then on the Neman. I also had to leave Western Ukraine.

Poland was drained of blood and could not develop an offensive. Both sides have come to the conclusion that peace is needed.

The main issue was, of course, the border issue. The Polish military insisted on the border along the Dnieper. The Soviet side protested and put forward its proposals on the border.

In the face of the successes of the Polish troops in Volhynia and Belarus, the continuation of stubborn battles with Wrangel's white army on the Southern Front, Moscow made concessions. Both sides agreed on the line along the river. Zbruch - Exactly - Sarny - Luninets - west of Minsk - Vileika - Diena. And cut off Lithuania from the RSFSR.

On October 12, 1920, a provisional peace was signed in Riga. On October 18, the ceasefire went into effect. The fighting was stopped.

True, the allies of the Polish lords were still trying to fight.

After the armistice, the Petliurites tried to seize part of the territory of Ukraine and occupied Litin. And they wanted to proclaim the independence of the UPR. However, the Petliurists were driven out to Poland.

A detachment of Bulak-Balakhovich operated in Polesie, he captured Mozyr. Soviet troops recaptured Mozyr, the White Guards hardly fought their way into Poland.

The Poles interned the White Guard units.

Difficult negotiations


The parties recognized mutual independence, non-interference in internal affairs, rejection of hostile actions and mutual financial claims. But Moscow recognized Poland's participation in the economic life of the Russian Empire and in its gold reserves.

Poland was to receive exported from the Kingdom of Poland before the First World War and during the war cultural and historical values.

Polish troops were withdrawn to the demarcation line, the Red Army returned to Minsk, Slutsk, Proskurov and Kamenets-Podolsky. In general, Poland received lands in Western Belarus with a population of about 4 million people and Western Ukraine with a population of 10 million. The share of ethnic Poles in the “eastern outskirts” was small, about 10% (taking into account the registration of all Catholics and Uniates as Poles).

Along the way, the Polish gentlemen seized Vilno, the historical capital of Lithuanian Rus, from Lithuania. With the tacit sanction of Pilsudski, the commander of the Lithuanian-Belarusian division, General Zheligovsky, raised a "mutiny", occupied Vilna, south-western part of Lithuania and created a pro-Polish state formation - Middle Lithuania. This "state" was incorporated into Poland in 1922.

The curtailment of hostilities in the Western Theater allowed Moscow to complete the defeat of Wrangel's army in southern Russia. Then Moscow had to persuade Warsaw for a rather long time to stop supporting the detachments of Petliura, Bulak-Balakhovich and Savinkov, which were based on Polish soil. Also take Zheligovsky's army to the rear.

Formally, the Polish authorities stopped supporting the Petliurists and White Guards. But in reality, the matter moved only when the Soviet troops drove these units out of their territory. This created the threat of a renewed war. In addition, the Polish military demanded to leave the army at the border and support anti-Soviet formations. At the same time, Warsaw tried to get new help from France, but France was busy with its own problems.

In mid-November 1920, negotiations resumed in Riga.

The Polish leadership finally interned and disarmed the White Guard units. The Petliurites were also disbanded, but some went to Romania. The main issue in the negotiations was now an economic agreement. Warsaw, of course, wanted to get as much as possible from Russia, and Moscow was in no hurry to fulfill the demands of the Poles.

The Polish delegation demanded 300 million rubles in gold, and the Soviet one was ready to give 30 million. The Poles also demanded the transfer of 2 thousand steam locomotives, a large number of cars, except for 255 steam locomotives, 435 passenger cars and more than 8800 freight cars stolen during the war. The Poles also wanted additional territories in Ukraine: they demanded that Proskurov, Kamenets-Podolsky, Novo-Konstantinov and Novoushitsk be returned.

These requirements complicated the situation.

At this time in Europe there was much talk about the possibility of a new campaign by the Entente in Russia. The whites were also waiting for him. Wrangel retained an entire army. And he was ready for her landing in Russia.

The Poles, with the help of England and France, continued to build up their military potential. On February 21, 1921, a Polish-French military alliance was signed against Russia and Germany. Paris supported Warsaw's policy of dragging out negotiations and sought to create a single anti-Soviet belt from the Baltic to the Black Sea.

True, in the Baltics they looked at Poland with caution, they were afraid of its territorial inclinations. Romania at the beginning of March 1921 agreed to a military alliance with Poland.


Border between countries following the results of the treaty

Bad world


In the face of an unfavorable international situation, Moscow had to make concessions. On February 24, 1921, the parties extended the truce. Peace was signed on March 18, 1921.

Poland agreed to 30 million rubles in gold as the Polish part of the gold reserves of the former Russian Empire. But she demanded 12 thousand square meters. km. As a result, a compromise was reached: Poland was given about 3 thousand square meters. km in Polesie and on the banks of the river. Western Dvina. Poland received 300 steam locomotives, 435 passenger cars and 8100 freight cars. Russia left to Poland the rolling stock that belonged to the RSFSR and the Ukrainian SSR, only 255 steam locomotives and more than 9 thousand cars.

The total cost of the rolling stock left and transferred to Poland was estimated at 13,1 million gold rubles in 1913 prices. The total amount of other railway property, which was transferred together with the stations, was estimated at 5,9 million rubles in gold. In fact, these were reparations.

Poland was exempted from liability for debts and other obligations of the Russian Empire.

The parties pledged to respect each other's independence, not to support hostile organizations fighting with one of the countries. The procedure for choosing citizenship was envisaged.

In the RSFSR, the agreement was ratified on April 14, in Poland - on the 15th, in the Ukrainian SSR - on the 17th. On April 30, after the exchange of instruments of ratification in Minsk, the treaty entered into force.

Thus, the plans of the Polish nationalists to “polonize” Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine and a part of the western provinces of Russia and create “Greater Poland” failed.

However, the lands of Western Belarus and Western Ukraine, inhabited mainly by the Western Russian population, were transferred to Warsaw.

Unfortunately, the Polish elite did not realize their mistakes. Warsaw missed the chance to establish good relations with Russia, focusing on its possible opponents (France, England and Germany). After the war of 1919-1921, the Greater Poland course was continued with respect to neighboring states, and especially Russia.

Forced polonization, colonization and repression in the Western Russian lands continued until September 1939, when the Stalin government completed the reunification of the Russian lands and the Russian people in the west.

As a result, the Russophobic and Nazi policies of Pilsudski and his successors led to the collapse of the Polish Republic (Second Rzeczpospolita) in 1939, a new loss of statehood.

The prosperity of Poland and the Polish people is possible only in close interaction and cooperation with Russia.

As it was in the 1945-1980s. Fraternal Slavic peoples have common roots and destiny. The Poles were turned into an anti-Russian "battering ram" (Vatican, Austria, France, England and the USA). But this did not bring happiness to the people, only grief.

The modern generation of Polish politicians does not understand this and is stepping on a historical rake. Dooming the people to a new catastrophe in the future.
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
96 comments
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  1. apro
    apro 19 March 2021 04: 11
    +3
    It is doubtful to talk about some kind of Russophobic policy of Poland towards the RSFSR .. in the ranks of the Polish military formations there were former servicemen of the Russian imperial army. They supported Wrangel Denikin's Russian forces in the fight against the communists for whom the Soviet civilizational project was hostile.
    The author again compares the incompatible Soviet and Russian nationalities.
    1. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 19 March 2021 04: 28
      +2
      Quote: apro
      It is doubtful to talk about some kind of Russophobic policy of Poland towards the RSFSR ... there were former servicemen of the Russian imperial army in the ranks of the Polish military formations
      In your opinion, they were ethnic Russians or what? There were a lot of Poles in the tsarist service to WWI, and they were full of them under the Polish banners after the collapse of the Republic of Ingushetia.
      Quote: apro
      Plyakov was also supported in the fight against the communists by the Russian forces of Wrangel Denikin, for whom the Soviet civilizational project was hostile.
      Some Russian forces also supported Hitler, what does the "Soviet project" have to do with it? Poland was re-formed precisely as a Russophobic state. And the Poles "threw" Denikin and the glory of TNB -
      General Denikin proposed to the Polish command to unite with the Volunteer Army, which would make it possible, without "excessive sacrifices", to destroy the 12th Soviet Army concentrated in the Kiev region.


      Anyone who cries about the loss of Poland after the collapse of the Republic of Ingushetia would be nice to remember this:
      Unfortunately, the Polish elite did not realize their mistakes. Warsaw missed the chance to establish good relations with Russia, focused on its possible opponents (France, England and Germany).
      1. apro
        apro 19 March 2021 04: 36
        -5
        Quote: Vladimir_2U
        In your opinion, they were ethnic Russians or what?

        Poland was a part of r. 100 years. Served in the Russian imperial army. Occupied posts in the state apparatus of the r. Empire is alive while the imperials are alive.
        Quote: Vladimir_2U
        what does the "Soviet project" have to do with it?

        And despite the fact that this is not a Russian project, and who threw whom ... not interesting. They were united in the fight against the communists.
      2. evgen1221
        evgen1221 20 March 2021 09: 56
        -4
        And on whom was Poland oriented? On a beggarly enraged country where the authorities themselves have not decided what they want in general and how, with a bunch of troops and gangs inside, with ruined management. Or more prosperous neighbors. What more benefits promises, to be friends with a decent neighbor or with a drunk who cannot put out his house and still crawls to you with a knife against the squirrel of the world revolution on a regular basis?
        1. Vladimir_2U
          Vladimir_2U 20 March 2021 12: 39
          0
          Quote: evgen1221
          And on whom was Poland oriented? To a beggarly enraged country where the authorities themselves have not decided what they want in general
          The beggarly, enraged country is Poland in 1919! If you don’t know the story and are not able to read the article, then this is not a reason to write boring nonsense!
          1. evgen1221
            evgen1221 20 March 2021 14: 09
            -1
            20year, the USSR is looking at the economic and political plus the military situation of the country and France with England as the winners in the recent night vision system, plus the great Pole ambition and to whom the Poles will gravitate more. It is not necessary to elevate us to the absolute as angels in the flesh. Cockroaches and bad sins, and we have enough. And in politics, small countries have always gravitated towards stronger ones.
            1. Vladimir_2U
              Vladimir_2U 20 March 2021 14: 32
              0
              Quote: evgen1221
              It is not necessary to elevate us to the absolute as angels in the flesh.

              It is not necessary to call Russia an enraged country, Soviet Russia, unlike just hatched Poland, did not rush to its neighbors!
              1. evgen1221
                evgen1221 20 March 2021 15: 34
                -1
                Well, by the standards of all the countries around us at that time, we looked exactly like a mad country. Words cannot be thrown out of the song. At us, as we recently looked at the Great Sumerians, they ran in saucepans and ironed their cities with aviation, welcoming Tombova and the surrounding woodlands.
                1. Vladimir_2U
                  Vladimir_2U 20 March 2021 15: 39
                  +1
                  Quote: evgen1221
                  Well, by the standards of all the countries around us at that time, we looked exactly like a mad country.

                  I don’t know what country you are writing from, maybe from an enraged one, but Russia was sick then, but not rabies.

                  Quote: evgen1221
                  , bring Tombov
                  Clear with you.
    2. Ross xnumx
      Ross xnumx 19 March 2021 04: 28
      +3
      The well-known principle: “Divide and rule”, is repeated from one historical period to another only with different persons involved.
      As it was in the 1945-1980s. Fraternal Slavic peoples have common roots and destiny. The Poles were turned into an anti-Russian "battering ram" (Vatican, Austria, France, England and the USA). But this did not bring happiness to the people, only grief.

      Precisely to the people. In the early 90s, I was familiar with the Poles, who have nothing to do with either the current Koreyba or Matseychuk.
      All of you are well aware of the Polish film "The Witch Doctor" (1982). No Russophobia.
      And, it remains only to ask, which of the former "brotherly" peoples do Russians consider friends today?
      ==========
      Now it is clear who is throwing the rake and for what, and who goes ahead and gets in the forehead?
      1. apro
        apro 19 March 2021 04: 41
        +2
        Quote: ROSS 42
        Which of the former "brotherly" peoples do Russians consider friends today?

        Today Russians .. other Russians do not consider people as people .. and you talk about some kind of brotherhood. Other .. financial priorities.
        1. Ross xnumx
          Ross xnumx 19 March 2021 05: 03
          +2
          Quote: apro
          other priorities .. financial.

          yes
          If you mean: “There are no brothers in cards,” it means that there is a game for money or something worthwhile, since they are ready to do anything to break this jackpot!
          Popular interpretation of the Marxian phrase:
          Provide capital with 10% profit, and capital agrees to any use, at 20% it becomes lively, at 50% it is positively ready to break its head, at 100% it violates all human laws, at 300% there is no such crime that it did not risk to go, at least on pain of the gallows ...
    3. Slavutich
      Slavutich 19 March 2021 10: 25
      +1
      The author again compares the incompatible Soviet and Russian nationalities.

      Yes, there is.
    4. Sugar Honeyovich
      Sugar Honeyovich 20 March 2021 10: 11
      +2
      Quote: apro
      It is doubtful to talk about some kind of Russophobic policy of Poland towards the RSFSR

      It is doubtful to talk about anything other than Russophobic.
  2. Odysseus
    Odysseus 19 March 2021 04: 45
    +5
    The article provides a lot of correct facts, but there are fundamental flaws.
    The main thing is that instead of Soviet interests, Russia's interests are everywhere. First: it is completely unclear what kind of Russia is this? The Russian Empire ? Republic? Some kind of virtual, abstract community? If we talk about "national interests", then it is not clear who embodied them materially, because RI, just like the USSR, were states of a completely different type than the nation-states of Western Europe.
    Secondly, this is simply actually incorrect, since the Soviet government during the war with Poland set itself the goal of creating Soviet Poland, and not a question of the interests of abstract Russia. Pilsudski conducted anti-Soviet, not Russophobic propaganda.
    Of course, in fact, the author is probably right about Russophobia, but this is not proved in any way in the article. Then a strange thesis about the "Nazi" policy of Pilsudski is postulated and a jump occurs and the conclusion is immediately postulated that Poland will flourish only in friendship with Russia (again it is not clear what), and now she faces a national catastrophe due to the fact that there is no friendship.
    All this, probably, is also correct, but it is not proven in any way.
    1. apro
      apro 19 March 2021 05: 31
      -2
      Quote: Odyssey
      the fact that Poland will flourish only in friendship with Russia (again, it is not clear which one)

      As I understand it, as part of the Russian Federation, as in ancient times ...
      1. Odysseus
        Odysseus 19 March 2021 06: 14
        +2
        Quote: apro
        As I understand it, as part of the Russian Federation, as in ancient times ...

        Perhaps, but the author does not clarify this in any way.
        But in my opinion, it is very difficult to prove that the prosperity of Poland (or rather a part of it, after all, part of modern Poland was part of the Republic of Ingushetia) is only possible as part of the modern Russian Federation, if at all possible.
        1. apro
          apro 19 March 2021 06: 30
          0
          Quote: Odyssey
          But in my opinion, it is very difficult to prove that the prosperity of Poland (or rather a part of it, after all, part of modern Poland was part of the Republic of Ingushetia) is only possible as part of the modern Russian Federation, if at all possible.

          Of course, it's difficult, the Russians have nothing to offer the Poles. what they do not have. Moreover, the average Russian is poorer than the average Pole.
        2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 March 2021 10: 39
          +6
          Quote: Odyssey
          But in my opinion, it is very difficult to prove that the prosperity of Poland (or rather a part of it, after all, part of modern Poland was part of the Republic of Ingushetia) is only possible as part of the modern Russian Federation, if at all possible.

          By God, even the propagandists from the "Samsonov" artel, with their obvious mental disability, did not think of such an idiotic admission "Poland is a part of the Russian Federation". laughing What is it for? The meaning of this scribble is as simple as a Columbian egg - "Samsonov" just once again crumbled "bread crumb for blue pigeons", immediately putting two attractive tags in the heading - "Russophobia" and "Poles". It works flawlessly - a party of amusing chauvinists with their sniffy imperial jokes gathers right there and begins to fire up the Poles and, along the way, all the other "non-brothers". In general, they are amused by individuals who have a weakness for the term "Russophobia". As I understand it, the old label "fascYst" is worn out and fed up, now there is an equally universal "Russophobe" in the trend.
          1. Richard
            Richard 19 March 2021 13: 35
            +2
            Pilsudski's Russophobic policy led Poland to disaster

            Too primitive statement. The policy of independent Poland at all times has always been extremely "phobic" in relation to all her neighbors, which more than once led her to the loss of independence.
            The main reason, IMHO, is the "successful" geographical position of Poland on the way, t.s. "from the Varangians to the Greeks", along which the armies of neighboring (and not only) European powers have been walking back and forth for more than one century.
    2. Hagen
      Hagen 19 March 2021 08: 26
      +2
      Quote: Odyssey
      Pilsudski conducted anti-Soviet, not Russophobic, propaganda.

      Here you are a little wrong. Pilsudski was precisely a Russophobe. Even during the Russo-Japanese War, Pilsudski was actively establishing contacts with the Japanese for reconnaissance and sabotage work against Russia. And Japan allocated him certain finances (not in full, which was requested) for sabotage on the Transsib. By that time, Pilsudski himself occupied leading positions in the PPP (the Polish Socialist Party or Polska Partia Socjalistyczna, PPS) and organized the military organization of the PPP, arming it with Japanese money. So Pilsudski did not care what Russia was like, he tried to tear off Poland and additionally grab possibly large non-Polish territories with the goal of their further polonization, but in fact of colonization.
      Quote: Odyssey
      Then a strange thesis about the "Nazi" policy of Pilsudski is postulated

      The article is really outlined clumsily, but in fact, Pilsudski was an ardent nationalist, and even a Nazi, which almost all of his followers inherited from him. It was on this basis that he and Hitler found "love and understanding." In terms of national intolerance, Poland could give Germany a head start.
      Quote: Odyssey
      the conclusion that Poland will flourish only in friendship with Russia (again, it is not clear which one)

      If you look at it from the point of view of pragmatic behavior, then - yes. From the point of view of modern political life, this will never happen, or at least not in the foreseeable future. There are no prerequisites for a warming relationship. What kind of Russia, from the point of view of formation, is not important.
      1. Free wind
        Free wind 19 March 2021 10: 58
        0
        In Japan, Pilsudski was, the Yapas politely nodded their heads. but they didn't give me money. Yapi Nazis are still those who receive help from someone, for them it is not comme il faut. The Poles on their own initiative carried out 2 terrorist attacks, two terrorists were killed and damaged one railroad tie. But everyone knew that the Yapas were preparing for war with Russia, but the Tsar and the military did not know and did not prepare.
        1. Hagen
          Hagen 19 March 2021 16: 00
          0
          Quote: Free Wind
          In Japan, Pilsudski was, the Yapas politely nodded their heads. but they didn't give me money.

          Our intelligence historians say they did. Reference is made to the studies of G.F. Matveev and I. Chikharu. I have no reason not to believe them. If anything, throw a link to the source.
      2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 March 2021 11: 06
        +1
        Quote: Hagen
        It was on this basis that he and Hitler found "love and understanding."

        In general, Jozia Pilsudski reminds me of Pan Twardowski, the Polish counterpart of Dr. Faust. Only in contrast to the German alchemist, the cunning Pole decided to abandon the devil and not fulfill his part of the deal, leaving himself both his soul and superpowers.
      3. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 March 2021 11: 13
        +1
        Quote: Hagen
        and additionally grab the largest possible non-Polish territories with the aim of their further polonization, and in fact colonization.

        9% of the former Germanic colonies)
        Do you mean the colonial theses of 1937? "Give Togo and Cameroon, no one needs them anyway!")
      4. Odysseus
        Odysseus 19 March 2021 21: 59
        0
        Quote: Hagen
        By that time, Pilsudski himself occupied leading positions in the PPP (the Polish Socialist Party or Polska Partia Socjalistyczna, PPS) and organized the military organization of the PPP, arming it with Japanese money

        Thank you. All of this is true and beautifully written. But the author does not clarify this. If he wrote what you wrote, there would be no questions. He is talking about Russophobia in the context of the Soviet-Polish war. As a result, this thesis hangs in the air.
        Quote: Hagen
        The article is really clumsy, but in fact, Pilsudski was an ardent nationalist

        It is clumsy. More precisely, this is not proven in any way. Therefore, it looks like an ordinary manipulation, as you know, all political opponents who do not like it are easiest to demonize by accusing them of Nazism / Fascism.
        From my point of view, the policy of Poland under Pilsudski can be called the policy of active ethnic nationalism rather than Nazi. But this requires a separate discussion ..
        Quote: Hagen
        If you look at it from the point of view of pragmatic behavior, then - yes

        From the point of view of pragmatism, it is also not a fact. Russia is very weak, Poland is actively using the status of the "beloved wife" of the Americans and EU subsidies, coupled with the use of even cheaper labor from the post-Soviet space, is feeling relatively well. What alternative can the modern RF offer it?
        Quote: Hagen
        From the point of view of modern political life, this will never happen, or at least in the foreseeable future it is definitely not foreseen.

        This is, of course, a fact.
    3. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 19 March 2021 11: 54
      +3
      The article is somehow wrongly structured: a lot about the results of the war, the division of property and the payment of indemnities, and .... only the last paragraphs about Pilsudski and his failed policy!
      Well, the fact that the Poles were "happy" in the period from 1945 to 1980 is generally enchanting! As for me, they now feel themselves among equals - within the EU, with a dynamically developing economy.
      1. Alien From
        Alien From 20 March 2021 00: 18
        +3
        Comrade Leader!) It turns out pshechnya, and before us there was))) wassat
        1. The leader of the Redskins
          The leader of the Redskins 20 March 2021 09: 12
          0
          Don't write like that. It is forbidden by the rules of the site to use offensive nicknames.
          1. Alien From
            Alien From 20 March 2021 11: 19
            +3
            Thank. I know. However, I see heavier words.
  3. Alien From
    Alien From 19 March 2021 05: 24
    -3
    Thanks to the author! But they were driven to the knee by their own ambitions! And on business !!!!
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 19 March 2021 07: 30
    +5
    The prosperity of Poland and the Polish people is possible only in close interaction and cooperation with Russia.
    ..Those. modern Ukraine and Belarus need to be divided? How do we divide, live in close interaction and cooperation? laughing
    1. Alien From
      Alien From 20 March 2021 00: 16
      +2
      According to yours, we'll panic!)))
  5. Olgovich
    Olgovich 19 March 2021 08: 50
    -3
    The most disgraceful Peace of Riga ... The disgraceful Peace of Brest ... The disgraceful Peace of Tartu1 ... The disgraceful Peace of Tartu 2 .... The disgraceful Treaty of Riga with the Latvians ... The disgraceful Moscow world with the Turks, Lithuanians ... etc.

    This is what the stupid and criminal so-called. "decrees and cries of" a world without annexations and indemnities"- directly to annexations, indemnities and savage slaughter , in much surpassing the PM war, against which, as it were, the decree was directed.

    But only an ignorant blind man could hope for a different result ...
    1. ee2100
      ee2100 19 March 2021 09: 41
      +1
      The treaties that you called the most shameful were not concluded by the Bolsheviks in order to fulfill them.
      The agreements solved the problem in a certain time period.
      Specifically, according to the Riga Treaty, Moscow instructed Adolf Ioffe to conclude an armistice as soon as possible.
      Forces were needed for the war with Wrangel.
      Under the Treaty of Tartu, the Bolsheviks bought the loyalty of the Estonians with two plots of land and a small amount of money and solved the problem of Yudenich's army.
      By 1940, everything had been returned.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 19 March 2021 11: 07
        -5
        Quote: ee2100
        The treaties that you called the most shameful were not concluded by the Bolsheviks in order to fulfill them.

        They did EVERYTHING, from cover to cover.
        Quote: ee2100
        By 1940, everything had been returned.

        Yes? To whom was it returned?

        I look at the map of Russia, that of 1940, that of 1991, that of 2021, and I do not see either Revel, Vilno or Chisinau on it.

        What are you speaking about?

        I emphasize, I am only interested in RUSSIA, and not in the states of the essra, mssr, and so on.

        Russia has become less by 5 million km2-cm in the window.
        1. ee2100
          ee2100 19 March 2021 12: 04
          -2
          The Bolsheviks returned, and the communists profiled.
          1. Kushka
            Kushka 19 March 2021 14: 23
            +2
            30 million rubles of gold reserves, 20 million rubles of gold
            railway property and so on also returned?
            1. ee2100
              ee2100 19 March 2021 14: 41
              0
              Yes, even more! Everything is nationalized!
              1. Kushka
                Kushka 19 March 2021 15: 24
                +1
                And I thought that the Polish government
                (which Molotov "lost" 17.09.1939/XNUMX/XNUMX)
                managed to take all the gold to London.
                1. ee2100
                  ee2100 19 March 2021 17: 55
                  -1
                  The Poles took the gold, but the rest did not
                  1. Kushka
                    Kushka 19 March 2021 18: 24
                    +2
                    Well this is how much gold Nikolashka had that
                    the Bolsheviks threw them so much - then the Turks and Bulgarians
                    additional agreement to Brest 245 tons, then the Germans in the same place 93,5 tons
                    (went to the French), then the Estonians in the 20th 11,6 tons,
                    then Kolchak 182 tons rested somewhere, then the Czechs changed the boxes
                    with gold on boxes with bricks .........
                    1. ee2100
                      ee2100 19 March 2021 18: 31
                      -1
                      So it was! But that's right - pay the Estonians and they will solve the Yudenich problem. As they say, what can be solved with money is not a problem, it is a cost
                      1. Kushka
                        Kushka 19 March 2021 18: 45
                        +1
                        There is a saying:
                        Clever godfather, if a barrel of millet.
                        (i.e. having a barrel of millet of mind does not need to cook porridge)
                      2. ee2100
                        ee2100 19 March 2021 18: 47
                        -1
                        True, and they also say that Jews came to power in Russia in 1917, sometimes it's a blessing laughing
                      3. Kushka
                        Kushka 19 March 2021 21: 43
                        +1
                        As soon as the teacher uttered the phrase
                        "we write two, three in the mind", Izya immediately fell in love
                        mathematics.
                        Chekhov has notes from a village doctor.
                        There are scenes, like in Ivan's hut two
                        loafers play rounders, and in the hut
                        Moishe one boy lends to another
                        5 kopecks at interest.
                  2. Olgovich
                    Olgovich 20 March 2021 11: 30
                    0
                    Quote: ee2100
                    But that's right - pay the Estonians and they will solve the Yudenich problem.

                    pay right Russian lands, Russian people to bandits, and they all decided, and in Latvia and Estonia with Finland.

                    And England returned the Estonian gold only after 1991 to her
    2. Sugar Honeyovich
      Sugar Honeyovich 20 March 2021 10: 21
      -1
      Quote: Olgovich
      I look at the map of Russia, that of 1940, that of 1991, that of 2021, and I see neither Revel, nor Vilno, nor Chisinau on it.

      On the map of Russia 1940 (closer to 1941) Chisinau is. Vilna and Revel are really not there, but there are Vilnius and Tallinn. There is even Lemberg and Chernivtsi, which did not exist before. And on the map 1950 there is even Uzhgorod and Konigsberg (!).
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 20 March 2021 11: 32
        0
        Quote: Sahar Medovich
        On the map of Russia 1940 (closer to 1941) Chisinau is. Vilna and Revel are really not there, but there are Vilnius and Tallinn. There is even Lemberg and Chernivtsithat were not there before. And on the map 1950 there is even Uzhgorod and Konigsberg (!).

        bullshit.
        1. Sugar Honeyovich
          Sugar Honeyovich 20 March 2021 12: 15
          0
          The purest truth. hi good tongue
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 20 March 2021 12: 32
            -1
            Quote: Sugar Honeyovich
            The purest truth. hi good tongue

            a map with Chisinau as part of Russia 1940 Mr. table, liar
            1. Sugar Honeyovich
              Sugar Honeyovich 20 March 2021 14: 05
              -1
              Easy, ignorant.
            2. Sugar Honeyovich
              Sugar Honeyovich 20 March 2021 14: 07
              -1


              Everything is exactly.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 21 March 2021 08: 23
                0
                Quote: Sahar Medovich
                Everything is exactly

                the blind man does not see that there is NO Russia on the map. There is the USSR.
                1. Sugar Honeyovich
                  Sugar Honeyovich 22 March 2021 14: 35
                  -1
                  A fool and an ignoramus does not understand that the USSR is Russia.
                  1. Olgovich
                    Olgovich 22 March 2021 14: 52
                    -2
                    Quote: Sahar Medovich
                    A fool and an ignoramus does not understand that the USSR is Russia.

                    There is NO such document, but there is a union agreement.

                    And somewhere in the LSSR, the Georgian SSR, and even in the MSSR, he would definitely have received someone who said that they were Russia
                  2. Sugar Honeyovich
                    Sugar Honeyovich 22 March 2021 16: 59
                    -1
                    Quote: Olgovich
                    There is NO such document.

                    But there is a fact.
                    Quote: Olgovich
                    And somewhere in the LSSR, the Georgian SSR, and even in the MSSR, he would definitely have received someone who said that they were Russia

                    May be. Truth is not pleasant to everyone. Some swore: "I am a fierce one" and were offended when they were not believed. That is why there was separatism, both 100 and 30 years ago, that all these LSUSSRs were Russia. It's like a sickle to some of them ...
                  3. Olgovich
                    Olgovich 23 March 2021 08: 30
                    -1
                    Quote: Sahar Medovich
                    But there is a fact.

                    No document means there is a FANCY, chimera, lies, nonsense and hallucinations
                    Quote: Sahar Medovich
                    May be. Truth is not pleasant to everyone.

                    without any, maybe, I know for sure, because from there: NOBODY EVER thought so and looked, at best, as at the Ichiot who gave a hint about it.

                    And you would definitely get on e, yeah ...
                  4. Sugar Honeyovich
                    Sugar Honeyovich 23 March 2021 16: 20
                    -1
                    Quote: Olgovich
                    No document means there is a FANCY, chimera, lies, nonsense and hallucinations

                    Yeah, but if there is, for example, a fake document - is there a fact or was it? You are wrong. Think primitively. Apparently you don't know life. fool
                    Quote: Olgovich
                    NO ONE EVER thought so

                    Basically, that's what they thought. That is why they were torn from the "occupation of Moscow" when the conjuncture was ripe. And before that, they just kept quiet. So it was in the Russia-Empire, so it was in Russia-USSR. History repeats itself.
                    In tsarist and early Soviet times, by the way, in Siberia they denied that "Russia" was here, so what now?
                  5. Olgovich
                    Olgovich 23 March 2021 17: 58
                    -1
                    Quote: Sahar Medovich
                    Yeah, but if there is, for example, lime document - is it a fact or was it? You are wrong. Think primitively. Apparently you don't know life.

                    you should still learn that a document can only be real, otherwise it is no longer a document.
                    Quote: Sahar Medovich
                    Basically, that's what they thought

                    . considered and knew that the MSSR, LSSR is NOT Russia.

                    And it's not for you to judge, but to those who lived in the national republics and know: you would have been slapped in 1960 and 1970 and 1980. And not a single national could ever think that they ... Russia is with themhammered into everything else -from your nursery to your universities
                  6. Sugar Honeyovich
                    Sugar Honeyovich 24 March 2021 13: 27
                    0
                    Quote: Olgovich
                    you should still learn that a document can only be real, otherwise it is no longer a document.

                    And you should learn that the document can be real, but with fake content. Can describe what was not.
                    Quote: Olgovich
                    believed and knew that MSSR, LSSR is NOT Russia.

                    And it's not for you to judge, but to those who lived in the national republics and know: you would have been slapped in 1960 and 1970 and 1980. And not a single national could ever think that they ... Russia - they were hammered into something completely different - from your nursery to your universities

                    You, apparently, think that no one in the republics from non-local people lived except you? I will disappoint you once again. All these tales about "1960 and 1970 and 1980" are only suitable for young children. And then with delays in mental development.
  • Slavutich
    Slavutich 19 March 2021 10: 28
    0
    This led to the inability to conduct a modern war, it is not only about military operations, in 1914-1918, everything was mixed up again)
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 19 March 2021 11: 12
      -2
      Quote: Slavutich
      This led to the inability to conduct a modern war, it is not only about military operations, in 1914-1918, everything was mixed up again)

      to "this" led
      stupid and criminal so-called "decrees and cries of" a world without annexations and indemnities "
      and actions to implement them, before them there was no trace of it.

      Do not confuse.
      1. Slavutich
        Slavutich 19 March 2021 13: 08
        0
        I do not confuse, the reason is defeat, the inability of the country's leadership to wage a war, mediocre management, as a result: a world without annexations, and not vice versa lol
        1. Trapperxnumx
          Trapperxnumx 19 March 2021 17: 31
          -1
          Quote: Slavutich
          I do not confuse, the reason is defeat, the inability of the country's leadership to wage a war, mediocre management, as a result: a world without annexations, and not vice versa lol

          Defeat of whom? What? The Empire was defeated in the war? From this news .... I thought it was Germany ... But it turns out that the Entente lost !!!
          1. Slavutich
            Slavutich 20 March 2021 09: 21
            -1
            Russia lost, because the system could not withstand the stress, did you go to school?
            The revolution was a reaction to defeat, as the Paris Commune, a reaction to defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, etc.
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich 20 March 2021 11: 47
              +1
              Quote: Slavutich
              Russia lost, because the system could not withstand the stress, did you go to school?

              you completely skipped school, when it was Russia ... lost the WWI? belay

              The Entente, of which Russia was the main part -won PMV- go to first grade.

              The Brest betrayal was signed by the so-called. The "government" of Bolsheviks / traitors, which did not represent ANYONE, was not recognized and elected by ANYONE, as, accordingly, their papers were recognized only by their masters, the German invaders, no one else.
              1. Sugar Honeyovich
                Sugar Honeyovich 20 March 2021 12: 19
                -2
                Quote: Olgovich
                It was not recognized by ANYONE

                Only peace was signed with him. And also with Ukraine. In the same Brest. Before the Bolsheviks.
                Quote: Olgovich
                their papers were recognized only by their masters, the German invaders, no one else.

                Not certainly in that way. Thanks to the Brest-Litovsk Peace, the Bolsheviks received colossal support in Russia, which later influenced the result of the civil one.
                1. Olgovich
                  Olgovich 20 March 2021 12: 38
                  0
                  Quote: Sahar Medovich
                  Only peace was signed with him. And also with Ukraine. In the same Brest. Before the Bolsheviks.

                  the occupiers signed.

                  I see you and Koch recognize this way.
                  Quote: Sahar Medovich
                  Not certainly in that way. Thanks to the Brest-Litovsk Peace, the Bolsheviks received colossal support in Russia, which later influenced the result of the civil one.

                  BM is one of the reasons for GW. He was not recognized, in particular, by the Russians who were sold by the traitors to the invaders forever.

                  And in the Second World War, too, the same (occupation) -not recognized.
                  1. Sugar Honeyovich
                    Sugar Honeyovich 20 March 2021 14: 08
                    -2
                    Quote: Olgovich
                    BM is one of the reasons

                    And at the same time one of the reasons for the victory of the Bolsheviks.
                    1. Olgovich
                      Olgovich 21 March 2021 08: 26
                      +1
                      Quote: Sahar Medovich
                      And at the same time one of the reasons for the victory of the Bolsheviks.

                      12 million corpses, the destroyed economy, the destruction of ALL freedoms is .... "victory"? belay

                      What kind of pervert do you have to be? fool
                    2. Sugar Honeyovich
                      Sugar Honeyovich 22 March 2021 14: 38
                      -1
                      The restoration of the disintegrated country, the reflection of foreign conquerors, the establishment of unprecedented freedoms - not a "victory" and not even a victory. This is victory. Exactly this way and nothing else. hi
                    3. Olgovich
                      Olgovich 22 March 2021 14: 47
                      -2
                      Quote: Sahar Medovich
                      The restoration of the country that was broken

                      everything fell apart AFTER the thief.

                      and Russia has NOT recovered, liar.

                      and what kind of Ukraine did you restore there - to one place
                      Quote: Sahar Medovich
                      reflection of foreign conquerors

                      lol laughing
                      gave a third of European Russia to the invaders, is this a reflection? fool tell about epic "battles and fronts" with amers and other francs, reflector lol
                      Quote: Sahar Medovich
                      the establishment of unprecedented freedoms -

                      a pity, today you cannot give such people, feed them with one "Pravda" until they burp and shove them into Novorossiya in the village of 1932.
                    4. Sugar Honeyovich
                      Sugar Honeyovich 22 March 2021 16: 53
                      -1
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      everything fell apart AFTER the thief.

                      It started after FRa.
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      and Russia has NOT recovered

                      Recovered, a liar and an ignoramus. fool
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      gave a third of European Russia to the invaders, is this a reflection?

                      Not for the first and not the last time they gave it back, then they returned it. Yes, reflection. yes
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      tell about epic "battles and fronts" with amers and other francs

                      To school! Start with an ABC book. I will help if that. laughing
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      sorry, you cannot be given such today

                      It would not be a pity! They are gradually taken away, returning to the orders of the RI. But ... they will play out until the new 1917.
                    5. Olgovich
                      Olgovich 23 March 2021 08: 23
                      -2
                      Quote: Sahar Medovich
                      It started after FRa.

                      NOBODY announced its withdrawal from Russia. ALL- in Russia.

                      But no one wanted to live in the terrible, illegal Bolshevik territory.

                      Quote: Sahar Medovich
                      Recovered, a liar and an ignoramus.

                      map of Russia on the table, liar
                      Quote: Sahar Medovich
                      Not for the first and not the last time they gave it back, then they returned it. Yes, reflection.

                      you - gave it FOREVER - see. DB. And destroyed the BD-ANTANTA, and not the grunts to the invaders
                      Quote: Sahar Medovich
                      To school! Start with an ABC book. I will help if anything

                      even the institute will not help here - there was NO lol
                      Quote: Sahar Medovich
                      It would not be a pity! They are gradually taken away, returning to the orders of the RI.

                      that's a pity, yes, that you couldn't taste a free human in a Bolshevik way, yes
                      Quote: Sahar Medovich
                      But ... they will play out until the new 1917.

                      I will note that as a result of the 17th year, millions of fighters for popular happiness received instead of him, without waiting, a bullet, cards, unemployment and cannibalism and poverty, and the level of the accursed tsarism did not catch up for decades.

                      Wish your children and grandchildren cannibalistic 1920s, 1930s and free hysterical work -your right . Will they withstand this today, and will they want to or will they send you? They will send, yes ...

                      Are you writing from the Bolshevik underground? What regiment are you in, oh! do you serve the party cell? Or from hard labor with milk ink, tortured by the regime? lol
                    6. Sugar Honeyovich
                      Sugar Honeyovich 23 March 2021 16: 11
                      -1
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      NOBODY announced its withdrawal from Russia

                      Well, yes, they left in English.
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      But no one wanted to live in the terrible, illegal Bolshevik territory.

                      And no one wanted to support the whites who fought with the Bolsheviks ...
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      map of Russia on the table

                      On the table, you fool. fool
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      gave it FOREVER-see. DB

                      See any peace treaty - almost everywhere "forever." On paper. But in fact ... until the first opportunity.
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      And destroyed the DB-ANTANTA

                      And also the revolution in Germany. On which in March the Bolsheviks were counting, "into whose networks the German government went" with open eyes "(Ludendorff) yes
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      there was NO

                      It was, it was. A lot. fellow

                      Quote: Olgovich
                      I will note that as a result of the 17th year, millions of fighters for popular happiness received instead of him, without waiting, a bullet, cards, unemployment and cannibalism and poverty, and the level of the accursed tsarism did not catch up for decades.

                      In a strange way, they noticed something completely different ...
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      Wish your children and grandchildren

                      You, m. you will laugh, but judging by social polls, children and grandchildren themselves want it. Return to the USSR. laughing
                    7. Olgovich
                      Olgovich 23 March 2021 17: 43
                      -1
                      Quote: Sahar Medovich
                      Well, yes, they left in English.

                      nobody left, liq
                      Quote: Sahar Medovich
                      On the table,

                      on the table, a liar, a map, where Russia has nothing taken away by the DB: it returned only to the Ukrainian SSR and the BSSR, you know such state?
                      Quote: Sahar Medovich
                      See any peace treaty - almost everywhere "forever." On paper. But in fact ... until the first opportunity.

                      The Entente destroyed the BM, but all the same, the DB is still operating today, see. in the WINDOW, but nothing has returned to Russia
                      Quote: Sahar Medovich
                      And also the revolution in Germany. On which in March the Bolsheviks were counting

                      there would be no victory of the Entente, there would be no revolution. And "the calculators got it wrong in absolutely all calculations and grunt exactly the invaders - gold, resources, manpower
                      Quote: Sahar Medovich
                      It was, it was. A lot

                      so call Verdun with the French and amers, bolder. lol
                      ah, don't carry bags, yes. lol
                      Quote: Sahar Medovich
                      In a strange way, they noticed something completely different ..

                      Millions of the wrestlers did not notice anything - from the other world it is not visible
                      Quote: Sahar Medovich
                      You, m. you will laugh, but judging by social polls, children and grandchildren themselves want it.

                      Those. you wish them the horrors of the 1920-1930s, after the new 1917 you announced.
                      The only interesting thing is the number of letters in the words with which they send you: 3,4,5? Rather kit lol
                    8. Sugar Honeyovich
                      Sugar Honeyovich 24 March 2021 13: 12
                      0
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      nobody left

                      Walk, walk, liar.
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      returned only to the Ukrainian SSR and the BSSR-do you know such states?

                      Of course I know. I even know what you do not know - the Ukrainian SSR and the BSSR are the USSR, and the USSR is Russia. Everything is exactly as I said. good
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      there would be no victory of the Entente, there would be no revolution.

                      Then she would be in the Entente itself. soldier
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      so call Verdun with the French and Amers

                      Fortunately, it did not reach Verdun (by the way, the same as with the Germans in 1914-18), but ... it was ... it was. Fact. yes
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      not seen from the other world

                      From that - m. can not see. But they were on it! lol
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      Those. you wish them the horrors of 1920-1930s

                      I wish them what they wish for themselves. And they wish ... see above yes
  • Trapperxnumx
    Trapperxnumx 22 March 2021 08: 42
    0
    Quote: Slavutich
    Russia lost, because the system could not withstand the stress, did you go to school?
    The revolution was a reaction to defeat, as the Paris Commune, a reaction to defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, etc.

    Studied. And history is my favorite subject. And as far as I remember, it was Germany that signed the document on its unconditional surrender. The quadruple alliance suffered complete defeat in that war. But the Entente, on the contrary, came out the winner. Russia is a member of the Entente ... Can you continue or can you yourself?
  • Sugar Honeyovich
    Sugar Honeyovich 20 March 2021 10: 13
    -1
    Quote: Olgovich
    But only an ignorant blind man could hope for a different result ...

    But P.N. Durnovo warned him. Early.
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 20 March 2021 11: 35
      -1
      Quote: Sahar Medovich
      But P.N. Durnovo warned him. Early.

      belay did not know the goat-intourist from Switzerland badly.
      1. Sugar Honeyovich
        Sugar Honeyovich 20 March 2021 12: 14
        -1
        But he correctly understood the situation in the present and the future.
  • Bagatur
    Bagatur 19 March 2021 08: 57
    +1
    Poland has long overtaken Russia in terms of living standards ...
    1. iouris
      iouris 19 March 2021 10: 47
      0
      The higher the standard of living in Poland before the crisis, the more dangerous for Poland the consequences of the economic crisis.
      1. mr.ZinGer
        mr.ZinGer 19 March 2021 12: 18
        +2
        So it is for everyone, the rich have something to lose, in contrast to the poor.
        1. Bagatur
          Bagatur 19 March 2021 15: 14
          0
          So what? Shall we poor fellows that we didn’t have something that ruins?
  • iouris
    iouris 19 March 2021 10: 43
    -1
    The goal-setting of the Polish state regularly ends in its disaster.
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 March 2021 11: 23
      +3
      Quote: iouris
      The goal-setting of the Polish state regularly ends in its disaster.

      Yes, the Poles have always been ambitious. But their mistake was that they piously believed in the power of their eggs. When, in 1934, after the signing of the pact with Germany, Pilsudski announced through Lipski that “We no longer need France!”, It would be strange to expect that the French would tear their asses for the Poles in 1939 in the Saar.
  • Free wind
    Free wind 19 March 2021 11: 09
    0
    Poland and the USSR in '32 signed a non-attack pact. In 35, Pilsudski died, so it is not entirely correct to blame him for the subsequent losses of Poland. But after the war, Poland was not sickly welded at the expense of Germany.
    1. Avior
      Avior 19 March 2021 11: 48
      -1
      ... But after the war, Poland was not sickly welded at the expense of Germany.

      Three Churchill matches
  • Basarev
    Basarev 19 March 2021 13: 11
    -1
    As you can see, the pre-war Polish plan succeeded after the war: in fact, a single anti-Soviet belt arose from the Baltic to the Black Sea. It remains anti-Soviet and largely anti-Russian to this day.
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 March 2021 13: 54
      +1
      Quote: Basarev
      the Polish plan succeeded after the war: in fact, a single anti-Soviet belt arose from the Baltic to the Black Sea.

      What is this nonsense? Bulgaria and Romania - anti-Soviet belt?
      1. Basarev
        Basarev 19 March 2021 14: 38
        0
        Indeed. As soon as Ceausescu fell, these countries rushed to the new master. And they became radically anti-Soviet, in many places where even Soviet symbols were banned. Anti-Sovietism later developed into state Russophobia. That is, we have to admit with bitterness that, after more than one decade, the Pilsudski case won out.
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 March 2021 17: 53
          +2
          Quote: Basarev
          As soon as Ceausescu fell, these countries rushed to the new master.

          And, so that's who was the senior counselor in the social camp - Ceausescu. laughing Spanked - and it's all over.
          Quote: Basarev
          And became radically anti-Soviet

          By this time, the Soviets also lost their ghost. Why would anyone be against them if they successfully self-destructed? And Eastern Europe has never been one hundred percent "pro-Soviet". Because she did not consider herself Asiopa.
          Quote: Basarev
          That is, we have to admit with bitterness that after more than one decade, the Pilsudski case still won.

          How touching ..
          It would have happened sooner or later. And Yuzik has nothing to do with it.
  • Charlie
    Charlie 21 March 2021 21: 32
    0
    Quote: Vladimir_2U
    Quote: evgen1221
    It is not necessary to elevate us to the absolute as angels in the flesh.

    It is not necessary to call Russia an enraged country, Soviet Russia, unlike just hatched Poland, did not rush to its neighbors!

    Duc, dear, how could you not rush? And the annexation of the entire Baltic region by the Soviet Union in the 39-40s?
  • Charlie
    Charlie 21 March 2021 21: 37
    0
    In addition, the Soviet Union attacked Poland in '39 without an official declaration of war, in violation of the Polish-Soviet non-aggression pact of '32