However, what is it - a nation?
Is this the same as the people?
And if not, how do these two relate to each other? something?
It seems clear that without answering at least the first of the questions posed, there can be no question of a practical solution to the existence of the Russian nation: after all, it is impossible to consciously do something the essence of which you do not understand. Therefore, the practical realization of the Russian nation is preceded by a theoretical understanding of the very essence of the nation.
It is for those who find in themselves the need for such an understanding that the author of this article would suggest that they get acquainted with the report by A.N. Muravyov, at that time a candidate of philosophical sciences and an associate professor of the department stories philosophy at that time, it seems, was the Faculty of Philosophy of St. Petersburg State University (now it is the Institute of Philosophy of St. Petersburg State University).
The lecture is called “Speeches to the Russian Nation” and was dedicated for the first time in 200 years to two translations into Russian of “Speeches to the German Nation” by the German classical philosopher I.G. Fichte (1762-1814).
In our opinion, in this report, at a sufficiently high theoretical level (and, what is important, in a language accessible to those who are not a specialist in philosophy), both the essence of the nation as such is formulated, and it is indicated why the Russian people are suitable to become a nation in the philosophical sense of the word ...
A source: "VIEW"
Let's briefly go over the main theses and topics of the report:
1. Fichte was mistaken in addressing his "Speeches" to the Germans, because, as the XNUMXth century has shown, the Germans are not capable of becoming a nation, being inclined not only to nationalism, but even to Nazism. The key role of real philosophy and real art in the upbringing and education of a real nation.
2. The main idea of Fichte's "Speeches":
"Only upbringing can save us from all the troubles that oppress us."
The clash in the modern history of Russian education of two equally opposite, as well as mutually complementary moral forces: rationalistic-scientific (scientistic) and irrationalist-religious.
3. The complex nature of the national question. Nationalism is a definite mistake of thinking. Nazism is the result of the infringement of the hypertrophied sense of pride of the people in the conditions of monopoly-concentrated capital. Internationalism is also a mistake of thinking, albeit the opposite of nationalism.
4. National self-determination of peoples is necessary today so that these peoples are not dragged into the Third World War. The difference between the concept of a nation and the concept of a nation.
According to the idea, according to Muravyov,
"A nation is any set of individuals who have reached civil accord in the form of a state capable of defending their independence in the fight against other states and ensuring the selfish interests of its constituent citizens."
According to Fichte's concept of a nation, for its transformation into a nation, any people must fulfill the following necessary and together sufficient conditions:
1) preservation by the people of its connection with their native land;
2) preservation by the people of their native language;
3) the emergence of a methodically thinking philosopher in the depths of this people;
4) education of the people who have retained their connection with their native land and their native language on the basis of scientific philosophy.
The fulfillment of all these four conditions is a revolution not only in the upbringing and education of an individual nation, but also of all mankind as a whole. Only such a revolution makes upbringing and education truly national.
5. If a person brought up not on the basis of national education, largely, although he could be outwardly harmless and even useful person, inside himself he still remained an egoist, then in a real nation all people will be entirely good people, that is, people of good, unselfish will.
If the former (non-national) state was a kind of machine, at best, only externally forcing its own typical citizen to good actions, then the new, national state will be a true state - in the sense that it will create a source of goodness within the free spirit of its citizens.
(It should be noted that this is not about the fact that all citizens of a state in which there is no scientific philosophical upbringing and education are bad, selfish people. Among such citizens there may be unselfish people. However, such people are not directly products of upbringing and education, inherent in such a state, for otherwise it would systematically produce such unselfish people as it systematically produces today, say, people who can solve linear equations.)
6. Substantiation of why Fichte was mistaken in addressing his Rech to the Germans. The reasons why the Russian people can become the first real nation in the history of mankind, including the world-historical role played by Russia in the XX century.
Three lessons from the failure of Fichte's project for the upbringing and education of Germans:
2) practical pedagogical,
3) practical-political (including the fact that the national self-determination of the Russian people does not require either the separation of this people from other peoples of Russia, or the Russification of these peoples).
Where to find
We hope that both the relevance of the topic of the nation itself, as well as the lecturing and writing qualities of the speaker (and their author is inclined to rate them highly) will make it as easy and even pleasant as possible to get acquainted with the original version of this report, the link to which is attached below.
The report at this link is presented in 2 versions:
1) audio and
The text contains something that did not fit into the oral presentation, although, perhaps, it will be easier to get acquainted with the audio version and, perhaps, you should start with it.
A.N. Muravyov "Speeches to the Russian Nation"