Military Review

Turkish medium-range air defense system Hisar-O goes into series

Turkish medium-range air defense system Hisar-O goes into series

The means of the Hisar-O complex. Aselsan Graphics

Turkey continues to develop its own anti-aircraft missile systems, and another sample of this kind is approaching adoption. In early March, it was announced about the successful testing of the Hisar-O medium-range air defense system, intended for use in object air defense. In the near future, this product is planned to be brought to mass production and operation in the army.

Family "Fortress"

In 2007, the Turkish Ministry of Defense launched the promising programs T-LALADMIS and T-MALADMIS, the purpose of which was to create two own low and medium-altitude air defense systems to replace old foreign-made complexes. The competition stage was attended by 18 organizations; later on, Roketsan and Aselsan became the lead developers of all new projects.

Within the framework of the T-LALADMIS program, the Hisar-A ("Fortress-A") complex was created; in the course of T-MALADMIS the Hisar-O product was created. Ground tests of these air defense systems started in 2013-14. The first successful firing of the Hisar-O medium-range and high-altitude complex took place at the end of 2016. Subsequently, new tests were carried out, according to the results of which certain modifications were carried out.

Launcher and transport-loading vehicle. Aselsan Graphics

In parallel with the fine-tuning of the two developed complexes, the design of new systems and products was carried out. So, the Hisar-U long-range air defense system is under development. For him, a Hisar-RF missile with an increased firing range and a new homing head is being created. In September 2020, the Ministry of Defense announced the development of improved air defense systems called Hisar-A + and Hisar-O +.

Last year, the development companies launched the serial production of Hisar-A complexes in the interests of the Turkish army. At the end of the year, state tests were completed, according to the results of which it was recommended for adoption.

The second prototype of the family, Hisar-O, completed testing later. This was reported only at the beginning of March 2021. As stated, by the end of the year, the armed forces will have to receive and put on alert the first serial complexes. It is curious that in the recent past, Turkey has revised plans for the production of new air defense systems. It was decided to reduce the order for short-range systems and at the same time increase plans for the procurement of Hisar-O air defense systems. This will allow you to keep spending at the same level, but increase the parameters of air defense in general.

Launcher in firing position. Photo

Medium range complex

The basic technologies and solutions for the entire Hisar family were determined through the T-LALADMIS program. As a result, the Hisar-O medium-range air defense system is largely unified with a short-range system. At the same time, there are a number of important differences that determine the higher flight and characteristics of the missile and broader combat capabilities.

The minimum combat unit of Hisar-O is a battery, which includes four or more self-propelled launchers with missiles, a command post, radio and optical location stations, and various auxiliary systems. All facilities of the complex, with the exception of modern surveillance radars and power supply systems, are carried out on self-propelled cargo chassis. In particular, three-axle Mercedes-Benz Zetros vehicles are used in the construction of launchers.

With the help of an additional command post, several batteries can be reduced to an anti-aircraft battalion. Such a command post ensures the interaction of the air defense system with other forces and means of air defense and the armed forces. With its help, anti-aircraft gunners must receive data on the air situation from third-party sources.

General view of the missile for Hisar-O. Roketsan graphics

The Hisar-O battery includes an Aselsan Kalkan radar with an active phased antenna array capable of monitoring the situation within a radius of 60 km. The command post carries out tracking of 60 targets and distributes them between launchers. Full operability is declared at any time of the day, regardless of weather conditions.

The Hisar-O uses a wheeled launcher with jacks. The missiles are launched "hot" from the transport and launch containers from a vertical position. Six TPK are mounted on the lifting boom of the installation. The vehicle also has a telescopic mast with an antenna device for communication and missile control.

The anti-aircraft guided missile for Hisar-O is based on the developments in ammunition for the Hisar-A, but has a number of important differences. A larger body was used, which made it possible to introduce a more powerful solid-propellant engine. In this case, a unified infrared seeker is used. A ready-made warhead with a new fuse has been used. The firing range of such a rocket is from 3 to 25 km. Height reach - up to 10 km.

Hisar-O medium-range missile (left) and Hisar-A short-range ammunition. Photo

An improved version of the complex called Hisar-O + is being developed. According to various sources, this project provides for the replacement of part of the units and components, as well as the modernization of the missile in order to increase the main combat characteristics. At the same time, the exact characteristics of the updated air defense system have not yet been disclosed.

It is argued that in its current form, the Hisar-O air defense system can effectively fight the entire spectrum of current air threats, from aircraft and helicopters to high-precision weapons and UAVs. Work was ensured in the general contours of command and control of troops, incl. as part of a promising layered air defense system. All the main characteristics and capabilities of the complex have been confirmed in recent tests.

Import and obsolescence

Currently, the Turkish Armed Forces are facing serious challenges in the context of air defense. In recent years, a serious re-equipment of military air defense has been carried out using modern systems. At the same time, the state of the object air defense leaves much to be desired and requires the prompt adoption of the necessary measures.

Test rocket launch. Roketsan Photos

At the moment, the Turkish army's air defense facility is being built on foreign-developed systems. The American long-range air defense systems MIM-14 Nike Hercules and medium-range air defense systems MIM-23 Hawk remain in service. The British Rapier short-range complexes are also in operation. In the recent past, Turkey received Russian S-400 long-range air defense systems.

Thus, at the moment, the Turkish air defense has only one modern complex. The rest are outdated, and their modernization does not allow getting all the desired features. As a result, Turkey does not yet have a modern effective layered air defense that meets the current challenges and threats.

It should be noted that the existence of these problems was recognized at the end of the XNUMXs, and this led to the launch of a whole family of new projects. However, a number of characteristic factors led to the delay in work, and the first, the simplest and least effective, complex of the "Fortress" line comes into service only now. The medium-range complex has only now coped with the tests and is still preparing to enter the troops, and the long-range system is still at the development stage.

Rocket exit from TPK. Roketsan Photos

In such a situation, even the very existence of the Hisar-A or Hisar-O air defense system gives the army new opportunities. Modern complexes with given characteristics are quite capable of replacing outdated equipment, at least without loss in the overall effectiveness of air defense. At the same time, current projects create the basis for the development of new samples with higher characteristics. In the long term, in the absence of serious difficulties, this will even make the Turkish complexes a quantitative and qualitative basis for air defense.

Problems and solutions

Thus, the Turkish air defense, which is not in the best condition, will improve its position in the near future and receive new capabilities. At the same time, significant problems will remain in the form of obsolescence of available samples and dependence on foreign supplies in the case of new products. The development and production of our own family of air defense systems theoretically allows you to get rid of such difficulties, but this requires time and resources.

As Hisar projects show, Turkey is capable of creating modern anti-aircraft systems, but this task turns out to be quite difficult for her. Hisar-A / O complexes have been developed for more than 10-12 years, and are only now entering service. The Hisar-U long-range air defense system will enter the troops no earlier than 2023, however, new postponements are possible. However, even the available modest results become a reason for pride and optimism.
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  1. Herman 4223
    Herman 4223 18 March 2021 07: 58
    The range roughly corresponds to our shell. The carapace cm has a range of 40 km.
    Our developers know their stuff.
    1. Viktor Sergeev
      Viktor Sergeev 18 March 2021 10: 04
      The carapace is still more of a short-range complex, the last line of defense.
      1. OgnennyiKotik
        OgnennyiKotik 18 March 2021 10: 19
        In the SM modification, there is already a full-fledged medium-range complex. He needs to remove the guns and increase the number of missiles, as in the arctic.

        The Turks are gaining experience, the first complexes are not particularly impressive, but the question of their further development. The Korkut cannon complex is good. Very relevant. Two 35 mm Erlikons, controlled projectile detonation, modern radars are what you need now.
        1. Dread
          Dread 18 March 2021 11: 58
          Quote: OgnennyiKotik
          In the SM modification, there is already a full-fledged medium-range complex. He needs to remove the guns and increase the number of missiles, as in the Arctic.

          You at least study the data of the air defense system!
          How will the affected area of ​​the complex decrease, the height of the destruction and why, if only missile weapons are available, as well as the use of various modifications of the complex - where and in what conditions and why? ... One babble!
          1. The comment was deleted.
        2. Viktor Sergeev
          Viktor Sergeev 19 March 2021 13: 09
          What's the point of removing the cannons to get a second Thor? The shell covers the dead zone of the Thors in height, the cannons are great for shooting down missiles from planes and UAVs.
          1. OgnennyiKotik
            OgnennyiKotik 19 March 2021 13: 18
            Shell cannons are simply useless, you need to make separate cannon complexes, optimized for working with shells, or deeply modernize the Tunguska / Shilka. Working with guns and missiles is fundamentally different. In the air defense missile system, guns should be the main weapon, the auxiliary missile.
            Shell and Thor are fundamentally different from each other, the issue is not in the range and heights, but in the radar and missile guidance methods.
            1. Dread
              Dread 19 March 2021 14: 48
              OgnennyiKotik - not tired of writing propaganda outdated material and cheat members of the forum?
            2. Viktor Sergeev
              Viktor Sergeev 20 March 2021 12: 01
              You tell this to our people in Tula, when they just abandoned the purely cannon Shilka.
        3. Dread
          Dread 19 March 2021 14: 08
          They continue to write nonsense about the "Pantsir-C1" armament, not knowing the characteristics and not bothering to read the relevant material.
          The affected area, km:
          - range missile weapons 1200-20000 m
          - in height missile weapons
          10-15000 m
          - range cannon weapons
          200-4000 m
          - in height with cannon weapons
          0-3000 m.

          1. Viktor Sergeev
            Viktor Sergeev 20 March 2021 12: 12
            You write nonsense. I didn't understand at all, why did you write the characteristics of the Shell and how does this show my stupidity?
            1. Dread
              Dread 20 March 2021 23: 38
              Quote: Victor Sergeev
              You write nonsense. I didn't understand at all, why did you write the characteristics of the Shell and how does this show my stupidity?

              Viktor Sergeev - who are you talking to? I didn’t have a dialogue with you?
              But if you put it that way, look at the affected area and the height of the destruction of missile weapons without cannon weapons, in range from 1200 meters and from a height of 10 meters, and up to 1200 meters and up to a height of 10 meters without cannon armament, how will you shoot down in these zones and at what probability of defeat? It is necessary to redo the radar, and do not forget that a delay of 1 microseconds gives a dead zone of 150 meters - the propagandist-OgnennyiKotik-non-Russian does not know this and advocates the refusal of cannon armament. And you had a dialogue with him, while many forgot to use the Arctic option in what place and why? And what does this change?
            2. Dread
              Dread 20 March 2021 23: 56
              Quote: Dread
              They continue to write nonsense about the "Pantsir-C1" armament, not knowing the characteristics and not bothering to read the relevant material.

              Victor Sergeev - this was not addressed to you, but to OgnennyiKotik and his trolls. I did not immediately understand you, if anything, sorry.
      2. Herman 4223
        Herman 4223 18 March 2021 12: 07
        I don’t argue with that. I just wrote that our short-range complex, in terms of range of use, is not inferior to foreign average ones.
        1. Dread
          Dread 18 March 2021 12: 11
          Herman 4223, you wrote everything correctly and I immediately, at the beginning of the discussion, put + +, but the illiterate Russophobes got everyone on the VO with their illiterate minuses - "fighters of the invisible front"!
          1. Herman 4223
            Herman 4223 18 March 2021 12: 19
            Don't pay attention to the pros or cons. They do not change anything in life.
    2. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 19 March 2021 03: 08
      Just pay attention:
      The Pantsir rocket has no GOS. Targeting with ground radar only.
      And the Turkish one has GOS missiles with an infrared camera. Insensitive to electronic warfare.
      1. Herman 4223
        Herman 4223 19 March 2021 12: 38
        Not sensitive to electronic warfare, only to heat traps and infrared illumination. But the armor rocket is simpler, cheaper and more compact. All thanks to the absence of this very head. This is still a cheap complex, which can be produced in batches if that.
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 19 March 2021 13: 01
          "only to heat traps and infrared illumination" ///
          Not. The Turks have a full-fledged scanning video camera in the rocket. It will not be fooled by heat traps and flares.
          The carapace is a really good, not expensive complex. But there is a payback for the cheapness: the small radar of the Shell is easily deceived by electronic warfare means, which today are so compact that they are mounted directly on the CD and gliding bombs.
          Russia will inevitably develop the same complex seeker on their air defense / missile defense missiles, which the Americans, Western Europeans, the Chinese and now the Turks are installing on their missiles. "Cheapness" does not go away.
          1. OgnennyiKotik
            OgnennyiKotik 19 March 2021 13: 36
            Quote: voyaka uh
            which the Americans install on their missiles,

            Their approach is correct. They make a puzzle from different systems. Radar, control systems, launchers, cannon complexes are all separated. Depending on the tasks, you can combine, upgrade / replace individual parts without touching the entire complex.
            Radar Sentinel + Avenger, Sentinel + MML + Phalanx, Phalanx + Patriot, etc., etc.
            The idea of ​​the MML is correct, a single launcher for all short-range missiles. A new advanced rocket has appeared, we can simply adapt it to the launcher without creating a separate launcher. As an example of a rocket from an iron dome.
          2. Herman 4223
            Herman 4223 19 March 2021 15: 06
            You think that our military just a little bit and have not heard that their electronic warfare can suppress. There is an easier and cheaper way. On the shell, in addition to the radar, there is also an OLS, which can also be used to detect and destroy targets. In addition, the shell will not work alone, it will work or in conjunction with more serious air defense systems. Or independently, but then the division will be given a more powerful radar that compact electronic warfare systems are unlikely to suppress.
      2. Dread
        Dread 19 March 2021 12: 48
        Quote: voyaka uh
        Just pay attention:
        The Pantsir rocket has no GOS. Targeting with ground radar only.

        And the Turkish one has GOS missiles with an infrared camera. Insensitive to electronic warfare.

        voyaka uh - take a look at the detection range and target destruction range of the Pantsir-S1 air defense missile system. Doesn't that tell you anything?
        ZPRK "Pantsir-C1" does not shoot over the horizon!
        And why does he need missiles with ARGSN and other guidance systems, if with his radio command system, after modifications, it has the likelihood of hitting targets approaching
        k P = 0,9999! Israel does not even have such a thing on the Iron Dome and is not expected, at least not yet.
  2. Your stranger
    Your stranger 18 March 2021 14: 53
    The modernized medium will probably have a range of about 35 km,
    And the long range is probably more than 100 km,
    I wonder which countries will want to buy them,
    Azerbaijan, Georgia, probably Central Asia, and maybe Romania and Bulgaria,
    And yet, if in 25-27 the long-range begins to enter service,
    The problem f 35 and s400 will be closed automatically,
    The second will fly to the US training ground and museum, and the first will fly to the Turkish airbases.
    1. OgnennyiKotik
      OgnennyiKotik 18 March 2021 15: 01
      Hisar is a very mediocre air defense system, it still needs to be brought to a fully functional one. The export potential is about zero, only supplies to the allied forces within the framework of military assistance such as Sudan and Libya. Azerbaijan has better air defense systems in service, they will take new ones from Russia and Israel. Central Asia, Africa in Russia and China.
      In this case, it is more important to move forward, the following complexes and upgrades may be more interesting.
  3. TermNachTer
    TermNachTer 18 March 2021 15: 04
    All this is interesting and sometimes even heartwarming, but the problem of the element base remains. Does Turkey produce everything by itself? Because lately, she is strongly disliked in Europe and America)))
  4. The comment was deleted.
  5. Victor Tsenin
    Victor Tsenin 18 March 2021 17: 48
    Here the question is more where the filling comes from, because even if the chassis in the photo is a Mercedes, it seems that the hodgepodge is a national team, but one way or another for TR it is a great achievement.
    1. V.I.P.
      V.I.P. 18 March 2021 19: 42
      Interestingly, the Turks buy a Mercedes or produce it under a license?
      1. Victor Tsenin
        Victor Tsenin 18 March 2021 19: 50
        I haven't dug, but I think they are buying.)