Military Review

Weapons of the Zaporozhye Cossacks: on a painting and in a museum

78

Here they are, "Cossacks"!


- My angel, this is a triumph, I could dispose of a dozen Cezannes, without leaving the place!
- Well, you know, and one is more than enough ...
(How to steal a million?)

Art and история... We had such a cycle where it was told about weaponsdrawn by artists in certain paintings. And the stories of these canvases and what was or was not depicted on them were perceived very positively. But recently, at VO, the painting "The Cossacks" was used as an illustration (which everyone knows under a different name, namely "The Cossacks are writing a letter to the Turkish Sultan") - a picture of our great artist Ilya Efimovich Repin. And, recall, the painting is huge - 2,03 × 3,58 m, and he worked on it from 1880 to 1891. However, I am not going to repeat either the essence of the event reflected on it, nor ... to criticize the unhistorical nature of the weapon depicted on it. The picture, by the way, was called "historically unreliable" at the time of its release. In my opinion ... it is not clear why. In any case, no matter what and whoever says what, the fate of this painting was more than successful. After a resounding success at a number of exhibitions in Russia, as well as abroad (in Chicago, Budapest, Munich and Stockholm), the painting in 1892 was bought by Emperor Alexander III for 35 thousand rubles. She remained in the royal assembly until 1917, and after the revolution she ended up in the Russian Museum.

But if everything is correct in the picture, one of the readers will probably ask, then what can you write about then? But just about what is true, and also about how the artist could make it even more reliable. In general, I am amazed at how such pictures were painted at that time. Well, is this a conceivable thing: 11 years to write one thing, even if it is such a large canvas. And most importantly: after all, all the types that Repin put on this canvas ... were painted by him from nature! Well, could he not photograph the person he liked, and then write from the photograph? Or, in general, to plant a bunch of sitters, take pictures of them in different versions and then sit and paint them in different versions, so that every museum and gallery would get it. No, this is our eternal striving for absolute perfection - it is, of course, "that", and a modern person is a little annoying. By the way, the famous artist V.E.Borisov-Musatov painted like that. I took pictures of people and landscapes with the Kodak camera and then made pictures from the photos, which, by the way, also hang in the Russian Museum. But this is so, by the way.

The main thing that will be discussed today is the weapon depicted in the picture. Moreover, we have the opportunity to examine many of its samples in detail, although not all of them are visible in the picture equally well.

So, first of all, we note the reliability of everything depicted. Here Repin just masterfully transferred to the canvas samples of weapons of the time that he reflected.

Let's start with the outermost shape on the left. This man stands with his back to us, and we do not see his face, but we see his gorgeous - you cannot find another word here - a Turkish flintlock rifle, the butt of which is trimmed with ivory.

These guns are in a number of museums, but today we will turn to the collections of just one: the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. And it’s a pity that there was no Internet in the era of Repin. I could, without going anywhere and without leaving home, take it, and write ... Moreover, the museum's collections have something to choose from. No, it is clear that we have the Armory Chamber, the Artillery Museum, and the State Historical Museum, but ... as if there were too many requests from him for "nature". Whereas on the Internet everything is for free - take it and use it!


Turkish musket of the late 154,31th century. Materials: steel, wood, ivory, copper alloys, mother of pearl, gold, silver, glass paste. Dimensions: length 119,4 cm; barrel length 12 cm. Caliber 4862 mm. Weight XNUMX g. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

The second after the first is also a "man with a gun." It is known about him that this young man was written in St. Petersburg from the son of Varvara Ikskul-Gildenbandt, and he was the great-nephew of the composer Mikhail Glinka and a chamber-page. And it seems that in the picture it is Andrii - the very youngest son of Taras Bulba, whom he gave birth and killed, fulfilling his patriotic duty. True, he has a gun for some reason in a case. An interesting historical fact, but if I were in the place of the maestro, I would have painted him a Turkish musket, only decorated in a different way.


Turkish musket. Date on the trunk: 1151 Hijri (European chronology 1738-1739); castle - 1240 (1824-1825). The trunk is most likely Iranian, the box and lock are Turkish. This is a late example of a traditional Turkish shotgun with a characteristic lock, hexagonal stock, ball-and-socket trigger without trigger guard and a long barrel. The barrel dates back almost a century earlier and is inlaid with gold - inscribed with verses dedicated to marksmanship in the service of Islam. It is believed that this type of shotgun was intended for hunting and target shooting. Materials: steel, wood, silver, gold, copper alloy, ivory, textiles. Length 156,5 cm. Barrel length 120,4 cm. Caliber 15 mm. Weight 5076 Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

True, he also has a pistol next to the gun. And also Turkish. Well, the Turks made good weapons then. And decorated it richly. Although sometimes quite tasteless. With a sense of proportion, they were clearly ... not very. The one in the photo below is about 70-90 years older, but the Turks' pistols have not changed very much during this time.


Turkish pistol, approx. 1750-1775; castle dated 1145 Hijri (1732). This extravagantly decorated pistol has a barrel welded from Damascus steel, dated 1732, with 52th century mountings. Presumably created for ceremonial purposes. Materials: steel, jade, gold, emeralds, garnets, gold. Length 36,9 cm; barrel length 15 cm; caliber 1077,2 mm. Weight XNUMX g. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Further out of the armed only a laughing fat man in red. There is an opinion that he wrote it from the professor of the Petersburg Conservatory Alexander Ivanovich Rubets, a descendant of the Polish gentry. But there is also such a version that the journalist Gilyarovsky posed for the painter, so who exactly Repin immortalized as a model of this Cossack has not been established. However, it is important for us that a saber hangs on his belt. It is written out very clearly. And it looks like this ...


Persian saber shemshir. Dated to 1777-1778. This is a classic example of the Iranian saber (shemshir) of the 1588th century. The blade made of crucible ("cast") steel bears the names of the legendary Iranian swordmaster Asadullah from Isfahan and his patron Shah Abbas I of Persia (reigned 1629-99,7). Since Asadullah's name appears on blades dating from the 83,1th to the 784th centuries, it is likely that most of the signatures are fake. Materials: steel, wood, leather, ivory, gold. Length 420 cm; blade length XNUMX cm. Weight XNUMX g. Scabbard weight XNUMX g. Pay attention to the very powerful and durable crosshair. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


Here its handle is especially clearly visible ...

And it is not surprising that the saber is Persian. First, the Cossacks went to Persia "for zipuns" too. And secondly, the arms trade in the East has always existed. And the Turkish trophy could well turn out to be a Persian or Indian work.

But what is very interesting to me personally - were there among the Cossack trophies ... straight Turkish broadswords? It is generally accepted in our country that since a Turk means a crooked saber. But in fact, it was the Turkish sabers that had a relatively small bend (the saber fell), and that the Turkish cavalry also used broadswords with blades of European production. Well, for example, such as this one. In time, everything just fits, but whether they were or not - history does not tell us this.


Turkish broadsword. Hilt and guard, late 102,5th century; European blade of the 101th century. Blackened silver diamonds are typical of Ottoman weapons, although lapis lazuli is rarely used. The straight European blade suggests that this cavalry weapon was worn in addition to the more common oriental saber. Interestingly, horsemen in 88,3th century Eastern Europe often had both a saber and a broadsword at the same time. Materials: steel, silver, gold, copper-silver alloy (niello), lapis lazuli, wood, leather. Dimensions: length with scabbard 827 cm; length without scabbard 453 cm; blade length XNUMX cm.Weight XNUMX g. Scabbard weight XNUMX g. Metropolitan Museum, New York

By the way, the fact that the Turks used Indian sabers is undoubtedly. But their handles, originally Indian, were usually replaced by their own, Turkish. They were painfully unusual. And so - a wonderful quality blade and a traditional handle, what could be better?


Indian saber. Sling and scabbard 1819 Blade - XVIII century The blade was most likely made in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. On the handle there is a gold plate indicating that this saber was presented in 1819 to the captain of the Bengal Army Hugh Caldwell by his commander. The saber is decorated with engraving and silver, typical of Lucknow, where a distinctive school of enameled metalwork flourished from the late 98,4th century. The colorful zoomorphic décor includes ram heads and pommels. Materials: steel, silver, enamel, ivory, gold, glass. Length with scabbard 92,2 cm; length without scabbard 79,1 cm; blade length 1521 cm Weight 1435 Scabbard weight XNUMX Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


And this is her handle. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Weapons of the Zaporozhye Cossacks: on a painting and in a museum
A similar saber for a Cossack in red ...

Another saber of a bald Cossack, collapsed on a barrel. This characteristic dome was written from the chief-gofmeister Georgy Petrovich Alekseev, and he did not expect this trick and was very offended by Repin. However, the artist painted him a noble arsenal: a gun, a saber, and a horn with gunpowder - an important accessory of military equipment of those years.


Saber 1522-1566 As you can see, the difference of 100 years, in one direction or in the other, is not so noticeable on Turkish weapons that much. And this saber, among other things, also has one of the best and best-preserved Islamic blades of the 96,2th century. Its gold-encrusted decor consists of Quranic inscriptions that emphasize the sovereignty of God, the wisdom and strength of his servant Solomon. These seem to be clever allusions to the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. The absolutely luxurious crosshair of the saber is embossed with gold, and earlier it was also inlaid with precious stones. Although the handle is a later replacement. Materials: steel, gold, fish skin, wood. Dimensions: length 78,1 cm; blade length 1049 cm.Weight XNUMX Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

However, a horn with gunpowder is, although typical, but not the most beautiful option. The fact is that not only horns were used as powder flasks, but also specially made powder flasks. And it was precisely such a powder flask that Repin masterfully painted on the belt of a Cossack naked to the waist. It was believed that in such a "naked form" the Cossacks sat down to play cards and would not be able to cheat and hide cards up their sleeves. He has a very beautiful powder flask - again, clearly oriental work. By the way, there is something similar in the exposition of the Metropolitan Museum. Moreover, Indian work ...


Powder flask from India, 22,9th-15,2th centuries State of Gujarat, manufactured for export. Mother of pearl inlay. Dimensions: 3,5 x XNUMX x XNUMX cm Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

And finally, this one. Again, the Cossack's weapon on the barrel is such a small detail next to the gunpowder horn. But this is nothing more than the head of a brush - a weapon of the common people, but effective in skillful hands.


Bronze weights of flasks, Novgorod, XI-XIII centuries.

However, there is another example of Turkish weapons, which is not in the picture. This is a scimitar. But ... although they fell into the hands of the Cossacks, however, most likely they were not used. Since the majority of Turkish scimitars had a whimsical handle. And one had to be able to use such a weapon. So it is understandable why there is no scimitar "with ears" on the handle on the canvas. But it could well have been a scimitar with a handle of a more familiar look, and why not take such a trophy? But ... this weapon was not typical. Although there are remarkable examples of scimitars with handles of a completely European look. For example, this one ...


The scimitar of the era of Suleiman the Magnificent (reigned 1520-1566). Workshop of Ahmed Tekel, possibly an Iranian, c. 1525-1530 Exquisite craftsmanship and the use of precious materials epitomize the richness and sophistication of Ottoman weaponry. There is an almost identical scimitar in the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul, and it is obvious that they were both made in the same workshop. The gold inlay on the blade depicts the battle of the dragon and the phoenix bird. The clouds inlaid with gold on ivory handles, apparently, were spied on from the Chinese and, probably, got into Ottoman art through contacts with Persia. This scimitar is one of the earliest known scimitars, and it is clearly a Turkish weapon, characterized by a double curved blade and ... a very simple handle without a guard. Scimitars were common weapons in Turkey and the Balkans during the 59,3th and 46,7th centuries, and were worn by elite troops such as the Janissaries. Materials: steel, gold, ivory or walrus bone, silver, turquoise, pearls, rubies. Dimensions: length 691 cm; blade length XNUMX cm; weight XNUMX g. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


Handle close-up. Such and such could well be taken and used ...


The second version of the painting of 1893, kept in the Kharkov Art Museum

Well, we have considered all the weapons of the Repinovsky Cossacks, and what is the conclusion? Simple - that it is precisely the weapon in the paintings that needs to be drawn, and where do you get the initial samples for this - in the Kremlin Armory or in the Metropolitan Museum of New York - it does not matter at all.
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  1. Flooding
    Flooding 18 March 2021 18: 19
    +2
    So which one did Repin draw from Uncle Gilyai? A pot-bellied Cossack in a red robe?
    So that Vladimir Gilyarovsky born in 1855, a wonderful athlete, looked like this at 35 ???
    By the way, here's a photo of him from the 80s.
    1. kalibr
      18 March 2021 18: 26
      +6
      I can't say anything about this. I read about it. And there is no way to check everything written. Source text: "For the fat man who portrayed Taras Bulba himself, the prototype was the professor of the St. Petersburg Conservatory Alexander Ivanovich Rubets. Being from Starodub, he was a descendant of the Polish gentry family. There is also a version that the journalist Vladimir Gilyarovsky posed for the character."
      1. Flooding
        Flooding 18 March 2021 18: 32
        +2
        Quote: kalibr
        I can't say anything about this. I read about it. And there is no way to check everything written.

        We can only talk about a big man sitting opposite to him, stripped to the waist. The texture is suitable.
        1. kalibr
          18 March 2021 18: 38
          +2
          Above is the source code. It is clear that I have not tested it. The article is not about who posed for whom, but about the weapon. This is so about people, by the way, I had to point to this or that object in relation to the character of the picture.
          1. Flooding
            Flooding 18 March 2021 18: 51
            +3
            I have no complaints about the subject of the article.
            But he leaped for Uncle Gilyaya.
            The personality is well-known.
            And yes, being a member of the Moscow Gymnastics Society, even, in my opinion, if I am not mistaken for some time as its chairman, a frequenter of sports events, Gilyarovsky made an impression with his addition.
            And in his book "Moscow and Muscovites" he described the fact that Ilya Efimovich was recommended by their mutual acquaintances as an excellent nature.

            Thank you for your hard work, best regards.
            1. kalibr
              18 March 2021 18: 57
              +2
              Here's the problem: your photo clearly says that, yes, clearly not him. But where does it come from that he - God knows. Maybe the same is the case with the rest? But who will undertake to check it today? I remember well how much Irakli Andronnikov, the famous Lermontov expert, spent his energy on attributing one portrait of Lermontov and one of his paintings. And he was not limited in funds ... "On Lermontov's" they gave us well. So who would take up this topic, but, alas. Hardly anyone will decide. Moreover, the result of the research will be scanty.
              1. Flooding
                Flooding 18 March 2021 19: 03
                +2
                I wrote that yes, Repin wrote one of the characters from Gilyarovsky.
                So, in any case, Vladimir Alekseevich himself recalled.
                But since the recommendation was connected precisely with the heroic addition of Gilyarovsky, it is difficult to assume that this is not a Cossack sitting in a forelock.
                1. Astra wild2
                  Astra wild2 18 March 2021 20: 03
                  0
                  A colleague, Novodlom, it is quite possible that it was immediately and correctly indicated: who is who? But with time, someone confused, and by the 60s Gilyarovsky became half-forgotten. For example, in my school years, I have not seen his name anywhere in textbooks.
                  1. Flooding
                    Flooding 18 March 2021 20: 14
                    +2
                    Quote: Astra wild2
                    For example, in my school years, I have not seen his name anywhere in textbooks.

                    yes, he was not listed in the classics of Russian literature.
                    he was a reporter, a journalist.
                    And by his 60-70 years, Gilyarovsky looked something like that pot-bellied uncle.
                    1. Astra wild2
                      Astra wild2 18 March 2021 20: 35
                      0
                      So what's the matter¿ Perhaps some art critic saw this photo and "tried on" a red shirt on Gilyarovsky?
              2. vladcub
                vladcub 18 March 2021 20: 47
                +3
                In my youth I remember, on TV it was periodically: "Andronnikov's word." It will be necessary to look at YouTube, perhaps there is?
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 18 March 2021 18: 54
        +5
        Good evening, Vyacheslav. hi
        "There was not a penny, but suddenly altyn" - I mean that two of your articles at once. good
        Thank you for the interesting and detailed analysis of the canvas, otherwise everyone knows the picture since childhood, and somehow no one went into details. smile
        It is a pity that the full text of this message cannot be cited here, no censorship will stand. laughing I wonder how much was drunk in total during the writing of this historical document? wink drinks
        I'm going to visit the Decembrists.
        1. kalibr
          18 March 2021 19: 00
          +5
          Quote: Sea Cat
          I'm going to visit the Decembrists.

          Good evening to you too. Go ahead. You will see beautiful photos of our mutual friend there.
        2. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 18 March 2021 19: 47
          +4
          I myself am waiting for the continuation: "clothes", "Decembrists", "duel"
          1. kalibr
            18 March 2021 20: 20
            +3
            The Decembrists in the next department - HISTORY, clothes ... it's worse with it, but everything is ready for Lermontov's duel. You can write.
            1. Astra wild2
              Astra wild2 18 March 2021 20: 29
              +3
              We are already waiting. I have said more than once that I reread interesting topics with my friends
          2. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 19 March 2021 13: 06
            +1
            I myself am waiting for the continuation: "clothes", "Decembrists", "duel"

            A duel is a noble but stupid deed. laughing
            1. Astra wild2
              Astra wild2 19 March 2021 15: 34
              +1
              Nikolay, in my opinion this is some kind of photomontage
              ... Various characters are collected here. But witty
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 19 March 2021 15: 45
                +2
                Nikolay, in my opinion this is some kind of photomontage

                Vera, that's right! laughing You want pictures - I have them! love Evening is coming ... and the weekend. Everyone - have a good rest! drinks
      3. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 18 March 2021 22: 05
        +2
        I do not get tired of marking your articles, Vyacheslav Olegovich. Thank. There is something to read, something to see.
  2. polpot
    polpot 18 March 2021 18: 20
    +5
    Thank you very much for the article and for the wonderful illustrations.
  3. Fat
    Fat 18 March 2021 18: 36
    +3
    Personally, I find it hard to support V. Olegovich's point of view. Perhaps his point of view rules. The historical reliability of weapons never once contributes to the confirmation of the reliability of the event itself.
    Sorry. ((((
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 18 March 2021 19: 02
      +5
      Andrey, I have no complaints about Repin, if we exclude the fact that the letter is not authentic.
      I’m thinking: if not for this "letter", how would Repin have called the picture: "funny Cossacks"? Perhaps the painting had less value.
      1. Fat
        Fat 18 March 2021 20: 08
        +3
        Not in this case,
        The era of Alexander 3 is generally the most murky. And the picture was painted in 1891. If memory has not changed. ... ...
        Rampant "reaction"
        Well, to whom did the cheerful Zaporozhians write their filthy letter?
        And to whom then did the police department, newly created in 1881 to replace the 3rd department, deign to step on the throat?
        Without a doubt - many (((
        Artists, writers, entrepreneurs - patrons of the arts.
        Gloom ...
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 18 March 2021 20: 42
          +5
          So they wrote a letter to EIV to Alexander the 3rd? Just kidding.
          V. O says that Repin has been painting for 11 years. Consequently, he finished her in 1891
          1. Fat
            Fat 18 March 2021 21: 15
            +2
            Bro! First, Ilya Repin did some things quickly .... Too fast.
            But in general, the Wanderers' association was very close to the will of the people, but not to the terrorists - the First March.
            Bro! And if you knew everyone personally, how would you play a role?
            IMHO drop dead setting. With considering. The main characters could never meet.
            But Repin remembered them and reproduced them.
            The power of art!
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 19 March 2021 13: 04
              +1
              But Repin remembered them and reproduced them.

              In his estate, Penates, there are sketches of this painting.
          2. Fat
            Fat 18 March 2021 21: 57
            +2
            , 11 years to think then to fade in a year in Kuokkala? Into the wilderness, the village ...
            Bro! V.O. Prav. This is the battle of the soul against happiness.
            Culture. Hmmm. ...
  4. Avior
    Avior 18 March 2021 18: 45
    +8
    In Zaporozhye there is a museum of the history of the Zaporozhye Cossacks on Khortytsya and a private museum of weapons based on the collection of Vitaly Shleifer - both have sabers and weapons from the times of the Zaporozhye Cossacks


    https://www.museum.diana-92.com/joomla-content/оружие/itemlist/category/97-oruzhie-ukrainskogo-kazachestva.html
    1. kalibr
      18 March 2021 18: 50
      +3
      Yes, this is a very interesting museum!
      1. Flooding
        Flooding 18 March 2021 19: 30
        0
        in the photo, the first blade after the hatchet is that very Turkish saber with a slightly curved blade?
        fancy hilt
        1. Avior
          Avior 18 March 2021 19: 55
          +3
          Sorry, I was wrong, the top photo with Cossack weapons from the Yavornytsy museum in Dnepropetrovsk
          These scimitars from the Museum of the Cossacks
          1. Flooding
            Flooding 18 March 2021 20: 03
            +1
            cheburashka-eared
            1. Avior
              Avior 18 March 2021 20: 30
              -1
              so as not to slip out of hand
      2. Richard
        Richard 19 March 2021 14: 02
        +2
        kalibr (Vyacheslav): The article is not about who posed for whom, but about the weapon. This is so about people, by the way, I had to point to this or that object in relation to the character of the picture
        .
        And why did they not mention a word about D. Yavornitsky? After all, he is not only depicted in the picture in the form of a scribe, but also provided Repin with artifacts from his "Zaporozhye" archaeological expeditions to paint this picture - and not only weapons, but also dishes, and the remains of clothes and hats.
        1. kalibr
          19 March 2021 14: 15
          +1
          Quote: Richard
          And why did they not mention a word about D. Yavornitsky? After all, he is not only depicted in the picture in the form of a scribe, but also provided Repin with artifacts from his "Zaporozhye" archaeological expeditions to paint this picture - and not only weapons, but also dishes, and the remains of clothes and hats.

          I didn’t know about it, so I didn’t mention it.
          1. Richard
            Richard 19 March 2021 15: 45
            +1
            I didn’t know about it, so I didn’t mention it

            an honest and dignified answer commands respect.
            Thank you for the article
        2. Mikhail Ya2
          Mikhail Ya2 20 March 2021 10: 49
          +1
          And so that he would sit with such a face, he gave him a magazine of cartoons, so he had fun, posing
  5. Dimide
    Dimide 18 March 2021 19: 05
    +2
    I have never looked at paintings in such a "vein"
    It turns out how many details can be considered.
    Live for a century, study for a century, but you will die a fool anyway. hi
  6. mr.ZinGer
    mr.ZinGer 18 March 2021 19: 11
    +1
    Thank you Vyacheslav Olegovich for the meticulous analysis and comparison. Often we look in museums and do not see, thanks for the accents.
    I look forward to continuing the topic raised.
    1. kalibr
      18 March 2021 19: 20
      +4
      The topic is interesting and my articles on it have already been here. But there is a problem: not many battle "canvases about antiquity" have been painted by our artists, and in many there is simply nothing to disassemble. So let's see what else we can find. Can you tell me yourself?
      1. mr.ZinGer
        mr.ZinGer 18 March 2021 19: 23
        +2
        As Semyon Semyonich said, we will look for
      2. mr.ZinGer
        mr.ZinGer 18 March 2021 20: 50
        +1
        As an option Surikov "The Conquest of Siberia by Ermak", Vereshchagin, a very interesting artist Pavel Ryzhenko.
        1. kalibr
          18 March 2021 20: 56
          +2
          Quote: mr.ZinGer
          As an option Surikov "The conquest of Siberia by Ermak"

          There has already been material about this canvas. In Vereshchagin's paintings, weapons are poorly visible, except for shields, bows and arrows ... you cannot squeeze much out of this. I don't want to discuss the contemporary ...
  7. Undecim
    Undecim 18 March 2021 19: 37
    +7
    So, first of all, we note the reliability of everything depicted. Here Repin just masterfully transferred to the canvas samples of weapons of the time that he reflected.
    And what time did he reflect? The dates of writing and, accordingly, the options cover the entire XNUMXth century, but the Cossacks who wrote the letter cannot have weapons of the XNUMXth century.

    1. vladcub
      vladcub 18 March 2021 21: 16
      +2
      Victor Nikolaevich, good evening. The question about weapon 18 should be addressed to Repin
    2. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 19 March 2021 13: 03
      +2
      And most importantly: after all, all the types that Repin put on this canvas ... were painted by him from life!

      Viktor Nikolaevich, as far as I remember, for the figure of ataman Serko posed for the governor-general of Kiev Mikhail Dragomirov - a great original, who left behind a bunch of tales. drinks


      It seems that Dragomirov was against the magazine rifle, but he wrote books on training soldiers. Wikipedia says that these works were especially fond of ... Marshal Vasilevsky! soldier
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 19 March 2021 14: 03
        +2

        Only he was not governor-general at that time, he headed the Academy of the General Staff.
        And his "Tactics Manual" is on the net. Already machine guns were used, and he kept going with bayonets.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 19 March 2021 14: 13
          +2
          Already machine guns were used, and he kept going with bayonets.

          This is yes. yes But, as a teacher, apparently, the "modest genius" Alexander Mikhailovich Vasilevsky appreciated him .... as far as I remember, Dragomirov was one of the candidates for the Russian-Japanese war, but did not get there? But I don’t remember why ...
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 19 March 2021 14: 19
            +2
            He was offered in 1905, he refused for health reasons. He died a month and a half after the end of the war.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 19 March 2021 14: 22
              +2
              He was offered in 1905, he refused for health reasons.

              "Kamensky number two". request But in that situation - the absolutely correct decision. Tea, not a boy! yes I ought to go to Penaty again - Repin's estate, there are numerous sketches for this picture, there are even some fake sabers and guns. hi Are you aware that Repin was an outrageous vegan outrage? And the estate is gorgeous. Especially in the summer, when squirrels run through the trees. drinks
  8. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 18 March 2021 19: 44
    +4
    Colleagues, good evening.
    I deliberately wandered here: what if Vyacheslav Olegovich had in store something adequate?
  9. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 18 March 2021 20: 06
    +4
    The "Kharkov version" of the picture is completely unfamiliar to me.
  10. Van 16
    Van 16 18 March 2021 20: 16
    +4
    A wonderful analysis of a wonderful picture!
  11. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 18 March 2021 20: 25
    +3
    When I look at oriental sabers and never cease to admire the skill of the gunsmiths.
    For example, the "scimitar of the magnificent Suleiman era" on the handle can be admired for hours.
    It probably took a long time for one handle
  12. vladcub
    vladcub 18 March 2021 21: 06
    +3
    "" "both a saber and a horn with gunpowder are an important accessory of military equipment" I was sure that the powder flasks were from the horn, and the "powder flask from India" looks like a flask
  13. Cowbra
    Cowbra 18 March 2021 21: 50
    0
    However, I am not going to repeat the essence of the event reflected on it.

    But in vain. The bottom line is. that of those who will fight the Turks, no one will have fun. Old men laugh, clerks, two khanygs, one with a bandura, another with a bottle, and one kid. But the rest are not fun
  14. vladcub
    vladcub 18 March 2021 22: 02
    +1
    "Most of the signatures are fake" - says that Assadulah was a recognized master.
    Comrades, who are in the subject of "chill". In the 16th and 17th centuries, could the Hebrews compete with the eastern sabers?
    Even at school I read somewhere that the best steel is Damascus. And Chrysostom is the best in Europe.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 18 March 2021 23: 25
      +4
      And Chrysostom is the best in Europe
      Which Europe?
    2. dauria
      dauria 19 March 2021 02: 24
      +3
      that the best steel is Damascus.


      There was a transfer. This is not steel, this is composite. Strands of steel alloys with different carbon content, interwoven into a bundle and repeatedly forged. Hence the pattern and properties. And the birthplace of such technologies is unclear for certain. The Chinese have 7 in BC, in India it seems to be earlier.
      But it is even more surprising that the "unique" properties of Damascus steel sabers are a myth. And they say they were valued by the knights of Europe - also a myth. They knew how to make their blades more technologically advanced and not worse at all.
      Not a metallurgist, just the program was remembered on "Viasat-history".
      1. Fat
        Fat 19 March 2021 08: 50
        +1
        Alexei. Steel in any form is not a composite but an alloy of carbon and iron. Moreover, the oldest of the alloys used today.
        In the 17-18 century sabers (edged weapons) made of Swedish iron were highly valued. The peculiarity of the ore - little sulfur, so little effort was spent on quality and the Swedish blades were "appreciated" for their cheapness .... you can arm the army with decent weapons.
  15. faterdom
    faterdom 18 March 2021 22: 12
    +5
    Repin is Repin.
    11 years of work on a masterpiece - only this, what is the immersion in the material, how demanding the attitude of the Master to himself.
    Any current artist with a name would prefer to paint several dozen paintings for the same amount during this time ...
    By the way, for reference, who knows - how much is 35 thousand rubles in 1892 in current, well, at least dollars or euros (today's rubles cannot be considered a yardstick when they depend on the left heel of Nabiullina and Gref, it is impossible, a highly amorphous substance)?
    1. Fat
      Fat 20 March 2021 11: 43
      0
      Bro! Not all denig is available.
      Beyond the limit it doesn't matter
  16. paco.soto
    paco.soto 19 March 2021 00: 40
    +1
    I read it with interest. Thanks to the author! Now I will read the forum and maybe I will comment it, just in case.
  17. Obliterator
    Obliterator 19 March 2021 03: 47
    0
    It is generally accepted in our country that since a Turk means a crooked saber. But in fact, it was the Turkish sabers that had a relatively small bend (the saber fell), and that the Turkish cavalry also used broadswords with blades of European production.

    It is strange that the article does not say anything about kilich. Such sabers were very common among the Turks, and the Cossacks also had them. And yes, a pala can also have a strongly curved blade, similar to a kilich.
    1. kalibr
      19 March 2021 06: 23
      +3
      Kilich is the 16th century. That is why it is not said.
      1. Obliterator
        Obliterator 20 March 2021 03: 21
        0
        Quote: kalibr
        Kilich is the 16th century. That is why it is not said.

        Dear, but kilich has been produced for more than one century, and has ceased to be used almost in the twentieth century. For an oriental cavalryman, focused on cutting, not thrusting, this is the ideal saber that allows you to make the most terrible chopping and cutting blows. No offense, but if there is a place for shamshirs in your article on Turkish sabers,
        Indian talwar, broadswords, then the Ottoman kilich must be there.
        1. kalibr
          20 March 2021 07: 26
          0
          Quote: Obliterator
          ceased to be used almost in the twentieth century.

          These are your fantasies ...
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 20 March 2021 23: 08
            0
            But Obliterator is right, Vyacheslav Olegovich. It is in vain that you accuse him of "fantasies".
            1. kalibr
              21 March 2021 07: 19
              0
              I know this book, I had it until I got tired of it. So, he has a 15th century kilich, heavy, designed for cutting through chain mail. At the moment depicted in the picture, it became irrelevant. Iranian-style light sabers came into vogue. And dragging around with a heavy one when you can have an easy one ... there are no stupid ones. It's like with SmithWesson and Nagant ...
              1. Obliterator
                Obliterator 21 March 2021 14: 59
                +1
                Quote: kalibr
                So, he has a 15th century kilich, heavy, designed for cutting through chain mail.

                In the photo there is a kilich of the early 19th century, if that. I can also cite a photo of a similar kilich made in the last quarter of the 18th century, which is kept in the Hermitage. Kilichi of the 15th century were just slightly curved and heavy, adapted for cutting and pricking. After all, the chain mail must either be cut through or pierced - it will not be possible to cut it. Strongly curved kilichi of the type that I have cited became widespread later, and they cut their purpose rather than cut them.
                [Center]
                Quote: kalibr
                At the moment depicted in the picture, it became irrelevant. Iranian-style light sabers came into vogue.

                It is very relevant when you consider how many of these sabers were captured in battles by Europeans in the 19th century. The Cossacks all the more had enough of this good in abundance.
                Quote: kalibr
                Light Iranian sabers have come into vogue. And dragging around with a heavy one, when you can have an easy one ... there are no stupid ones. It's like with SmithWesson and Nagant ...

                Kilichi had a weight comparable to the later weapons of cavalrymen in other countries, that is, about 1 kg, so the analogy with revolvers is not true here.
              2. Undecim
                Undecim 21 March 2021 15: 11
                +1
                So, he has a kilich of the 15th century,
                The design of the tooth tooth was changed in accordance with the "requirements of the time", therefore the tooth of the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries is different. But this does not negate the existence and use of toothfish at the time in question.
                1. kalibr
                  21 March 2021 15: 24
                  +1
                  Quote: Undecim
                  because the tooth of the XV and XVII centuries are different

                  So it's all about preserving the name? Well, if so, then of course ...
                  1. Undecim
                    Undecim 21 March 2021 15: 36
                    +3
                    So it's all about preserving the name?

                    What do you think is in the photo?
                    By the way, the name "rifle" appeared in the XNUMXth century. Today it looks somewhat different, but "the name has been preserved." Why?
                    1. kalibr
                      21 March 2021 15: 38
                      0
                      In the photo shemshir.
                      1. Undecim
                        Undecim 21 March 2021 15: 40
                        +2
                        In the photo shemshir
                        Szabla turecka - kilidż, w pochwie stal, mosiądz, róg, drewno, skóra; dł. głowni 77 cm, krzywizna 7,5 cm, dł. całk. 90,5 cm;
                        Turcja, XVIII / XIX w.
                        Will you argue with the Poles on the issue of sabers?
                      2. Obliterator
                        Obliterator 21 March 2021 16: 33
                        +1
                        Quote: Undecim
                        Will you argue with the Poles on the issue of sabers?

                        For the sake of fairness, it is worth saying that the Poles called this product a Turkish saber kilich, most likely because at one time they received / squeezed it from the Turks. And so it really looks more like shamshir than kilich.
                      3. Undecim
                        Undecim 21 March 2021 19: 14
                        +2
                        It's fair to say
                        Do not prompt !!!