Military Review

Great Russian traveler Nikolai M. Przhevalsky

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Nikolai Mikhailovich Przhevalsky (1839-1888) is one of the greatest Russian geographers and travelers. Born in March 1839, in the village of Kimbolovo, in the Smolensk region. The parents of the future traveler were small landowners. Nikolai Przhevalsky studied at the Smolensk gymnasium, after which he entered the service of the Ryazan Infantry Regiment in the rank of non-commissioned officer. After serving and receiving basic military experience, Przhevalsky entered the Academy of the General Staff, while studying in which he wrote a number of sensible geographical works, for which he was accepted into the ranks of the Russian Geographical Society. The time of the end of the Academy fell on the period of insurrection, in which Przhevalsky himself took part. Participation in the suppression of the Polish uprising made Nikolai Mikhailovich stay in Poland. Przhevalsky taught history and geography in the Polish Junker School. Free time the great geographer devoted gambling entertainment - hunting and playing cards. As Przewalski’s contemporaries noted, he had a phenomenal memory, which is probably why he was so lucky in maps.

Przhevalsky dedicated 11 long years of his life to expeditions. In particular, he led a two-year expedition to the Ussuri region (1867-1869), and in the period of 1870 through 1885 he conducted four expeditions to Central Asia.

The first expedition to the Central Asian region lasted three years from 1870 to 1873 and was devoted to the study of Mongolia, China and Tibet. Przhevalsky collected scientific evidence that the Gobi is not a plateau, but a hollow with a hilly relief, that the Nanshan Mountains are not a ridge, but a mountain system. Przhevalsky owns the discovery of the Beishan highlands, the Tsaidam basin, three ridges in the Kunlun, as well as seven large lakes. In the second expedition to the region (1876-1877), Przhevalsky discovered the Altyntag Mountains, first described the now-dried Lake Lobnor and the Tarimu and Conchedary rivers feeding it. Thanks to the exploration of Przhevalsky, the highland border of Tibet was revised and moved more than 300 km to the north. In the third expedition in Central Asia, held in 1879-1880. Przhevalsky identified several ridges in Nanshan, Kunlun and Tibet, described Lake Kukunor, as well as the headwaters of the great rivers of China, the Huang He and the Yangtze. Despite the disease, Przhevalsky organized the fourth expedition to Tibet 1883-1885, during which he discovered a whole series of new lakes, ridges and basins.

Great Russian traveler Nikolai M. Przhevalsky
Nikolai Mikhailovich Przhevalsky and his companions before the last expedition (www.nasledie-rus.ru)


The total length of the Przhevalsky expedition routes is 31500 kilometers. The result of Przhevalsky steel expeditions and rich zoological collections that included about 7500 exhibits. Przhevalsky owns the discovery of several species of animals: a wild camel, a pike-eater bear, a wild horse, later named after the explorer himself (Przhevalsky's horse). Herbariums of Przhevalsky expeditions number around 16000 flora specimens (1700 species, 218 of which were first described by science). The Przhevalsky collection is also amazing in its richness and mineralogical collections. The outstanding scientist was awarded the highest awards of several geographic societies, became an honorary member of the 24 scientific institutes of the world, as well as an honorary citizen of his native Smolensk and St. Petersburg. In 1891, the Russian Geographical Society established a silver medal and the Przewalski Prize. The name of the great Russian scientist, who made a great contribution to the study of Central Asia and world geographical science in general, until recently was borne by the city of Przhevalsk (Kyrgyzstan), but was renamed to suit the ideological costs of the sovereign parade era in the CIS. Name N.M. Przhevalsky continues to wear a mountain range, the Altai glacier, as well as some species of animals and plants.

13 comments
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  1. Leisure
    Leisure 24 August 2012 10: 53
    0
    Wonderful person!
    For the horse, special thanks!
  2. Svistoplyaskov
    Svistoplyaskov 24 August 2012 10: 57
    +1
    Fathers, but how similar to Stalin! Well spilled Vissarionovich!

    Well, if seriously, Nikolai Mikhailovich was a wonderful geographer and naturalist.
    The Academy of Sciences and scientists of the whole world welcomed the discoveries of Przewalski. The British Royal Geographical Society called Nikolai Przewalski "the most outstanding traveler." The St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences awarded Przhevalsky a medal with the inscription: "The first explorer of the nature of Central Asia."

    N. M. Przhevalsky, in the opinion of A.I. Voeikov, was one of the largest climatologists of the XNUMXth century.
    1. Chukcha
      Chukcha 24 August 2012 19: 31
      +1
      That's because it is precisely noticed - he looks like Stalin as a brother.
      1. Yarbay
        Yarbay 24 August 2012 21: 08
        +1
        Even how dad looks like Stalin !!)))
        Well copy !!
  3. borisst64
    borisst64 24 August 2012 12: 52
    +4
    It’s a pity a man died early from typhoid. Just drank from the river. This is by the way in the garden to those who say that before there was ecology, and people lived longer.
    1. tm70-71
      tm70-71 24 August 2012 16: 09
      +2
      Przhevalsky's grave
    2. psdf
      psdf 31 August 2012 13: 53
      0
      Ecology has nothing to do with it.
      Ecology is ecology, and hygiene is hygiene.
  4. tm70-71
    tm70-71 24 August 2012 16: 04
    +1
    Przhevalsky is our everything for Russians in Kyrgyzstan

    The monument to Przhevalsky, striking how the powers that be belonged to their heroes, it was made in St. Petersburg, brought to Kyrgyzstan and this in the 1890s

    tomb of Przhivalsky
  5. The centurion
    The centurion 24 August 2012 18: 00
    +1
    But he is, among other things, one of the founding fathers of the GRU. And in the article about this, no gu-gu. He was a great scout, no less great than a traveler.
  6. bamboo
    bamboo 24 August 2012 20: 12
    +1
    Sorry ARTICLE VERY VERY SHORT !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
    I want to ask the author to write a more detailed article !!!!
    In principle, I myself can, but the author’s point of view is interesting)))
    and I can copy myself)) with respect ...
  7. Zmitcer
    Zmitcer 24 August 2012 20: 56
    -2
    things are good. great scientist. just why is he russian? I had to write: The Great Litvin (Belarus) Przhevalsky. Stop stealing already. Look, about Pushkin write that he is Russian. )) and then everyone who was under the occupation of the Russian Empire is foolish to consider Russian. I am for justice and nothing more.
    1. ward
      ward 24 August 2012 21: 25
      0
      So in his autobiography he wrote that Russian ... and about the occupation ... well, yes, Belarus was under the occupation of the Lithuanians ... but this was when it was ... but all the same, the memories are still not the warmest and not a single Belarusian either all the more so now does not want to have anything in common with Lithuania ... and references to the fact that until the seventeenth century it was one state .... then, for example, the Czechs should regret Austria-Hungary and so on ...
      1. Zmitcer
        Zmitcer 24 August 2012 22: 00
        -1
        did you answer for all Belarusians? I have to explain elementary things for the "especially educated" who studied history at school under the influence of glue: Belarus was occupied by the Russian Empire, but it was never under the occupation of Lithuania, since my state was previously called the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruskoe and Zhamoitskoe. Zhamoit (Zhmudz) is modern Lithuania. And Smolensk, was part of the principality of Lithuania.
        1. psdf
          psdf 31 August 2012 13: 56
          0
          Occupation (from the Latin occupatio - “seizure, occupation”) in the general case - the occupation by the armed forces of a state of territory not belonging to it, not accompanied by the acquisition of sovereignty over it, usually temporary.

          Occupied? In this place in more detail, please. Who, whom, when.
  8. dmb
    dmb 24 August 2012 21: 05
    -1
    Guys. We have another of the "ukrov" tribe, the descendants of the English Chechens, the Chuvash-progenitors of Sparta and the Ryazan people who built the Great Wall of China, appeared. For the information of the "great litvin". It would be nice to refer to at least one document in which the great Russian traveler Przhevalsky called himself Litvin.
    1. Zmitcer
      Zmitcer 24 August 2012 21: 55
      -1
      It’s not necessary to pretend to be a holy fool. just google it, and read at least Wikpendia. and since you are trying to pose as a jester, then there are no other arguments. ) It's easier to fool around.
      1. dmb
        dmb 24 August 2012 23: 05
        +1
        All of the above was seriously expressed by me by the "best" representatives of the above peoples, while the rationale for this nonsense was given. True, it boiled down to one source: "I think so." And propos, so what about the documents? Autobiography certainly doesn't count. He mimicked a scoundrel, imitated a Russian for the sake of a career. Wikipedia, of course, will be more serious than an autobiography. P / S For the sane. Przhevalsky considered himself Russian in spirit, as Gogol and Dal, Catherine the First and Mikhail Lermontov considered themselves to be. And before the scum who divided our Great people in the 90s, the whole world of normal people considered us all Tatars and Armenians, Belarusians and Uzbeks, Russians. You can rest assured that time will pass and the whole world will again call us all that way and envy us.