Military Review

How Russia helped create a new Turkey

33
How Russia helped create a new Turkey
Signing of the contract


"Raunchy" world


During the First World War, the Russian army inflicted a number of heavy defeats on the Ottoman Empire. Russian troops occupied a number of regions of Turkey, captured Erzurum (the largest administrative and military center of the eastern part of Turkey), Bitlis and Trebizond. The Russian fleet was preparing the Bosphorus operation. After the victory in Turkey, Russia was to receive Western (Turkish Armenia), completing the reunification historical Armenia, part of the lands of ancient Georgia and part of Kurdistan. The Entente formally agreed to the cession of Constantinople and the Bosporus and Dardanelles to the Russians.

However, the February Revolution crossed out all the fruits of the victories of the Russian weapons.

The Russian empire collapsed.

Trouble and intervention began. After the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks could not continue the war. There was no more army, it was necessary to restore the state.

Armistice negotiations with Turkey were conducted in Odessa. On the night of November 15-16, 1917, an armistice was concluded. This agreement literally saved Turkey from collapse in the coming days. The Ottoman Empire was completely drained by the war and Istanbul's suicidal internal politics.

True, this only delayed the collapse of the Turkish Empire, it was already inevitable.

Nationalists are becoming the leading force in the Caucasus. At the end of November 1917, the Mensheviks, Socialist-Revolutionaries, Dashnaks and Musavatists created the Transcaucasian Commissariat in Tiflis.

In fact, it was the nationalist government of the Transcaucasus (Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan). The Commissariat began disarming the "red" units of the Transcaucasian Front. In December, the Transcaucasian Commissariat signed an armistice with the Turks.

This did not stop Turkey.

After waiting for the complete decomposition of the Russian troops in the Caucasus, in January 1918 the Turkish army launched an offensive. Resistance was provided only by the detachments of the Armenian militias. The Turks occupied Erzincan, Bayburt, Memahatun and Erzurum. In March, Turkish troops occupied all the areas that they had lost earlier.

At the talks in Brest-Litovsk, Turkey demanded the separation of the Caucasus from Russia and the creation of an independent state there.

It is clear that such a state could exist only under the protection of Germany and Turkey.

On March 3, 1918, the "obscene" Brest Peace was concluded. Kars, Ardahan and Batum departed to Turkey.

German-Turkish intervention


German-Austrian and Turkish troops used the world for further expansion deep into the lands that were part of the Russian state.

The Bolsheviks did not have the strength and resources to resist this intervention. In April 1918, the Turks occupied Batum and Kars without a fight, in May they reached the approaches to Tiflis.

On April 22, 1918, the Transcaucasian Federation was created, which refused to recognize the Soviet power and the Brest Peace.

The federation leadership pursued a contradictory policy. One part of it (pro-Turkish, Turkic-Muslim) tried to negotiate with Turkey, rely on it. The other (Armenian nationalists) considered the Turks their enemies. Therefore, the leadership of the federation either tried to hinder the movement of the Turkish army, then entered into negotiations with the Turks.

However, the further invasion of Turkey was stopped by the Germans.

The seizure of oil, manganese and other resources by the Turks did not fit into Berlin's plans. On April 27, 1918, the Germans forced the Turks to conclude an agreement in Constantinople on the division of spheres of influence. Turkey received the southwestern part of Georgia and almost all of Armenia, Germany - the rest of the South Caucasus.

On June 8, 1918, the Transcaucasian Federation quite predictably disintegrated. Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan declared their independence. Turkey signed agreements "on peace and friendship" with Georgia and Armenia.

Turkey, in addition to the Kara, Ardahan and Batumi regions, received: from Georgia - Akhalkalaki district and part of Akhaltsikhe district, and from Armenia - Surmalinsky district, parts of Alexandropol, Sharur, Echmiadzin and Erivan districts.

German troops entered Georgia. Garrisons were stationed in large and important cities and ports. In total, the German military contingent in Georgia totaled up to 30 thousand bayonets. Georgian resources and transport network were brought under German control. German interventionists plundered Georgia's resources.

Azerbaijan fell into the sphere of influence of Turkey. Turkish-Azerbaijani troops (Musavatists) launched an offensive against Baku, where power belonged to the pro-Bolshevik Baku commune.

It should be noted that at that time Baku was not an Azerbaijani city ethnically (they were then called "Transcaucasian Tatars"). More than a third of the population were Russians. Armenians and Azerbaijanis had about 20% each. There were many Persians (over 11%), Jews, Georgians, Germans, etc.

The Bolsheviks did not have strong support in the city. And they could not repel the invasion of the enemy. The majority of the population of Baku did not smile at seeing the Turks on the streets of the city (the inevitability of the massacre of Christians and Armenians). Therefore, the Baku Council asked for help from the British, who were in the north of Persia.

The Bolsheviks were evacuated from the city. The power of the "Central Caspian" has been established. The British soon arrived. In early August, Turkish troops broke into the city, but local troops and the British drove them back. The Turks brought up reinforcements. And in the middle of September they took the city. A massacre was staged in Baku, in which thousands of people died. In October, the Turks captured Derbent. After the seizure of Baku, the Soviet government tore up the Brest Treaty in the part concerning Turkey.

According to the agreements of Constantinople with the Musavat government, all railways, the oil industry, the Baku-Batum oil pipeline, the merchant fleet in the Caspian Sea were transferred under Turkish rule for 5 years. The Turks plundered Azerbaijan, took out a large amount of goods and resources. A tithe was introduced for the maintenance of the occupation troops for the peasants. The peasants also supplied firewood, livestock, bread, and other products on demand, and performed household duties.

Turkish national liberation movement


The Turks did not rejoice in the victory for long.

In the fall of 1918, the British defeated them in Mesopotamia, Palestine and Syria. The Turkish government, led by Enver Pasha, resigned. The new government asked for peace.

According to the Mudross Armistice of October 30, 1918, the Turks withdrew their troops from the Caucasus.

In November 1918, the British returned to Baku. Now the Entente divided the skin of the killed Turkish bear. The strait zone, Constantinople and other important points on the territory of Turkey were occupied by the allied forces. Greece claimed Constantinople and Western Anatolia with Izmir (Smyrna). Armenian and Kurdish nationalists propose to the Entente to create an Armenian Republic, with the inclusion of the former Turkish regions and access to the Black Sea, and a Kurdish state.

In the central part of Turkey, an uprising begins against the Sultan's government, which has betrayed the country's national interests. It was headed by General Mustafa Kemal. In April 1920, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey opened in Ankara, which proclaimed itself the popularly elected supreme body of power in the country. A government headed by Kemal was formed.

There is a dual power in Turkey: two governments and two armies.

On August 10, 1920, the Sultan's government signed the Treaty of Sevres. According to it, Turkey lost its former imperial regions: they were divided by England, France and Italy. In particular, the British controlled the Arabian Peninsula, Palestine and Mesopotamia. Constantinople and the Straits zone were under international control. Only the northern and central part of Anatolia was left to the Turks, the rest of the regions were transferred to Greece, Armenia and Kurdistan. The borders of Turkey and Armenia were planned to be determined with the help of the United States.

Kemal's government refused to recognize the Treaty of Sevres, which put an end to Turkey. In such a situation, only strength could determine the future of Turkey. The Greek army landed in the west of Anatolia. The British and French did not intervene in the war, they had already taken what they wanted.


"Greater Greece" under the Treaty of Sevres. Greek poster

Russia returns to Transcaucasia


The Troubles showed that the Transcaucasian governments are completely unviable. They can only exist with external support.

Domestic policy has failed. The republics plunged into the most severe crisis. Local armies have low combat effectiveness. The Soviet government, having defeated the White Army in the South of Russia and in the North Caucasus, decides to return to Transcaucasia. This was due to military-strategic, political and economic reasons.

In April-May 1920, the Baku operation was carried out (Baku “Blitzkrieg” of the Red Army). The Azerbaijan SSR was created.

In June 1920, the Armenian-Turkish war began. The war was beneficial to the Entente, since the Kemalists found themselves under blows from the west (Greeks) and east. However, the opponents of the Turks miscalculated. Those showed a high level of combat capability when the future of their country was called into question. After the first small successes of the Armenian troops, the Turks launched a decisive counteroffensive. As a result, the Armenian army was completely defeated. The Turks captured all the main borders of the Armenians: Sarikamysh, Ardahan, Kars and Alexandropol. The Turkish army went to Yerevan. And there was no one to stop her (How Turkey attacked Armenia; Armenian defeat). The Armenian government called on the Entente to save them. The Entente did nothing to help Armenia. The Westernizers did not want to send their troops to Armenia.

On November 18, 1920, the Armenian government agreed to an armistice with the Kemalists. On December 2, the Dashnak government signed the Treaty of Alexandropol. The Kara region and the Surmalinsky district with Mount Ararat departed to Turkey, some areas were under Turkish protectorate before the plebiscite. The rest of Armenia, in fact, was under Turkish rule, since the Armenian army was disbanded, and its communication routes were controlled by the Turks, as well as part of its territory (Alexandropol district).

However, this treaty did not enter into force, since the Russians returned to Armenia. At the end of November 1920, local Bolsheviks revolted in Armenia. They announced the establishment of Soviet power and called for help from the Red Army. The Armenian SSR was created.

On December 4, Soviet troops entered Yerevan. The Soviet government of Armenia refused to recognize the Treaty of Alexandropol and declared it annulled.


Partition of Turkey proposed under the Treaty of Sevres. Light yellow shows the territory that was supposed to go to Turkey; dark yellow - the territory of Kurdistan, blue - the territory that went to Armenia, blue - Greece. The zones of influence of Great Britain (red), France (lilac), Italy (green) and the international demilitarized zone of the straits are shaded.

Moscow Treaty


It was a short period of "friendship" between Kemalist Turkey and Soviet Russia.

Moscow decided that the partition of Turkey was not beneficial to us. The Entente fleet in Constantinople was a threat to Russia. And the new states in Transcaucasia fell under the influence of the capitalist West. In turn, Kemal needed a quiet rear in the South Caucasus, which the Bolsheviks could provide. Also, the Bolsheviks could provide assistance to the Kemalists with money, weapons, etc. The Kemalists needed to avoid a serious war on two fronts and supplies. This is how a temporary alliance of the Bolsheviks and Turkish nationalists took shape.

The flirtation between Moscow and Ankara began in early 1920.

Kemal and his commanders believed that the Entente was using the "Eastern Front" (Caucasus) to liquidate the Turkish national liberation movement. Therefore, the Kemalists benefit from the Russians (Bolsheviks) returning to Transcaucasia, since they are now enemies of the Entente. According to the principle, the enemy of my enemy is my friend. Therefore, the Kemalists did not hinder, on the contrary, they contributed to the arrival of the Red Army in Azerbaijan.

In April 1920, Kemal asked Moscow for help in gold, weapons and ammunition. Soviet Russia provided this assistance. Ankara received gold, tens of thousands of rifles, hundreds of machine guns, dozens of guns, and a large amount of ammunition. Deliveries went by sea from Novorossiysk and Tuapse to Trabzon, Samsun and other ports, from where the cargo was transported to the interior regions of Anatolia. In the summer of 1920, Soviet troops, breaking through Zangezur, and the Kemalists occupied the Nakhichevan district, displacing the Armenian forces of the Dashnaks from it.

In Turkey itself at that time, the assistance of Russia was highly appreciated.

Kemal noted:

“The victory of the new Turkey over the Anglo-French and Greek occupiers would be associated with incomparably great sacrifices, or even completely impossible, if not for the support of Russia.

She helped Turkey both morally and financially.

And it would be a crime if our nation forgot about this help. "

In February 1921, the head of the Soviet delegation, People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs, Chicherin, opened the Moscow conference. On March 16, 1921, the Moscow Treaty was signed. The northern part of the Batumi region and Batum remained with Georgia (Georgia was Sovietized in February-March 1921). Alexandropol and the eastern part of the Alexandropol district remained behind Armenia. Nakhichevan district was transferred to Azerbaijan. Turkey was given Kars and Ardahan, the southern part of the Batumi region. The parties pledged not to engage in subversive activities against each other.

Article VI canceled all agreements that had been previously concluded between the two powers.

This was a major mistake of young Soviet diplomacy.

In essence, Moscow has abandoned the results of all previous victories over Turkey. And these agreements determined the borders, the regime of the straits, etc.

The most disadvantageous was Article V - the straits regime. The final international status of the Black Sea and the Straits was to be determined by the future confederation of coastal states.

In the spring of 1921, the Kemalist government was very dependent on Moscow's position in the Caucasus and the material assistance of the Bolsheviks. It was possible to resolve the issue of the straits in favor of Russia. It was a mistake to respect the interests of the coastal states - Romania and Bulgaria. These states at that time were either hostile to Russia (Romania), or under the influence of the Entente.

Thus, Moscow was able to return to the Caucasus, to restore most of the pre-war positions.

During the 1917 revolution, the state and the army were destroyed. The Caucasus, like other regions of Russia, was engulfed in turmoil. The Bolsheviks were able to return the North Caucasus, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia. Of course, there were mistakes. It is also necessary to remember that in 1921 Lenin was already terminally ill, practically incapacitated. Foreign policy was carried out by Trotsky (People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs Chicherin was his protege), who was supported by Zinoviev, Kamenev, etc. There was also opposition. So, Stalin was against territorial concessions to Turkey, he believed that it was possible to do without it.

"Brotherhood" with Moscow has seriously strengthened the negotiating position of Mustafa Kemal.

In October 1921, France signed a separate agreement with Ankara. The Greek army was defeated by the Kemalists. In the fall of 1922, hostilities ceased. The Lausanne Treaty of 1923 established the borders of the new Turkey. The Turks preserved Constantinople, all of Anatolia.

This is how Russia helped create modern Turkey.
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Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
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  1. apro
    apro 17 March 2021 04: 35
    +1
    This is how Russia helped create modern Turkey.

    A controversial statement. Due to unfavorable circumstances, the USSR was forced to support the Turks against the Entente, who were enemies of the Communists, the interests coincided for a short time, but were not predetermined.
    Moreover, the USSR was promoting a Soviet civilizational project, not a Russian one.
    1. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 17 March 2021 04: 46
      +5
      Quote: apro
      Moreover, the USSR was promoting a Soviet civilizational project, not a Russian one.
      By 1917, was there some kind of Russian civilization project? News however.

      Quote: apro
      This is how Russia helped create modern Turkey.
      Secular Turkey without Soviet Russia is unlikely to hold out.


      However, the February Revolution crossed out all the fruits of the victories of Russian weapons.
      This was a major mistake of young Soviet diplomacy.
      Given the weakness of Soviet Russia, this is very controversial, there may be a mistake, however, during the Great Patriotic War, Turkey kept neutrality, and this is a very, very important achievement of Soviet diplomacy!
      1. apro
        apro 17 March 2021 05: 03
        -5
        Quote: Vladimir_2U
        By 1917, was there some kind of Russian civilization project? News however.

        But what about the Russian national bourgeois project, which destroyed the feudal empire of the Romanovs Holstein Gottoprskikh, in which all parties and associations of r. Excluding the communists were involved.
        Quote: Vladimir_2U
        Secular Turkey without Soviet Russia is unlikely to hold out.

        I do not argue. But the measure is forced. Just as the Reds would not have resisted in that difficult situation.
        Quote: Vladimir_2U
        Given the weakness of Soviet Russia, this is very controversial.

        We measured the possibilities with the Wishlist and the real situation at that moment. Forced decisions are not always profitable. But they allow you to gain time.
        1. Vladimir_2U
          Vladimir_2U 17 March 2021 05: 19
          +3
          Quote: apro
          But what about the Russian national bourgeois project that destroyed the feudal empire of the Romanov Holstein Gottopersky
          Sorry, the backbone of the bourgeoisie is banks - and banks in tsarist Russia were directly or indirectly managed from abroad.

          Quote: apro
          I do not argue. But the measure is forced. Just as the Reds would not have resisted in that difficult situation.
          Yes, they got out as best they could, on the verge of a foul and genius.
          1. apro
            apro 17 March 2021 05: 27
            -3
            Quote: Vladimir_2U
            Sorry, the backbone of the bourgeoisie is banks

            Not only. The basis of the bourgeoisie, the opportunity to receive a surplus product for personal property, to manage it, to dispose of it at their own discretion, they also included the kulaks, the rich landowners, and the owners of industrial enterprises.
            Quote: Vladimir_2U
            and banks in tsarist Russia were directly or indirectly managed from abroad

            Again, the hand of the State Department seems to be around. Russia had enough of its discontented people. Thanks to the policy of tsarism.
            Quote: Vladimir_2U
            Yes, they got out as best they could, on the verge of a foul and genius.

            And today they are accused of lost opportunities ...
        2. Obliterator
          Obliterator 17 March 2021 13: 21
          -1
          Quote: apro
          But what about the Russian national bourgeois project, which destroyed the feudal empire of the Romanovs Holstein Gottoprskikh, in which all parties and associations of r. Excluding the communists were involved.

          The Black Hundreds were not included. But they were not a significant force either.
          1. apro
            apro 17 March 2021 13: 26
            0
            Quote: Obliterator
            The Black Hundreds were not included.

            They are mostly monarchists. And the project of the winter palace with the corresponding funding.
            1. Obliterator
              Obliterator 17 March 2021 20: 56
              -1
              Quote: apro
              They are mostly monarchists. And the project of the winter palace with the corresponding funding.

              Well, that and among those who overthrew Nicholas II, there were more than enough monarchists - the same generals and officers. They simply did not expect that VK Mikhail would throw them.
      2. Uncle lee
        Uncle lee 17 March 2021 05: 25
        +2
        Russia helped create modern Turkey.
        And also Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan!
        1. Vladimir_2U
          Vladimir_2U 17 March 2021 05: 48
          0
          Quote: Uncle Lee
          As well as Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan

          Not without this, but otherwise in whose clutches would these countries be? Or Turkey, or Britashki.
      3. Stirbjorn
        Stirbjorn 17 March 2021 15: 45
        +1
        Quote: Vladimir_2U
        however, during the Great Patriotic War, Turkey kept neutrality, and this is a very, very important achievement of Soviet diplomacy!
        This, by the way, is dearer than all the straits and other Samsonovism, which has "forgotten" this fact. For the Germans were very tempting, and under the conditions of 41-42, the non-entry of Turkey greatly helped the USSR to cope with Hitler. hi
    2. bandabas
      bandabas 17 March 2021 06: 29
      +5
      It was a hard time. We tried to save the country. But the history of our time with the shot down SU-24, the assassination of the ambassador to Turkey, "Turkish tomatoes" and other silences about the claims of the Turks does no honor to diplomacy, let alone the leadership of the state. Yes. It concerns not only Turks, but all "partners". In words, everything is beautiful, in fact, just words, unfortunately. A common example is that at competitions our athletes compete impersonally.
      1. WHAT IS
        WHAT IS 17 March 2021 09: 08
        +8
        In words, everything is beautiful, in fact, just words, unfortunately. A common example is that at competitions our athletes compete impersonally.

        Don't put salt on the wound; it still hurts.
        1. Looking for
          Looking for 17 March 2021 16: 00
          -1
          this shame on Russia will be talked about for many decades to come.
          1. Doliva63
            Doliva63 17 March 2021 17: 35
            0
            Quote: Seeker
            this shame on Russia will be talked about for many decades to come.

            Do you think there will be no other shame? laughing And yes - this is not the first time, but someone remembers? So shtaaa (s)
    3. Bar1
      Bar1 18 March 2021 17: 51
      -1
      occupation Tsar-Grada for Russia / USSR was vital. Russia has ALWAYS waged wars with Turkey and Turkey has never been a friend for Russia. Turkey and now is not a friend of Russia, shooting down Russian helicopters, opposing the policy of the Russian Federation in the Middle East. Turkey is a friend only to Putin, gave our best air defense systems for free, is building a nuclear power plant to Turkey for free.
      So the policy of the Bolsheviks to create enemies around them - Poland, Finland and Turkey - is the policy of only the INNER enemy of the Russian people - the Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks did not support the Greeks in the war with the Turks, and the Greeks were always natural allies of Russia.
      These Bolsheviks are just devils.
      1. apro
        apro 18 March 2021 18: 22
        0
        Quote: Bar1
        So the policy of the Bolsheviks to create around themselves enemies-Poland, Finland and Turkey is the policy of only the INNER enemy of the Russian people-the Bolsheviks.

        Did they have a choice?
        And once again the USSR pursued a Soviet policy, and not a Russian one. For 30 years there is no USSR. And today we see the results of the actions of the Russians.
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 18 March 2021 18: 26
          0
          Quote: apro
          Did they have a choice?


          yes it was possible not to give the sovereignty of Finland, it was possible to support Greece in the war with Turkey.
          The cause of the Soviet-Polish war is not really known.

          And once again the USSR pursued a Soviet policy, not a Russian one.


          it is better to say not Soviet policy, but Bolshevik policy.
          1. apro
            apro 18 March 2021 18: 28
            0
            Yes, it is possible. If there was anything.
          2. apro
            apro 18 March 2021 18: 43
            0
            Quote: Bar1
            it is better to say not Soviet policy, but Bolshevik policy.

            It is the same.
            1. Bar1
              Bar1 18 March 2021 20: 11
              0
              Quote: apro
              It is the same.


              The strangest and most mysterious phenomenon in the 17th was the coming to power of the Bolsheviks. According to Milyukov's recollection, the advice was Menshevik, as well as soldiers and peasants. But somehow the Bolsheviks were able to push everyone else away and put Trotsky in the Petrosovet, and then build up the Bolshevik majority. Somehow, few people write about this. The Mensheviks simply gave power in the Soviet to the Bolsheviks, how did it happen, why and why?
              And the sailors of Kronstadt went into battle with the Bolsheviks with the slogans "For Soviets without Bolsheviks."
              The suppression of the Kornilov revolt, which the Bolsheviks take credit for, looks strange at the suggestion of Milyukov. It turned out that the advancing units of Kornilov were simply thrown at Petersburg by the same Kornilov, who was sitting at that time in Mogilev at Headquarters, either sick or hit , and military units simply did not enter St. Petersburg without a leader, that's the whole rebellion.
              1. apro
                apro 19 March 2021 03: 16
                0
                Quote: Bar1
                the strangest and most mysterious phenomenon in 17g is the coming to power of the Bolsheviks.

                An example is that when they know what to do, and they do, and not do baltology, when there is a goal.
  2. Unknown
    Unknown 17 March 2021 08: 12
    +3
    The help was so-so, mostly on a moral level. In material terms, you can't help a lot, G.V. themselves have an intervention in full swing. Well, Turkey was recognized as an independent state, so in 20-year, few people recognized Soviet Russia. And so, while Kemal was at war with the Greeks and the Entente, he distracted the latter from the Soviet Republic. Nothing personal, only the interests of the Soviet state. The Turks were developing in this direction .... 919 - In Turkey, a movement for national liberation with the aim of creating a national state, headed by General Mustafa Kemal, unfolded.

    January 10, 1920 - The Sultan's government signed the Sevres Peace Treaty with the Entente countries, according to which Turkey lost all European possessions and possessions in the Middle East.

    1920 - Parliament (Majlis) proclaimed the Declaration of Independence of Turkey, which called for the elimination of all obstacles to the country's development.

    March 1920 - In response, the Entente forces occupied Istanbul and dispersed parliament.

    April 1920 - In Ankara, the Kemalists (supporters of Mustafa Kemal) elected a new parliament (Majlis) - the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (VNST), which proclaimed itself the sole legislative power and formed a government. The formation of the army began. The government of M. Kemal did not recognize the Treaty of Sevres. Then the Greek troops, having received the support of Great Britain, launched an offensive.

    Soviet Russia supported M. Kemal, provided him with material assistance.

    1921 - Soviet Russia signed a treaty of friendship and brotherhood with Turkey.

    1921-1922 - As a result of the hostilities, the Greek troops were expelled from Turkey. The War of Independence ended in victory for the Turks, which contributed to the annulment of the Treaty of Sevres - End of 1922 - The power of the Sultan was abolished. Sultan Mohammed VI fled the country.

    October 29, 1923 - Turkey was proclaimed a republic. Mustafa Kemal became the first president.

    1923 - According to the Lausanne Treaty, Turkey was recognized as an independent state. The territorial integrity of the country as a national state was preserved. Here are the things, and what does the Soviet power have to do with it?
    1. Pilat2009
      Pilat2009 28 May 2021 09: 07
      0
      Quote: Unknown
      .Here are the things, and what has the Soviet power to do with it?

      Despite the fact that without the support of the Bolsheviks, Turkey would not have coped with Greece
  3. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 17 March 2021 09: 28
    -1
    I will thank the author. I do not know how true and accurate everything is, but I admit this is the first time I hear about this page of our history.
  4. Olgovich
    Olgovich 17 March 2021 10: 52
    -3
    However, the February Revolution crossed out all the fruits of the victories of Russian weapons.

    The Russian empire collapsed.

    Trouble and intervention began. After the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks could not continue the war. The army was gone


    No, the Army was in the Caucasus and fought even AFTER the thief, it was destroyed by thieves and their criminal activities. document
    No. 61. November 8. - Summary of information on the mood in the units of the Caucasian Front from October 28 to November 4 {* 68}

    № 52382

    1. There were no reports of excesses in connection with the events in Petrograd

    2. In the Caucasian army, the combat capability is satisfactory, except for the 1st Kars fortress regiment, dropped - in the 19th Turkestan rifle regiment
    3. In the Caucasian army, a combat order was not executed by half a company of the 1st company of the 19th Turkestan rifle regiment. In the 7th corps, there was no failure to fulfill combat orders and refusal to reconnaissance.

    6. In the Caucasian army, the activity of the committees in most cases is productive and proceeds in agreement with the commanding staff.

    10. The number of deserters from the front fell

    12. In the Kav <Kazskaya> army, they serve regularly, except for the 1st Kars regiment, and in the 7th corps - except for the rifle division of the 4th Kuban division

    TsGVIA, f. 2100, on. 1, d.276, ll. 57-60. Tele.
    gr. blanc
    .
    On March 3, 1918, the "obscene" Brest Peace was concluded. Kars, Ardahan and Batum departed to Turkey.

    They destroyed the army and surrendered the country to the invaders, who had just killed hundreds of thousands of our soldiers, betrayed their achievements and sacrifices, and all for the sake of their power.
    Moscow decided that the partition of Turkey was not beneficial to us.
    fool
    these stupid ignoramuses did not know history and did not know how terrible is big Turkey, which Russia reduced and weakened for 3 centuries. And now, when the goal was close, everything was thrown back and Russia and the segment have problems from a united Turkey.
    This was a major mistake of young Soviet diplomacy.

    In essence, Moscow has abandoned the results of all previous victories over Turkey. And these agreements determined the borders, the regime of the straits, etc.
    what to expect from the ignorant and inept
    Soviet Russia provided this assistance. Ankara got gold,

    Received gold collected to save millions of Russians dying of hunger.

    how many tens of thousands of Russians could be saved with that gold? But which of the great Russophobes was worried about this ...
  5. iouris
    iouris 17 March 2021 12: 14
    +1
    And why be surprised: Turkey (and not only) is rising on the ruins of Russia. The wreckage of Russia is highly nutritious.
    1. Doliva63
      Doliva63 17 March 2021 17: 38
      0
      Quote: iouris
      And why be surprised: Turkey (and not only) is rising on the ruins of Russia. The wreckage of Russia is highly nutritious.

      This is yes. Oligarchs cannot finish her 30 years laughing
  6. Stirbjorn
    Stirbjorn 17 March 2021 15: 48
    +2
    However, the February Revolution crossed out all the fruits of the victories of Russian weapons.
    The Russian empire collapsed.
    Trouble and intervention began. After the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks could not continue the war. There was no more army, it was necessary to restore the state.
    The war was not popular among the people. The Russian peasant soldier needed his own land, not Western Armenia, with Kurdistan in addition, and the straits. There was no one to fight, the front fled by 1917. It is enough to read any chronicle of that time. No, the author dreams of all the straits!
    1. iouris
      iouris 17 March 2021 16: 28
      0
      Quote: Stirbjorn
      The war was not popular among the people.

      It does not matter.
      In August 1914, a wave of patriotism was overflowing. There were pogroms of German enterprises.
      Anti-government propaganda by the bourgeois press and "Western democracies" -oriented liberal politicians, manually ruled by Ambassadors Buchanan and Palaeologus, destroyed the state machine. Despite this situation, the population in Russia could not be compared with the situation of the broad masses in Britain, France, especially in Germany, where there was a "brilliantly organized famine." The entry of the United States into the war in April 1917 marked the victory of the Entente. However, the "elite" ("systemic opposition") was not interested in Russia's victory, since this would strengthen the tsarist regime. Nor were the "allies" interested in this, who used Russia for their debts.
      We know the result: the Russian peasant did not get ANYTHING. So it is for the workers. "Elite" was destroyed physically or left on a "philosophical steamer".
      Why did I knock on it: lessons need to be taught!
      1. Stirbjorn
        Stirbjorn 17 March 2021 18: 04
        +1
        Quote: iouris
        We know the result: the Russian peasant did not get ANYTHING. So it is for the workers.

        Like nothing? - they got a whole state - workers and peasants! With all the social benefits, in the form of free housing, education, medicine, pensions, the right to work. Women got more maternity leave!
        1. iouris
          iouris 17 March 2021 19: 27
          +1
          Do you think this is the "merit" of the leaders of February?
          1. Stirbjorn
            Stirbjorn 17 March 2021 21: 21
            0
            Quote: iouris
            Do you think this is the "merit" of the leaders of February?
            I did not read your post carefully, sorry, I was thinking about the USSR hi